empowering women and girls in southern sudan
ABOUTBRAC BRAC, a development organisation, was founded in Bangladesh in 1972 by Fazle Hasan Abed. Over the course of our evolution, BRAC has established itself as a pioneer in recognising and tackling the many different dimensions of poverty. Our unique, holistic approach to poverty alleviation and empowerment of the poor encompasses a range of programmes in economic, social and human development. Today, BRAC has grown to become the largest southern NGO employing more than 120,000 people, the majority of which are women, and reaching more than 110 million people with our development interventions in Asia and Africa. Since 2002, we have been using our experiences of innovating and scaling up multi-faceted anti-poverty programmes to energise and accelerate poverty alleviation efforts in other countries. Currently we have country programmes in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Southern Sudan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Uganda. We also provide support to other NGOs in Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Peru and are in the early stages of establishing BRAC programmes in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
BRAC SOUTHERN SUDAN
BRAC has been working in Southern Sudan since 2007 and is running successful programmes in microfinance, income generation for vulnerable groups, education, and essential community health care. In total, BRAC is reaching almost 77,000 of the rural poor in Southern Sudan with its microfinance programmes. Over the next two years, all of BRAC Southern Sudanâ€™s programmes combined will reach more than 1.14 million individuals.
Food Security and Agriculture
Recruitment, Training and Research
I have visited Southern Sudan many times now and each time I go, I am deeply impressed by the dedication of our country office staff to bring the benefits of microfinance and our associated programmes to the poorest people in the region. I am also inspired by the women I meet who often, in less than six months, have turned their family’s lives around with the help of a small BRAC loan. Some of these women were dependent on food aid before BRAC arrived, so it gives me great satisfaction to see the contribution we are making to helping people rebuild their lives in a sustainable way. 2008 marked the second full year of operations for BRAC Southern Sudan. In the last twelve months, we have continued to set up our branch infrastructure, recruit and train programme staff, and establish our core programmes in microfinance, health, education, and agriculture.
Fazle Hasan Abed Chairperson
Chairperson’s portrait by Amin/Drik
By the end of 2008, the microfinance programme was operating in four out of the ten region’s states - Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, and Lakes. We now have more than 660 microfinance groups with 14,600 women members; many of whom are returning war refugees. USD 3.4 million has been disbursed in microloans to these women and more than 1,600 women have taken a second loan after successfully repaying their first.
In 2008, we successfully completed a pilot project in partnership with the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) targeted at ultra poor women who were dependent on food aid. The project had a 97% success rate in graduating the women from the project to our mainstream microfinance programme and helping them achieve self-sufficiency. We also initiated an Agriculture Programme in April 2008 and have successfully established a cooperative farm on the banks of the River Nile with the profits benefiting local farmers. While we have been working on partnership initiatives in education in Southern Sudan since 2002, this year we started our own programme. Launched in April 2008, the main focus has been to identify and set up the first fifty schools with a further sixty schools scheduled for 2009. Through our community organisers, we have identified and enrolled 1,500 out-of-school children – of which 60% are girls – from the poorest households. 35-40% are the sons and daughters of our microfinance members. Our Health Programme is also making good solid progress in establishing core activities. By December 2008, we were providing essential health care services to more than 7,300 households through our trained community health volunteers. We are becoming a significant employer and trainer of talented young women eager to make a difference to their regions’s future.
During 2008, BRAC Southern Sudan recruited 116 new staff and currently employs 160 people, the majority of whom are Southern Sudanese women. In 2008, BRAC was honoured to be awarded the 2008 Hilton Humanitarian Prize of USD 1.5 million for our work in eradicating poverty in nine countries in Asia and Africa. We have dedicated all the prize money to accelerating our programmes in Southern Sudan and helping poor families unleash their full potential. BRAC Southern Sudan will also benefit from a new BRAC microfinance loan fund that will provide up to USD 15 million to women in the region, excluded from the financial system, over the next three years. We are extremely grateful for the support of our partners – including Bank of Southern Sudan (BOSS), ShoreBank Corporation, United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF), KIVA, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), CGAP, United Nations World Food Programme, Strømme Foundation, UNICEF, Oxfam Novib, BRAC USA, BRAC UK, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. These partnerships are crucial in enabling BRAC to continue our work in reducing poverty and empowering women and girls across Southern Sudan.
BRAC microfinance members attend their weekly group meeting in the village of Hai Burhol in Torit County, Southern Sudan. They make loan repayments, discuss their business ideas, and access other BRAC services such as essential health care.
PROGRAMMEHIGHLIGHTS “I took a BRAC loan of 400 pounds [USD 185]. I buy fish from the big market and sell in the small market. My profit before was only 20 pounds [USD 10] a week. Now I am selling many things and get about 80 pounds a week [USD 40].” Betty, microfinance member and returned war refugee.
Across Southern Sudan, every week more than 14,600* women attend their local BRAC microfinance meetings to repay their weekly loan installments, apply for new loans, buy health products from their community health volunteer, and receive additional support for their varied small businesses.
microfinance livelihood development services
“I use my BRAC loans to rent and stock this stall in the suk sita [central market]. Before I used to sit on the roadside and sell these things. On a good day, I make about 60 pounds [USD 30]. I save money each week as well.” Jacqueline is 33 years old and a war widow. She has successfully repaid her first loan and is currently repaying her second of 1300 Sudanese pounds (USD 650) through her local BRAC microfinance group in Juba city, the regional capital of Southern Sudan.
Sudan is one of the poorest regions of the world, it is estimated that more than 90% of the population is living on less than 1 USD a day. The country is slowly beginning to recover from two decades of devastating civil war between the predominately Arab north and the Black-African south which resulted in millions of people fleeing the country. BRAC started a microfinance programme in Southern Sudan towards the end of 2006; our solid operational base in Uganda was essential for the smooth coordination of the initial registration and administration. Our experiences in Afghanistan where in 2008 we disbursed close to USD 50 million in microfinance across the country - also helped inform the design and implementation of microfinance for this post-conflict country. Our microfinance programme focuses on poverty alleviation through the provision of affordable and easily accessible microloans. The hallmark of our approach is not just ensuring access to capital, but also providing livelihood development services to increase these poor women's ability to manage and expand their businesses and make the most of their small capital and resources. We call this approach 'Microfinance Plus'. We offer two different microfinance products microloans and small enterprise loans. The microloans are specifically designed for poor women, assisting them to undertake income-generating activities. Each woman can borrow between USD 50-800. Our services are very accessible as we go directly to the poor women we are targeting and meet them in their villages, homes and places of work. As a result, our members avoid any travel costs and minimise time spent away from their businesses. We also provide training and capacity building for income generation; increasing poor women's ability to manage and expand their businesses and make the most of their small capital and resources.
Most of the borrowers engage in vending activities retailing food produce that they have bought as wholesalers from other suppliers. Often they open a grocery shop at home, make bread, start vegetable farming, or brew local beer. Madeline Kaku (45) is a war widow with five children living on the outskirts of Juba, the regional capital of Southern Sudan. She joined BRAC in June 2008 and has already seen significant improvements in the quality of her family's life: “When my husband died during the war, it was a hard time. There was no food sometimes for three days. I used to crack stones, sell them and buy food for the children. I would maybe get 8 pounds in a week (USD 4). I used the money from BRAC to buy vegetables and things to sell at the market. Now in one week I make 50 pounds (USD 25). I will keep saving a little bit of money so I can build a house for my children. If BRAC continues to help me, my business will grow.”
Akai Alai, Branch Manager, Microfinance Kator Branch, Juba County
Akai Ali, was one of BRAC's first employees and has already been promoted to branch manager for the microfinance programme. Her family fled the civil war when she was twelve. She spent her childhood in the refugee camps and managed to win a university scholarship in Uganda: “BRAC is a very good organisation and I enjoy my work in microfinance. We help the widows and people who are helpless, and those who are carrying out a business that is small but which they want to grow - people have lots of different businesses from growing vegetables and all kinds of cultivation for selling, to making beer and supplying goods from wholesale to retail.”
PROGRAMME ACHIEVEMENTS 2008 In 2008, BRAC Southern Sudan's Microfinance Programme continued to establish branches and set up borrower groups and admit new members. The programme now operates from 17 branches in four states - Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, and Lakes. During the last year, we started more than 400 new groups and registered 10,000 additional women members. We recruited and trained over 80 new employees, of which the majority were local women, bringing the BRAC Southern Sudan Microfinance team to a total of 120 people. As of December 2008, the total number of microfinance groups in Southern Sudan was 662, with a membership of 14,500. Out of these members, 10,500 are active borrowers. During 2008, we disbursed USD 2.62 million in microloans. 1,600 women have successfully repaid their first loan and are now participating in a second cycle. We also started preparing for introducing a new microfinance product - small enterprise loans - to begin disbursement in 2009.
* up to and including December 2008 BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION 1 A microfinance member in Munuki, Juba County counts out her loan repayment at her weekly group meeting. 2 The Kiden family has a water selling business that they set up with the help of a BRAC microloan of 500 Sudanese pounds [USD 250]. 3 Microfinance member, Cecilia Chaplain runs a restaurant and bar to support her seven children and send them to school. 4 Sitting outside her home in Torit County, Susan Tierra, a BRAC microfinance member, weaves a traditional Sudanese costume for selling in the market.
BRAC's microfinance programme has been designed to serve large numbers of poor people with reliable access to cost effective financial services. Programme Components Women's Groups: Community partnerships and institution building are essential for poor people if they are to change their economic, social and political conditions. We deliver our microfinance and other programmes through organising groups of poor women who come together to improve their socioeconomic position. BRAC microfinance branch offices conduct area surveys and consult with community leaders and local elders to select the 20-30 members of each group.The group is then sub-divided into smaller groups of five, each with their own elected leader. The members of the small groups take co-responsibility to solve peer repayment problems. New borrower groups meet four times before any loan disbursement takes place. After that, they meet weekly to discuss credit decisions with their dedicated BRAC credit officer and make their
loan repayments. BRAC provides training and technical assistance to its members and others in the community, empowering them to earn more income from existing activities and start new ones. Microloans
At the core of the programme are microloans, which are exclusively for the women participating in the group process. Borrowers range in age from 20-50 with little or no education. BRAC lends to women who are not served by other microfinance institutions. Borrowers typically operate businesses that provide products or services to their local communities. Women with seasonal businesses, such as farming related activities, may also be eligible for shorter term loans. Key Features of a Microloan
Small Enterprise Loans BRAC offers small enterprise loans to entrepreneurs seeking to expand small businesses. The loans enable owners to create new employment opportunities and provide new services. Typically loans are given for trading, agriculture, poultry and livestock, fruit production and other types of small enterprises.These small entrepreneurs would otherwise have limited access to the formal financial system - too large for microloans but with not enough collateral for commercial banks. The small enterprise loan is offered to an individual rather than to a group, and is available for both male and female entrepreneurs.
A BRAC Microfinance Credit Officer makes a record of each woman's weekly repayments in their membership cards.
Sadia Mohammad runs a grocery store near her home. She has increased her profits with the help of two BRAC microloans.
Christine Livingstone has a profitable business making date wine. Fermentation takes seven days and she sells to local men in her village. She is repaying her first BRAC loan.
BRAC provides more than just microfinance. We use the microfinance groups as a social platform to deliver scaled-up services in health, education, business development and livelihood support - all critical components needed to ensure that poor people can break the cycle of poverty
Some members of the microloan groups will become eligible for this scheme as their businesses grow and expand and their investment needs change.
Loan repayments in small weekly installments;
No physical collateral needed;
Key Features of a Small Enterprise Loan
Loan range: USD 50-800;
Available to both male and female entrepreneurs;
Competitive interest rates;
Loan range: USD 1,000-5,000;
Death benefit provided;
Competitive law interest rates;
Services delivered to member's village;
Available in rural and urban areas.
Repayment mode: equal monthly installments.
BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
“This is the first time I have come to school. My sister Jane is here too. My favourite subject is maths. I would like to be a teacher when I grow up and teach English.” Betty (14), BRAC student, Munuki neighbourhood, Juba, Southern Sudan.
If you are a young girl living in Southern Sudan today, you only have a 1% chance of completing your primary education. This means that every year only 500 girls complete Grade 8 from the 64,000 young girls who are eligible. And out of those 500, only half will be taught by a trained teacher. As a result, nearly 90% of women in Southern Sudan are illiterate. There are also only 21 secondary schools in a region which is almost the size of Eastern Europe. BRAC's response is our Education Programme which establishes and operates 'second-chance' primary schools for children who have dropped out of or never entered formal schools in the war torn region of Southern Sudan. Our approach to education draws from the innovations of our low cost non-formal primary education model that operates nationwide in Bangladesh and Afghanistan, but adapts its approach to meet the needs of the situation in Southern Sudan. BRAC has been working on education in Southern Sudan since 2002 with UNICEF providing technical assistance in curriculum design and operational management. All the resulting schools were located in the rural areas and enrolled only girls. In 2008, we launched our own programme with the target of opening 1,000 non-formal primary schools within five years.We have structured the curriculum so the students cover Primary 1 to Primary 5 within four years rather than five years. Children attend the school six days a week. Md. Abur Rashid, Education Programme Manager explained how the programme operates:
A young girl proudly shows her artwork during a class at a BRAC ‘second chance’ primary school in Munuki neighbourhood, Juba County. For most of the children, this is the first time they have attended a school due to decades of civil war and insecurity.
“The education programme runs side by side with the microfinance operations. We have a focus on nonformal primary education. Some of our microfinance members are very poor and their children are not at school, so we give them priority. The school room needs to have enough space for 30 children – 14 feet wide by 24 feet long – with four windows, one door and a nearby toilet. For Primary 1, the children come for 3.5 hours a day for six days a week.We have regular BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
meetings with the parents – we don’t just talk about education but many issues including sanitation, health, and cultivation. We are always trying to encourage and motivate them to utilise their land.” The programme targets older children aged between 8 and 14 years who never enrolled in school before or who dropped out before attaining the basic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Many never had any opportunity to attend a school before because of decades of civil war and insecurity. Joanne Edwin is a Community Organiser for the Education Programme: “We do a survey to make the selection of the girls and boys. We teach in English and follow the government curriculum for P1 - this includes mathematics, social studies, science, English, and CRE [Christian religion]. Some of the children's parents are microfinance members of BRAC; others live with their grandparents as their parents died in the war.”
A girl writes in her exercise book on the opening day of the new BRAC school in Manderia village in Torit County.
Mary is an orphan who lost nine members of her immediate family in the war. She is starting her first year at a BRAC school and describes what school means to her: “I live with my aunty.This is my first school. My parents wanted to send me to school. My favourite subject is English and I am a good singer. When I leave school I want to be a health sister and help people.”
PROGRAMME ACHIEVEMENTS 2008 Our education programme in Southern Sudan is still in the early stages. Launched in April 2008, the main focus has been to identify and set up the first fifty schools with a further sixty schools scheduled for 2009. Through our community organisers, we have identified and enrolled 1,500 out-of-school children - of which 58% are girls - from the poorest households. 35-40% are the sons and daughters of our microfinance members. Each school has a teacher who was selected by BRAC from the local community and receives twenty days of teacher training. All the teachers are women with at least O'level qualifications. They also receive a one day refresher course every month. Many of these teachers lost their husbands during the war and the teachers allowance is an important source of income for them. All the newly opened schools have begun teaching Primary 1 to their classes which will take nine months. After this is completed, the teachers will be receive 6 days training in Primary 2 and so on until their students complete the four year course and can join a mainstream government school for the rest of their education.
PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION 1 Zaida, a BRAC trained teacher, helps a young girl with her lesson in a BRAC primary school in Munuki neighbourhood, Juba County. 2 Children attend lessons in Primary 1 at their new BRAC school in Central Equatoria State. 3 Zuruf Marta (10 years old) sits next to her teacher at a BRAC school in Torit County. She lost her arm when her village was bombed during the war. 4 BRAC teacher, Rose Aliyaa, helps a young boy learn to write numbers in Manderia village, Torit County.
The goal of BRAC's Education Programme in Southern Sudan is to educate children who have dropped out of school or never enrolled so they can re-enter the formal government school system. Our Education Programme follows the government curriculum of the five year lower primary cycle. We intend to open 1,000 schools in ten states of Southern Sudan within five years. A total of 30,000 students will be enrolled. At least 60% of the students will be girls in the age range of 8-14 years. We are aiming for 95% of the children to transfer to the higher level of primary cycle when they complete their lower primary cycle with BRAC. We admit 30 to 35 pupils per school and employ one teacher to provide the full four-year school cycle. We follow the Government Primary School Curriculum. Once pupils attain a Primary Level 5, they can be mainstreamed to Primary Level 6 in public schools. All learning materials are provided free of charge. Teachers are recruited locally. Prospective teachers are contacted by BRAC staff and encouraged to submit an
application. The hiring criteria include a minimum of nine years schooling, successful completion of the Secondary School Certificate exam, and local residence. The main features of our approach are: l School timing flexibility; l Operating in a close proximity to student's house; l Small class sizes managed by female teachers; l Little or no homework; l Child friendly teaching environment ; l Relevant curriculum providing basic education and life skills; l No financial cost for students or guardians; l Close involvement of parents and communities in school management. We conduct house to house surveys to identify prospective students and teachers and cross check our findings with local education officials to prevent duplication and identify drop-outs. Potential teachers are hired by BRAC and given 20 days of basic teacher training designed to be proactive and participatory; placing emphasis on practice and role play teaching. Teacher training includes topics such as
Teachers also receive monthly refresher trainings throughout the school cycle to hone and strengthen their abilities. All teachers are women, which helps make parents comfortable sending their daughters to school. This also serves to increase the status of women in the community. A school building is rented in the local community, normally a one room structure made of bamboo or mud, no further than one kilometre walking distance from the students' houses. Students are taught a curriculum which encompasses both basic primary education as well as relevant life skills, such as topics related to health and agriculture. Flexible school times and a no homework policy allow children to complete daily chores and other productive activities. Zero financial costs to parents and students plus a relevant curriculum result in extremely low drop-out rates.
BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
Children leave after attending a BRAC school in Hai Police village in Torit County, Eastern Equatoria.
Young boys from poor families study hard on their first day of school in Manderia village, Torit County
Christine is twelve years old and attending school for the first time in Juba County. She lost both her parents during the war and lives with her grandmother and brother.
the basic concepts of education, child psychology, different teaching and leaning techniques and how to deal with child disabilities.
BRAC hopes to help the Government of Southern Sudan achieve education for all, especially for girls.The programme will contribute to the basic education of the most deprived children in Southern Sudan, while also promoting increased female participation in education, not only as students but as teachers and paraprofessionals.
Training courses for BRAC Education programme staff and teachers: Course
No. of Days
All new staff
Operational Management Course (OMC)
All new staff
Pedagogy Management Course for grade I-IV
Orientation prior to grade change
Monthly refreshers / orientation
PROGRAMMEHIGHLIGHTS “We need many things here. We need to send children to school healthy, to have clean latrines, and take water from the bore hole. We need hospitals and doctors. We lack counsellors for HIV and there are not many centres for voluntary testing.”
livelihood development services
Besta, Community Health Volunteer, Juba, Southern Sudan
Like many other African countries, Sudan lacks comprehensive healthcare. Decades of civil war has made the situation worse and millions of returning internally displaced people and ultra poor lack access to a constant source of food leaving 26% of the population undernourished. The healthcare situation in Southern Sudan is much bleaker than for the rest of the country. Under-five mortality is considerably higher and more children are susceptible to die from easily treated illnesses such as malaria (26%), pneumonia (19%) and diarrhoea (22%). For adults, the numbers of malaria cases in the south are 500/1000 people, which is more than double the estimated numbers for the north. The World Health Organisation estimates that health coverage is only 30%. Only 5% of pregnant women in Southern Sudan will be attended by a skilled health care professional when giving birth. In response to this, BRAC Southern Sudan has launched a programme to provide primary health care services for our microfinance members, their families and wider communities.This programme is based on a proven model of community health care in Bangladesh which provides primary health services to more than 22 million poor rural households through a network of 80,000 women volunteers. Healthcare and microfinance are inter-related. Poor women who finance their small businesses through microloans cannot afford to be ill - they have to work every day to make enough to feed their families. If anyone is sick, food money is spent instead on costly medicines and income is lost through non-working days.
A new mother plays with her baby after receiving a home visit from her BRAC Community Health Worker who has been specially trained in maternal and neonatal health issues. The reduction of infant and under-five mortality rates is a key priority for BRAC’s essential health care programme in Southern Sudan.
Our health programme takes a multi-pronged approach to lessening health risks for poor communities in Southern Sudan. We focus on: the prevention of malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS, the reduction of infant and under-five mortality rates, increasing accessibility to health by taking health care to the door step of the people and improving utilisation of government health facilities.
BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
During 2008, we started identifying and training women from microfinance groups to become community health volunteers, or CHV's. These women are the central point of contact for the health concerns of the local community. They provide essential primary health care door-to-door to neighbours. The volunteers also earn a small income from selling health care products to other members, such as insecticide treated nets, contraception, and some medicines. The women we select for CHV training show a sincere interest in the role, have been recommended by their microfinance officer as suitable, and have a business that gives her time to do rounds. Besta joined BRAC as a microfinance member in June 2007 and became a community health volunteer in February 2008. She stayed in Southern Sudan during the war, her husband was a solider. She had four children but one child died.
A woman participant attends a community health forum on personal hygiene conducted by BRAC health staff in Southern Sudan.
“I visit about 10 to 20 houses a day. We run health forums, and there are also household visits once a month. We cover alot of problems, like family planning. There are many mothers who need help. We put them in touch with midwives or small clinics with medicines. We try to get people to the local area clinics, and then we also take them to see the local health workers. I teach people about how to treat malaria - and sell them mosquito nets. The goods we sell are cheaper for the community.”
PROGRAMME ACHIEVEMENTS 2008 2008 was the first full year of operations for the health programme in Southern Sudan. While still in the pilot phase, good progress has been made on identifying and training the community health volunteers and working on initiatives with the Government such as the mobile health clinics and national immunisation days. By December 2008, the programme was operating out of six branch offices and had trained 60 community health volunteers from within the microfinance groups. As a result more than 7,000 low income households are receiving a monthly house visit and have access to health products and community health forums. Additionally, 580 patients received medical treatment at mobile treatment clinics set up in partnership with the Bangladesh Batalion working for the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS).
PROGRAMME COMPONENTS Reproductive Health Care One of BRAC's primary concerns is to improve reproductive health care awareness and service utilisation. To fulfil this objective, CHVs identify pregnant women during their household visits and refer them to nearby government or non-government health facilities. The CHVs raise awareness of pregnancy care and pre-natal danger signs, and follow up to insure that ANC and PNC visits are made to health facilities.
During a BRAC training course for Community Health Volunteers, Joy Micah, a Community Health Organiser, demonstrates how to prepare oral rehabilitation saline as a treatment for diarrhoea in Juba, Southern Sudan.
PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION The BRAC Southern Sudan Essential Health Care Programme (EHC) is a scalable model of community health care. The overall goal of the EHC programme is to improve health conditions and increase access to health services by providing basic health services in communities where BRAC has an established microfinance group. One member of each BRAC borrowing group is designated and trained as a Community Health Volunteer. CHV's serve the health needs of the entire community, with particular attention to poor women and children.
BRAC Community Health Volunteers serve the health needs of the entire community, with particular attention to poor women and children. Programme Objectives l To increase reproductive health care services by raising awareness, ensuring ante natal care (ANC) and post natal care (PNC) visits, and facility based deliveries; l To reduce the incidence of malaria, especially among pregnant women and children, by enhancing control and prevention; l To bring positive behavioural change for prevention of HIV/AIDS and ensuring access to HIV/AIDS services through community sensitisation and participation;
To develop a community based approach to increase and sustain TB case detection and cure rate as per the Millennium Development Goals; To improve basic sanitation and hygiene by bringing behavioural change and ensuring access to safe water and latrines; To mobilise women and disseminate information through village meetings and home visits; To collaborate with the Government to further facilitate and strengthen the implementation of national tuberculosis, malaria and immunisation programmes.
The CHV keeps a check on whether her clients have taken their Tetanus Toxoid (TT) doses and completed the Intermittent Presumptive Therapy (IPT) course, which is a promising treatment against childhood malaria in Africa. She also raises awareness on the importance of Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV/AIDS, and Preventing Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Malaria Control During household visits, the CHV identifies suspected cases of malaria and refers the patients to the nearest government health centres. She follows up to determine test results and see if the patient is taking their anti-malarial medication. A relative of the patient is put in charge of supervising the drug intake according to their prescription. The CHV then conducts a follow-up visit to ensure the patient's recovery and to make sure that the patient has not developed further complications. The CHV keeps records of this information in her household visit register. The CHV sells Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) in the community and promotes the concept of every family member sleeping under a net. She ensures that nets are treated every six months and sells K-O TABS, which are insecticides that are dissolved in water and sprayed on mosquito nets to restore potency. TB Control CHVs implement a well tested community-based approach for increasing and sustaining TB case detection and treatment. During household visits, CHVs ask simple questions related to suspected TB cases (based on symptoms). When a suspected TB victim is identified, the CHV motivates that person to be tested at a nearby government facility. She explains the dangers that TB can pose to the sick person as well as the rest of the family. She then follows up on the patient to determine the test results. If the patient tests positive,
BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
the CHV can also act as a Direct Observation Treatment Short Course (DOTS) agent. DOTS involves second party observation of a TB infected person taking a prescribed course of medication so that the patient does not default on taking their medications, which results in drug resistance. Family Planning During regular household visits, the CHV mobilises and motivates women to use modern methods of contraception. She provides clients with birth control pills and condoms. For other temporary and/or permanent methods, couples are referred to government primary and secondary healthcare facilities.
During a home visit, Mary Thomas, a BRAC Community Health Worker, checks a pregnant woman for danger signs in the Munuki neighbourhood of Juba County, Central Equatoria.
Community Health Initiatives BRAC takes a multi-pronged approach to community health education. We offer community health forums on issues such as a malaria,TB and HIV prevention, maternal health, family planning, and sanitation. Basic Curative Services CHVs are trained to diagnose and treat some basic ailments such as diarrhoea, dysentery, common cold, helminthiasis, anaemia, ringworm, scabies, hyperacidity and angular stomatitis. They refer individuals with more complicated conditions to local public and private health facilities. CHVs earn a small income by selling over-thecounter medicines to patients.
PROGRAMMEHIGHLIGHTS “Our main achievement is that we have set up a cooperative farm on the bank of the Nile where we can demonstrate new farming practices and inspire farmers. This is the first initiative of cultivating on a large scale in Juba.” Md. Rizwanul Bari, Agronomist, BRAC Southern Sudan
PILOT AGRICULTURE PROGRAMME As part of our 'microfinance plus' approach, we are committed to establishing a full scale Agriculture, Livestock and Poultry Programme in Southern Sudan. Agriculture is one of the largest sector in the region's economy and the most important source of income for women. The programme will address the problem of poor crop and livestock productivity in Southern Sudan. Our aim is to improve the efficiency and management of small to medium farm enterprises. The programme is designed to increase agricultural output, decrease livestock mortality, raise farm income, and increase rural employment.
food security and agriculture
By the end of 2008, 97% of the ultra poor women participating in the Food for Training and Income Generation (FFTIG) Project had graduated to BRAC’s mainstream microfinance programme. More than 200 women had taken out their first loan.
In April 2008, we launched a pilot agriculture programme in one branch near Juba while funding is being secured for the larger initiative. It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Southern Sudan are engaged in agricultural activities for their livelihoods. During the long civil war, there was widespread destruction of farms and essential infrastructure. The farming communities are slowly recovering but face a number of problems including low crop yields per hectare, a lack of availability of high quality seeds, and under-utilisation of low cost irrigation methods. In Bangladesh, BRAC has been working to increase productivity of the agriculture sector since 1978, developing many supporting activities such as disease management, the dissemination of improved breeds and crop varieties, the supply of livestock and poultry feed, and milk processing and distribution. Since then, we have helped more than 4.2 million people create and sustain livelihoods from different kinds of farming. In Southern Sudan, poor people are involved in a variety of small scale farming activities - such as raising chickens, cows, goats or pigs - and cultivating small plots of land of less than one hectare. In addition to providing poor women with the investment capital for their small scale farming activities, BRAC is beginning to offer training and support on modern farming techniques which can greatly increase their profits. BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
The central focus for 2008 has been delivering the agriculture training for the ultra poor women participating in the FFTIG programme (see following pages) and establishing a ten acre cooperative demonstration farm near the Walawalang village on the banks of the River Nile. BRAC's Programme Manager, Agriculture, Shawkat Hasan, explained the process of acquiring land and setting up the farm: “We organised meetings with the community and local stakeholders. We had to get permission from the Government of Southern Sudan and State Department of Agriculture. We went to the Juba community to identify the right location - we looked at available water sources and selected a place that was beside the Nile River. We arranged a lot of meetings - we discussed it at every level with both the Payam and Boma chief and the communities as well.” BRAC worked hard to establish trust with the farmers and understand their existing knowledge and expertise. Through on farm training, BRAC demonstrated modern crop cultivation techniques such as planting in straight rows for easier management. We introduced different types of crops with the traditional varieties such as radish, spinach and mustard. There are now 27 farmers (11 women, 16 men) involved with the farm - they are split into three groups of 9 farmers. They come on alternative days to work the farm. All the produce from the farm goes to the farmers' cooperative and BRAC provides a water pump so they can produce crops during the dry season. Shawkat Hasan said: “Moses is the farmers' secretary and is responsible for marketing and managing the income from the farm. We are trying to hand over the farm to the community and make it self-sustaining. The secretary position is rotated.” The 27 farmers also act as agriculture extension agents to the wider community by replicating the modern techniques on their own small plots of land and demonstrating through improved harvests the success of BRAC's approach. 16/17
Household structure temporary - made of straw/wood;
FFTIG Project – Training Courses
Living in harsh conditions due to their inability to access main economic activities;
Type of training
Lack of security and susceptibility to risk and exploitation;
Permanent resident of specific area;
Setting up nursery
Willingness to be trained.
A study conducted by the BRAC Research and Evaluation Unit on the selected women revealed that they were considerably worse off in most household indicators compared to the general population of Juba, reinforcing the need for such a programme. After the selection process, training was provided in a number of areas based on discussions and consultations with the beneficiaries. From this, it quickly became clear that there was a strong interest in agricultural activities. As a result, over 400 of the beneficiaries were trained in agricultural practices.The remaining women were trained in other income generating activities such as tailoring, cattle rearing and micro enterprise management. Training on Vegetable Cultivation:
Women traders at the local town market in Juba where many of BRAC Southern Sudan’s microfinance members have stalls selling raw vegetables and fruit produce.
FOOD FOR TRAINING AND INCOME GENERATION (FFTIG) PROJECT BRAC Southern Sudan has been implementing a pilot project to address the urgent need for increased food security and improved agriculture in Southern Sudan. The Food for Training and Income Generation project was initiated in order help households headed by widows, many of whom are caring for children and orphans, out of extreme poverty. Many of these women have been left in this situation as a result of the longstanding conflict that took place in Southern Sudan. As a result of their extreme circumstances, this group of people is often overlooked by regular development initiatives.
The programme offered an integrated package of food distribution, skill development, and savings and credit opportunities to support the resettlement of displaced ultra poor women. BRAC was the winner of round IX of CGAP's Pro Poor Innovation Challenge and commenced on an eight month initiative, in collaboration with the World Food` Programme, which was implemented in BRAC's working areas of Haigabat, Munuki, Atlabara, Jebelkujur, Bullock, and Kator of Juba County.
The approach uses targeted and limited food aid that creates a window of opportunity for ultra poor women to receive specific livelihood development interventions. These include skills development, health education and support, and confidence building through the formation of groups and interactions so they can start income generating activities and make use of effective microcredit. This synergy of food aid and training is especially important as food aid alone only alleviates short term vulnerability. By adding the element of training, BRAC is promoting a form of self sufficiency to eliminate vulnerability all together, and help break the downward cycle of poverty. Initially, lists of potential beneficiaries were collected from each community where the BRAC microfinance groups were located. Eligible households were then selected on the basis of certain criteria including: l
The adult woman is a returnee and head of the household;
Household most vulnerable in society with high dependency ratio;
In order to create income generating activities and to ensure food security by providing training and agriculture inputs, the majority of the women on the programme attended the vegetable cultivation training. BRAC's resident agronomist in Southern Sudan provided one week of training on small scale farming and production of vegetables and cereal crops at the branch offices and project sites. Participants received both theoretical and practical training and demonstrations on how to cultivate a number of varieties including some new varieties from Bangladesh - such as a radish, Indian spinach and amaranth.
No. of of Participants (100% women)
BAN BAT of UNMIS also helped BRAC install a vital water pump at the project site of Walawalang village to ensure an all year water supply from the River Nile in the project area. BRAC provided technical training to the farmers on maintenance of the water pump. By the end of 2008, more than 486 out of the 500 women participating in the FFTIG programme (over 97%) had graduated into BRAC's mainstream microfinance programme. Out these 486 women, 241 had already taken their first loan, while the rest were soon to follow.The average size of the graduates' loans was slightly lower than that for regular microfinance members at around USD 120 which was expected. The results of this pilot project to help the poorest and most vulnerable out of chronic poverty have been very encouraging. From these early experiences, BRAC hopes to include similar types of programmes as part of its core inventions in Southern Sudan.
BRAC’s cooperative demonstration farm near Walawalang village. Nearly 400 ultra poor women received practical training on vegetable cultivation at the site during 2008.
Participants discussed their existing knowledge and how to incorporate traditional techniques with modern techniques. They also focused on the use of agriculture tools, improved seeds, crop spacing, rotation, intercropping, weeding, planting, and fertilisation. BRAC distributed sufficient agricultural tools and equipments and seeds - in collaboration with the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - among the participating women farmers which helped make the training successful.
BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
recruitment training and research
BRAC has many young committed staff implementing our work in the heart of local communities across Southern Sudan. During 2008, we recruited more than one hundred new employees to help expand BRAC's various programmes in the region. By December 2008, we were employing 139 Sudanese people - 97% of whom are young Sudanese women in their 20s or 30s looking for the fast career trajectory that BRAC offers our employees. Jobs that were advertised and filled in 2008 included microfinance area and branch managers, school supervisors, health workers, and agriculturalists. In addition of these staff, BRAC engaged 21 expatriates and sector specialists for the smooth operation to our different programmes. Often a woman is hired as a credit officer for our microfinance programme and can quickly progress to become branch manager and then area manager. Some women can start as volunteers - such as a community health volunteer - and can go on to be promoted to full time paid positions. In the last twelve months, we promoted 17 women to managerial level.
TRAINING AND CAPACITY BUILDING Training is the backbone of BRAC's programmes in Southern Sudan. As BRAC hires new staff, many of them straight out of college, it is critical to provide them with sufficient orientation and training. In addition, BRAC believes in constantly investing in building the capacity of existing staff, helping them to learn new skills and grow within the organisation. Training new staff
Ayaa Dorine, Credit Officer, Microfinance, Hai Police Branch, Torit, Eastern Equatoria. By December 2008, we were employing 139 Sudanese people - 97% of whom are young Sudanese women.
In 2008, close to eight hundred people attended BRAC training courses in Southern Sudan. This included the training of more than one hundred new staff in programme management and operations. Most of the new staff will be working as credit officers and community organisers; spending almost 80% of their time running microfinance meetings, community health forums, awareness raising activities, and undertaking survey work and monitoring. All the training is participative with brainstorming, large and small group discussions, case study analysis, and presentations in the round. A typical induction for new staff members includes a three day course at the TARC; one month of field experience in a branch office; and one week of operational training and learning about development. BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
Training is also given to the area and branch managers, project officers, trainers, and community organisers for the different programmes. We offer two types of training: operational training and training on management and development theory. The training needs of the programmes are being continually assessed with frequent field visits by the team of permanent trainers and the wider pool of trainers. All BRAC's courses are conducted by professional facilitators who have considerable experience in training and capacity building in Bangladesh and internationally.
MONITORING, RESEARCH AND EVALUATION BRAC Southern Sudan benefits from a regional Research and Evaluation Unit for Africa that BRAC has established in Kampala, Uganda. Currently employing five full time staff, the unit conducts the majority of its studies in collaboration with researchers from partner research institutions such as: London School of Economics, Stockholm University, University College London, Bocconi University, World Bank, and research institutions in the respective countries. The unit has expanded significantly during 2008 and will continue to grow in the coming year. The research unit is responsible for assessing the impact of BRAC's programmes in Africa and undertaking operations research studies to map the evolution and adaptation of BRAC's approach in Southern Sudan and other countries in the region. In 2008, we initiated five operational research Studies within various BRAC Africa programmes such as microfinance, health, agriculture and livestock, and empowerment and livelihoods for adolescents. We also initiated large scale base-line surveys to conduct impact evaluations of our microfinance, adolescent and health programmes in Tanzania, Uganda and Southern Sudan. In 2008, the research team undertook an evaluation of BRAC Southern Sudan's Food for Training and Income Generation project in partnership with the World Food Programme. The results revealed that the sampled households had high levels of vulnerability and low health conditions (see page 18/19 in this report). Sixty percent of households lived in a house with a straw roof and mud walls and 90% of households used a tadooba (gas lantern) for their main lighting source. Ninety nine percent of the samples were female headed households while the average household size and dependency ratio were 5.3 and 60% respectively. Only 4% had access to any form of financial services prior to being selected for the programme. This revealed effective targeting of the ultra poor by the programme. 20/21
BRAC Southern Sudan
BRAC Southern Sudan
STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE For the year ended December 31, 2008
As at December 31, 2008
2008 Income Service charge on loans Other income Total
Salary and benefits Travelling and transportation Training and development Rent, utilities and stationery Maintenance and general expenditure Reporting and data processing Material development Research and development Operating expenses Students books and kits HO logistics and management support Borrowing cost Deal costs Revolving fund for health volunteers Loan loss provision Depreciation
Loan to group members 803,150 167,660 126,316 310,480 252,220 215 42,054 1,875 149,833 83,295 514,532 418,412 386,830 9,955 217,492 22,771
398,155 83,233 61,545 153,114 125,466 100 19,560 872 69,690 38,742 255,792 209,206 193,415 4,630 108,746 11,354
199,178 113,253 3,276 119,830 59,436 33,192 3,460
97,160 55,245 1,598 58,453 28,993 16,191 1,688
Net operating deficit Donor grants
Grants and accounts receivable Advances, deposits and prepayments Cash and bank balances
Liabilities Grants received in advance Deferred income
Other current liabilities
Loan security fund Capital fund
Assets Fixed assets
Director - Finance
Director - Finance
BRAC Southern Sudan Annual Report 2008
BRAC Southern Sudan BRAC Locations
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At a glance
Total Number of States
Programme Update as of December 2008
Total Number of Branches
Programme Outreach 4 (out of 10) 17 139 (83% women)
Agriculture (pilot programme - since 2008)
Education Programme (since 2008) No. of trained teachers
No. of branches covered
No. of schools (on going)
No. of villages covered
1,500 (57% girls)
No. of children attending classes
Microfinance (since 2007)
No. of agriculture workers to be trained
27 (48% female)
Health (since 2008) 662
Trained Community Health Volunteers (CHVs)
Microloan group members
No. of households visited monthly by CHVs (est.)
No. of community health meetings
Microloans disbursement (cumulative)
USD 3.4 million
No. of health meeting participants
Microloans disbursement (Jan-Dec 2008)
USD 2.6 million
Microloans outstanding (as of Dec 2008)
USD 1.9 million
Patients treated by CHVs (with BAN BAT)
Average loan size
Annual Microfinance Loan Disbursement (USD) *
Number of Microloan Members (100% women) 20
USD (in millions)
2.62 m 2.5 2 1.5 1
14 12 10 8 6 4,772
Members (in thousands)
*Exchange rate 2 Sudanese pounds to 1 USD
BRAC International Aminul Alam Executive Director Imran Matin Deputy Executive Director BRAC Centre 75, Mohakhali Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh Tel: + 880-2 9881265-72 Fax: + 880-2 8823542, 8823614 Email: email@example.com BRAC Southern Sudan Md. Abu Bakar Siddique Country Manager Plot # 05, Nyakoron West (opposite Jebel Hill) Jebel Kuzur, Juba, Southern Sudan Tel: Gemtel: +256 (0) 477 218022 Mobitel: +249 (0) 91 85662