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Hari Gawai Dayak 2014

special supplement Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Celebrating Dayak culture with Kumang

Gawai By Jude Toyat seeds@theborneopost.com

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ust as every community has its own creation story, so too do they have their own heroes, gods and goddesses. For the Iban community, Kumang of folklore was the epitomy of womanhood: gentle, beautiful, resourceful, loving, loyal and talented. She was every man’s dream, and

“It is a platform to showcase the rich tapestry of Dayak ethnic cultural heritage and most importantly its conservation for future generations.” Priscilla Hyginus

parents wished their daughters to possess Kumang’s good qualities. According to legend, Kumang was the daughter of Bedang and Sinjung. Besides being skillful with the pua kumbu, she was a master streamstress and weaver. She was always consulted on her expertise and skills in weaving by her compatriots in her home in Gelong. According to Hassanal Redzuan, culture officer from the National Department for Culture and Arts Sarawak (JKKN), Kumang is the most popular and frequently recounted woman in Iban folklore. “It was believed that Kumang possessed mystical powers and that she was the fairest maiden that had captured the heart of the prince, Keling.” The annual search for the perfect ‘Kumang’ has become the highlight of our Gawai festivals. For Hassanal, the best part of the Kumang Gawai competition is where the contestants are paraded out in their full regalia. “That’s what makes the

competition really different from modern beauty pageants where the contestants parade in their evening gowns.” Pageant winners are not only judged according to their physical beauty, grace and talent, but also in how well they represent their ethnic communities. “The Iban costume is the most difficult to wear and it’s really unique in its own way,” he said, adding that besides the perfect costume, the judges would also be looking to see whether the contestant had a deep understanding of their customs and traditions. The legendary Iban Kumang finds her counterpart in Keligit of Kayan/Kenyah folklore, Dayang of the Kelabit/Lun Bawang legends and Kumang or Iyang in the Bidayuh oral tradition. The makeup of the Iban traditional costume The traditional costume for Iban women consists of ‘kain pandak’ (short skirt) or ‘kain tating’ (weighted skirt), ‘lampit’ (girdles), ‘rawai’ (corset) with silver coins fastened and worn as belts, ‘marik empang’ (collars of beadwork), ‘selampai’ (shawl), ‘sugu tinggi’ (head gear) decorated with coloured metal ornaments called ‘ensuga’ on the top of the tiara, ‘tenggak pirak’ (silver necklaces) or ‘marik engkeringan’ (necklace) ‘tumpa pirak’ (silver bracelets), ‘sabit’ (silver or brass chains), ‘kelunchong’ (anklet) and ‘buah pauh’ (small silver boxes) or ‘perecha’ (handkerchief) to hold in their hands.

Gawai celebrations: Then and Now

Dayung Iyang, the Bidayuh counterpart In the olden days, beauty contests among Bidayuh women and men were held during major festivals like Gawai Mukah (Gawai Antu Pala) or during the padi harvesting festival ‘Gawai Sawa’ , now known as ‘Gawai Daya’. ‘Gawai Daya’ is considered the best time to hold a pageant as it coincides with the padi harvesting festival marking the joy of reaping the fruits of many years’ labour and many years of waiting and watching for a good padi harvest. It is also believed that the beauty contest would attract the wandering souls of the padi to return to their respective grain bins in the village. A platform for conservation For Priscilla Hyginus, better known among her friends as Pris, the Kumang Gawai is more than just a beauty pageant: “It is a platform to showcase the rich tapestry of Dayak ethnic cultural heritage and most importantly its conservation for future generations.” Currently working as an administration executive, 27year-old Pris from Padawan won the Kumang Gawai (Bidayuh) title in 2009. While she advises young hopefuls to take part in the beauty pageant for the personal and cultural experience, “The most daunting task for someone who enters the Kumang is to be the ambassador and represent the tribe that you are representing.” Becoming a true kumang means being knowledgable of your culture and traditions. For Pris, who was also the choreographer for the Dayung Sangon 2014 beauty contest on

Kumang Gawai 2009 (Bidayuh) winner Priscilla Hyginus. May 10, she believes that she was destined to have a life entwined with the arts and music of Sarawak. When asked about the difference between Kumang Gawai today compared to the

past, she said that she was happy that there was more opportunities for the younger generation to join in the pageants. • Turn to page E3

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By Patricia Hului seeds@theborneopost.com

By Danielle Ringgit seeds@theborneopost.com

Tastes and flavours of traditional Dayak cuisine

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Hari Gawai Dayak 2014

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special supplement

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Gawai celebrations: Then and Now

By Patricia Hului seeds@theborneopost.com

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hile different milestone events in the Dayak community calendar have their respective Gawai celebrations, the history of Gawai Dayak marked down in our government almanacs has a more recent history that begins in 1957 when the topic for a public holiday for the Dayak community was first raised in a forum organised by Ian Kinsgley, a programme organizer. The forum subsequently sparked an interest in having a government-

sanctioned public holiday in recognition of the Dayak community. As the Chinese and Malay communities had their own celebrations marked by public holidays, the demand to sanction a public holiday for the Dayak community became heightened. The late Datuk Seri Tra Zehnder, the first female member of Council Negri was the one who voiced the request for a Dayak Day during a Council Negri session on September 27, 1962. Up until then, the British colonial government had refused to gazette an official Dayak Day,

arguing that Sarawak Day sanctioned the year before was free for all and could be celebrated by anybody in Sarawak. In an interview with Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) back in 1998, Tra mentioned that among the reasons she listed for the establishment of Dayak Day to the council were to unite all Dayaks, provide a platform for the Dayak community to practice their traditions and customs, and to accord recognition to the Dayak community. Gawai Dayak would not be gazetted until Sarawak’s first Chief Minister, the late Datuk Stephen Kalong Ningkan, took office in 1963. Gawai Dayak was formally gazetted as a public holiday on September 25, 1964, replacing Sarawak Day.

Danison’s grandfather performing the ‘nyangahatn’ ceremony where offerings are given up to ‘jubata’ (god).

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hile it is a public holiday uniformly celebrated on June 1 and 2, the way Gawai Dayak is celebrated varies from place to place influenced by one’s belief system. For some longhouses, religious offerings are made to various deities including Pulang Gana, the patron saint of agriculture on Gawai Eve. For others, the start of Gawai begins with the firing of shotguns at midnight to scare away evil spirits. Still others, mark the beginning of Gawai by drinking ‘ai pengayu’ a specially brewed tuak at the stroke of midnight on May 31. Not all longhouses, however, practice the ‘miring’ ceremony during Gawai, attending church mass instead for thanksgiving. Valerie Jane Bakri, a Bidayuh 27-year-old chemist from Singai, shared how her family would celebrate Gawai: “May 31 is the day we start to clean the house and prepare the food.For my family, June 1 is a family affair.It is the day we visit our relatives. “Then the second day of Gawai Dayak is when we have open house. Our friends and colleagues from all over

Danison Manium

Valerie Jane Bakri the place will come to visit our house on that day.” On which part of Gawai Dayak was her favourite, Valerie said that it was the family gathering. “Gawai is the only time when everybody comes back, regardless of where they are.” One thing that hasn’t changed for Danison Manium is the spirit of ‘ngabang’ (housevisiting), “except the fact that there are fewer visitors because nowadays people are working

in different places.” It is the norm for there to be more than one belief system under one roof, as it is in Danison’s family where his grandfather still holds on to the old pre-Christian traditions. The ‘miring’ ceremony is an essential part of Iban tradition performed to honour the ‘petara’ or gods, spirits and ancestors. In certain cases the ritual is performed to ask for favour or success. Danison said that there was a ceremony similar to the ‘miring’ that the Selako people

called ‘nyangahatn’ where offerings are given up to ‘jubata’ (god). He said it was held not only during Gawai but also during thanksgiving ceremonies and weddings. “During ‘nyangahatn’, we put all the offerings on a brass food tray called the ‘apar’, the prayer leader will chant a prayer. “Nowadays this ceremony is still practiced by the pagans in our kampung.Those of us who are Christians, however, no longer perform this ritual.” Hailing from Kampung Biawak, he opined that his kampong was slowly losing its cultural identity due to modernisation. “The kids are no longer interested in the ‘adat’.The initiative of keeping our cultural tradition is not robust enough.” Recognising that some traditions are slowly disappearing, some community initiatives like the Association of Research and Development Movement of Singai Sarawak (Redeems) are addressing this issue by holding mock offering rituals to educate the younger generation on their heritage. Valerie confessed that she would not have known about the traditions of Gawai had she not witnessed these mock

“Our family doesn’t practice the ‘miring’ anymore. Even in our longhouses, only those who are not Christians practice ‘miring’.” Michael Rayin Denies

Frankie Sigai

rituals. As for medical attendee Frankie Sigai, 31, he believes that the ‘miring’ ceremony is a vital part of Iban tradition. “What are Ibans without the ‘miring’ ceremony?” he argued. Reminiscing on the olden days of Gawai celebration, Frankie shared, “Back then we used to drink ‘tuak’ and air ‘ijok’. Now Kingway, Heineken, and other commercial beers are slowly taking the place of these drinks.” He also remarked that people back then were friendlier and that you could invite a stranger or passer-by to your house to join in the celebration. According to him, Gawai celebrations were more joyful when all the old traditions were practiced. “It was definitely way merrier back then. Many of the older generation knew how to ‘ngajat’ and everybody was dancing. “Even I don’t know how to ‘ngajat’.” With rural-urban migration, most longhouses and kampungs are left empty most of the time in the year. Berro Simon, a 22-year-old medical assistant trainee agreed that some longhouses during Gawai were emptier than before: “I am from Kapit, most of my longhouse residents have moved to urban areas such as Kuching. For some of them it is hard to come back to celebrate Gawai.” Danison’s community is not the only one that does not include the miring ritual

in their Gawai celebrations. Berro shared that his longhouse was divided into two groups during the Gawai celebration; with the Christian group coming together to hold prayer sessions from ‘bilik’ to ‘bilik’ while those who still hold with the old tradition performing their own rituals separately. For Michael Rayin Denies who hails from Daro, “Our family doesn’t practice the ‘miring’ anymore. Even in our longhouses, only those who are not Christians practice ‘miring’.” In an effort to bring the community closer together, many from the village security and development committee (JKKK) would organise various activities such as sports matches for different age groups in the longhouses and kampungs. The 22-year-old Zoology student from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak reasoned that the Gawai celebration was even more exciting now than before: “Back then, there was no sound system or karaoke sets. “We didn’t have gifts to offer for telematch competitions. Now there are so many activities during Gawai season, I think the cerebration now is merrier than before.” No matter how the Gawai Dayak celebration has evolved from generation to generation, the current Gawai Dayak celebration has come a long way in fulfilling the mission behind Tra’s campaign for a Dayak Day more than 50 years ago. It is a day where all Dayaks come together, regardless of how they choose to celebrate it.

Hari Gawai Dayak 2014 special supplement

The Kumang Gawai is more than a beauty pageant, it has become an annual highlight of the Gawai Dayak festivities.

Datin Lydia Paya Rinyud • From page E1 A veteran’s perspective Datin Lydia Paya Rinyud recalled how super excited she used to be when it came to the Kumang Gawai contests. A Bidayuh from Kampung Bunuk, Puncak Borneo, Lydia, 46, is a TV producer with RTM Sarawak and has been on the judging panel for the national-, state- as well as district/ divisional- levels of Kumang Gawai contests over the last 20 years. Her experience with Kumang Gawai began after she herself was a contestant in 1987, a decision she has never regretted as she has enjoyed the opportunities to meet and know lots of people from various backgrounds. In 1987, Lydia was among the first few Bidayuh contestants who joined. The contest became a stepping stone for her career as a radio broadcaster with RTM Kuching on the Bidayuh Radio Station. When asked what judges look for in a contestant, she replied: “All of the Kumang Gawai contestants are being judged based on their appearance, intelligence, beauty, traditional costumes, and personality, not to mention their discipline which the organisers will watch for as well.” When asked about the difference between Kumang in the past and today, she said: “Kumang Gawai is not much different compared to the past except that the contestants are more privileged with good prizes and it is a very challenging task. “It is not just about winning the competition but the winner or winners have to become ambassadors for the state and promote the State as far as the tourism industry is concerned.” Lydia stressed that as a Dayak we should always be proud of our culture, cultivate a deeper understanding of it as well as profound appreciation towards it as well. Having experienced being a contestant in the past, Kumang Gawai, for her, is the journey of Dayak cultural expression, an interesting exploration perhaps, into the world of Dayak culture, mythos and tradition. “My advice to those who wish to participate in Kumang Gawai is that, take up the challenge, do not be shy, and explore more of our rich and diverse cultures and tradition. “It is not just about winning the prizes but we as Dayak need to be proud of our community and ourselves as well.” Kumang Gawai has undeniably evolved into an important tool that rekindles the mystique of Dayak rich culture, especially in this age and time when tradition can get lost under our increasingly modern lifestyle, and it gives the younger generation a sense of dignity and identity.

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

The allure of the Kumang Gawai beauty pageants is undoubtedly its rich cultural aspect.

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Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Hari Gawai Dayak 2014

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Wednesday, May 21, 2014

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Hari Gawai Dayak 2014 Gawai Dayak special supplement

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Taste and flavours of traditional Dayak cuisine

By Danielle Ringgit seeds@theborneopost.com

PERUT JANI GULAI BUAH BERUNAI: Pork chitterlings stir-fried with pineapple cubes in a sweet, sour and mildly spicy sauce.

PUSU EMPIKAU: A Bidayuh delicacy, anchovies stir-fried with pickled durian (tempoyak).

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esides the anticipation and excitement of meeting up with family and friends for Gawai, food happens to be one of the most important aspects during the festive celebration. Like other cultures throughout the world, food can reflect its people, customs and tradition.

“If you study the anthropology of food; it basically documents people’s migratory movement, because when people migrated from different areas, they would pick up food from different people along the way.”

Vernon Aji Kedit, owner of The Dyak restaurant

TILAPIA GULAI TERUNG DAYAK ASAM TERJUN: Clear, tangy and mild spicy tilapia soup with succulent Dayak aubergine, also known as brinjal or egg plant

Vernon Aji Kedit, owner of The Dyak restaurant, and his father Albert Rumpang Aji Kedit opened up about what types of Dayak dishes were normally consumed not only during Gawai but also on a typical day. Without the modern conveniences we have today like cooking stoves and refrigerators, the huntergatherer way of life in the old days influenced how the Iban community cooked and CANGKUK MANIS LABU: Star gooseberry leaves stirpreserved their food. fried with pumpkin “If you study the anthropology of food; it basically documents people’s migratory movement, because when people migrated from different areas, they would pick up food from different people along the way. Like the Ibans had migrated to Sarawak a few PAKU KUBOK: Giant jungle fern stir fried with fragrantt wild ginger flower, centuries anchovies and chillies. ago, what we eat today, is

JANI TUNU: Grilled three layered pork (skin, fat and lean meat)

TILAPIA LEMPIS: Tilapia served with ginger and chillies, wrapped in turmeric leaf and stem baked Dayak style

what we have been eating for these past few centuries already, and it has not changed,” he said. For every Gawai celebration, one cannot celebrate it without ‘manuk pansuh’, which is one of the most wellknown Dayak dishes. Before the introduction of cooking pans from Chinese traders back in the olden days, preferred cooking methods included ‘kasam’ (cured meat), grilling and ‘pansuh’ (food cooked in bamboo). According to Vernon, when Ibans were away from home for paddy planting, hunting or even during wartime, they would stuff any sort of meat such as chicken, fish or wild boars into a bamboo shaft and carry it with them since back then, pots and pans had not yet been introduced. At night when it got cold, they would build a fire for warmth and the bamboo filled with either fish, chicken or wild boar would be placed on the fire to cook. Traditionally, the dish would be prepared by marinating the chicken with salt, tapioca leaves and lemongrass in a bamboo shaft filled with water and stoppered with a bundle of tapioca leaves. According to Vernon, ginger was not part of the ingredients back then but today, some prefer to have ginger for extra flavour. While garlic was never a part of the ingredients list in the past, Patrilla Augustine, a local entrepreneur who serves Iban food said that she adds garlic into her dishes for variety. “At first I would sautée garlic and lemongrass before adding them to my ‘manuk pansuh’ so that it would not get spoilt easily. The dish will stay fresh even if I prepared it in the morning,” she said. Probably one of the healthiest foods around, the broth of the ‘manuk pansuh’ has a light yet flavourful tang to it since it literally cooks in its own juices. The meat also has a juicy and sweet taste from the sweetness of the bamboo. Another popular dish served up during Gawai is ‘babi tunu’ (grilled pork), ‘babi guring kicap’ (pork cooked in soy sauce), ‘babi kasam’ (cured pork), and ‘perut babi gulai buah berunai’ (pork chitterlings with pineapple). According to Vernon, grilling was probably one of the oldest cooking methods to prepare pork since ancient times, not only among the Iban but probably by other ethnic groups in Sarawak. Juicy and smoky, the ‘babi tunu’ is a favourite dish among locals for its savoury and appetising natural flavour. Another favourite among Ibans is ‘babi kasam’ or cured pork. Before refrigerators, ‘babi kasam’ was a way to preserve the meat for a

sticky pulut cake made out of rice flour, glutinous rice, brown sugar and grated coconut wrapped in banana leaves. Tuak, the traditional brew

long period of time. Normally, the pork is cured by mixing it with salt to be stored in a jar for two weeks before it can be consumed. The fermented pork may then be kept as long as a few months. “If it is consumed within less than two weeks, the taste would not be as nice, since it is not fully ready yet. The longer you leave it, the more tender it gets,” added Vernon. Although it is a favourite among Dayaks, the dish is for those with an acquired taste as it has a powerful, sharp flavor and strong smell. Another significant pork dish that every family must have during Gawai is stir-fried pork chitterlingswith pineapple. “It is a must-have dish on every Gawai celebration; it would not officially be Gawai if no pork chitterlings with pineapple was served,” said Patrilla. The intestine must be cleaned thoroughly before being boiled and then cut up into small pieces to be stir-fried with pineapple. Patrilla says the dish should be cooked until the sour taste of the pineapple and soy sauce has infused with the chitterlings, making the dish more flavourful and delicious. Besides hearty meat dishes, every family or longhouse would have kueh or cake prepared for the festive celebration. One of the most well-known kueh to be prepared is the rice cake, locally known as kueh sarang semut or penganan jala, a crispy and crunchy delicacy. Sweet tooth for Kueh Penganan According to Steephina Ibin, a dedicated kueh penganan maker at a local resort since 2011, in the old days, the kueh penganan involved a long and tedious process. Made out of rice flour, palm sugar and water, the liquid mixture is poured through a sieve-like utensil called the ‘acuan tacuk’, a mould made out of coconut shell with holes on the bottom and its contents tapped into hot oil in circular motions to create this nest-like delicacy. “In the old days, the making of the kueh penganan was an indication of how hardworking a woman was,” she said. “Aside from that, the penganan would then be part of the offerings to the gods for a good harvest season. Our ancestors would pound the rice grain into flour and make penganan out of it.” Even though rice flour can be bought at the supermarket nowadays, most people who prefer to make it themselves still need at least two weeks to prepare. According to Steephina, the penganan can be stored up to three months. “According to old belief, when you make the penganan, you are not supposed to make a lot of noise otherwise you could spoil the cake.” she said. She also heard that cooking the penganan would taste even better if cooked over a traditional earthen stove instead of the modern stove commonly used today. Another well-known delicacy is the traditional Bidayuh cake, the tiboduk cake or lepat pulut, a

Finally, it wouldn’t be a truly Gawai celebration without tuak or rice wine, a traditional alcoholic brew made out of fermented glutinous rice, water, sugar and yeast. Tuak is deeply rooted in Dayak culture and is usually drunk as part of a blessing or traditional ceremony not only during the harvest festival but also weddings, thanksgiving dinners and parties. At the stroke of midnight on Gawai Eve, celebrants would gather together to drink ‘ai pengayu’ (tuak for long life) led by the Tuai Rumah (head of the longhouse) who would wish everybody a long life, health and prosperity. “Some prefer to add in brown sugar to make the tuak dark like whiskey.” said Alex Nasu Billy, 22 of Saratok. Growing up, Alex used to watch and help his father make tuak for Gawai as it was a tradition for some families to prepare their own tuak a few months before the celebration. As for Berra Simon, 22, of Kapit he said that because his mother prefers a stronger-tasting tuak his family would start to prepare it a month after Gawai for the following year. For Michael Rayin Denis, 22, of Sibu he said that during every Gawai celebration back in his longhouse, the people would have a competition to see whose tuak tasted better. Albert has been making tuak for over 30 years now with a recipe passed down from his mother. According to Albert, measurement is the most important key in making tuak. He has been making three types of tuak, which he refers to as ‘tuak indu’ (literally female tuak for its sweeter flavour), ‘tuak laki’ (male tuak for its bitter note) and tuak mansau. Generally, the process of making tuak takes up to two months and the longer it is left, the better it is as this gives time for the residue to accumulate and let the brew clarify. While Albert swears by exact measurements, others like Alex depend mostly on their tastebuds. According to Alex, he and his father would add in more yeast if the tuak did not have enough of a kick in it. He added that it was also important to place the tuak in a cool area during the fermentation process so it would not go bad. Much like the kueh penganan, Alex and his friend Michael said that in accordance with old belief one cannot make any noise during the process for fear of spoiling the tuak. Berra also added that his mother told him to not keep anything sour near the tuak or it would also turn the tuak sour. Nowadays, the making of tuak is not only restricted to using glutinous rice as it is not uncommon to see tuak made out of fruit, barley and even tapioca leaves. For Alex, he and his father have been making tuak out of dragon fruit for Gawai. The taste of the dragon fruit tuak is slightly different from the ricebased ones as it tastes sweeter and is more popular among the ladies. Nowadays, with local restaurants serving up local traditional Dayak food sprouting around Kuching, we do not have to wait till the festive season to enjoy Dayak cuisine. Selamat Ari Gawai!

SCRUMPTIOUS: Among the Dayak dishes served at the Dyak restaurant

The penganan is fried for less than a minute so that it is soft enough to be folded into a small triangle.

Alex Nasu (left) and Berro Simon. Albert Rumpang Kedit

Vernon Aji Kedit, owner of the Dyak restaurant

PENGANAN JALA: How the penganan looks after it is fried.

Patrilla Augustine, who serves up her special Iban dishes at Patz Dayak Home Cook Special.

Kueh sarang semut or penganan jala is typically served during Gawai.

Steephina making the penganan traditional utensil, the acuan tacuk.

with a

Steephina Ibin

Hari Gawai Dayak 2014 special supplement

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itachi Sales (Malaysia ) Sdn Bhd (Hitachi Malaysia) has launched two new home appliance products powered with innovative environmentally friendly technology for its loyal customers.

Designed to provide you with nights of good sleep, the new Hitachi Air Sleep air conditioner is equipped with smart features for your optimum comfort. Toshinori Kanek, Managing Director of Hitachi Malaysia

The new range of products include Hitachi All DC Inverter X Air Sleep Air Conditioner in two premium models RASSX10CD and RAS- SX13CD, as well as the deluxe model – RASSD10CD and RAS-SD13CD. Managing Director of Hitachi Malaysia, Toshinori Kaneko said the new air conditioners designed with energy efficient elements are equipped with smart features for optimum comfort. “Designed to provide you with nights of good sleep, the new Hitachi Air Sleep air conditioner is equipped with smart features for your optimum comfort. “With the help of Hitachi’s exclusive Air Sleep function, it creates the perfect sleep environment with its unique sensor that detects your body condition and intelligently adjusts the temperature throughout the night to match the changes in your body to give you a deep, refreshing sleep,” he explained. Hitachi has also introduced a new series of new refrigerator, the model are R-V490P3M SLS and R-VG490P3M GBK with their own 395L capacity. The Hitachi New Stylish Line Refrigerator series is powered by another Hitachi owned technology, the Inverter X Dual Fan Cooling feature that combines dual fan cooling and the inverter compressor that cools each compartment independently and efficiently. On top of that, Hitachi’s own technology, the Nano Titanium filter eliminates 99 per cent of bacteria and prevents transfer of odour, giving you a powerful anti-bacterial, anti-mold and deodorising effect, to help ensure that your food and vegetables stay fresh for a longer period of time. In addition, Hitachi offers a 10-year compressor warranty for this refrigerator series and also 10 years compressor warranty for all inverter series. Hitachi Air Sleep air conditioner series are priced at RRP from RM1, 589 and the new refrigerator series are priced at RRP from RM2,149.

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Gawai Supplement 2014