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POLITECNICO DI MILANO Scuola del Design Msc: Product Service System Design Thesis Supervisor: F. Pierandrei A.A 2012 / 2013

(This Book Is Also A Chair)

Tesi di Laurea di: Brian Plaum / Matricula 764916

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How to make this book into a chair: step one: place this book on the ground step two: sit on top of this book

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"All cities when reduced to their basic components are the same: streets, buildings, side walks, alleys, and transportation. It's the individual touch that makes the difference"

-Ed Scott Burnham, 2008

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Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to thank Professor Pierandrei, for working with me over the past year, helping me learn and grow both as a student and person. I would like to thank my family for all the love and support they have given me, even from thousands of miles away. To my friends for putting up with me and listening to me talk non-stop about my research day after day. I would like to thank the CLUB for graciously letting me host my workshop in their bar. Lastly, I woud like to thank every interventionist, past and future, keep up the good work.

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Index Acknowledgements:

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Index

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PART I: INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE DESIGN AND REAPPROPRIATION Chapter 1: What is Service Design? Chapter 2: Defining Street Art Chapter 3: The Reappropriation Movement Chapter 4: Urban Interventionism Chapter 5: Goal of Thesis

13 17 19 21 23

PART II: RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS OF CONTEXT Chapter 6: Types of Urban Interventions Chapter 7: Data Analysis Chapter 8: Urban Play Chapter 9: Guerrilla Gardening Chapter 10: Street Sharing Chapter 11: Urban Repairs Chapter 12: Guerrilla Wayfinding Chapter 13: Summary

29 31 34 54 64 80 92 105

PART III: DESIGN PHASE: THE INTERVENTIONIST Chapter 14: Objective of the Interventionist Chapter 15: Personas Chapter 16: User Journey Chapter 17: System Map

109 111 114 120

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Index Chapter 18: Touchpoints

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PART IV: PROTOTYPING AND ANALYSIS. Chapter 19: Workshop Chapter 20: Intervention: Teufelsberg Chapter 21: Reflection Chapter 22: Conclusion Chapter 23: What's Next?

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141 147 151 154 157

References

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Appendix

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Index of Images

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Part I: Introduction to Service Design, Street Art and Reappropriation

Chapter 1: What is Service Deisgn? Chapter 2: Defining Street Art Chapter 3: The Reappropriation Movement Chapter 4: Urban Interventionism Chapter 5: Goal of Thesis

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Service

Network

Intangible

User Experience

Brainstorming Touchpoints Story Telling Peer-to-Peer Communication Multidisciplinary

Community System Map Prototyping

Collaboration

Customer Journey 12


What is Service Design? The field of Design is an area that has developed and grown a lot in the past decade. Previously designers were thought to have only one specialization, such as Product, Graphic, Fashion or Furniture. As the definition of design continues to expand, designers often take on a more versatile and flexible role as they frequently work in multidisciplinary environments. Design now encompasses some growing disciplines such as Interaction Design and User Experience Design. For the purpose of this book, a brief overview of Service Design will be provided. Service Design is a rapidly emerging Design discipline focusing on fulfilling people's needs by integrating tangible and intangible components. This objective is often met by creating systems that organize the interactions between people, products, communication strategies and infrastructure. Service design is user-centered, meaning that the development of a service always stems from the needs of the user and aims to fulfill these needs in a way that is user-friendly, competitive and relevant. Similar to other sectors of design, the service design process begins with identifying a problem that needs to be solved. While for a product designer this problem might be, how can we redesign produce crates in order to reduce their carbon foot print? A service designer might see a less tangible problem to solve, for example, how can we design a service to provide people living in cities with local produce directly to their front door? However, Service Design can also have more tangible and concrete components. For instance, when creating an urban bike sharing service, the service designer must think about how the locking stations will physically work in a safe and secure way as well as how to design the bike so that it can be adjusted to physically fit a variety of riders. What is critical in a successful service design project, in addition to other types of design, is that the user's needs are fulfilled.

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While people may question the importance of Service Design, denouncing it as the death of design through dematerialization, reduction and reuse of products or the seeking of alternative sources of fulfillment (Ref. 24), it is in fact becoming more vital than ever. As a result of the growing trends of sustainability and green innovation, Design is becoming more focused on facilitation than object creation. Instead of selling a product, designers are focused on creating access through the implementation of services. Instead of owning a car that remains idle for majority of the day, a user can participate in a car sharing service which provides him or her access without ownership. Thus, the goal of design is moving from consumption to participation. Service Design achieves this goal in many ways, for example, by integrating networks and services, via Internet based platforms for sharing information. While online blogs are a great source for information sharing they don't encourage the participation of users the way a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network does. A P2P network enables users to not only gain access to information but also to actively participate by uploading their own personal content to the network. This idea of creating networks and communities foreshadows the future of Design, in which it is no longer about a solo designer and ownership of an idea, but an ongoing process of collaboration with users and co-creators. To better understand Service Design, it is essential to be familiar with the tools and skills of the field. The following pages will present a brief overview of the key tools that will be used in this book. Personas In order to have a successful service, it is important for the designer to consider specifically who are the users of the service. Often services have more than one type of user and thus personas are used to help develop a service based on the different needs and desires of potential targets. A persona is a fictional character created using demographic characteristics, habits, cultural backgrounds and needs, that is used to summarize a population of users into one synthesized user. Personas help service designers see their various targets more clearly by understanding their differences in a visual way.

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User Journey Map Once the users are indentified and clustered, it is important to understand the experience of each individual persona. The user journey map provides a designer with a visual timeline that depicts the chronological order in which a user comes in contact with a service. Each time the users meets the service, this is considered to be a "touchpoint". In the user journey map it is important to understand what action occurs at each touchpoint and what the intention of the action is. This map provides the designer with a visual blueprint that can verify if the needs of each individual user is met. System Map After the individual user journey maps are created, it is important to understand the big picture of how a service works. This means creating a visual map illustrating the relationship between all the different actors involved in the service, and the flow of information, money, materials and labor between them. The system map helps to ensure that no gaps exist in the overall flow of the service. Touchpoints As previously stated, a touchpoint is any encounter where the user and service are engaged and have an exchange (information, service, money, material). Thus developing the touchpoints can vary from the intangible side of communication and publicity to the more physical side of the design of a store. Experiencial Prototyping Similar to the design of a product, a service also requires a form of prototyping. In order to achieve this, a service designer will create a simulation of the service experience by testing mock up version of touchpoints via participation of potential users. The feedback from the users provide a service designer with real life criticisms that can be useful in the fine tuning of a service.

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Defining Street Art Public art has existed for a long time, commonly in forms such as monuments, memorials, civic statues or even architecture. While this form of art is sanctioned and commissioned by public funding, it does not always have the emotion or expressive nature an artist might like, as a result of the various commissions it must pass through and the marks of approval it must gain before it is finalized (Ref. 7). Street art, on the other hand, is unsanctioned and has a sense of immediacy. Someone has an idea, makes a stencil, and places it in a public space. Street art is relevant and has a pulse. Street art is any anonymous work installed, performed, or attached in a public space aiming to influence people in a creative or thought-provoking way. It is a mode for personal expression but also a way of creating communities in local neighborhoods. By taking art out of the galleries and putting it on the street, an interesting interaction is created with the immediate environment that cannot be removed or replicated elsewhere (Ref. 23). Street art is full of life and uniqueness. Street Artists face the challenges of a modern culture in which we are over stimulated with a plethora of advertising, mass media and mass communication that paralyzes us from noticing our surroundings (Ref. 14). This disconnect is what street artists hope to break. Street art is different from graffiti. Graffiti is a form of vandalism using spray paint or markers to deface public property with, for example, a name, a tag or a few simple written words (Ref. 31). While some forms of Street Art may have a lot in common with Graffiti, the motivation and the underlying messages of Street Art does not generally coincide with the anti-establishment attitude of graffiti. Street artists do not want to change the definition of art, but rather they hope to question their environment by placing art on the street. Defining street art can be difficult, because it is an area that is growing rapidly. Street art is about expressing an idea, an experience or a movement (Ref. 47). It connects, it documents and it challenges. Its playful, thought provoking and simple. Most importantly, anyone can do it.

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The Reappropriation Movement Urban Planning is traditionally a top down approach of technical and political processes that control the use of the land and design of the urban environment to facilitate the orderly development of communities. Typically it focuses on areas like transportation, safety, growth and renewal, which all depend heavily on the existence of public space in the urban environment. Unfortunately, public spaces are disappearing due to the fact that they are rapidly becoming privatized and commodified (Ref. 46). Public spaces are starting to focus on exchange value over use value, which is leading to mass-produced characterless public spaces that inhibit the development of community. One movement that is currently fighting against the corporate takeover of public space is called Reappropriation. The general meaning of Reappropriation is when a group reclaims a term, artifact or space that was used in a previously unfavorable way towards them. Reappropriation has existed for a long time and often is mentioned in reference to racism and discrimination, however, in terms of Urban Planning it can be applied to the reclaiming of public space that has become uninviting to the public. These spaces become uninviting in a sense that they discriminate against targets that do not have a consumerist agenda in their use of the space. Reappropriation occurs through human intervention by reorganization and reinterpretation of a domain into an alternative version. The aim of these alternative Reappropriations is to influence architects and urban planners to rethink their value systems by providing them with successful examples of community development. This recent surge in the popularity of urban Reappropriation can be linked to two current trends, the economic recession and the growing power of social media (Ref. 33). During an economic recession the government is required to reduce spending, which, in effect, means budget cuts. Often what is viewed as superfluous spending comes from Urban Planning efforts, for example, the renewal and reconstruction of dilapidated discarded and marginalized urban spaces. This has resulted in citizens taking

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efforts into their own hands in repairing and maintaining their neighborhoods. While citizens do not always have the same strength and power as urban developers, with a little bit of creativity and drive many small and incremental efforts instigated by a group of locals within a community have proved to be triumphant. The power of sharing ideas via social media is unprecedented and continues to expand as it becomes more sophisticated. After just a few clicks of a computer mouse, an article or website can be re-blogged, re-tweeted, facebooked, pinned and emailed to a Smartphone. Information is at our fingertips and we are in an era in which a project like a knitted door handle by a 39 year old woman from Houston, Texas can gain buzz on the Internet and develop into an international phenomenon known as “Yarn Bombing”(Ref. 14). Reappropriation information manuals have found similar success on the Internet. In the spring of 2011, “Tactical Urbanism Volume 1”, which was written by Mike Lydon, was uploaded to a free SCRIBD account (a platform for hosting files for public download). Within just two months the file was downloaded 10,000 times, which is the maximum number of downloads permitted by a free account (Ref. 33). These examples showcase just how the incredible access to information provided by the Internet is contributing to the spread of urban Reappropriation.

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Urban Interventionism Somewhere in between the grandiose nature of a Reappropriationist trying to fight for the rights of a minority group in a public space and a Street Artist bringing life to a mundane power generator by placing googly eyeballs on it, lies a fresh and rapidly growing trend. “Guerrilla Activism, Tactical Urbanism”and Urban Interventionism” are some of the most commonly used terms to describe this growing phenomenon. The name Urban Interventionism seems to fit the category best, as its name is self-explanatory; involving oneself in an urban situation in order to alter, hinder or supplement an action or development. While it shares many qualities with the Reappropriation movement and Street Art culture, there is a distinctive middle ground of unsanctioned socially conscious tactful playfulness involved in Urban Interventions, which is not found in the aforementioned movements.

Street Art

Urban Reappropriations Interventions

Street Art, while often politically driven, aims to create awareness about an injustice through self expression but does not contribute to action against a cause in the way an Intervention does. Street Art and Urban Interventions both have an "in your face"”attitude in hopes to cut through the clutter of information and overstimulation we are faced with each day, however, an intervention takes it one step further. An intervention seizes the opportunity to stimulate community involvement by making the first move (Ref. 27).

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Reappropriations, similar to Interventions, instigate and make social change; however, there are some key differences. Reappropriation focuses on forgotten spaces while Interventions can be placed anywhere within the Urban Landscape. An Urban Intervention can be a community effort to clean up a derelict area by replacing garbage with gardening or it can be a guerrilla project to create space for urban cyclist in the city center (Ref. 24). Reappropriation goals focus on creating equality for marginalized people in public spaces, while Interventions respond to the needs of the community. What makes an Urban Intervention so interesting is the do-good unsanctioned motivation behind it. The action is done for the benefit of the community, not as a corporate publicity stunt to get media attention. The action is not a result of the desire for attention or self expression, but rather to simply fix a problem that has not been attended to or perhaps hasn't been identified yet as a problem. Urban Interventions are spreading quickly and can be seen happening all over the world. In the following chapters, a list of urban intervention case studies will be presented and organized into categories, developed by noticing trends and patterns among various interventions. Many of these interventions can fall under multiple categories, and often the ones that do overlap tend to be stronger projects; however, that is not always the case. These case studies present a variety of urban intervention examples; however, the changing and growing nature of this field makes it impossible to fully capture all types of urban interventionism. Regardless, these examples will provide an adequate understanding and overview of Urban Interventions.

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Goal of Thesis There is no doubt that the power of social networks has increased the spread of information at an exponential rate. The amount of content produced and uploaded daily on the Internet is incomprehensible and nearly impossible for any one person to process. Facebook with over a billion users estimates that 250 million photos are uploaded per day. Instagram within 9 months of its release in 2010 gained 1 million users. Pinterest, one of the newest forms of social media, directs more web traffic to retailers than Youtube, LinkedIn and Google+ combined (Ref. 9). Clearly social networks have been generating power for years now, and are not going to slow down anytime soon. While this increase in connectivity and access to information is an incredible technological advancement, it also means that we are sometimes bombarded with information and have trouble finding exactly what we are looking for. Social Networks like Facebook function very well because they have a very broad target audience and fulfill general interests internationally. Social Networks with an abundance of information uploaded daily like Instagram can be filtered easily with the creation of hashtags (if they are not used in overabundance). Statistics can be misleading and do not always show actual success rates of social networks. For example, an enormous user database or an excess of daily, user-generated content does not mean a network has the achieved the ideal”users or the right”content. The goals of each social network can vary immensely and therefore the goals of one social network cannot be applied to another. A social network with less than a 1,000 users can be successful if the users are finding and exchanging information that is fulfilling their specific needs. While the spread of information is undoubtedly strong, it is not always clear what people do with this information (Ref. 12). People will send links to each other via a social network showing things like an ornate shark cupcakes or a so-called “DIY bookshelf made from a wooden pallet. This information often does not motivate people to act, as they are presented with a beautifully crafted end result without the adequate tools and information on how to reproduce it. Or perhaps an expert in the field was

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responsible for the execution and it in fact is not realistically achievable for the average user to recreate. There is also the factor that many people get pleasure in being passive spectators for a few seconds after seeing photos of a creative project and have no intentions to ever try. There is no way to control how people use the information they are provided with, but it is certain if they are not given adequate information they will not produce anything. Where does this all lead? Various social networks, digital news sources, and online forums passively exchange information about Urban Interventions. Facebook has various groups posting photos of small victories in these categories giving credit and exposure to their creators. However, this topic of Urban Interventions is fairly new and often gets misplaced into various Blogs and social network groups under the category Street Art, making it quite difficult to find an extensive database of these types of projects. Urban Interventions are ideas that are meant to be shared and to inspire others to make improvements in their communities. Often interventions can be reproduced in applicable scenarios and, when successfully done, they should be easily replicated. Urban Interventions are ideas that need to be centralized, discussed, criticized and improved. This has led me to the question, how can Service Design be applied to Urban Interventionism to fulfill these needs? Hypothesis I believe that a Peer 2 Peer online platform exhibiting case studies of Urban Interventions equipped with detailed and realistic Do It Yourself� tool kits would help spread the concept of Urban Interventionism meanwhile fulfilling the needs of potential future Interventionists. A network that could provide a place for people to exchange their ideas and skills, where they could discuss difficulties and concerns, and provide advice would help spread the positive effects of Urban Interventions. Before a detailed explanation of how this network will work, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of Urban Interventions via the case studies in the following section.

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Part II: Research and Analaysis of Context

Chapter 6: Types of Urban Interventions Chapter 7: Data Analysis Chapter 8: Urban Play Chapter 9: Guerrilla Gardening Chapter 10: Street Sharing Chapter 11: Urban Repairs Chapter 12: Guerrilla Wayfinding Chapter 13: Summary

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Types of Urban Interventions After accumulating a comprehensive list of projects that coincide with the aforementioned definition of Urban Interventions, various trends and similarities began to surface. Some of these similarities appeared by sheer coincidence while others gave credit to the precedents that inspired them. The merging of preliminary groupings that had almost complete overlap are responsible for the formation of some final categories. Many case studies presented can categorized under more than one type of Urban Intervention. The following five topics were created to highlight how Urban Interventions respond to common and important social issues. Urban Play This category is comprised of projects that fall under common themes of Guerrilla Seating, Games and Hacktivism. Often Urban Planning does not account for adequate public seating and often Urban Play projects fulfill this void with quirky seating solutions in public spaces. As children, we are constantly encouraged to play and be imaginative; however, as adults, the importance of maturity prevents us from letting loose. Various Urban Play projects aim to add a bit of harmless entertainment into the city. Lastly, small improvements in a city can amount to big differences, and that’is exactly the goal of Hacktivism. "Hacks" solve everyday problems in clever or non-obvious ways. Guerrilla Gardening A form of activism in which a person gardens a piece of property that legally belongs to someone else. Often the chosen land is abandoned or derelict and is being gardened to reclaim the neglected area by assigning a new purpose to it. This type of intervention spreads the ideas of both urban gardening and land reformation. While traditionally this type of intervention involves planting of a vegetable patch or flower garden, in the following case studies some alternative and innovative forms of guerrilla gardening will be presented.

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Street Sharing This concept, stemming from the growing popularity of book sharing in public places, has developed into something bigger. Street Sharing can bring communities together by creating opportunities for people to share both their unwanted belongings, opinions and ideas for change. Urban Repairs Requesting government action to repair a simple problem in a city can be an arduous process. Citizens can easily take some of these repairs into their own hands, meanwhile gaining attention for their efforts. Filling a pothole, patching a hole in a wall or giving a fresh coat of paint where needed are just a few examples of simple physical repairs. However, Urban Repairs also attempt to fix social problems by changing or influencing the behavior of citizens for common good. Guerrilla Wayfinding Traditional Wayfinding is a combination of the tools which people use to navigate from one specific location to another. Cities often implement a minimal amount of Wayfinding near major touristic attractions in the forms of public maps or signs to help guide visitors. Guerrilla Wayfinding occurs when citizens place their own sensory cues in the urban setting to guide people to less frequently visited sites or to provide an alternative tour of a city. Although the category Guerrilla Wayfinding only has six examples represented in the following case studies, it is a unique category that has a strong feasibility to be replicated in other cities. For this reason it has been included in the research regardless of the fact that it has fewer examples compared to the other four categories.

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Data Analysis The areas highlighted in blue on this map show all the countries represented in the upcoming case studies. The countries listed in alphabetical order are as follows: Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Croatia, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. 04

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Case Studies

Countries

33 Cities 31


Geographic Distribution by Country

U.S.A.

U.K.

Germany

Legend U.S.A. 32 U.K. 9 Germany 8 France 7 Canada 5 The Netherlands 4 Sweden 2 Belgium 1 Colombia 1 Croatia 1 Italy 1 Brazil 1 Greece 1 Poland 1 India 1

While it is clear that the U.S.A. has a dominance in the case studies found, the U.K. also has a strong presence which can be attributed to the fact that most of the data was collected via online sources while searching in English. Although this bias may have affected the collection of data there is still a strong international diversity within the data to show that this topic is relevant in different parts of the world. The case studies used in the research come from 16 countries from 4 continents.

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Timeline

Number of Interventions

20 15 10 5

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

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Year

This timeline depicts the occurence of the case studies between the years 1996 and 2012, showing a definite increase between the years 2006 and 2012. The low occurrence of interventions prior to 2006 could be due to the fact that most of the data was collected via Internet and perhaps many interventions were not uploaded onto blogs during that period. Due to the improvement of technology in recent years, information can be uploaded instantaneously, and this might explain why more case studies were found in the last six years.

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36 12 23

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Case Studies Countries Cities


Distribution by Country U.S.A. 16 France 5 U.K. 3 Germany 2 Sweden 2 The Netherlands 2 Italy 1 Poland 1 Canada 1 Brazil 1 Belgium 1 Croatia 1

U.S.A.

France

U.K.

Number of Interventions

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

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"Don't Pay, Play" By: Florian Rivière Location: Strasbourg, France Date: 2011 (Ref. 45) Florian Rivière transforms a mundane grocery store parking lot into a temporary playground by creating various games including Volleyball, Soccer, Basketball, Badminton, Tennis, Waterpolo, Hockey and Golf. This Urban Intervention among many of Rivière's projects follows a strict rule that he must use material found in public spaces. In this case he has just added white tape to an existing parking lot and placed shopping carts in a way that transforms them into pieces of sports equipment. 06

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"The Man-Eater" By: Daniel Disselkoen Location: The Hague, The Netherlands Date: 2012 (Ref. 18) After four years of the same monotonous commute to the Royal Academy, Daniel Disselkoen began to think about how he could make his daily routine more interesting. He realized he wasn't able to move the tracks of the tram to change the scenery so he figured he had to change something from within the tram. This is how the idea for "The ManEater" was born. The intervention was created by placing a simple decal on the window of a tram that enables passengers to partake in a game while on public transportation. Instructions were placed on the back of the headrest in front of the user and the object of the game is to try to make the little monster eat as many heads of pedestrians as possible between traffic lights. Depending on how many heads are eaten during the specified time the user achieves a ranking from Level 1 to Level 4. 08

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"Public Sound Sculpture" By: NarcÊlio Grud Location: Fortaleza, Brazil Date: 2012 (Ref. 10) Street signs are often altered by many street artists to make them less authoritative and more light hearted. Narcèlio Grud has designed an intervention that turns a simple street sign into an interactive intervention by creating public musical sculptures ranging from xylophones to stringed instruments. 11

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"Free Anti-Stress" By: Fra Biancoshock Location: Milan, Italy Date: 2012 (Ref. 35)

All forms of public transportation in cities all over the world are known to be unreliable and are often delayed causing people anxiety. Fra Biancoshock's Urban Intervention aims to calms people's nerves in Milan when transportation is late by providing them squares of bubble wrap to help them distress. He places three different sizes of bubble wrap marked 3 minutes, 5 minutes and 10 minutes offering people an activity to calm their mind while waiting for the bus.

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"Take A Seat" By: Jason Eppink Location: New York, U.S.A. Date: 2007 (Ref 21.) This project shows how an Urban Intervention can be incredible simple yet effective. Jason Eppink has created an ongoing series of public furniture installations where he rescues functional chairs that are discarded on the streets of New York City and reassigns them to subway stations where seating is limited. The structures are not affixed to the MTA property and do not cause any damage to the existing structures. This project simply provides patrons of the subway with more seating by relocating unwanted chairs found on the street into the subway where they can be used by many of the millions of subway riders who use the public transportation daily.

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"Assises éphémères" By: Arno Piroud Location: Paris, France Date: 2009 (Ref. 40)

A few years prior to the installation of this project, various trees were cut down in Paris due to an unfavorable tree virus that was rapidly spreading. Arno Piroud saw these tree stumps as an opportunity to increase public seating in Paris while recycling discarded chairs.

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"SignChair" By: Jenny Liang and Ken Mori Location: Los Angeles, U.S.A. Date: 2009 (Ref. 38)

In many American cities, such as Los Angeles, the city is designed primarily for cars and pedestrians come secondary. Various projects have combated the issue of installing additional street seating in cities around the world, however, Liang and Mori were inspired by the challenge to design the cheapest, smallest and strongest piece of street furniture.

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"Pop Up Lunch" By: Alexandra Pulver Location: New York, U.S.A. Date: 2009 (Ref. 41)

While many Urban Interventions try to solve the problem of limited seating in cities, Industrial Designer Alexandra Pulver saw deeper into this problem. She noticed that as street food vendors are becoming more popular that people do have any anywhere to sit and relax while eating their food on the street. Pulver has designed a series of mobile eating tools that make the street dining experience easier for by providing coffee cup holders, hooks for bags and surfaces to place food on while enjoying some delicious street grub.

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1

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Various Swing Projects

Three projects in different locations all conclude with similar end results. They all add a bit of fun into an underutilized or mundane part of a city by placing a swing in an unlikely location. 1. Swing: Memorial to the Berling Army Soldiers by Kamila Szejnoch Location: Warsaw, Poland Date: 2008 (Ref. 27) 2. Play As You Go by Bruno Taylor Location: London, U.K. Date: 2008 (Ref. 8) 3. The Red Swing Project by University of Texas Architecture Students Location: Austin, U.S.A. Date: 2007 (Ref. 48) 29

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22 08 14

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Case Studies Countries Cities


Distribution by Country U.S.A. 9 U.K. 4 Canada 3 Greece 2 France 2 Croatia 1 Germany 1 The Netherlands 1

U.S.A.

Canada

U.K.

Number of Interventions

6 5 4 3 2 1 2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

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2005

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31

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"The Good Bike Project"

By: Caroline Macfarlane and Vanessa Nicholas Location: Toronto, Canada Date: 2011 (Ref. 39)

These two Canadian Artists were inspired from a blog called "the good" about Toronto's creative community. This blog focuses on people who are doing things in their local communities to make Toronto a great place to live. The Good Bike Project takes old abandoned bikes that have been locked to public structures and turns them into neon colored planters. This form of Guerrilla Gardening takes advantages of the baskets of these abandoned bikes as a perfect container to plant flowers.

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"Park(ing)"

By: Rebar Location: San Francisco, U.S.A. Date: 2005 (Ref. 42) In 2005 Studio Rebar decided to reclaim an urban parking spot by replacing it with a temporary park for the alotted two hours purchased on the street parking meter. Although this intervention was started by an Art and Design Studio, since its creation in 2005 the yearly event has developed into a global movement, with organizations and individuals operating independently of Rebar creating temporary parks public spaces each year on Park(ing) Day.

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"Mosstika"

By: Edina Tokodi and J贸zsef V谩lyi-t贸th Location: New York, U.S.A. Date: 2008 (Ref. 50) Guerrilla Gardening takes a vertical approach with this project. Living walls made out of moss are installed on temporary construction walls throughout New York City. Mosstika aims to reconnect man with nature amongst the derelict part of cities by providing an intervention that is meant to be touched.

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"Green Sleeves"

By: Sean Martindale and Eric Cheung Location: Toronto, Canada Date: 2009 (Ref. 52) Cities all over the world have walls where posters are placed on top of posters creating a thick wall of advertisements that rarely gets stripped. Sean Martindale and Eric Cheung saw an opportunity to make a triangular cut into these thick layers, a simple fold and a few staples in order to create small cone shaped pockets. Later they filled these pockets with some soil, seeds and sprayed it with some water and were able to create a vertical garden out of almost nothing. Their concept was develop a simple project that required few materials in hopes to inspire others to repeat their effort in introducing nature into the urban environment.

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"Weed Bombing"

By: Brad Knoefler Location: Miami, U.S.A. Date: 2011 (Ref. 37) While many Guerrilla Gardening efforts aim to bring more greenery into the urban environment, Weed Bombing aims to draw attention to the unwanted plants. This project was inspired by Brad Knoefler, a club owner in Miami, was tired of using his own money to remove unwanted weeds from the sidewalks. City maintenance in Miami was paying a lot of attention to automobile traffic, however, Knoefler believed not enough attention was given to pedestrian traffic. Weed Bombing was conceived as a way to get the attention of the local government by spray painting the unwanted plants neon colors. While tagging these plants they carefully place cardboard around the weeds to ensure they do not paint the sidewalk or nearby buildings.

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Street SHARING 18 07 12

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Case Studies Countries Cities


Distribution by Country U.S.A. 9 Germany 4 U.K. 2 France 1 Croatia 1 Canada 1 Colombia 1

U.S.A. U.K.

Germany

Number of Interventions

5 4 3 2 1 2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

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1996

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44

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"Guerrilla Drive-In"

By: John Young Location: West Chester, U.S.A. Date: 2005 (Ref. 32) Inspired by the old drive-in style movie theatres, John Young shows film from a projector mounted on the sidecar of his 1977 BMW motorcycle in public spaces around West Chester, Pennsylvania. He presents his films in locations that complement the setting of the movie (for example, "Caddyshack" was shown on a golf course). This project provides a free night of entertainment while also aiming to create a community amongst film buffs. 45

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Various Book Sharing Projects

Book sharing projects have existed for a long time and can vary in their execution greatly. Here is a collection of seven different book sharing initiatives that all aim to keep books in circulation and out of landfills. Some of these projects retrofit an existing structure like a phone booth, while others recycle materials like wooden pallets to create a makeshift bookcase. Chris Gibson's project "Books For London" is by far the simplest as it just relocates a bookshelf into the various underground stations in London to provide passengers some entertainment while waiting for the tube. While this concept is not new, as can be seen in the 1996 case study from Colombia, it definitely has been gaining popularity in recent years, proving it is quite a successful Urban Intervention. 1. Book Forest by BAUFACHFRAU Berlin Location: Berlin, Germany Date: 2006 (Ref. 15) 2. Westbury Book Exchange by Westbury Parish Council Location: Westbury, U.K. Date: 2009 (Ref. 16) 3. Br端ner B端cherkiste by Ellen Tegrande, Anneliese Hecheltjen and Ilse New Location: Hamminkeln, Germany Date: 2008 (Ref. 56) 4. Books for London by Chris Gibson Location: London, U.K. Date: 2011 (Ref. 22)

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Various Book Sharing Projects Continued

5. Free Library by Florian Rivière Location: Paris, France Date: 2012 (Ref. 45) 6.Repurposed Phone Booth Library by John Locke Location: New York, U.S.A. Date: 2012 (Ref. 20) 7.Paradero Para Libros Para Parques by Fundalectura Location: Bogotá, Colombia Date: 1996 (Ref. 27)

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"Dead Drops"

By: Aram Bartholl Location: New York, U.S.A. Date: 2010 (Ref. 3) Technological advancements in data storage have come a long way from the floppy disk. The production costs of USB flash drives has decreased vastly to the point where these handy gadgets are often given away freely by companies in gift bags. Thus, a project like Dead Drops is conceivable and also fairly inexpensive. Dead Drops is an offline, anonymous, peer to peer file-sharing network in public spaces created by embedding USB flash drives into public structures. Each Dead Drop is preloaded with a readme.txt file explaining the project to encourage people to share his or her favorite files or data.

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"I Wish This Was"

By: Candy Chang Location: New Orleans, U.S.A. Date: 2010 (Ref. 4) After seeing various vacant storefronts throughout New Orleans, Candy Chang started to wonder how these empty lots could be filled. This was the starting point for the project "I Wish This Was" in which she placed boxes of blank stickers in various businesses around the city asking the patrons to fill out the sticker and place it near vacant lots. Her stickers were made with vinyl so they were easy to remove and would not damage any property. The project enabled citizens to share their civic input on site, as many did, with response ranging from things like: I wish this was...a taco stand, a place to sit and talk, Brad Pitt's house, a butcher shop, my art gallery. 65

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"Scents of the Adriatic"

By: Ivana Rezek Location: Zagreb, Croatia Date: 2012 (Ref. 43) Sometimes in the midst of winter it is hard to remember that summer ever existed. Ivana Rezek tries to combat this feeling by sharing various gifts placed at reachable heights around the suburb of Zagreb. Inside the various dolls, dresses, pillows and sheep are filled with lavender to create a strong aroma reminiscent of the Adriatic coast. In addition, many small bags are hung on trees, lamp posts and traffic signs filled with rosemary, basil, thyme and scented sea salt. Rezek knows she cannot change the weather but she hopes to remind people with her small random acts of kindess that summer is just around the corner.

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25 09 12

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Case Studies Countries Cities


Distribution by Country U.S.A. 12 Germany 3 Canada 3 Sweden 2 India 1 Italy 1 U.K. 1 Greece 1 The Netherlands 1

U.S.A.

Canada Germany

Number of Interventions

6 5 4 3 2 1 2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

0

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"Guerrilla Bike Lanes"

By: Urban Repair Squad Location: Toronto, Canada Date: 2005 (Ref. 19) After asking city hall in Toronto for bike lanes and having to wait an incredibly long time, the Urban Repair Squad became quite disatisfied. From this frustration they developed the idea to install the bike lanes on their own with a simple stencil of a bicycle and some white paint. Years later their efforts have spread world wide as they encourage people to take action by inspiring them with various projects they have developed to make cities more bicycle and pedestrian friendly by reclaiming ownership of urban streets. They follow a simple model for their projects, "Your city is broken. Don't wiat for the bureaucrats to fix it. DO IT YOURSELF". 73

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"Recycling to Provide Recycling"

By: The Wa Location: Berlin, Germany Date: 2007 (Ref. 44) This project created a change in the behavior of the residents of Berlin that to this day still remains. The idea was simple, to place a sticker on trash bins across the city with an easy to understand diagram to instruct people to not place their glass bottles in the trash but instead underneath the receptacle. However, the motivation behind this intervention was not as obvious as the instructions on the sticker. Plastic and glass bottles in Germany can be recycled in supermarkets with a refund value between 8 cents and 25 cents each. This money serves as a regular source of income for many homeless people throughout Berlin. By asking citizens to place the bottles outside the bin it would not only promote the recycling of these bottles but also permit the homeless of the city to gather the bottles in a humane manner instead of being forced to rummage through filth. The sticker was placed on approximately 10,000 trash bins throughout the city and many people were completely unaware that this was an Urban Intervention and not a governmental mandate.

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"Miniature Pothole Gardens"

By: Steve Wheen Location: London, U.K. Date: 2011 (Ref. 54) A pothole is a common nuisance in the surface or roads and sidewalks as a result of fatigue fractures in the asphalt. These holes can vary in size and often disrupt the smooth ride of a car or bicycle. Steve Wheen disturbed by these inconveniences and by the overall greyness of London has come up with the idea to fill these holes with miniature gardens to create unexpected moments of happiness. Instead of waiting for city maintence to take care of these interruptions he has repaired them on his own. Since 2011 when he began these small urban repairs he has received feedback from an international audience in the form of photographs of their own attempts at miniature pothole gardens and he displays these submissions on his personal blog.

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"New York Street Advertising Takeover"

By: Public Ad Campaign Location: New York, U.S.A Date: 2009 (Ref. 1) In New York City a company called NPA City Outdoor illegally places advertisements around the city at street level. These advertisements add to the over stimulation in an already oversaturated city. Public Ad Campaign organized an event in which about 120 illegal street billboards were deleted and left as blank canvases. The participants in this event were coordinated through a grass roots, word of mouth email operation. They whitewashed all of these billboards in broad daylight enabling them to engage with the public and because doing it at night time would have seemed more suspicious. After the canvases were reset back to white, a second wave of participants were asked to select two of the whitewashed billboards and to express their own artwork on the canvases. They were told to document their work because they were aware that the NPA would most likely try to replace the art with more illegal advertisements, which in some cases happened within just a few hours. 92

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"Pee Project"

By: Ria Rajan Location: Bangalore, India Date: 2012 (Ref. 5) In Bangalore there is an insufficient ratio of toilets with running water to citizens which unfortunately has resulted in a major public urination problem. Ria Rajan rented a studio space downtown which was across the street from a luxury apartment complex which also was a preferred urinating location. After being disgusted by the smell she had the idea to collaborate with craftsman who make lithographic posters using a special technique unique to south India. The posters she created depicted urinals that she hoped would cause many men to reconsider their public urination. While this intervention was not as successful as she hoped, as the posters were quickly removed, it has inspired other actions such as the stenciling of religious symbols and gods on walls throughout the city which did deter many public urinators from relieveing themselves on the street. 96

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06 03 03

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Case Studies Countries Cities


Greece

Distribution by Country U.S.A. 4 U.K. 1 Greece 1

U.K.

U.S.A.

Number of Interventions

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1

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2011

2010

2009

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"WALK"

By: Studio Elastik Location: London, U.K. Date: 2004 (Ref. 17) In the area of Spitalfields, East London, Studio Elastik installed a 1.8 kilometer self guided walking tour of the neighborhood with a few stencils pointing out local histories, facts and personal associations connected by a simple white line. Along the tour various Public Voice Boxes have been attached to street corners to give people the opportunity to express their comments and opinions about the tour. This self guided tour has over time faded away into the urban landscape, however, in 2010 it was put on permanent display on the walls of the foyer of Hanbury Community Hall for people to visit who did not have the opportunity to see it while it was on the streets.

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"Signs"

By: Howling Mob Society Location: Pittsburgh, U.S.A. Date: 2007 (Ref. 27) The Howling Mob Society is a collaborative team of artists, activists and historians who felt the need to educate the citizens of Pittsburgh about the neglected non-mainstream history of the city. They have created and installed 10 historical markers that increased access to the radical history of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 in Pittsburgh through the experiences of the common working class people. The bottom of each sign provides a website address which documents the project and includes an interactive map. As of January, 2012, eight of the ten signs remain intact. 106

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"QR Hobo Codes"

By: F-A-T Lab Location:New York, U.S.A. Date: 2011 (Ref. 11) The Free Art and Technology Lab has developed a software that enables users to create their own QR Code Stencil that can be easily printed and cut out. In addition to developing this software they have also created a set of 100 lasercutter ready stencil designs which when scanned provide directions, information, and warnings to digital nomads. This idea was inspired by the chalk-based "hobo signs" developed by 19th century vagabonds and migratory workers to cope with the dificulty of nomadic life. The 100 ready made stencils give many of the same messages and also provide new messages that are specific to modern life such as "insecure wifi" or "high-fee atm". 108

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"The Recycling Project"

By: Hellenic Architecure Agora Location: Thessaloniki, Greece Date: 2011 (Ref. 39) This Intervention was directly inspired by "The Good Bike Project" from Toronto in which abandoned bikes were spray painted neon colors and turned into planters around the city. However, unlike its predecessor, this version of the project has a wayfinding element added. Each bike is painted with a specific color that correlates to a meaning. Yellow colored bikes denote a historic location, orange bikes are located at central meeting points within the city and green bikes are located in areas that lack open spaces and greenery. The fuschia painted bikes are dedicated to the volunteers of the project and the blue bikes are dedicated to the architect Ernest Hebrard. The Hellenic Architecture Agora gives direct credit to "The Good Bike Project" as their inspiration for the conception of this project.

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"Walk Raleigh"

By: Matt Tomasulo Location: Raleigh, U.S.A. Date: 2012 (Ref. 26) Raleigh, like many American cities, is very auto-oriented despite its small and easy to get around downtown area. Considering this fact, Matt Tomasulo wanted to simultaneously discourage people from using their cars for short distance traveling meanwhile encouraging them to rediscover the many charming aspects of Raleigh. Tomasulo, with a group of enthusiastic friends, installed 27 signs at 3 different intersections overnight and within 2 days were contacted by the City of Raleigh, interested in making the signs a permanent fixture of the city. The signs each denote how many minutes it takes to walk to the destination and is supplemented with a QR code link to a pre-determined route via Google Maps Walk. Each green sign is inteded to direct people towards public or civic open space while blue and purple signs direct people towards civic and commercial areas of interest. 114

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The Interventionist Street Sharing Urban Repairs

Guerrilla Wayfinding

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Urban Play

Guerrilla Gardening


Summary The aforementioned projects were almost entirely the efforts of individuals wanting to make a change in their local community. Although some of the projects were executed by some collabaratives or small architecture and design studios, they all have the ability to be reproduced by an individual or a small group. For example, the project "Park(ing) Day" by Studio Rebar, in which a parking space is converted into a temporary green space for two hours, was spread to 162 cities in 35 different countires in 2011 (Rebar Group). The underlying connecting factor of these projects was that they were all done by people to improve their neighborhood whether temporarily or permanently. They all were done in as a grass roots effort, not commissioned by any government or municipality. They all teach the importance of reclaiming our public space. Another important factor included in these projects is that they do not require any specific artistic expertise, mastery of any unlikely skills or any highly specialized tools. They are projects that were executed by ordinary people : moms, business owners, students, history fanatics, concerned citizens. Thus it is imperative to realize that they can be reproduced easily without an excessive budget. While some projects may have more aesthetic appeal than others, the beauty behind an intervention is the simplicity, as can be seen by the project "Take A Seat" by Jason Eppink, where he challenges people to place unwanted functioning chairs in subway stations to provide more seating for passengers waiting for their train. Therefore the success of an Urban Intervention requires that the project solves a problem, regardless of size, in a positive and non-discrimanatory way. I believe that the case studies that presented provide an adequate understanding of the vastness and variety of the five categories of Urban Interventions. Due to the rapidly increasing nature of this field it is important to understand that these case studies are meant to synthesize the definition of Urban Interventions, however, for additional information, more cases studies from my research which were not presented are listed in the appendix.

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Part III: Design Phase: The Interventionist

Chapter 14: Objective of the Interventionist Chapter 15: Personas Chapter 16: User Journey Chapter 17: System Map Chapter 18: Touchpoints

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1. Create a network 2. Share ideas

3. Provide tools

4. Document Projects

5. Give feedback 108


Objective of the Interventionist After a year of accumulating research, the idea behind the Interventionist became more focused. The popularity and frequency of Urban Interventions worldwide is increasing without a doubt. Information and access to these projects, however, has not increased in the same way. Urban Interventions can be found on street art blogs hidden between multitudes of graffiti posts or on not so easy to find specific websites dedicated to individual projects. The problem behind this is while the street art blogs might increase access they provide less information, and the project specific websites have the converse problem, more information but less access. After revisiting many projects one year after my initial discovery of them I have realized that many of the specific websites have created additional sections showcasing the flattering attempts people have had in recreating the project or a variant of its original idea. After seeing this pattern repeat on various websites, it became more clear that there is motivation and drive among people to give back to their local community, especially when presented with the right information and tools. This has led to the development of the following goals of the Interventionist. Create A Newtork The Interventionist will centralize information about Urban Interventions while simultaneously building a peer to peer network consisting of the people who have created their own interventions with people who are interested in the topic and need help creating their own intervention. Connecting people is vital for this field to develop further and this service will provide an online niche for like minded people to meet either in the digital or real world. Share Ideas An online platform will increase access to information which in turn will lead to a heightened awareness of the topic. The website will provide Interventionists a place

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to publish their ideas to a more tailored audience than generic social networks. The higher concentration of shared ideas will strengthen the force of Urban Interventions. Provide Tools After awareness has been created and people have been inspired, they must be presented with the proper tools, knowledge and instructions in order to be motivated to act. The Interventionist will provide users with easy to follow tool kits detailing step by step instructions, what physical and digital tools were used, number of people required for the project, approximate cost and any additional necessary recommendations. Document Projects Interventions are generally temporary, and without documentation they can easily become urban legends. The interventionist will provide a place to easily archive these spontaneous acts in a location where they are valued. Documentation also increases the access to projects to people who are limited due to their geographic location. Give Feedback A benefit of a P2P network is to enable users to give advice to improve existing projects or help complete developing projects. Feedback can demonstrate how projects can be easily reproduced by sharing successful recreations of existing interventions in a new location. Additionally, feedback can give users the ability to interact and show how one idea can inspire another idea.

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Personas: Scenario One

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Name: Carlo Rizzo Age: 35 Location: Florence, Italy Profession: Teacher Interests: History and Architecture

Problem: Carlo wants to make his own Guerrilla Wayfinding project that directs people to some of the famous architectural hotspots in the city while providing them with a bit of the history behind it, however, he has no graphic design skills to execute this idea. Goal: Use the interventionist to find support to make his project possible.

HAS:

Needs:

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Personas: Scenario Two

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Name: Anna Maria Borges Age: 47 Location: Fortaleza, Brasil Profession: Cafe Owner Interests: Gardening and Art

Problem: Anna's Cafe is in an up and coming area of Fortaleza, which was previously an industrial area of the city. Her cafe is sandwiched between two uninhabited properties that are boarded up and unsightly. She is tired of waiting for the city to clean up the neighborhood. Goal: Use the interventionist to find some ideas on how to improve the curb appeal of her cafe.

HAS:

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Needs:


Personas: Scenario Three

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Name: Austin Baker Age: 26 Location: Tuscon, U.S.A. Profession: Graduate Student Interests: Graphic Design and Bikes

Problem: Austin has created a simple Urban Play intervention that can be played on public buses in Tuscon. He has received a lot of complements on his idea and thinks it could be applied in other cities but doesn't know how to spread his idea. Goal: Use the interventionist to share his intervention with motivated people who could easily download his tool kit and implement his idea elsewhere.

HAS:

Needs:

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User Journey: Scenario One

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poin

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website social media

User One

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browses website and reads about various projects

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Introduce user to the topic of Urban Interventionism Inspire user by proving projects are viable

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registers to the website and posts in community board, asking for advice concerning a project idea

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Provide tools, information and advice needed to execute a project


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website social media

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executes project using advice and tips received from website

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Give back by fulfilling needs of community or solving a local problem

Acti

fills out submission form complete with photos and instructions needed to recreate project

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Generate new information on website that can be recreated by another inspired user

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User Journey: Scenario Two

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website social media

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on

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browses website and reads about various projects

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Introduce user to the topic of Urban Interventionism Inspire user by proving projects are viable

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downloads toolkit after seeing an inspirational project

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Provide tools, information and advice needed to execute a project


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website social media

public space

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executes project using toolkit downloaded from website

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Give back by fulfilling needs of community or solving a local problem

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registers to website and fills out submission form with photos and feedback about recreated project

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Generate new information on website that can be recreated by another inspired user

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User Journey: Scenario Three

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website social media

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website

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browses website and reads about various projects

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Introduce user to an online network of Urban Interventionist

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registers to website and fills out a submission form about a previously executed project

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Provide a space for Interventionists to share their projects and stories


t

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website social media

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answers questions about previously executed project from interested users

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Create a dialogue between experienced and unexperience interventionists

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receives notifications and updates about users who have recreated the original project.

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Give feedback to users and show how their projects are making a difference in other communities.

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System Map

Publicity Inquiry Feedback Documentation

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Needs Advice

Needs Inspiration

Needs Network

Step 3

Step 1

Step 2

User Two

Step 3

Step 2

Step 1

User One

Step 1 Step 2

Social Media

Step 3 User Three

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Touchpoints: Website

www.theinterventionist.com

3. sign in | sign up

search

home 1. about 4. interventions

2. latest submissions:

-guerrilla gardening -street sharing -urban repairs -urban play -guerrilla wayfinding

5. toolkits 6. community board 7. submission form FAQ contact

"i wish this was" by candy chang

"mosstika" by edina todoki

"dispatchwork" by jan vormann

"weed bombing" by brad knoefler

"free anti-stress" by fra biancoshock

"walk" by studio elastik

8.

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Homepage

1. Explains to new users of the website the philosophy behind Urban Interventionisms and the specific purpose of the Interventionist. 2. Shows the most recently uploaded Interventions and providing a small picture, the title of the project, the name of the interventionist and which sub-category it falls under. 3. Allows users to sign into their existing accounts or create a new one and join the network. 4. Brings users to an archive of past interventions that have been uploaded to the site. Users can click on subcategories to filter the search for more specific browsing. 5. Directs users to projects that have been submitted complete with an instructional tool kit explaining how to recreate the intervention in another location. 6. Where users can discuss problems they are having with potential ideas, or discuss with other members important issues and topics concerning interventionism. Users can also use this section to try to find people locally to help them with their project. 7. Provides users the necessary form to submit in order to have their project displayed on the website. 8. Links to The Interventionist's accounts on various forms of social media, including Facebook, Foursquare, Instagram and Flickr.

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www.theinterventionist.com/about

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Where did it all start? After consistently reading various Street Art blogs, I became interested in specific projects that seemed to have a different quality and character than the average wall mural or stencil. There were a series of projects in public spaces that did not aim to vandalize or deface private property, but rather had an inherent and unsanctioned socially consciousness towards making an improvement. The projects were not solving poverty, nor stopping war, however, they were making little differences in communities, filling voids that people didn't even know existed. These type of projects are what I soon learned are often referred to as "Urban Interventions" or sometimes as "Guerrilla Urbanism" or "Tactical Urbanism". The more interventions I saw, the more thirsty I became to find more. After searching across many street art blogs, I began to acquire an extensive personal archive. This all led to the next question, what can I do with all this information? I felt that this information had a lot of value and needed to be shared, as I realized how difficult it was on my own to find it in the first place. Then I realized that these projects were not similar to street art, in that they were not created by artists, but rather by ordinary people and therefore these small interventions could be easily recreated by anybody. This is how I came to the conclusion to create a P2P network where this information could be centralized and accessed easily. It would provide a place for a dialgoue to occur between like minded people. The Interventionist would be a way to spread ideas that might ignite small changes that perhaps may lead to bigger ones in the future.


About Section Where did it all start? After consistently reading various Street Art blogs, I became interested in specific projects that seemed to have a different quality and character than the average wall mural or stencil. There were a series of projects in public spaces that did not aim to vandalize or deface private property, but rather had an inherent and unsanctioned socially consciousness towards making an improvement. The projects were not solving poverty, nor stopping war, however, they were making little differences in communities, filling voids that people didn't even know existed. These type of projects are what I soon learned are often referred to as "Urban Interventions" or sometimes as "Guerrilla Urbanism" or "Tactical Urbanism". The more interventions I saw, the more thirsty I became to find more. After searching across many street art blogs, I began to acquire an extensive personal archive. This all led to the next question, what can I do with all this information? I felt that this information had a lot of value and needed to be shared, as I realized how difficult it was on my own to find it in the first place. Then I realized that these projects were not similar to street art, in that they were not created by artists, but rather by ordinary people and therefore these small interventions could be easily recreated by anybody. This is how I came to the conclusion to create a P2P network where this information could be centralized and accessed easily. It would provide a place for a dialgoue to occur between like minded people. The Interventionist would be a way to spread ideas that might ignite small changes that perhaps may lead to bigger ones in the future.

125


Registration

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name: location: age: occupation e-mail address: desired username: password: re-type password: about me:

photo (optional):

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Sample Profile

www.theinterventionist.com/user/candyland23

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CandyLand23 candy chang 34 years old architect lives in new orleans

-guerrilla gardening -street sharing -urban repairs -urban play -guerrilla wayfinding

message

add to favorites

about: Hello! I love to travel and after years of living in New York City and Helsinki, I now live and am in love with New Orleans. I currently am working on projects about sanctuaries, deep time, and pilgrimages. interventions: project: "i wish this was" type: street sharing download toolkit submit feedback

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Submission Form

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project name: location: category: urban play

guerrilla gardening

street sharing

gueririlla wayfinding

urban repair

place main photo here

description: instructions: number of people required: tools used: supplemental digital tools: diagrams/photos/videos of process: recommendations: cost:

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Sample Submission

project name: i wish this was location: new orleans, u.s.a. category: urban play x street sharing

guerrilla gardening

urban repair

gueririlla wayfinding

description: This simple project gives people the opportunity to voice their opinion in their community through the simple placement of a self-adhesive sticker on an abandoned or underutilized space in their neighborhood or city. instructions: Download the PDF file "iwishthiswas.pdf" and print out as many stickers as desired on A4 sized self-adhesive sticky paper. Cut out the various rectangular ID tags. Place stickers on locations on your neighborhood that you think could be better utilized and fill in the white space with your suggestion for how it could be used. number of people required: one tools used: self-adhesive sticker paper, printer, scissors, permanent marker or pen, your thoughts and ideas. supplemental digital tools: iwishthiswas.pdf upload

diagrams/photos/videos of process: n/a upload recommendations: Place stickers in clearly visible locations near or at eye level and post them frequently! cost: Less than 10 euros cancel

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129


Street Sharing Section

www.theinterventionist.com/streetsharing

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"i wish this was" by candy chang a project that gives citizens the opportunity to share their voice and say what they think their neighborhood is lacking with the help of a simple sticker.

"guerrilla drive-in" by john young a simple effort to strenghten a local community, john young projects cult classic films in appropriate public spaces that relate to the story of the movie.

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Sample Project

www.theinterventionist.com/interventions/iwishthiswas

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home about interventions -guerrilla gardening -street sharing -urban repairs -urban play -guerrilla wayfinding add to favorites

project: "i wish this was" by: candy chang location: new orleans, u.s.a. year: 2010 type: street sharing download toolkit

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message her

toolkits communitydescription: board submissionThis simple project gives people the opportunity to voice their opinion in their community through the simple placement of a self-adhesive sticker on an abanFAQ doned or underutilized space in their neighborhood or city. contact more photos:

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Toolkits

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Street Sharing Toolkits

www.theinterventionist.com/toolkits/streetsharing

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"i wish this was" by candy chang

"dead drops" by aram bartholl

"guerrilla drive-in" by john young

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Sample Toolkit

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"i wish this was" by candy chang instructions: download "i wish this was" PDF file. print PDF onto self-adhesive paper. cut rectangular stickers out. write your suggestion.

tools needed: self-adhesive paper printer scissors marker / pen your thoughts & ideas. People needed:

place sticker on abandoned building or appropriate location

tips: place stickers in clearly visible locations near or at eye level and post them frequently!

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"i wish this was" by candy chang I WISH THIS WAS

www .iwishthiswas.com

I WISH THIS WAS

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I WISH THIS WAS

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I WISH THIS WAS

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I WISH THIS WAS

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I WISH THIS WAS

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20/03/13 : "Guerrilla Bike Lanes: Coming to a City Near You" source: CNN

23/03/13: Guerrilla Wayfinding Work Shop (Berlin)

19/03/13 : "TED Talks Preseents: Candy Chang"

6/04/13 : Park(ing) Day (International)

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Community Board

The Community Board acts as a digital bulletin board for users to find useful information concerning news and events and provides a space to ask questions and discuss important issues:

The news section can be updated with links to various media sources posting articles related to the general topic of Urban Interventionism or about specific Urban Interventions.

The events section provides users the opportunity to publicize upcoming happen- ings in the real world. Posts here can include workshops, invitations to help execute interventions locally or notifications awareness days.

The discussion section enables users to discuss anything related to the topic of urban interventionism, from general to specific.

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Part IV: Prototyping and Analysis

Chapter 19: Workshop Chapter 20: Intervention: Teufelsberg Chapter 20: Reflection Chapter 21: Conclusion Chapter 22: What's Next?

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Workshop In order to test the hypothesis, an experience prototyping was conducted in Berlin, Germany with a random sample of local residents. The prototyping took place in a bar named "Club" located in Neukรถlln, the Turkish neighborhood of Berlin. The bar permitted me to host a one hour long workshop. Through the bar's facebook account I was able to reach out to a random sample of Berliners, inviting people to a workshop titled "The Interventionist: Guerrilla Wayfinding" with a simple yet not too revealing description of the event. The workshop was held on Wednesday, March 20th at 8:00 PM and had eight participants from six different countries. The professions of the attendees included: architect, biologist, software engineer, bar owner, student, lawyer, pharmacist and graphic designer. The youngest participant of the workshop was 23 and the oldest was 38. The workshop began with an introduction to the topic of Urban Interventionism, and its relationship with Street Art and the Reappropriation movement. Afterwards the five categories of Urban Interventionism were presented and an indepth explanation of Guerrilla Wayfinding was given. After showing five case studies to the audience, the question, "How can we use Guerrilla Wayfinding in Berlin?" was asked to the participants. At first the audience was a bit reserved, however, after some prodding and follow up questions were presented the participants became more active. Most of the audience felt that there were many possibilities for Guerrilla Wayfinding to be in Berlin. One participant felt that the "Walk: Raleigh" project could be easily reproduced in Berlin and become a success. However, not all of the feedback was positive, as one participant felt that Guerrilla Wayfinding was not necessary in Berlin. She felt that the uniqueness of Berlin is in its underground culture and that guiding people to the hidden secrets of the city will make these secrets lose their charm.

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After various issues and problems were verbally discussed and summarized on post-it notes concerning the usefulness of Guerrilla Wayfinding in Berlin, five general topics were indentified where this form of Urban Interventionism could be used. The group decided that Guerilla Wayfinding could help solve the following problems: General Orientation, Poor Signage, Tourist Difficulties, Langauge Barriers and Locating Alternative Tourist Attractions. General Orientation Problems The participants discussed that in Berlin the main point for orientation is the TV Tower at Alexanderplatz, however, when the building is not in sight many of the wide streets with monumental socialist style residential buildings appear very similar and can make it hard for general orientation. Berlin has many major transportation hubs where above ground and underground transit meet in almost identital massive glass and steel structures that can be hard for orientation purposes. The city also has few tall buildings that can be used as reference points. When discussing how Guerrilla Wayfinding could be used, one idea was proposed that perhaps a series of colored lights could be correlated with the different neighborhoods that could be projected into the sky to give orientation in an aesthetically beautiful way. However, it was also discussed that this idea would require a significant financial backing and be quite difficult to execute in a guerrilla manner as it would be a massive job to complete. Poor Signage There was a general consesus that Berlin could use improved signs located in the major transit hubs of the city to explain the large network of above and underground public transport. It was also mentioned that signage directing people to and from the two airports serving Berlin was not clear. Some members of the workshop hypothesized that these problems all stemmed from the fact in until 24 years ago the city was divided by the Berlin wall, and that only recently has there been an influx of tourists and new residents to the city who would benefit better signage. In addition to confusion with public transportation, some participants felt that as Berlin has a unique and important history, that some small memorials do not have easily accessible information explaining their significance, for example the Stolperstein or "stumbling blocks" seen around the city.

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These small cobblestones are placed in the streets around Berlin to commemorate the homes of individuals, both those who died and survived, who opposed the Nazis. These small stones can be found in various neighborhoods throughout the city, however, it is hard to locate them without specifically looking at the ground while walking. Tourist Problems As previously mentioned, Berlin is a city that has recently been experiencing an increase in tourism in the two and half decades and there are some difficulties with locating major attractions. The participants agreed that in the neighborhood Mitte, which is in the city center is filled with tourist destinations, there is a lack of public maps and signs guiding tourists. In addition to the lack of the signs, they were discussing how often the signage is primarily in German. In order for a city to be tourist friendly signage needs to be easily understood with diagrams or internationally recognized symbols. The German language can have many difficult words to pronounce, and for an international city it needs to be aware that tourists will not necessarily know the language. One participant in the workshop described how while traveling in Tokyo and not knowing the langauge or alphabet the metro was color coded like in most cities, however, each station was named with a number instead of a Japanese wprd. The numbers also went in sequential order so the first station on each metro line was called "1". We discussed how using symbols and numbers could be used in wayfinding to make it easier for international travelers. Language Problems The international participants of the workshop discussed that it takes a long time to learn German, and that as international residents they struggle with language difficulties the same way tourists do. We talked about the case study of QR Hobo codes, and how a series of signs and symbols can function as a langauge. The idea of adapting these codes for the non-German residents was discussed and how they could be used to break language barriers. One participant had the idea that wayfinding could connect foreigners looking for new friendships. Meaning that wayfinding could also be used to direct someone to another person instead of just a location.

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Alternative Tourist Attractions The first topic that everyone agreed on was that Berlin's street art scene is amazing but also cluttered. A series of symbols could be developed to guide people to some of the more famous pieces. In addition to street art, another area of alternative Berlin tourism is made up by visiting many of the abandoned structures that exist around the city. The three most interesting abandoned structures that were mentioned were Beelitz Heilst채tten, Teufelsberg Listening Station and Spreepark. Beelitz Heilst채ten is an abandoned old military hosptial complex, Teufelsberg is an abandoned American spy tower built by the US National Secruity Agency, and Spreepark is an abandoned amusement park. 128 Teufelsberg Listening Station

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Intervention: Teufelsberg This idea of Alternative Tourist Attractions seemed to have the most promising possibility for a Guerrilla Wayfinding Intervention in Berlin. After some basic research regarding the three abandoned structures in Berlin, I decided to develop a project that would help guide people through the wooded area covering the Teufelsberg mountain toward the abandoned listening station. This tourist attraction sits atop one of Berlin's tallest hills giving tourist incredible panoramic views of the city. Inside the structure various street artists have used the space as their personal canvas for large murals. These attributes of the tower make a trip through the woods worthwhile. The difficulty, however, is finding an easy and direct path through the forest that can lead travelers to one of the many holes in the barbed wire fence surrounding the listening station. Taking into consideration what was said during the workshop I realized that the signage I would be making had to be simple and direct. The many discussions about language barriers and communication difficulties for people in Berlin led me to believe it was important to design a sign that would be clearly understood by an international audience, regardless if it was for a tourist or a resident. To comply with the philosophy that Urban Interventionism is not vandalism or intended to have negative impact, I needed to ensure that the signs would have not harm the environment, which meant not painting or causing any permanent damage to the trees. Before I could plan my Intervention, I had to visit the site as I had never been to the listening station. When I arrived to the closest train station, Heerstrasse, there was just one small sign indicating that the Teufelsberg mountain was 1100 meters away, and I did not find any other visible signage for the rest of the journey. While walking through the woods I came to various forks in the road. At times the listening station was visible above the trees, however, at many intersections the branches were too thick and visibility was limited.

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The information I gathered from my prelimianary trip led me the end result of a simple black and white sticker (seen below) with a graphic representation of the listening station, an arrow guiding the pedestrian left, right or straight and the symbol of the Interventionist. The style of the sticker was inspired by a typical traffic sign to make it clear that it was not promoting a company but rather giving public directions. These stickers were placed along the nearly two kilometer journey starting from the Heerstrasse station through the Grunewald forest until the final destination at the tower. The heavily wooded forest had many intersections so it was important to place the stickers in clearly visible spots to direct people toward the the listening station. Approximately 30 stickers were used to help guide travelers.

While the series of signs guide people from the nearest tration station to the tower, the signs are unable to solve one problem. The tower is surrounded by a double layered barbed wire fence which is intended to stop people from touring the abandoned site. However, many holes have been made in the fence providing people access to the site. While the signs can guide people through the forest, they cannot guide people to a gauranteed point of entry as the holes in the fence are from time to time repaired, keeping travelers from entering. It is important to note that this Intervention's purpose is only to guide people from point a to point b, not to break the law by creating an entry point.

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Reflection The experience of designing and prototyping the Interventionist has changed me from being a passive spectator of a growing form of urban culture into an active member. I learned not just about the extensiveness of the field urban interventionism but also what it means to be an interventionist, from conceptualization until execution. The gratification I felt after completing my own project has helped me understand what inspires people to invest their own time and money into an intervention. My research prepared me with a lot of the tools and knowledge necessary to successfully complete a Guerrilla Wayfinding project, however, I feel the project would have not been the same without the feedback of others. The participants in my workshop gave me advice and information that I could never have learned from a book. As residents of Berlin, they knew about details and problems of the city that can only be discovered through experience. These experiences, which in many contexts might seem invaluable, when paired with the idea of grassroots urban planning, become essential. In addition to feeling grateful for the feedback from the participants of the workshop, I now also feel capable of providing feedback and advice that could be useful for future interventionists. After placing the stickers from the train station and through the woods I began to reflect and generate new ideas that could improve the project in the future. I also thought about possible advice I would like to give to the vandals who are relentlessly cutting holes into the fence providing access to the listening station. The intervention I executed was not created to mislead innocent travelers into becoming trespassers. The intervention was made in hopes to help people find what they were already looking for, not to direct the masses toward one of the Berlin's hidden treasures. After taking this into account I feel that the intervention has served it's purpose. Perhaps the stickers will remain for years to come guiding people through the woods or maybe they will disappear by the end of the summer and become an urban

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legend. Regardless of their ultimate fate, the thought that they helped even just one person the day I installed them is enough for me to consider my first Urban Intervention a success. I feel the prototyping experience has proved to me that concentrating information about Urban Interventionism and creating a network of current and potential interventionist would spread the positive effects of Urban Interventions. One year ago when I began my research, I never imagined I personally would become an Interventionist myself. Taking this surprise into consideration, I do feel that I have proved that after providing a person with the tools and information needed, anyone with motivation can be an interventionist. The idea for my intervention was developed through a discussion of people who previously were unaware of the topic. These facts have led me to believe that creating access to case studies in addition to providing the possibility of feedback from experienced Interventionists would likely increase the spread of Urban Interventions. I am not saying that I think this network will suddenly convert the masses into Interventionists, however, I can say that my second Intervention will learn from my first one.

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Conclusion The goal of the Interventionist from the beginning has been to create a network of like-minded people through which ideas could be shared and feedback could be given; to provide people with a place where information, tools and advice necessary for solving problems in their community could be centralized. The idea behind the Interventionist proves that these simple reforms do not require expertise but that they can be achieved by ordinary people. In order to become an Interventionist, all that is required is the motivation to make a positive difference. While there have been many examples of people and groups trying to reclaim public space, the Interventionist functions differently. The Italian example of Esterni has been trying to change and improve the public space in cities. According to their website, since 1995 they have been working on "cultural and economical exchange between people and organisations" (Ref. 55). The Interventionist’s aim is to create a network of people who have the same motivation as Esterni. While Esterni works with organizations and companies to improve the social welfare of the city, the Interventionist would be a network of ordinary people, who, without any financial reward, are implementing unsanctioned spontaneous projects intended to increase social welfare. Thus, the Interventionist functions as a P2P variation of Esterni. The purpose of the Interventionist is to solve small problems in the public realm through a socially conscious, bottom-up approach to urban planning. The intention of the Interventionist is not to encourage people to break the law. A successful intervention sometimes can be later noticed by the local government and further developed to become a permanent solution. However, an urban intervention's goal can also be to create awareness in an eye catching way that will demand action from the government. No matter how an intervention is executed, what is always important is that the solution is designed specifically for the unique needs presented by the initial problem.

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After one year of researching, developing and prototyping my service, I feel that I have proved my hypothesis that a Peer 2 Peer online platform exhibiting case studies of Urban Interventions equipped with detailed and realistic “Do It Yourself� tool kits would help spread the concept of Urban Interventionism while simultaneously adressing the needs of potential future Interventionists. However, what has surprised me is that, after revisiting the websites where I first discovered many of the case studies, I have found more evidence to prove my hypothesis to be true. I learned that many of the people behind the case studies have challenged others to replicate these interventions by providing them the necessary tools, information and advice. These challenges have been accepted in many cases and the results can be seen on the same websites, proving the potentially exponential growth of interventionism. The Walk Raleigh project created an online template where users could fill in their own signs to create a walking tour of their city. Since the original project’s inception, over 40 new walk projects have been created (Ref. 17). The Dead Drop project has also uploaded an easy to follow DIY guide. Since the initial Dead Drop was placed, there are now over 1100's USB drops in countries all over the world (Ref. 3). The Red Swing project has created a "How To" section on their website with instructions and advice. Since their project was started, there have been 153 red swings installed internationally (Ref 48). While there is clear analytical data to show that urban interventionism is spreading, these websites all function independently of each other. By connecting and centralizing the data, it will only make it easier for people to access and execute more projects. There are clearly many like minded people who want to improve the public realm with their spontaneous interventions; all that is missing is something linking them together, such as the Interventionist.

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What's Next? The Interventionist, just like individual Urban Interventions, can be improved by feedback, experience and time. The service requires flexibility and depends on human interaction in order to be a success. I can only hope that my idea is improved based on feedback I receive from others. While it is important for the service to grow and develop, what I can only hope is that by centralizing and providing access to this information that more become aware of their individual potential and are motivated to action. While future integration of this service with social networks or blogs with heavy viewership would be positive, what the real future success of this service would be knowing that the Interventionist inspires people to go out and do something in their local community. I believe that the increase in popularity of this topic can only lead to positive effects. The scalability of the Interventionist is quite vast. There is a strong potential to make small changes in the public realm through the use of a P2P network. If the service gains a high number of users, local micro-communities could be created where people in the same city can be connected to co-design interventions. These micro-communities could host local workshops and events, which would increase the positive effects of Urban Interventionism. Regardless of its size the Interventionist has the possibility of being a source to publicize temporary interventions like Park(ing) Day that aim to create awareness about specific urban problems, such as a lack of urban green spaces. Regardless of the precise future implementation of this project, what will always remain important to me is that the motive behind the creation and development of the Interventionist is understood. This idea can be summarized by a famous African proverb painted on one of the remaining pieces of the Berlin wall seen at the East Side Gallery (pictured on the left in German and English). This proverb states "Many small people, who in many small places, do many small things that can alter the face of the world". Hopefully connecting these many small people in many small places will make these many small things happen more frequently.

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References, Appendix and Index of Images

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References 1. Anderson, Ariston. "New York Street Advertising Takeover." Coolhunting.com. Cool Hunting, 30 Apr. 2009. Web. 2. Archer, Nate. "The Subversive Gardener." Designboom.com. Design Boom, 17 Dec. 2009. Web. 3. Bartholl, Aram. "Un-cloud Your Files in Cement! 'Dead Drops' Is an Anonymous, Offline, Peer to Peer File-sharing Network in Public Space." Dead Drops. 2010. Web. 4. Before I Die I Want To... Perf. Candy Chang. TEDtalks.com. TEDTalks, Nov. 2012. Web. 5. Bergen, Mark. "Bangalore Street Art Aimed at Curbing the Men Who Pee There." Theatlanticcities.com. The Atlantic Cities, 2 Nov. 2012. Web. 6. Blaine, Elsa. "Anna Garforth Is 'Head Gardener' of Greenery Filled Tribal Masks." TrendHunter.com. Trend Hunter, 31 July 2010. Web. 7. Brooks, Katherine. "Crochet-Artist Olek Yarn-Bombs Albert Einstein On The Grounds Of The National Academy Of Sciences." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 31 July 2012. Web. 8. "Bruno Taylor: Play as You Go." Web log post. Etre.com. Etre, 08 Aug. 2008. Web. 9. Bullass, Jeff. "48 Significant Social Media Facts, Figures and Statistics Plus 7 Infographics." Jeffbullass Blog. 23 Apr. 2012. Web. 10. Burnham, Scott. "Street Signs as Public Music Instruments." Altuseguide.com. Urban Guide for Atlternate Use, 3 June 2011. Web.

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References 11. Campion, Sebastian. "QR Code Stencils for Digital Nomads." Guerrillainnovation. com. Guerrilla Innovation, 30 June 2011. Web. 12. Caragliu, Andrea, Chiara Del Bo, and Peter Nijkamp. "Smart Cities in Europe." Serie Research Memoranda 0048 (2009). Print.VU Unitersity Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics. 13. Carmichael Collective. "Urban Plant Tags." Designboom.com. Design Boom, 3 May 2012. Web. 14. Cooper, Ashton. "The Wild and Woolly World of Yarn Bombing, Street Art's Soft Sensation." Artinfo. 10 June 2011. Web. 15. Cosimi, Simone. "Berlino, Una Biblioforesta in CittĂ ." Wired.it. Wired, 19 July 2012. Web. 16. Daily Mail Reporter. "The Red Phone Box That Has Become Britain's Smallest Library." Dailymail.co.uk. Daily Mail, 1 Dec. 2009. Web. 17. "Design Actions for the Common Good." SpontaneousInterventions.com. Spontaneous Interventions. Web. 18. Disselkoen, Daniel. "The Man-eater." Designboom.com. Design Boom, 21 Aug. 2012. Web. 19. Doolittle, Robyn. "Bike Activists Going Guerrilla." Thestar.com. The Star, 18 June 2007. Web. 20. Filipetti, Jenny. "Repurposed Phone Booth Library in NYC." Designboom.com. Design Boom, 17 Feb. 2012. Web.

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References 21. Gaskell, Stephanie. "Chair-ity Starts in the Subway." NY Daily News 5 Nov. 2008. Print. 22. Gilson, Chris. "Books for London." Books for London. Booksforlondon.org.uk, 2011. Web. 23. Hundertmark, Christian. The Art of Rebellion 2: World of Urban Art Activism. Mainaschaff: Publikats Verlag, 2006. Print. 24. Ikeda, Sanford. "Urban Interventionism and Local Knowledge." The Review of Austrian Economics 3rd ser. 17.2 (2004): 247-64. Print. 25. "Jan Vormann Travels the World Repairing Crumbling Monuments with Lego." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Web. 26. Kellner, Chelsea, and Bruce Siceloff. "Raleigh Likes Walking Idea, Not the Signs." Newsobserver.com. News Observer, 23 Feb. 2012. Web. 27. Klanten, Robert, and Matthias H端bner. Urban Interventions: Personal Projects in Public Spaces. Berlin: Gestalten, 2010. Print. 28. Krulwich, Robert. "What To Do When The Bus Doesn't Come And You Want To Scream. An Experiment." NPR. NPR, 7 Dec. 2012. Web. 29. Lee, Jennifer. "The Year of the Parking Space." NYTimes.com. New York Times, 19 Sept. 2008. Web. 30. Leigha. "Modified Social Benches." Designboom.com. Design Boom, 29 Apr. 2012. Web.

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References 31. Lewisohn, Cedar. Street Art: The Graffiti Revolution. London: Tate, 2008. Print. 32. Loviglio, Joann. "Guerrilla Drive-ins' Turn Nostalgia on Its Head." ABC. ABC, 9 June 2009. Web. 33. Lydon, Mike. "Short-term Action || Long-term Change." Ed. Dan Bartman. Tactical Urbanism 2 (2012): 1-54. Web. <http://issuu.com/streetplanscollaborative/docs/tactical_urbanism_vol_2_final>. 34. Metcalfe, John. "Colorful, DIY Urban Neighborhoods ... for Birds." Theatlanticcities.com. The Atlantic Cities, 05 Oct. 2012. Web. 35. Metcalfe, John. "Here's One Way to Waste Time at the Bus Stop." Theatlanticcities. com. The Atlantic Cities, 16 Nov. 2012. Web. 36. Metcalfe, John. "Man Wants To Beautify New York With Dumpster Gardens." Theatlanticcities.com. The Atlantic Cities, 17 Sept. 2012. Web. 37. Miller, Michael. "'Weed Bombing' Transforms Downtown's Urban Blight into Psychedelic Bling." Miaminewtimes.com. Miami New Times, 25 Nov. 2011. Web. 38. Mori, Ken, and Jenny Liang. "Post Furniture." Architectmagazine.com. Architect Magazine, 14 Aug. 2012. Web. 39. Nicholas, Vanessa, and Caroline Macfarlane. "The Good Bike Project." Web log post. The Good Bike. Tumblr.com. Web. 40. Piroud, Arno. "Assises éphémères." StarnoCity.com. StarnoCity, Nov. 2008. Web.

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References 41. Pulver, Alexandra. "Pop Up Lunch." Web log post. Blogspot.com. Blogspot. Web. 42. Rebar Group. "PARK(ing)." Rebar Art Design Studio San Francisco. Rebar Group. Web. 43. Rezek, Ivana. "Scents of the Adriatic." 1001 UNICORNS. 7 Jan. 2012. Web. 44. Ross, Alexandra. "Recycling to Provide Recycling." The Wa. Nov. 2007. Web. 45. Schiller, Marc. "Florian Rivière - Urban Hacktivist." Woostercollective.com. Wooster Collective, 30 Mar. 2012. Web. 46. Shaw, Pamela, and Joanne Hudson. "The Qualities of Informal Space: (Re)appropriation within the Informal, Interstitial Spaces of the City." Proceedings of the Conference Held at the University of Brighton (2009). Web. 47. Shove, Gary, and Patrick Potter. Untitled: Street Art in the Counter Culture. Darlington: Pro-Actif Communications, 2008. Print. 48. Singh, Shagun. "The Red Swing Project." Designwala.com. Design Wala, Jan. 2013. Web. 49. Smith, Keri. The Guerilla Art Kit. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2007. Print. 50. Starr, Benjamin. "Mosstika: Street Art Greens the Urban Jungle." Visual News. Visualnews.com, 4 June 2012. Web. 51. Teufen, Dominique. "City Maintenance." City Maintenance. Dominique Teufen, 2008. Web.

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References 52. Topping, David. "Green Sleeves." Torontoist.com. Torontoist, 22 July 2009. Web. 53. TwistedSifter. "Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve Never Seen a Trailer Park Like This." TwistedSifter.com. TwistedSifter, 9 Oct. 2012. Web. 54. Webb, Sam. "Guerilla Gardener Plants Beautiful Miniature Flowerbeds in Potholes Blighting London's Streets." Dailymail.co.uk. Daily Mail, 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 55. "Why." Esterni.com. Esterni, n.d. Web. 56. Wiensowski, Ingeborg. "Ausgezeichnetes Design: Stadt Erobern Mit GuerillaBank." Spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, 6 Dec. 2011. Web.

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Appendix Additional Urban Play Case Studies: 1. Stairway Stories by Alison Uljee and Sierra Seip, New York, U.S.A. 2012 http://designthatmovesyou.wordpress.com/installations/stairway-stories/ 2. Chair Bombing by DoTank Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 2011 http://dotankbrooklyn.org/ 3. Guerrilla Seating by Oliver Schau, Hamburg, Germany, 2011 http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/gesellschaft/ausgezeichnetes-design-stadt-erobern-mitguerilla-bank-a-801842.html 4. Urban Seats by Damien Gires, Paris, France, 2009 http://www.leplanb.com/design/urban-seat/ 5. Skip Waste by Oliver Bishop-Young, London, U.K. 2008 http://www.dezeen.com/2008/07/21/skipwaste-by-oliver-bishop-young/ 6. Re-appropriations by Cedric Bernadotte, Toulon, France, 2000 http://cedricbernadotte.com/street-art-2/ 7. Muebles Epal by Florian Riviere, Strasbourg, France, 2011 http://www.florianriviere.fr/index.php?/meubles-epal/ 8. Dumpster Pools by Marco Sea, New York, U.S.A. 2009 http://www.macro-sea.com/projects/interim-projects/dumpster-pools-2009/ 9. Chessboard, Amsterdam by Harmen de Hoop, Netherlands, 1996. http://www.harmendehoop.com

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Appendix 10. Modified Social Benches by Jeppe Hein, De Haan, Belgium, 2012 http://www.jeppehein.net/pages/works.php 11. Urban Plant Tags by Carmichael Collective, Minneapolis, U.S.A. 2012 http://www.carmichaelcollective.com/ Additional Guerrilla Gardening Case Studies 1. Potogreen by Paule Kingleur, Paris, France, 2011 http://www.parislabel.com/potogreen/ 2. Greenaid Seedbombing by Common Studio LA, Los Angeles, U.S.A. 2010 http://greenaid.co/pages/Greenaid-Vending-.html 3. Public Sculpture by Harmen de Hoop, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2009 http://www.harmendehoop.com/ 4. ARTfarm by AFHny, New York, U.S.A. 2010 http://www.spontaneousinterventions.org/project/artfarm 5. Mosstika by Edina Tokodi and J贸zsef V谩lyi-T贸th, New York, U.S.A. 2008 http://mosstika.com/projects/street-art 6. Dumpster Garden by Michael Bernstein, New York, U.S.A. 2001 http://www.theatlanticcities.com/design/2012/09/man-wants-beautify-new-york-dumpster-gardens/3299/ 7. The Subersive Gardener by Vanessa Harden, London, U.K. 2011 http://www.designboom.com/design/vanessa-harden-the-subversive-gardener/

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Appendix 8. Trailer Park by John Sutton, Ben Beres and Zac Culler, Seattle, U.S.A. 2003 http://twistedsifter.com/2012/10/trailer-park-art-installation-sutton-beres-culler/ 9. Favela by Jeffrey Liu and Andrew Siu, Vancouver, Canada, 2012 http://cargocollective.com/vontedesign/Favela 10. Head Gardener by Anna Garforth, London, U.K. 2010 http://www.crosshatchling.co.uk/Headgardner.html Additional Street Sharing Case Studies 1. Free for Wall by Michael Mason, Montreal, Canada, 2011 http://www.behance.net/gallery/Free-for-Wall/2752493 2. WeSee.Us by DoTank Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 2010 http://dotankbrooklyn.org/ 3. Bubble Project by Ji Lee, New York, U.S.A. 2002 http://www.thebubbleproject.com/ 4. 100 Story House by Julia Marchesi and Leon Reid IV, New York, U.S.A. 2012 http://www.leonthe4th.com/100storyhouse/1.html 5. Givebox by Andreas Richter, Berlin, Germany 2011 http://www.facebook.com/Givebox/info 6. Paradero Para Libros Para Parques by Fundalectura, Bogotรก, Colombia, 1996 http://www.bilinguallibrarian.com/2010/02/21/paradero-para-libros-para-parques/

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Appendix 7. Before I Die by Candy Chang, New Orleans, U.S.A. 2011 http://candychang.com/before-i-die-in-nola/ Additional Urban Repair Case Studies 1. Piano Staircase by the Fun Theory, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009 http://www.thefuntheory.com/piano-staircase 2. paraSITE by Michael Rakowitz, New York, U.S.A. 1998 http://michaelrakowitz.com/projects/parasite/ 3. The World's Deepest Bin by the Fun Theory, Stockholm, Sweden 2009 http://www.thefuntheory.com/worlds-deepest-bin 4. Dispatchwork by Jon Vormann, Bocchignano, Italy, 2007 http://www.dispatchwork.info/ 5. Don't Forget... by FTW Crew, Berlin, Germany, 2009 http://scottburnham.com/2009/01/best-poster-hacks/ 6. H&M Adbusted by Unknown, Hamburg, Germany, 2012 http://imnotbogusky.tumblr.com/post/23161069781/street-art-in-hamburg-the-h-mcampaign-was 7. Guerrilla Bike Racks by DoTank Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 2011 http://dotankbrooklyn.org/ 8. Pixelator by Jason Eppinks, New York, U.S.A. 2007 http://jasoneppink.com/pixelator/

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Appendix 9. Stained Glass Post Pixelator by Poster Child, New York, U.S.A. 2008 http://subwayartblog.com/tag/posterchild/ 10. Computer Error Messages by Jilly Ballistic, New York, U.S.A. 2012 http://www.designboom.com/art/computer-error-message-street-art/ 11. Legal Waiting Zone by Ghana Think Tank, New York, U.S.A. 2011 http://ghanathinktank.org/2011/07/action-legal-waiting-zones/ 12. Fill-In by Aakash Nihalani, New York, U.S.A. 2011 http://www.eyescreamsunday.com/post/6811156729/fillin 13. City Maintenance by Dominique Teufen, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2008 http://www.dominiqueteufen.ch/interventions2.html Additional Urban Play Case Study 1. ICE-POPS by Elizabeth MacWillie, Various Cities, U.S.A. 2012 http://ice-pops.org/about/

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Index of Images

172

Image Number

Source

Page Number

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

www.designboom.com www.thisiscolossal.com www.ghanathinktank.org www.wikimedia.org www.florianriviere.fr www.florianriviere.fr www.danieldisselkoen.nl www.danieldisselkoen.nl www.danieldisselkoen.nl www.altuseguide.com www.altuseguide.com www.altuseguide.com www.ekosystem.org www.ekosystem.org www.ekosystem.org www.ekosystem.org www.jasoneppink.com www.jasoneppink.com www.starnocity.com www.starnocity.com www.starnocity.com www.starnocity.com www.starnocity.com www.flickr.com www.flickr.com www.popuplunch.blogspot.com www.popuplunch.blogspot.com

04 16 18 31 36 37 38 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 44 45 46 46 46 46 46 49 49 50 50


Index of Images Image Number

Source

Page Number

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

wwwkamilaszejnoch.com www.etre.com www.kelseyporkorny.blogspot.com www.designaside.com www.visuall.net www.visuall.net www.rebargroup.org www.rebargroup.org www.mosstika.com www.mosstika.com www.torontoist.com www.torontoist.com www.torontoist.com www.weedbombing.tumblr.com www.weedbombing.tumblr.com www.weedbombing.tumblr.com www.guerilladrivein.com www.guerilladrivein.com personal archive www.briandickie.com www.flickr.com www.booksforlondon.org.uk www.florianriviere.fr www.designboom.com www.greenupgrader.com www.deaddrops.com www.deaddrops.com

52 53 53 56 57 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 63 64 65 66 68 69 70 70 70 70 72 72 72 74 75

173


Index of Images

174

Image Number

Source

Page Number

55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81.

www.deaddrops.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.candychang.com www.flickr.com www.flickr.com www.flickr.com www.urbanrepairs.blogspot.com www.urbanrepairs.blogspot.com www.urbanrepairs.blogspot.com www.urbanrepairs.blogspot.com www.urbanrepairs.blogspot.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com

75 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 78 79 79 82 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84


Index of Images Image Number

Source

Page Number

82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108.

www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.the-wabsite.com www.thepotholegardener.com www.thepotholegardener.com www.thepotholegadener.com www.thepotholegadener.com ww.publicadcampaign.com ww.publicadcampaign.com ww.publicadcampaign.com www.theatlanticcities.com www.theatlanticcities.com www.theatlanticcities.com www.studioelastik.com www.studioelastik.com www.studioelastik.com www.studioelastik.com www.studioelastik.com www.studioelastik.com www.studioelastik.com www.studioelastik.com www.pahms.org www.pahms.org www.fffff.at www.fffff.at

84 84 84 84 85 86 87 87 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 96 97 98 99

175


Index of Images

176

Image Number

Source

Page Number

109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136.

www.the-recycling-project.tumblr.com www.the-recycling-project.tumblr.com www.the-recycling-project.tumblr.com www.the-recycling-project.tumblr.com www.cityfabric.net www.cityfabric.net www.cityfabric.net http://www.pettydesign.com/ www.flickr.com www.flickr.com www.flickr.com www.candychang.com personal archive personal archive personal archive personal archive personal archive personal archive personal archive www.abandonedberlin.com personal archive personal archive personal archive personal archive personal archive personal archive personal archive www.flickr.com

100 101 101 101 102 103 103 103 111 112 113 127 140 142 142 142 144 144 144 146 148 148 148 148 148 150 152 156


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The Interventionist  
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