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SMART RIVER

Bowen Deng, Yiwen Liu, Yunke Zhang Urban Design RC-18 Relational Urbanism Tutors: Eduardo Rico, Enriqueta Llabres, Zachary Fluker

The Bartlett School of Architecture University College London


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

"Many thanks to our dear tutors, Eduardo, Enriqueta and Zachary for their advice and support. And we would like to thank all the numbers in cluster RC18 for their great efforts and arouse . " - Bowen Deng, Yiwen Liu, Yunke Zhang


CHAPTER _ 01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY

Contents 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

PROJECT OVERVIEW Oil Sands Fever

07

Conflicts Plot

11

Concept Plot

13

A Phased Water Framework

21

SYSTEMIC MODEL Prey-Hunter Model

37

Single System

38

Link Systems

43

Primary Economic Model Establish

47

RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL FOR ATHABASCA RIVER Relational Model

51


MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER

RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL EXTENDED

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

5

6

7

8

9

7

8

9

Design Report 57

RIVER LOGIC STUDY River Qualities Study

65

Operation Test

73

Real Site Simulated Operation

89

REAL SITE INTERVENTIONS Dam Research

97

Site Interpretation

103

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF URBAN SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT Design Plot

160

185

RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL EXTENDED

DIGITAL INTERFACE AND PROXY MODELING Interface

Reference List

CHAPTER _ 03 Appendix

CHAPTER _ 02

118

144


01 SY THETIC THINKING O F S Y S T E M I C S T U DY

PROJECT OVERVIEW

07

SYSTEMIC MODEL

35

RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL FOR ATHABASCA RIVER

49


1 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY Collection of 3rd Term Works

PROJECT OVERVIEW Since the sharply development of oil sands industry, the boom city Fort McMurray is currently surrounded by mineral areas and this project focus on the urban expansion for Fort McMurray and its surrounding area. This chapter starts with the background information on the site which include the local economy and population growth dominated by oil sands industry, corresponding industrial structure, housing and land use patern in urban area. Then it moves to discuss the conflicts in aspects of land and water resource in which the resource wars take place mainly caused by urban development and oil sands expansion.Based on this, next part will be the concept presentation, we g ive our proposal about reorg anizing the industrial structure to make land used more efficient.


OIL SANDS FEVER

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 7

SITE MAPPING

Site mapping shows the existing condition information on the site that the eco-system (both the river and land) in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, eroded by the surrounding oil sands.


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

f igure 2.1.1: Huge open-pit mining area around Fort McMurray.

f igure 2.1.2: Wellpads with drilling rigs at oil sands operation in northern Alberta.

f igure 2.1.3: Boreal forest stripped of trees preparing for oil sands mining.

f igure 2.1.4: Lefted tailing ponds becomes industrial landscape.

As the rising price of petroleum and increasing demand for energy globally, another new energy sources come to human’s eyes and develop sharply in latest few decades, which is the oil sands. Oil sands (or tar sands, or more technically, bituminous sands) are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. The known deposits of oil sands was reported mainly in 23 countries and one of the largest deposits is located in Athabasca area, which is in northern Alberta of Canada.

With increasing confidence that oil prices are likely to remain high, wild speculation abounds regarding potential production. In 2004, the Alberta Chamber of Resources put forward a vision of producing 5 million barrels per day by 2030. More recently, the government of Canada has envisioned producing 6 million barrels per day of production by 2030, and some energy analysts have projected production as high as 11 million barrels per day by 2047.


OIL SANDS FEVER

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 9

FIGURE MAPPING AND URBAN BLOCK ANALYSIS


existing single buildings

single building ayout in urban scale

single building facade

Figure1 single building urban layout

linear building layout in urban scale

linear building facade

existing circle buildings

circle building layout in urban scale

circle building facade

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

existing linear buildings

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

urban block section

Thanks to oil sands, between 1999 and 2006, population growth in the Fort McMurray nearly doubled from 36,452 to 61,366. The regional municipality of Wood Buffalo has f o re c a s t e d g row t h t o 2 4 4 , 9 7 1 re s i d e n t s in the next 25 year period in the Urban Service Area (Fort McMurray) by the year 2030. Since oil sands dominate the local economy, employing 30% (7,210 persons) of the total labour force population, retail trade just accounts for 10%. Actually, 46% of the aboriginal population are employed in the oil sands and related industries.

This kind of population and industry structure is reflected in urban space. From the figure mapping, urban block can be defined by 3 typical typology: linear, circle and single. The former 2 are mainly residential area, and the last one is various from industrial, commercial to new communities. Due to the influence of flood plain, all districts‘ layouts are determined by the geomophology and landscape nearby, which means the unstable foundation areas could just be injected by the lower buildings likes the removable cart rooms.


CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 11

CONFLICT PLOT WATER AND LAND BATTLE


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

f igure 2.2.1: Deforestation is accompanied by oil expansion process.

Since the oil sands refinement consumes large amount of water, almost all the current upgrading factories were built right along the only one main water resources – Athabasca River, with Fort McMurray in upstream and Fort McKay in downstream of current mineral area. Besides the water intensity, surface m i n i n g a l s o re q u i re s mu ch o f t h e l a n d .

Nevertheless, there are many of new established project would be built around Fort McMurray within Athabasca area. Finally to conclude, because of the water intensity and land occupation, also as the population boom and urban expansion, the conflicts about water and land within this region would become even violent in the furture.


CONCEPT PLOT

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 13

THE WASTED LAND AND WATER RESOURCES

PART_ A TIMBERLEA _CONSTRAINT FACTORS

PART_B THICKWOOD_CONSTRAINT FACTORS

PART_C LOWER TOWNSITE_CONSTRAINT FACTORS

PART_ A TIMBERLEA _ ACREAGE COMPARISON

PART_B THICKWOOD_ ACREAGE COMPARISON

PART_C LOWER TOWNSITE_ ACREAGE COMPARISON

PART_ A TIMBERLEA _LAND USE ANALYSIS

PART_B THICKWOOD_LAND USE ANALYSIS

PART_C LOWER TOWNSITE_LAND USE ANALYSIS


PART_D WATERWAYS_CONSTRAINT FACTORS

PART_E GREGOIRE_CONSTRAINT FACTORS

PART_F BEACON HILL _CONSTRAINT FACTORS

CUT TRAIL PIPELINE RIVER FLOODPLAIN

PART_E GREGOIRE_ ACREAGE COMPARISON

PART_F BEACON HILL _ ACREAGE COMPARISON TOTAL ENVIRONMENTALY PROTECTED

PUBLIC

PART_D WATERWAYS_LAND USE ANALYSIS

PART_E GREGOIRE_LAND USE ANALYSIS

PART_F BEACON HILL _LAND USE ANALYSIS

RESIDENCE PUBLIC INDUSTRY

L a n d u s e s t h ro u g h o u t t h e w h o l e u r b a n service area consist of low density residential (duplexes, semi-detached and single family h o m e s ) , m e d i u m d e n s i t y d eve l o p m e n t s (cluster housing, townhouses, and low rise apartments), parks and recreational areas, and institutional uses. There are a total of 18,489 lots, 225 of which are industrial, approximately 691 are commercial, 16,893 are residential,

494 lots are environmental protection, public services or parks and recreation. What should be noted is that although the industrial and urban expantion have battle on the land, but in city, actually, land utilization is relatively low, which in other words — a vast land waste.

SMART RIVER PROJECT

RESIDENCE

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INDUSTRY

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PART_D WATERWAYS_ ACREAGE COMPARISON


CONCEPT PLOT

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 15

NEW METHODOLOGY FOR URBAN SPATIAL DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

f igure 2.3.1: Marina-oriented urban structure and distinguishing features.

f igure 2.3.2: Fishery-oriented urban structure and distinguishing features.

f igure 2.3.3: Agriculture-oriented urban structure and distinguishing features.

The land waste in the urban area, mainly due to the inappropriate single industrial structure. From the 3 case study of typical agriculture, fishery and port-oriented cities' development in Thailand, we put forward the concept that based on the rules of local geomophology and river movement, intervene the landscape formation progress. In this context, the local landscape characteristics can be used develop diversified industrial structure, which brings Fort McMurray a sustainable development.


CONCEPT PLOT

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 17

NEW METHODOLOGY FOR URBAN SPATIAL DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

This mapping shows different materials in real site. Since the abundant water resource from Athabasca river, the landscape in this area mainly includes rivers, ponds, wetlands, grassland and coniferous forest. Furthermore, the water systems on geomophology of flood plain already offer oil sands industry natural conditions to collection, delivery and drainage water. All these advantages attract both in-situ mining and new city districts expanding into this area. Therefore, we can test how urbanism and diversified industrial structure happens along with the destructive and restoration process from artificial intervene.


CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 19

CONCEPT PLOT SITE LANDSCAPE

N


EXISTING URBAN BLOCK MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

STREAMS AND POOLS

STREAM AND FLOOD PLAINS

CONIFEROUS FOREST

OPEN FOREST LAND

EXISTING URBAN BLOCK


A PHASED WATER FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 21

FOLLOWING EXISTING DAM FORM

Existing artificial dam constructions for oil sands industry’s water usage is common in the site.


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

Catchment lines show the rich water resource in the site.

As oil sands industry deeply depends on the water resource, Athabasca river and surrounding wetlands which are high water content areas undoubtedly played a decisive role in factories' location. From our research, one of the usual way to collect water from upstreams is to build a dam hence there will be a reservoir behind it, which can be see as a stable and continuous source of water to suppor industry's usage.


A PHASED WATER FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 23

HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS AND DAM ORGANIZATION PROPOSAL

MAIN STREAM ANALYSIS

CATCHMENT LINES ANALYSIS

MAIN PONDS ANALYSIS

CHANNEL SELECTION ANALYSIS

DIVERSION POINTS ANALYSIS

DAM STRUCTURE

DAM ORGANIZATION STEP 1

DAM ORGANIZATION STEP 2

DAM ORGANIZATION ZONING


A PHASED WATER FRAMEWORK 3 STEPS RIVER MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

Athabasca River

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Control point 1

Control point 2

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Small Dam to divert Control point 3

Water Collection

Artificial Channel

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Control point 4

Control point 5

There are 3 steps of Smart River project: Firstly, collecting water by river reframe works for industrial use in east mineral a r e a o f A t h a b a s c a R i v e r . S e c o n d l y, migrating river streams by interventions for ecological restoration and landscape transformation. Finally, new urban area would be built on the new generated landscape.


1

51


2 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY Collection of 3rd Term Works

SYSTEMIC MODEL This research try to use a dynamic ecological model to simulate the biomass of each specie in the whole eco-system in out site and then links them with the ecomony model which be presented by 6 related and interacted industries. The research chapters was divided into 4 parts. Fi r s t ly, 3 b a s i c m o d e l we re a n a ly z e d , w h i ch were natural system, appropriate fishing system, inappropriate fishing system. Based o n t h e b a s i c m o d e l , t h e a p p ro p r i a t e f i s h i n g system was choosed to develop by bringing in economic factors, which was the investment. Furthermore, it also considerate about the possibility to link the other 5 industrial systems together to support and find the maximal profit conditions, which boosts whole area development.


CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 35

SYSTEMIC MODEL

INTEGRATED MECHANISM


SYSTEMIC MODEL PREY-HUNTER MODEL

Natural System

Appropriate Fishing System

Inappropriate System

MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

Firstly, focusing on a 3-species food chain s y s t e m , w h i ch we r e s p raw n , t r o u t a n d goosander. It's a simple predator - prey model which could be simply interpreted as the trout prey on sprawn and was preyed by goosander as well. Further step of this research was to build 3 basic model by defining different parameters of the ecological equation to simulate different conditions, which were the natural system, appropriate fishing system, inappropriate system.


SYSTEMIC MODEL SINGLE SYSTEM - FISHERY

Investment - 285, 000 USD

Investment - 0 USD

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 37

Goosander

Investment - 475, 000 USD

Goosander

Investment - 505, 000 USD

Goosander

Goosander


Investment - 385, 000 USD

Investment - 428, 000 USD

Goosander

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Investment - 533, 000 USD

Goosander

Investment - 555, 000 USD _Unsustainable system

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Goosander

Goosander

Based on the former research, the investment f a c t o r s w a s b r o u g h t i n t o d ev e l o p t h e appropriate fishing system. The investment factors can in some extents chang e the conditions of the system, such as improve the creatures' birth rate and limit natural enemy as well, aiming at promoting the aquatic biomass in order to promote the harvest of trout and sprawn. In this part, it will research how the system change from low investment to high investment.


SYSTEMIC MODEL

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 39

SINGLE SYSTEM - AGRICULTURE

Investment - 0 USD

Investment - 285, 000 USD

Investment - 475, 000 USD

Investment - 505, 000 USD


Investment - 428, 000 USD

Investment - 533, 000 USD

Investment - 555, 000 USD

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Investment - 385, 000 USD

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Similarly, the figures above showed how the biomass of each specie in agriculture system (including oats, wheats, beans and oilseeds) change along time scale in different investment conditions. The peak points represent when and how many time the trout can be caught in the period. According to the figures, the harvest times increase and reach the maximal point when the investment is 533, 000USD.


CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 41

SYSTEMIC MODEL

LINK SYSTEM_FISHERY WITH OTHER MODEL


SYSTEMIC MODEL LINK SYSTEM_AGRICULTURE WITH OTHER MODEL

MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

Furthermore, as the all 6 industries influence and constrain each other as a linked system. The profit of single industry in turn fluctuated over 30 years period. Take the fishery and agriculture industry for instance, figures above illustrate how the loop mechanism works under certain artificial interventions in terms of profit (such as harvest) and investment (such as dam constructing).


SYSTEMIC MODEL PRIMARY ECONOMIC MODEL ESTABLISH

AGRICULTURE_ PROFIT VALUES_3O YEARS

FORESTRY_ PROFIT VALUES_3O YEARS

OIL SANDS INDUSTRY_ INVESTMENT VALUES_3O YEARS

AGRICULTURE_ INVESTMENT VALUES_3O YEARS

FORESTRY_ INVESTMENT VALUES_3O YEARS

OIL SANDS INDUSTRY_ INCOME VALUES_3O YEARS

AGRICULTURE_ INCOME VALUES_3O YEARS

FORESTRY_ INCOME VALUES_3O YEARS

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 43

OIL SANDS INDUSTRY_ PROFIT VALUES_3O YEARS


MARINA _ PROFIT VALUES_3O YEARS

TOURISM_ PROFIT VALUES_3O YEARS

FISHERY_ INVESTMENT VALUES_3O YEARS

MARINA _ INVESTMENT VALUES_3O YEARS

TOURISM_ INVESTMENT VALUES_3O YEARS

FISHERY_ INCOME VALUES_3O YEARS

MARINA _ INCOME VALUES_3O YEARS

TOURISMW_ INCOME VALUES_3O YEARS

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FISHERY_ PROFIT VALUES_3O YEARS

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When finish the calculation and simulation each industry's potential profit and investement value from 2015 to 2030, the following step is the decision of relevant territorial patterns and constrains, which would be useful to define the urban form (control patterns and constraint solvers). Within this part, several parameters have been chosen to test the flexibility of the whole system. These parameter and the value of the threshold also related to allocation of resources and money.


SYSTEMIC MODEL PRIMARY ECONOMIC MODEL ESTABLISH

YEAR

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 45

YEAR

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022


2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

MAXIMAL PROFIT

MINIMAL PROFIT

100%

50%

0%

50%

70%

28%

68%

83%

15%

50%

24%

7%

21%

5%

7%

31%

5%

2%

5%

3%

6%

3%

5%

3%

47%

5%

9%

60%

4%

5%

23%

8%

36%

10%

16%

11%

Then the feedback, as the mediation of the mechanism, will influence the human activities in next stage. For example, the analysis of each year's industry structure and profit rate can be used as instruction, avoiding excessive investement and potential waste.

SMART RIVER PROJECT

2%

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6%

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

12%

31%

The daily activities include managing harvest, transport and selling can be seen as different interventions which will bring the maximum income and support sustainable d eve l o p m e n t . Ta k i n g t h e s e eve n t s i n t o consideration, the whole economic and e c o l o g y s y s t e m h e n c e ch a n g e s a s we l l .

100%


3 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY Collection of 2nd & 3rd Term Works

RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL FOR ATHABASCA RIVER In the smart river project, relational urbanism methodology is applied to build a model to exploring how the interaction with complex materials (which include ecological, economy and geographic factors) in the field can be contributed to settling the current conflict, rebuilding the relationships among multiple industries and leaving the city expansion potential. For this purpose, parameters and the value of the threshold discussed before will be complemented in the data base and be applied in the following chapter.


RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL FOR ATHABASCA RIVER

CHAPTER_01 SYTHETIC THINKING OF SYSTEMIC STUDY - 49

RELATIONAL MODEL


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

The whole relational model includes 3 basic sub-systems: ecological system, economic model and spacial influence. The artificial a c t iv i t i e s a n d eve n t s i n c l u d e m a n ag i n g f i s h f a r m s , c ro p s h a r ve s t , l og i s t i c s a n d selling take place in different conditions. Therefore, take all into consideration, the 3 systems not only be influenced by their own factors and parameters, but also hence changes with other dynamic systems as well.


02 MECHANISM OF S M A R T R I V E R

DIGITAL INTERFACE AND PROXY MODELING

57

RIVER LOGIC STUDY

65

REAL SITE INTERVENTIONS

89

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF URBAN SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT

119


4 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER Collection of 2nd & 3rd Term Works

DIGITAL INTERFACE AND PROXY MODELING With the help of visualization softwares, the data and potential information collected in the experiments can be recognised and showed in a continuous visible interface. The purpose of this interface is to investigate the parameters which mediate the control the fluvial behaviour. And from this chapter, the project will begin on specific data base using the methodology in chapter 2, which give urban planners imagination to deal with the problems in a real site.


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 57

OPERATION INTERFACE


10:34 AM

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SMART RIVER PROJECT


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 59

INTERFACE DATA AND SYSTEM SUPPORT


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SMART RIVER PROJECT


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 61

INTERFACE OPERATING LOOP


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SMART RIVER PROJECT


5 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER Collection of 2nd & 3rd Term Works

RIVER LOGIC STUDY In order to apply the proposal of rebuild the channel system to redistribute the land source and fit in multiple industries, it is important to study the natural river behaviors first. This part is focus on 2 basic river forms called meander river and braided river. Through the way of physical simulation of the meander and braided river formation, we gain the basic perception of the river rules. Later in the waterway transforming process we use the artifical intervenes which are corresponding to the natural river behaviours to accelarate the change of the channels. Further part shows the process of intervene experiments with "Push" and "Stop". Using different methods of intervention affect the changing of channal and river bank. For instance, we put boards into bank to fixed it, or to add dyed sands into the water to accelarate the change of flow's direction.


RIVER QUALITIES STUDY

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 65

RIVER FORMATION

f igure 6.1.1: Braided river, Madagascar.

f igure 6.1.2: Meander river, the Mississippi.

f igure 6.1.3: Straight channel in Colorado River.

f igure 6.1.4: Braided river in upper reaches.

f igure 6.1.5: Meander in middle reaches.

f igure 6.1.6: Straight river in downstreams.

A r i v e r b e g i n s at s o u r c e (o r h e a d ) a n d ends at a mouth, following a path called a course. The water in a river is usually conf ined to a channel, made up of a st ream bed bet ween banks. T his dist inct ion between river channel and f loodplain can be blurred, especially in urban areas where the f loodplain of a r iver channel can become greatly developed by housing and industry.

G eolog ically speak ing , an increase in s e d i m e nt l o a d w i l l o v e r t i m e i n c r e a s e t he slope of t he r iver, so t hese t wo cond it ion s ca n b e con sider e d s y nony mou s; and, consequently, a variation of slop can m o d e l a v a r i at i o n i n s e d i m e nt l o a d . A t h reshold slope was ex per i ment a l ly det e r m i ne d t o b e f ig u r e s . A ny s lop e o v e r t his t hreshold created a braided st ream,

while any slope under the threshold created a meandering stream or— for ver y low slope— a straight channel will be created.


RIVER QUALITIES STUDY RIVER BEHAVIOURS

FLUVIAL BEHAVIOURS STUDY

OVERFLOW

AVULSION OF SINUOUS CHANNELS

BANK EROSION

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CHANNEL BIFUCATION

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EROSION AND DEPOSITION _01

EROSION AND DEPOSITION _02

EROSION AND DEPOSITION _03

Meandering river channels are asymmetrical. Meandering rivers erode sediment from the outer curve of each meander bend and deposit it on an inner curve further down stream. This causes individual meanders to grow larger and larger over time. The water flows faster in these deeper sections and erodes material from the river bank. The water flows more slowly in the shallow areas near the inside of each bend.

EROSION AND DEPOSITION _04

The slower water can't carry as much sediment and deposits its load on a series of point bars. When the loops get too large and consume too much energy (friction), the river will eventually find a less energetically "taxing" shortcut, and a part of the old channel will be abandoned and becomes an oxbow lake.


RIVER QUALITIES STUDY THEORITICAL BASIS OF BRAIDED RIVER FORMULA: Qsi=KQIM Qsi=K(QI SI)M Qsi=K(QI (SI+C))M Qsi=K(QI SI+εΣQI-1SI-1)M

f igure 6.1.7: Water f lows following the

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 67

principles of Cellular Automata Theory.

PARAMETERS:

K=500 M=2.5 C=0.5 E=0.3 slope 1=1.6%

PARAMETERS:

K=500 M=2.5 C=0.5 E=0.3 slope 1=1.6%

PARAMETERS:

K=500 M=2.5 C=0.5 E=0.3 slope 1=1.6%

PARAMETERS:

K=500 M=2.5 C=0.5 E=0.3 slope 1=1.6%

PARAMETERS:

K=500 M=2.5 C=0.5 E=0.3 slope 1=1.6%

Braided river simulation based on the Cellular Automata Theory.

A braided river is one of a number of channel types and has a channel that consists of a network of small channels separated by small and often temporary islands. Braided rivers, occur when a threshold level of sediment load or slope is reached. Braided channels are also typical of environments that dramatically decrease channel depth, and water velocity, such as river deltas, alluvial fans and peneplains.

As the braided river's formation follows the principle of Cellular Automata, we simulate it with different parameters like slope values.


RIVER QUALITIES STUDY FORMATION PROCESS OF BRAIDED RIVER

Braided River _ 10 min

Braided River _ 15 min

Braided River _ 20 min

Braided River _ 25 min

Braided River _ 30 min

Braided River _ 35 min

Braided River _ 40 min

Braided River _ 45 min

Braided River _ 50 min

Braided River _ 55 min

Braided River _ 60 min

Braided River _ 65 min

Braided River _ 70 min

Braided River _ 75 min

Braided River _ 80 min

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

Braided River _ 5 min

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As for physical model, we use cold sand and water to do further analysis in terms of river formation process, sediments behaviours and influenced parameters along time and space. The main controlling factor on river development is the amount of sediment that the river carries. Since an increase in sediment load will over time increase the slope of the river, a variation of slope can model a variation in sediment load.

A threshold slope was experimentally determined to be 0.016 (ft/ft) for a 0.15 ft/s (0.0042 m3/s) stream. In experiment we choose the slope of 0.016 to simulate the braided river formation.


RIVER QUALITIES STUDY FORMATION PROCESS OF MEANDER RIVER Parameters:

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 69

Slope _ 40/2000 mm Particle _ 0.06 mm Time_ 180 mins

Meandering Period_Time 01

Meandering Period_Time 02

Meandering Period_Time 03

Meandering Period_Time 04

Meandering Period_Time 05

Meandering Period_Time 06

Meandering Period_Time 07

Meandering Period_Time 08


RIVER QUALITIES STUDY SIMULATION OF MEANDERING PERIOD

Meandering Period_Time 03

Meandering Period_Time 04

Meandering Period_Time 05

Meandering Period_Time 06

Meandering Period_Time 07

Meandering Period_Time 08

Meandering Period_Time 09

Meandering Period_Time 10

Meandering Period_Time 11

Meandering Period_Time 12

Meandering Period_Time 13

Meandering Period_Time 14

Meandering Period_Time 15

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Meandering Period_Time 02

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Meandering Period_Time 01

Once a given system crosses a threshold value for sediment load, it will convert from a meandering system to a braided system. In the experiment of meander river, at the beginning, water flow dig a channel and continuously broaden it till reaching a steady state that depth, width and speed are suitable. Then after several times of backtrace erosion, the river entered the period of meander when friction with the channel bed and

banks causes turbulence in the water flow. This causes erosion in some areas of the banks where velocity is high and deposition in other places where velocity is reduced. A sequence of deep sections (pools) and shallow sections (riffles) develops at equal i n t e r v a l s a l o n g a s t r e t c h o f t h e r i v e r.

SMART RIVER PROJECT

Dynamic analysis of meandering process.


RIVER QUALITIES STUDY MEANDER RIVER'S GEOMOPHOLOGY DIAGRAM

Meandering Period_02

Meandering Period_03

Meandering Period_01

Meandering Period_02

Meandering Period_03

Meandering Period_04

Meandering Period_05

Meandering Period_06

Meandering Period_04

Meandering Period_05

Meandering Period_06

Meandering Period_07

Meandering Period_08

Meandering Period_09

Meandering Period_07

Meandering Period_08

Meandering Period_09

Meandering Period_10

Meandering Period_11

Meandering Period_12

Meandering Period_10

Meandering Period_11

Meandering Period_12

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 71

Meandering Period_01


MARCH URBAN DESIGN

RC - 18

SMART RIVER PROJECT


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 73

OPERATION TEST ORAGINAL EXPERIMENT


OPERATION TEST OPERATION STEPS

Start

_Comparative Test _ 12 Object Number = 0

The river erodes the turning point and create the triangle deposition area.

17min

_Comparative Test _ 15 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 16 Object Number = 0

The river continuously erodes the turning point and washs away the generated deposition bank

22min

_Comparative Test _ 18 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 19 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 20 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 22 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 23 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 24 Object Number = 0

Another temporary deposition area was formed.

37 min

_Interference Operation _ 03

_Interference Operation _ 04

Object Number = 0

Object Number = 0

Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 05 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 06 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 07 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 08 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 09 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 10 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 11 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 13 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 14 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 17 Object Number = 0

_Comparative Test _ 21 Object Number = 0

RC - 18

_Comparative Test _ 02

Object Number = 0

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

This experiment comes first. The purpose is to set the evaluation criteria to test the efferts of the operation experiments from the perspectives of time and formation. The sticks represent the boundary of the original floodplain. And in the following experiments the sticks will stay there.

_Comparative Test _ 01

SMART RIVER PROJECT

End


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 75

OPERATION TEST

"PUSH & FIXED" EXPERIMENT


OPERATION TEST OPERATION STEPS

_Interference Operation _ 01 Object Number = 0

_Interference Operation _ 02 Object Number = 0

_Interference Operation _ 03 Object Number = 0

Start

_Interference Operation _ 04 Object Number = 0

The river erodes the turning point.

_Interference Operation _ 06 Object Number = 0

_Interference Operation _ 07 Object Number = 1

_Interference Operation _ 08 Object Number = 2

Add sediment in the deposition bank and insert the 1st boads.

7 min

The river erodes the turning point and add sediment continuously.

12 min

A new boad was built behind the 1st one in the new deposition area, then another deposition area was formed.

17 min

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

_Interference Operation _ 05 Object Number = 0

RC - 18

_Interference Operation _ 10 Object Number = 2

_Interference Operation _ 11 Object Number = 2

_Interference Operation _ 12 Object Number = 2

continued

SMART RIVER PROJECT

_Interference Operation _ 09 Object Number = 2


OPERATION TEST OPERATION STEPS

continued

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 77

21 min

25 min

End

_Interference Operation _ 13 Object Number = 2

_Interference Operation _ 14 Object Number = 2

_Interference Operation _ 15 Object Number = 2

_Interference Operation _ 16 Object Number = 3

Desirable consequence. Time has been shorten to the half of the comparative experiment.

_Interference Operation _ 17 Object Number = 3

_Interference Operation _ 18 Object Number = 6

_Interference Operation _ 19 Object Number = 4

_Interference Operation _ 20 Object Number = 4

The movement stopped. Further change requires multiple operation.

_Interference Operation _ 21 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 22 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 23 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 24 Object Number = 4

Red: new area of deposition Blue: floodplain area


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

In this test, a series of boads were built in advance on deposition bank along the river channel, then it beg an to build up deposition areas which were behind the boards and compelled the river to moving faster. After the deposition area became stable, more sands were built onto the areas to make the bank f i x e d . Wi t h t h e m i g ra t i o n o f t h e r ive r, t h e b o a d s were moved with it and new sediment was added in continuously. As a result, it has been shorten by half time to reach the area it has reached in comparative trial.


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 79

OPERATION TEST

"STOP" EXPERIMENT


OPERATION TEST OPERATION STEPS

_Interference Operation _ 01 Object Number = 1

_Interference Operation _ 06 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 03 Object Number = 3

_Interference Operation _ 7 Object Number = 5

Start

_Interference Operation _ 04 Object Number = 4

_Interference Operation _ 8 Object Number = 4

Build boads onto the bank of erosion side and add sediment to the abandoned channel to fix it.

7 min

On the opposite of the 2nd boad generated a delta area and the erosion has been stopped by the boads.

12 min

A new boad was built in front of the 4 boads and the delta area has been washed away.

17 min

After the river drainage, remove the first boad and left the original 4 boads. Load bearing walls have changed from the 2nd and 4th boads to the 1st and 3rd boads.

22 min

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

_Interference Operation _ 05 Object Number = 4

_Interference Operation _ 02 Object Number = 2

RC - 18

_Interference Operation _ 10 Object Number = 4

_Interference Operation _ 11 Object Number = 4

_Interference Operation _ 12 Object Number = 4

continued

SMART RIVER PROJECT

_Interference Operation _ 9 Object Number = 4


OPERATION TEST OPERATION STEPS

continued

_Interference Operation _ 13 Object Number = 4

_Interference Operation _ 14 Object Number = 6

_Interference Operation _ 15 Object Number = 6

_Interference Operation _ 16 Object Number = 6

Two delta areas were formed in front of the load bearing walls.

_Interference Operation _ 17 Object Number = 6

_Interference Operation _ 18 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 19 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 20 Object Number = 4

27 min

The channel has been fixed within a relative sertain area.

_Interference Operation _ 21 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 22 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 23 Object Number = 5

_Interference Operation _ 24 Object Number = 6

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 81

25 min

End

Red: new area of deposition Blue: floodplain area


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

In this test, four boards were built in advance in sequence of B, C, D, E on erosion bank along the river channel and try to stop the river from eroding the bank in a certain area. In the process of this test, it start with the C and E boards bearing the load of the water with a "delta" area in front of them, the B and D boards were building a d ep o s i t i o n a re a b e h i n d t h e m a s we l l .

After "board A" was inserted as the first boards, a "shift" was occurred to the load bearing boards, it transfered to B and D. T h e d e l t a a n d t h e d ep o s i t i o n a re a a l s o changed in the same way, like an ‘relay race’. When the deposition area become higher than the river level, we add more sands onto there to make the bank more fixed.


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 83

OPERATION TEST

"PUSH" EXPERIMENT


OPERATION TEST OPERATION STEPS

_Interference Operation _ 01 Add Sediments = True

_Interference Operation _ 02 Add Sediments = True

_Interference Operation _ 03 Add Sediments = True

Start

_Interference Operation _ 04 Add Sediments = True

The river changes very fast.

Add sediment in deposition area and the river erodes the opposite bank very fast.

_Interference Operation _ 07 Add Sediments = True

_Interference Operation _ 08 Add Sediments = True

The new deposition area was not so stable.

_Interference Operation _ 09 Add Sediments = True

_Interference Operation _ 10 Add Sediments = True

_Interference Operation _ 11 Add Sediments = True

_Interference Operation _ 12 Add Sediments = True

Add sediment in deposition area and the river erodes the opposite bank very fast.

RC - 18

_Interference Operation _ 06 Add Sediments = True

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

_Interference Operation _ 05 Add Sediments = True

7 min

SMART RIVER PROJECT

Red: new area of deposition Blue: floodplain area

12 min

End


OPERATION TEST

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 85

"PUSH" EXPERIMENT

In this test, it just add the sediments on the deposition bank and try to push the river moving faster, then it speed up the erosion on the opposite bank. When the deposition area become higher than the river level, more sand was added on to make the bank fixed. It shorten more than half of the time to reach the area it has reached in the comparative experiment.


OPERATION TEST DIVERSION EXPERIMENT

MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

In this test, the landform was built according to the real site and contours by using a projector to project the mapping onto the sands, the proposal direction it t r i e d t o c o m p e l l e d t h e r ive r t o m i g ra t e t o wa s a l s o t h e re a l ro u t e w h i ch c o u l d effectively limit the expansion of oil sands.


OPERATION TEST OPERATION STEPS

Start

_Real Site Operation _ 01 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 02 Add Sediments = Yes

_Real Site Operation _ 03 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 04 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 05 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 06 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 07 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 08 Add Sediments = Yes

_Real Site Operation _ 09 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 10 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 11 Add Sediments = No

_Real Site Operation _ 12 Add Sediments = No

Add sediment in the deposition bank and an oxbow lake generates.

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 87

5 min

Add sediment continuously and insert sticks to fix bank.

Add sediment continuously.

15 min

BREAK!!!

End

Red: new area of deposition Blue: floodplain area


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

In the process of test, sediment was built in deposition area to compelled the river to erode opposite bank in order to break a certain weak point of the bank naturally. In consequence, it successfully generated an oxbow lake and diverted the river route. The original channel was abandoned.


REAL SITE SIMULATED OPERATION OPERATION STEPS

control 4 _55m

control 3 _55m

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 89

200 m

0m

27 m

68 m

82 m

107 m

1


control 1 _22m

MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

134 m

control 2 _22m

152 m

181 m

197 m

285 m

The experiment in the field selects a piece of land including cutting lines from in-situ mining pattern as control lines, and simulate human intervention on formation process of waterways and landform. Therefore, trying to make the river sweep off the largest area of surrounding lands and facilitate further usage.


REAL SITE SIMULATED OPERATION OPERATION STEPS

Start

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 91

5 min

Experiment starts from a natural meandering river with two control lines as protected edges of site.

A d d s e d i m e n t continuously and insert 1st board at the downstream to divert water flow.

Add the 2nd board in the middle part to control the direction of the flow. The channel therefore changed and new land layers generated in the areas between control lines.

15 min

End

S i m i l a r l y, a d d 3 r d and 4th boards in the upstream and control t h e d i re c t i o n o f t h e board to reverse water flow.


STAGE 1 BOARD AMOUNT_1

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

STAGE 2 BOARD AMOUNT_2

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

STAGE 3 BOARD AMOUNT_3

STAGE 4 BOARD AMOUNT_4


REAL SITE SIMULATED OPERATION PREMINARY DESIGN

First Operation_ Board number:1

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 93

FIX AND CONSTRAIN DESIGN BASED ON THE OPERATION EXPERIMENT

Second Operation_ Board number:2


Third Operation_ Board number:3

Fourth Operation_ Board number:4

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

DESIGN NETWORK IN SUBDIVISION MESH SCALE

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

Through the intervention experiment, we analysize the island g eneration and build the basic network structure for f i x a n d c o n s t ra i n l a n d . B wa s e d o n t h i s n e t wo r k , f u r t h e r f o r m d i f f e re n t i a l g r i d seems to be a potential way to analysis of land nature and rational planning land.


6 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER Collection of 2nd & 3rd Term Works

REAL SITE INTERVENTIONS Since the purpose of intervene experiment is trying to following the basic rules, partly and temporarily control the river formation as well as the relative landscape, it can be seen as a flexible approach to redistribute resource and make the whole area find a better way to develop itself. I n t h e s e c t i o n o f re a l s i t e i n t e r ve n t i o n s , we import "dam" as a real medium to shape the terrain. Thus, in we first do the dam research to test capacities and functions for both sigle and collective types. Then it moves to Further, simulation would include the process of using digital model to illustrate and simulate how the urgent conflict might be settled by temporarily reconstruction of the local water system step by step.


DAM RESEARCH

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 97

FLOW COLLECTION STRUCTURE

f igure 7.1.1: Earth dams.

f igure 7.1.2: Rockf ill dams.

f igure 7.1.3: Concrete arch dams.

D iver sion st r uc t u res route r unof f i n excess of base f low to storage fac i l it ies du r i ng wet per iods, for later use du r i ng d r y per iods. F lood d iver sion st r uc t u res, s uc h a s d i k e s, a r e a l s o u s ef u l met ho d s for m it ig at i ng t he adver se ef fe c t of torrent ia l r a i ns a nd at t he sa me t i me cap t u r i ng t he e xcess water for later u se.


DAM RESEARCH FLOW DIVERSION FORMS

MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

f igure 7.1.4: Spur Dikes (Transverse Dikes).

f igure 7.1.5: Longitudinal Dikes.

There are mainly 2 regular dikes that are used for dealing with rivers, spur dike (Transverse Dikes) & longitudinal dike. Spur dikes have a relatively large angle with river bank and longitudinal dikes are built along river bank. Longitudinal dikes were applied for rivers with relatively narrower riverbed or unstable geological conditions, in order to adjust the flow curvature and protect riverbed from erosions.

Angle’s inf luence

Built in sections along a river to store excessive runoff. These dikes can be built using material dredged from the river or transported from adjacent lands (usually clay or silt).


DAM RESEARCH

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 99

DAM TYPOLOGY AND CAPACITY MATRIX

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Moduler Type_01

Moduler Type_ 02

Moduler Type_ 03

Moduler Type_ 04

Moduler Type_ 05

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Moduler Type_06

Moduler Type_ 07

Moduler Type_ 08

Moduler Type_ 09

Moduler Type_10

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Moduler Type_11

Moduler Type_12

Moduler Type_13

Moduler Type_14

Moduler Type_15


Basic Moduler Rotate

Coaxial Links

Different Axials Links

Develop length and Rotated Links

WATER FLOW RESISTANCE ANALYSIS

Moduler Type_ 02

Moduler Type_ 03

Moduler Type_ 04

Moduler Type_ 05

Moduler Type_06

Moduler Type_ 07

Moduler Type_ 08

Moduler Type_ 09

Moduler Type_10

Moduler Type_11

Moduler Type_12

Moduler Type_13

Moduler Type_14

Moduler Type_15

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

Moduler Type_01

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

Based on the existing forms of the dam, we have designed our new dam struture. B y t h e w ay o f u s i n g d i f f e r e n t r o t a t i o n angle, axis quantity or length of the dam moduler, new dam forms is flexible and thus different functions can be applied according to different experiment conditions.


DAM RESEARCH

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 101

COLLECTIVE FORM AND CAPACITY MATRIX

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability

Diversion Fix Stability


DAM RESEARCH COLLECTIVE STRUCTURES

Experiment2 _ Diverting

Experiment3_ Clustering

Gathering moduler_01

Diverting moduler_01

Clustering moduler_01

Gathering moduler_02

Diverting moduler_02

Clustering moduler_02

Gathering moduler_03

Diverting moduler_03

Clustering moduler_03

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

Experiment1_ Gathering

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

Since the reasonable organization formed by a collection of structure can play a greater role, to achieve a specific intervention effect. The above shows 3 typical structures of combinations— g atheringďźŒdiverting and clustering. All t he se spe cific cha ra ct ers a nd funct io ns will be applied in the following chapters.


SITE INTERPRETATION REAL SITE STRUCTURE ORGNIZATION_ TYPE 1 VIDEO_TIME_02

VIDEO_TIME_03

VIDEO_TIME_04

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_01

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_02

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_03

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_04

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_01

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_02

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_03

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_04

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 103

VIDEO_TIME_01


VIDEO_TIME_06

VIDEO_TIME_07

VIDEO_TIME_08

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_05

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_06

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_07

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_08

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_05

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_06

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_07

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_08

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

VIDEO_TIME_05

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT


SITE INTERPRETATION REAL SITE STRUCTURE ORGNIZATION_ TYPE 1 VIDEO_TIME_02

VIDEO_TIME_03

VIDEO_TIME_04

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_01

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_02

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_03

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_04

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_01

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_02

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_03

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_04

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 105

VIDEO_TIME_01


VIDEO_TIME_06

VIDEO_TIME_07

VIDEO_TIME_08

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_05

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_06

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_07

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_08

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_05

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_06

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_07

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_08

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

VIDEO_TIME_05

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT


SITE INTERPRETATION PONDS TRANSFORMATION_ TYPE 1 GENERATED PONDS_TIME_02

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_03

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_04

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_09

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_10

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_11

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_12

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_17

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_18

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_19

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_20

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 107

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_01


GENERATED PONDS_TIME_06

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_07

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_08

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_13

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_14

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_15

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_16

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_21

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_22

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_23

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_24

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

GENERATED PONDS_TIME_05

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT


SITE INTERPRETATION REAL SITE STRUCTURE ORGNIZATION_ TYPE 2 VIDEO_TIME_02

VIDEO_TIME_03

VIDEO_TIME_04

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_01

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_02

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_03

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_04

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_01

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_02

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_03

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_04

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 109

VIDEO_TIME_01


VIDEO_TIME_06

VIDEO_TIME_07

VIDEO_TIME_08

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_05

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_06

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_07

WATERWAY ANALYSIS_TIME_08

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_05

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_06

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_07

CONTOUR ANALYSIS_TIME_08

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

VIDEO_TIME_05

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT


QUICK DESIGN IN PHYSICAL MODEL

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 111

GEOMOPHOLOGY DIAGRAM


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

This design is quickly generated from the morphology of physical model. We design the platform following the landform morphology. Then it attempts to connect the platform with ground and dams.


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 113

QUICK DESIGN IN PHYSICAL MODEL

NETWORKS


MARCH URBAN DESIGN RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

According to the different enclosed space that the dams generated, two main types exists in this kind of landscape. We also extracted the center lines in the whole area and use these as the constraint lines. Following the constraint line, the platform go along with it on higher lands.


QUICK DESIGN IN PHYSICAL MODEL

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 115

INSERT PLATFORMS

PERSPECTIVE VIEW


MARCH URBAN DESIGN

RC - 18

SMART RIVER PROJECT

VIEW_03

VIEW_02

VIEW_01


7 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER Collection of 3rd Term Works

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF URBAN SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT This design part is based on the quick design in last chapter, developing into a larger scale using digital technical tools. This experiment follows the logic of harbor structure. It studies the landform transformation after all the artificial intervention finished. It illustrates the characters in the process of the landform transformation, like the growth and decay of islands and ponds. Then it also compares t h e l a n d f o r m m ove m e n t b e t we e n t i m e s a n d computes the stable area to design the network. The catchment lines analyze the main structure and then establish the whole network among the site.


DESIGN PLOT

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 119

EXPERIMENT PROCESS

VIDEO_TIME_01

VIDEO_TIME_02

VIDEO_TIME_03

VIDEO_TIME_04

VIDEO_TIME_05

VIDEO_TIME_06

VIDEO_TIME_07

VIDEO_TIME_08


PONDS & ISLANDS ANALYSIS_TIME_02

PONDS & ISLANDS ANALYSIS_TIME_03

PONDS & ISLANDS ANALYSIS_TIME_04

PONDS & ISLANDS ANALYSIS_TIME_05

PONDS & ISLANDS ANALYSIS_TIME_06

PONDS & ISLANDS ANALYSIS_TIME_07

PONDS & ISLANDS ANALYSIS_TIME_08

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

PONDS & ISLANDS ANALYSIS_TIME_01

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT

This experiment applies the assembling structure of ports. What we study in this part is the geomorphological transformation after all artificial intervention finished. The left group of images are the real time simulation in physical model. The right group is the digital information extraction.


DESIGN PLOT GEOMORPHOLOGY MAPPING

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 121

ISLANDS ANALYSIS

These two diagrams show the edge of higher lands and lower lands fluctuating along with time. We also studies the central constructive lines of waterways, islands and higher roads. The information is extracted directly from kinect and grasshopper.

PONDS ANALYSIS


MARCH URBAN DESIGN

RC - 18

SMART RIVER PROJECT


DESIGN PLOT GEOMORPHOLOGY MAPPING

20

19

18

17

16

15

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 123

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0 20 m/unit length

m o v e d i s t a n c e a n d d i r e c t i o n:s m a l l — l a r g e


MARCH URBAN DESIGN

RC - 18

SMART RIVER PROJECT


DESIGN PLOT HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 125

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0 20 m/unit length

m o v e d i s t a n c e a n d d i r e c t i o n:s m a l l — l a r g e

higher lands

lower lands

flooding line

catchment line


MARCH URBAN DESIGN

RC - 18

SMART RIVER PROJECT


DESIGN PLOT GEOMORPHOLOGICAL DATA COLLECTION

ELEVATION INFORMATION EXTRACTION

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 127

The elevation information is represented in the way of contours. This is the basis of all other geomorphological information extraction. It use the distance sensor tools like kinect to scan the 3D landform and then the data is input into grasshopper. According to these collecting data, GH generate 3D model in the Rhino.

LANDFORM MOVEMENT CONPUTATION

It compares the elevation information between two moments. The difference of the data represents the movements. The landform movement computation could be used as the basis of stablility analysis.

CATCHMENT LINE ANALYSIS

The catchment lines analysis is also besed on the elevation information. The catchment lines could be used to compute the major structure and flooding area.


SLOPE ANALYSIS

The slope analysis is used to compute the erosion and deposition area. Also, it could analyze the land use of constructive area.

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

STABLE REGION EXTRACTION

RC - 18

This is computed from the landform movement computation. The tiny difference is supposed to the relative stable area.

SMART RIVER PROJECT

STABILITY ANALYSIS

The stablity analysis is used to analyze the land use among the whole area.


NETWORK GENERATION

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 129

0m

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000


2000m 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 0

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

RC - 18

SMART RIVER PROJECT


DESIGN PLOT NETWORK GENERATION PROCESS

Time_02

Time_03

Time_04

Time_05

Time_06

Time_07

Time_08

Time_09

Time_10

CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 131

Time_01


NETWORK GENERATION LOGIC

LOGIC STEP_02

LOGIC STEP_03

LOGIC STEP_04

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

LOGIC STEP_01

RC - 18 SMART RIVER PROJECT


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 133


DESIGN PLOT NETWORK GENERATION

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13 MARCH URBAN DESIGN

12

11

RC - 18

10

SMART RIVER PROJECT

9

8

7

6

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The network is divided into three parts. Then main structure comes from the analysis of the catchment lines. The main structure used as the main transport line is supposed to avoid flooding lines. Then the stable stucture comes from the analysis of landform movement. The connection structure is computed according to the height and distance.


CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 135


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The land use is divided according to the height and slope. The flat and high lands are mainly used as constructive areas. The green dots represents the green space which is located at the less constructive ares. The edges between waterways and lands are used as the control areas where people could add intervention to influence the landscape transformation.


DESIGN PLOT MASTER PLAN

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CHAPTER _02 MECHANISM OF SMART RIVER - 139

DESIGN PLOT ARCHITECTURAL RENDERINGS


03 R E L AT I O N A L U R B A N MODEL EXTENDED

INTRODUCTION REPORT 145


8 REL ATIONAL URBAN M O D E L E X T E N D E D Methodology Interpretation

DESIGN REPORT This report introduces the background theory of relational urbanism and compares the application of physical simulation and digital simulation in urban practice. It comes up with a kind of new methodology, proxy modelling, in which the relational urban model is supposed to extended to a wider range. Finally, it evaluates the new methodology of smart river mechanism applied in Athabasca River Basin.


CHAPTER_04 RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL EXTENDED - 145

DESIGN REPORT

A B S TR AC T

K E Y WO R D S

Relational urbanism is born as response to the application of parametric tools in the field of urban design. The theory adds ‘a missing link between the morphologic design aspect of this practice and the support of evidencebased knowledge coming from disciplines, such as eng ineering and economics’ (E. Llabres & E. Rico, 2012). It provides a method of digital interface which is established from the relational urban model to figure out the urban morphology based on data from various fields at the initial stage of urban planning. The relational urban model links every single subsystem together extracting major data from the government report and statistical report. However, as urban practice stretched into a wider range of disciplinary integration, although the original pure digital method is already mature and sophisticated in many fields, it is still an inappropriate and ineffective way when meeting some special subjects like the simulation of geomorphology. Instead, physical simulation presents a comparative advantage in the perspective of high efficiency and real-time characteristics. In this sense,

relational urban model; proxy modeling; digital; physical; simulation

a new method of proxy model based on experimentation is created as supplementary and optional part to extend the relational urban model to adapt to the growing urban practice. The proxy modeling is set up in accordance with systemic thinking and contains both physical simulation and digital information extraction. Then the data from proxy modeling is supposed to link back with the original mathematic model and thus it forms a kind of new mechanism applied in the initial urban design. The Smart River Mechanism is an attempt of this new methodology applied in Athabasca River Basin. It is established based on the fluvial geomorphological study and explores a new way to help city survive in the floodplain which has become the major landform due to the excessive mining construction. This project aims to explore the new methodology of proxy modelling and evaluate the first attempt of the extended r e l a t i o n a l u r b a n m o d e l a p p l i e d i n Fo r t McMurray.


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1.1

R E L ATI O N A L U R B A N I S M

Along with the maturation and systematization of the discipline, urban practice could not been constrained within purely architectural environment any more. It has been a growing cognition that the city is defined as a complex dynamic system consisting with multiple branching systems covering various fields, such as economics, policy, ecology and engineering. Therefore, as an essential result of synthetic thinking, urban design calls more for the background of disciplinary integration to better acquire relatively complete and comprehensive foundation, match the actual and specific situation and organize reasonable and systemic logic. Since the parametric design applied in the practice of urban design, the development of

1. 2

R E L AT I O N A L U R B A N M O D E L A N D D I G I TA L I N TE R FAC E

The implementation of relational urbanism in practice is achieved by establishing relational urban model. The relational urban model consists of various academic interfaces, which are selected based on the main characters of the proposing area. These types of interfaces are supposed to cover as many as possible fields which are possible to become crucial factors to continuously influence the potential u r b a n m o r p h o l og y. I n s t e a d o f mu t u a l ly

technique tools broke the limitation both on the cognition and processing methods of this subject. It provides the possibilities to approach or achieve the urban morphology in the parametric way. This design approach has attracted interest and discussion but also criticisms because of a perceived reduction i n s t y l i s t i c d ive r s i t y ( O we n M o s s , 2 0 1 1 ; Bottazzi, 2012), which is all the more crucial when thinking of an inherently collective f o r m a t i o n s u ch a s t h e c i t y ( E . L l ab re s & E.Rico, 2012). Relational urbanism theory is born as response to the strong intention for incorporating multiple disciplinary as basic source for the research of urban planning and urban morphology. It explores a digital way to correspond the data base generated from various fields with urban morphology. exclusive, the typical interfaces are strongly corresponded with each other and work together as a mechanism to mediate urban problems or influence the developing trends. The following case in Qiandao Lake of China is an initial academic exploration on the establishment and application of relational urban model covering two typical mature interfaces, economy and ecology.


CHAPTER_04 RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL EXTENDED - 147

DESIGN REPORT 1. 2 .1 S YS TE M I C M O D E L L I N G

The site grid is generated based on the real site conditions which ontains the basic geological information, materials distribution and the other related information depending on the local characters and designers' thoughts. I t d o e s n o t o n ly a i m t o s h ow t h e b a s i c geometric structure but more attempts to provide a logical structure as the statistic container to accommodate the data models or dynamic structure to fluctuate along with the data model as time going. Before establishing relational model, it is necessary to identify typical features of the experimental case's location for the selection among different types of branching systems. According to the real situation in Qiandao Lake, the small-scale city is defined as urban service area instead of a complete and mature city, which is surrounded by abundant ecological system mainly existing in Qiandao lake. The domestic income of this small city mainly relies on fishery industry. Therefore, the types of the interfaces which are supposed be applied in this area are the ecological and economy models.

The single branching systems often starts from simple and basic mathematic prototypes and then develop in a local characteristic way. For example, the basic elements in the ecological model come from the local aquatic species and the initial parameters in the economy model is based on the local, national or even international market. Then the further development of single systems, involving the natural and artificial interventions with specific purposesďźˆfigure1&2), follows regional features, such as seasonal characters and habitual human activities. The next step is the linkage between ecological and economy interfaces.

1. 2 . 2 C O N T R O L PAT T E R N S A N D CO N S TR A I NT SO LV E R S

The definition of control pattern is the significantly crucial part to set up the relational model. The control pattern is to find and organize logical links between different types

of interfaces. This kind of control pattern could be defined in various ways which rely on the purpose to organize the relational model.

In recent years, along with the sharp changes of the economic situation in the international crude oil market and the significant improvement of mining techniques, the oil sands industry of Alberta, a province in Canada has experienced unprecedented prosperity. The booming oil sands industry brought enormous economic benefits and attracted a larg e number of “black gold� prospectors rushing into Fort McMurray. The rapid expansion of the population resulted in the growing demands for basic living supplies and the most direct manifestation of this problem was the shortage of housing.

urbanization; in the perspective of space, there has been or is going to be conflict in water and land source between urbanization and mining construction. From the analysis of existing mining pattern, the wetland and natural and artificial channels are the main body; from the analysis of the existing urban area, there is more than half land loss in the seven districts due to the floodplain and wetland. Therefore, m ov i n g t h e c i t y i n t o f l o o d p l a i n i s b o t h challenge to comply with future trends and chance to save forest from land release and seek a new developmental way that the city could be combined with new industries using the advantage of the specific landforms. In this sense, urban practice has extended to a wider range covering not only economics, ecology and local geomorphology.

1. 2 . 3 D E S I G N E D N E T WO R K (S ITE G R I D)

2 .0 U R B A N PR AC TIC E E X TE N D E D : I S R E L AT I O N A L U R B A N M O D E L A L R E A DY S U F F I C I E NT ?

2 .1 U R B A N PR AC TI C E E X TE N D E D: F O RT M C M U R R AY S PR AW LI N G I NTO TH E F LOO D PL A I N O F ATH A B A SC A R I V E R B A S I N

In the perspective of economics, the booming oil sands industry has brought population explosion and hasty urbanization in Fort McMurray; in the perspective of policy, land release and the local government are the backbone of the excessive and overheating


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2.2 MISSING LINK: ORIGINAL R E L AT I O N A L U R B A N M O D E L A N D G EO M O R P H O LOGY

Generally, the traditional architectural or urban design emphasis much more on the project itself, it considers less about the relationships and effects with related elements within the whole environment or system which includes the ecology, economy and geomorphology, etc. The relational model is built for outlining the relationship among each system and

subsystem within the whole environment which were related to specific urban design project. As to the challenging concept of urban sprawling into the floodplain of Athabasca River, the geomorphological factor become extreme important to the Fort McMurray urban sprawling project.

(digital simulation good for micromorphology, not enough for the huge landform transformation ) (the real scale is hard to be simulated, but it could be scale down in an appropriate proportion in the experimental equipment ). Experimentation In Progress: Proxy Modeling and Landform Transformation  (Smart River Mechanism applied in Athabasca River Basin) 

Since the real geomorphology and conditions are in a constant state of evolution, to simulate and learn the logic of landscape transformation under hydromechanical effects, the proxy model was built with rational representative materials and a series of sensing and recording equipment which was used for information extraction and data recording. Based on the physical experimental model and concerned about the project, a interface and a real time feedback mechanism were set up to link the proxy model and practical issues together.

2 . 3 P U R E D I G I TA L S I M U L A T I O N : S T U DY A N D A P P L I C A TION IN THE FIELD OF GEOM O R P H O LOGY

2 .4 P ROX Y M O D E L I N G G E N E RATI O N : C R E ATI N G A P H YS I C A L I N T E R FAC E O N R E A L S I T E D E SIGN


DESIGN REPORT 3.1 M ATE R IA L C ATEGOR I E S: S E T U P R E L AT I O N S H I P S B E T W E E N T H E E X P E R I M E N TA L E L E M E N T S A N D R E A L E L E M E NT S

Since it is quite complex in real process of natural evolution, proxy model was made to simplify the complexities with reasonable accuracy, to achieve this, it is essential to deliberately select materials which would be used in proxy modeling in order to build rational relationship between proxy modeling and real conditions. First of all, the real materials should be categorized according to the purpose of experimental simulation: 1. The materials with same or similar properties should be grouped into one category and the categories should be as simple as possible; 2. The materials with little effect for experimental process or results could be ignored; 3. The materials have negative effects for experimental process or results should be excluded; 4. Supporting materials could be used in case of it has positive effects for information extraction and would not have negative effects for experimental process or results. According to the established categories, each elected material should keep the properties of grouped elements as much as possible. Refer to the real elements, the evolutive timing in process and scales of selected materials should also be considered. On the other side, because of the simplification of proxy modeling, the processes and results could never predict the real evolution accurately, but it is possible to acquire the trends reasonably.

CHAPTER_04 RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL EXTENDED - 149

According to the principles of materials selection and the purpose of experiment, the representative materials of hydromechanical proxy model were selected:

3 . 2 R E A L T I M E S I M U L AT I O N A N D D I G I TA L I N F O R M AT I O N E X TR AC TI O N

2 .1 U R B A N PR AC TI C E E X TE N D E D: F O RT M C M U R R AY S PR AW LI N G I NTO TH E F LOO D PL A I N O F ATH A B A SC A R I V E R B A S I N

Proxy modeling runs a real time simulation which allows testers to learn a real time process of specific evolution during the experiment and make real time adjustments and interventions as well. On the other hand, it is essential to transfer and save the physical experimental process and data into digital information for further analysis and research, so that a series of sensing and recording equipment are required during the experiment. Obtaining available experimental information requires well pre-experiment set ups which should be considered together with the post-processing that would be applied into late analysis. In order to reduce the interference and extract available information from the experiment as accurate as possible, some technical measures and program code are also needed. 1.Lights Kit Lighting is one of the main effective factors for experimental information extraction, In order to reduce the negative impacts of the highlight and shadow for recording and late analysis during the process of experiment, a lights kit was set up to keep the light balance of experiment.

1.Topography and sediments: 0.1 mm cold sands T h e c o l d s a n d s we r e u s e d f o r b u i l d i n g the topography and intervening as added sediments. The landscape transformation by hydromechanical effects is mainly about river bank erosion and sediments deposition. The corpuscular property of sands allow it to be eroded, deposited and delivered by water movements, in order to simulate the process of river evolution and topography transformation. The scale of selected cold sands is approximately 0.1 mm size, which was rarely similar to the real soil and rocks. 2.Ink (supporting material) The ink was used for dyeing the water for presenting the depth of water. The water for experimental use was dyed by single color ink, in this case, under symmetrical lighting condition, the present color of water is in direct proportion to its depth in certain area, which could be sensed by color sensor for depth measurement. 3.Water The different density of Athabasca River water and pure experimental water could be ignored. 4.Dams The dams used for intervention in proxy model are considered about the scales refer to real size, which was 6 m width and 60 m long for each section. 5.Conditions The conditions refer to selected materials were set up as comparative groups and would keep constant during the process of simulation under certain condition, such as the velocity of adding sediment.

2.Kinect Sensor Kinect Sensor is a motion sensing device with built-in range camera and builds on software technology, it can interpret specific movements by developed system and linked to computational program. With well preexperiment set ups and appropriate postprocessing, Kinect could recognize, record, obtain the evaluating process and geographic information and transfer them into digital data and geomorphological model by certain techniques. 3.Color Sensor As it was mentioned, the water was dyed by certain single color to present the depth in the experiment and the color sensor was used to extract the depth information of the simulated river. 4.Projector A projector was used in experiment for projecting a real landform contours onto the surface of sands to build a real site simulated topography. 5.VCR, Camera & Webcam Camera was used for photo recording in every certain time and VCR and webcam were used to record the whole process of experiment.


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3. 3I NTE R FAC E S E T U P W ITH I N F O R M AT I O N F E E D B AC K M E C H A N I S M A N D A RT I F I C I A L I NTE RV E NTI O N   

The interface is a systemic combination of all the information of representative materials, digital geomorphological model, real time control parameters, all relevant analysis, ecological model and economic model parameters, databased calculation, etc. Then, according to the experimental analysis, certain ecological and economic mathematic equations, the interface will give preliminary results of every main essential factor in relational model, such as local biomass and economic profits. Finally, based on these analysis and data, after computational analysis and calculation, the interface would provide guidance about the following interventions in the next step.

2.Real time control parameters The real time control parameters present the essential interventions during the process of the physical experiment that include the number of dams, the amount of added sediment and the velocity of adding sediments.

1.Digital geomorphological model The digital geomorphological model is built based on the Kinect sensor and depth sensor, and it is real time renewed along with the process of physical experiment. The digital geomorphological model can present the real time topographic evolution of the physical experiment, and provides basic geomorphological information for further analysis.

4.Ecological model & economic model According to previous site research and conditions, some essential elements were extracted from the local natural ecological system to build the ecological model. On the other hand, for the spatial expansion and industrial development, the economic model was also made by relational essential local element. Both the ecological model and economic model are based on certain mathematic equations that refer to ecological benefit and economic profit, and there are

3.Analysis Based on the digital geomorphological model and sensing data, a series of analysis were presented in the interface by intuitive diagram, including the contours and sections of the landform, the waterways, erosion and deposition area analysis by comparing landforms of 2 adjacent moments, pond area (deepest area) and island area (land area).


DESIGN REPORT 4.Ecological model & economic model According to previous site research and conditions, some essential elements were extracted from the local natural ecological system to build the ecological model. On the other hand, for the spatial expansion and industrial development, the economic model was also made by relational essential local element. Both the ecological model and economic model are based on certain mathematic equations that refer to ecological benefit and economic profit, and there are certain links or relationship between these elements which are presented on the interface as well/

CHAPTER_04 RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL EXTENDED - 151

5.Feedback mechanism and artificial interventions In consideration of the ecological model and economic model are interactive systems due to the landscape transformation, based on the analysis, a feedback mechanism was established which start with the integration of the preliminary analysis for guiding the next artificial intervention, then the testers would take real intervention (place new dams, add sediment in specific area or change the velocity of adding sediments), and then analyze new generated evolutions as a loop.

3.4NEW MECHANISM TO BE APPLIED IN THE INITIAL URBAN DESIGN

Due to Relational Urbanism theory, proxy modeling patched some missing essential factors into urban design strategy by the support of evidence-based knowledge coming from related disciplines and with advanced techniques and analysis methodologies. It allows architects learning the specific logic in landscape transformation by experiencing and intervening into a real time physical simulation about site, and according to adequate research and analysis, certain links or relationship

between essential urban issues and local landscape could be built as a systemic model in local territory, such as ecological system and economic system. Linked to designated interface with specific models, proxy modelling provides architects a new design methodology by running a real time geomorphological simulation related to urban issues and it also gives a new way of systemic thinking that linked related urban issues with landscape, ecology and economy, etc.

R E L AT I O N A L U R B A N M O D E L E X TE N D E D

4.1 Comparison: proxy modeling is a kind of practical tool but not synthetic thinking In despite of the advanced experimental based analysis methodology and the real time intervention & feedback mechanism that proxy modeling has brought into the urban design strategy, there are still some certain limitations existed in proxy modeling techniques when compared with pure digital simulations, but advantages as well. It is difficult to make a conclusion to tell whether the proxy modeling technique or the pure digital simulation is better than the other, actually it more depends on the practical application of specific urban design strategy. Compared with pure digital simulation, the proxy modeling technique is more like a practical tool in urban design strategy than a kind of systemic or synthetic thinking, which more emphasis on the concept of practical process and real time influences.

and accurate materials set up (including the typologies and properties of different materials) in order to ensure the accuracy of the results from the simulation, while proxy modeling requires to simplify the typologies of materials as much as it could for reducing the complexities and difficulties of the physical operation. In this case, proxy modeling mechanism is a simplified representative model so that it could not simulate the complexities of real site with high accuracy, which is the inevitable limitation of proxy modeling. But on the other hand, even though the digital simulation could achieve it by large amount of detailed set ups in order to approach the real conditions as much as it could, it would increase the calculations by geometric order of magnitude, which would take very long time to complete the simulation and might can never reach the real situations. As for the proxy modeling technique, since the selected materials themselves already have necessary natural attributes that need not to be set up, it is much more sufficient to run a experiment than digital simulation. Moreover, other than the digital simulation produces the outcomes as results, proxy modeling allows architects to have a real time simulation, which could embody the significance of evolution process to the urban design project.

1.The limitations and sufficiency of proxy modeling. Materials categories set up is the essential prerequisite for both proxy modeling and p u r e d i g i t a l s i m u l a t i o n w h i ch i n s o m e extents determined the outcomes of the simulation, and the differences are that pure digital simulation pursuits comprehensive


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4 . 2 R E L ATI O N A L U R B A N M O D EL EXTENDED: INCORPOR AT I N G G E O M O R P H O L O G Y S U B J ECT THROUG H PROX Y MODELING

2.Proxy modeling and synthetic thinking Proxy modeling is built as a physical model for running a real time simulation which aims at presenting the architects the process of specific experiment along time. Proxy modeling itself does not have much significance related to the certain urban issues, it is more a kind of practical tool than a design methodology

of practical tool than a design methodology which should be linked with actual means of urban elements or factors. In conclusion, proxy modeling is an experimental technique which links the geomorphology and specific urban issues together and allows architects thinking about the urban design project synthetically.

Landscape transformation is one of the essential factors that has influence on urban sprawling along time and was missing in traditional urban design. Relational Urbansim attempts to link the geomorphological evolution to synthetic thinking of urban issues by applied proxy modeling technique into urban design strategy. Relational urban model is the basis of Relational Urbanism design methodology, it is based on a large amount of research and analysis related to site conditions, and then it outlines the key elements and factors with clear or blurry relationships among them systemically, some of the elements or norms are according to certain mathematic equations. In case of some of the relationships would be embodied in spatial network and land use, the links between geomorphology to certain urban issues could be built. Generally,

the urban development and expansion is a dynamic systemic process related to a series of factors and subsystems, proxy modeling has linked the missing geomorphological factors into urban synthetic thinking in design strategy. Even though proxy modeling has certain limitations when compared with digital simulation, it presents the process of landscape transformation by a real time physical experiment in representation of real site conditions, which emphasis on the significances of systemic process and time to the urban design project.


DESIGN REPORT

CHAPTER_04 RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL EXTENDED - 153

4 . 3 D I SC U S S I O N F O R TH E D I S C I P L I N A RY D E V E LO P M E NT

Relational Urbanism is a multidisciplinary concept practicing architecture, urbanism and local development through a strategic design approach that engages the complexity of the site to create variability in built environment by relating built form to landscape elements. T h i s re l a t i o n a l a p p ro a ch h a s p a r t i c u l a r potential in post-industrial sites, where challenging existing conditions and processes of remediation resist conventional methods of redevelopment (Vangjeli, 2013). Since the diversification and complexity of certain urban issues, architects could never consider an urban project by single architectural disciplinary position simply, it requires multidisciplinary thinking and methodology to deal with the complex issues. The traditional architectural design methodology more emphasis on the result or output of the project, but actually the conditions of site are changing ceaselessly as a dynamic system along time. Relational Urbansim developed the design methodology by a pply ing proxy mo de ling t e chnique s linked to certain relational model for bringing the missing geomorphological factors and timing effects into the urban design synthetic thinking.


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04 A P P E N D I X REFERENCE

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COLLECTIONS OF WHOLE YEAR STUDY 161 DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ TERM 1

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CODES AND SCRIPS _ TERM 3

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A selection of other excellent works

BEYOND SPECIFIC PROJECT A t l a s t , we wo u l d l i k e t o a t t a ch a s e r i e s o f achievements including proposals, researches, scripts, codes and drawings which were selected from the whole year works that not only be restricted in a separate project, as a review and supplement of the acquired skills and the comprehensive way of learning and thinking through MArch urban design stage.


DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ QIANDAO LAKE PROJECT

CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 161

PREY-HUNTER MODEL IN QINGDAO LAKE CASE


DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ QIANDAO LAKE PROJECT ARTIFICIAL CONTROL AND INFLUENCE

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DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ QIANDAO LAKE PROJECT

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TESTING THE PARAMETERS TO MAXIMUM BENEFITS


DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ QIANDAO LAKE PROJECT SIMULATION OF INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITY IN SITE

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DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ QIANDAO LAKE PROJECT

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TERRITORIAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM ESTABLISHED BY MINIMAL PATH


DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ QIANDAO LAKE PROJECT SIMULATION OF SYSTEM FLUCTUATION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY

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DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ HOUKAISHI BAY PROJECT

CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 167

FISHERY FRAMEWORK ORGANISATION IN HOUKAISHI BAY BY THREADING SYSTEM


DYNAMIC DATA PROCESSING _ QIANDAO LAKE PROJECT SPATIALLY LINKED SYSTEM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT VISION

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rt

CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 169


RESEARCH _ SMART RIVER PROJECT URBAN INDUSTRY INTERPRETATION FOR FORT MCMURRAY

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CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 171


RESEARCH _ SMART RIVER PROJECT CASE STUDY_ FORT MCMURRAY BLOCK EVOLUTION ANALYSIS FIGUREFORMS MAPPING FORT MCMURRAY ZONING 1. TIMBERLEA 2. THICKWOOD 3. LOWER TOWNSITE 4. WATERWAYS 5. BEACON HILL 6. GREGOIRE 7. ABASAND

TE R R ITO R I A L

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G R EGO I R E D I S TR I C T


RESEARCH _ SMART RIVER PROJECT SIMULATION OF TRANSPORT DENSITY

YEAR _2016

YEAR _2018

YEAR _2020

YEAR _2022

YEAR _2024

YEAR _2016

YEAR _2028

YEAR _2030

CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 173

YEAR _2014


RESEARCH _ SMART RIVER PROJECT SIMULATION OF URBAN AND MINING EXPASION

YEAR _2015

YEAR _2016

YEAR _2017

YEAR _2018

YEAR _2019

YEAR _2020

YEAR _2021

YEAR _2022

YEAR _2023

YEAR _2024

YEAR _2025

YEAR _2026

YEAR _2027

YEAR _2028

YEAR _2029

MARCH URBAN DESIGN

YEAR _2014

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EXPERIMENT SUPPLEMENTS _ SMART RIVER PROJECT

CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 175

SLOPE AND THE WEAKEST POINTS ANALYSIS


EXPERIMENT SUPPLEMENTS _ SMART RIVER PROJECT EXISTING MEANDER RIVER FLUCTUATION SIMULATION

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EXPERIMENT SUPPLEMENTS _ SMART RIVER PROJECT

CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 177

SPACIAL NETWORK GENERATION


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EXPERIMENT SUPPLEMENTS _ SMART RIVER PROJECT

CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 179

CONTROL PARAMETERS MATRIX


EXPERIMENT SUPPLEMENTS _ SMART RIVER PROJECT CONTROL PARAMETERS MATRIX

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RESEARCH _ SMART RIVER PROJECT

CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 181

EXPERIMENTS RECORDS


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CHAPTER_04 APPENDIX - 183

CODES AND SCRIPTS


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R E F E R E N EC E L I S T_TH EO RY PA RT

CHAPTER 02

The arrangement of the cells is shown beside. White arrows represent the discharge and sediment f lux from cell, with lengths indicating magenitudes. If th eslope to at least one of the three downstream neighbours is positive, we route the water only tinto that (those) cells, according to: Q1 = Q0S/ES where Q is the discharge and S is the slope from the cell in question into downstream neighbour i ( where i =1,2, and 3 conrresponds to left, center and reight respectively) and Q0 is the total discharge in the cell we arerouting water from. The sum, which runs over all th e neighbours with positive slopes, normalizes the water routing, so that all the discharge in a cell is routed down stream, In its simplest form, the equatation of motion for f low suggestes that n should be 0.5, so we usually use that value, although we have also tried n = 1. Slopes equal the elevation dif ference to each neighbour for the diagonal neighbours. If none of th eslopes to the immediate downstream neighbours are positive, but at least one slope is 0, the water is distributed evenly to this neighbour. If all the slopes are negative, then we distribute the water to all three ( river can f low uphill in real rivers when either th esurface slope is positive or the momentum of the water is great enough). Four sediment-transport rules: Qsi=KQIM Qsi=K(QI SI)M Qsi=K(QI (SI+C))M Qsi=K(QI SI+ξΣQI-1SI-1)M Source: A .Brad Murray, Chris Polar, A Cellular Model of Braided RIvers.

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RULES USED IN THE CELLULAR MODEL


R E F E R E N EC E L I S T_ I M AG E PA RT

CHAPTER_ 02

CHAPTER_ 03

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FIGURE 2.1.1: HUGE OPEN-PIT MINING AREA AROUND FORT MCMURRAY

CHAPTER_ 04

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FIGURE 6.1.1: BRAIDED RIVER, BETSIBOKA RIVER DELTA, MADAGASCAR.

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FIGURE 2.1.2: WELLPADS WITH DRILLING RIGS AT CENOVUS ENERGY’S CHRISTINA LAKE OIL SANDS OPERATION IN NORTHERN ALBERTA.

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FIGURE 6.1.2: MEANDER RIVER, THE MISSISSIPPI.

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FIGURE2.1.3:BOREAL FOREST STRIPPED OF TREES AND BEARING THE SCARS OF EXPLORATION, PREPARED FOR OIL SANDS MINING. THE WETLAND ECOSYSTEM TOOK MILLIONS OF YEARS TO FORM AND CANNOT BE REINSTATED.

FIGURE 7.1.2: ROCKFILL DAMS.

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FIGURE 7.1.1: EARTH STRUCTURES.

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FIGURE 6.1.3: STRAIGHT CHANNEL IN COLORADO RIVER.

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FIGURE 7.1.3: CONCRETE ARCH DAMS. SIMON BOLIVAR HYDRO PROJECT, VENEZUELA.

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FIGURE 2.3.1: MARINA-ORIENTED URBAN STRUCTURE. VERONAWALK, 2012 NAPLES, FLORIDA, USA

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FIGURE 6.1.4: BRAIDED RIVER IN UPPER REACHES.

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FIGURE 7.1.4: SPUR DIKES (TRANSVERSE DIKES).

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FIGURE 2.3.2: FISHERY-ORIENTED URBAN STRUCTURE. LUOYUAN BAY, FUJIAN PROVINCE, CHINA.

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FIGURE 6.1.5: MEANDER RIVER EVOLUTION.

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FIGURE 7.1.5: LONGITUDINAL DIKES.

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FIGURE 2.3.3: AGRICULTURE-ORIENTED URBAN STRUCTURE. DAMS ON THE EDGE OF THE FIELD, DUTCH, 2011

http://www.yadoujie.com/?p=13302

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