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Philip Kent, ctrairmam amd CEO of TurnGrr Broadcasting Systenr, advised an audience of l{ub business executines t@ take responslbllity for thelr nnistakes. For vldeo, go to hostomherald,corn. |-EARI,{ F$IOM ME!

W'nnrmer e&ufieffs Ne&wor$ffi \MilI ea$ee esp mwaffifr^fuwxK$p*g ffighr ing Web sites the scourge of childhood bullyMoved by reports of bul- ing that was once reseryed lying, including the death of for schoolyards, the Cartoon 6-year-old Phoebe Prince of Network will unveil a series South Hadley who took her of public service announceown life after being harassed ments beginning tomorrow, in school, the chairman and Kent said. A town-hall-style chief executive of Turner meeting hosted by Anderson Broadcasting said his net- Cooper and focused on bulworks are launching a cam- lying will follow ne* week, paign to prevent similar tra- Kent said, Sy,!E$$l8A tlA0{ $ASK


"We've taken up the issue of school bullying," said Phiiip Kent, head of Turner tsroadcasting System Inc., speaking before iocal business leaders at a meeting of the Boston Couege ChiefExecutives' Club of Boston. With the age of text-messaging and social network-

bomb scares throughout the Hub. '1'11 be apologizing for the rest of my life," Kent said. "I'm not gonna relive the events of that day it's much too painfuI"


He added,'Mayor Menino was not too happywith Philip Kent at the end of that day." Nor were Red Sox fans in 2008, when Turner's broad-

cast transmission



for his media American League Champiconglomerate, Kent said onship Series failed in the Stumping

TBS is focused on responsible programrning despite

frst inning

tbat put him in the crosshairs of IIub leaders.

Show" instead. Kent said he owned up to

leaving the Fen-

way FaitMul watching a two high-profile-incidents rerun of the "Steve Harvey both incidents. "Take responsibility," he advised ploy went awry in business leaders. "And do

TBS paid the city ofBoston more than $l million a.fter a

marketing 2OA7 and sparked a series

of the right thing."

,ffi$* Wmm$x$xxstmsu ffiwm$ Boston College's Mark Herzlich fights his way back from cancer By Mark Giannotto Washington Post Staff Writer Friday, September 24, 2010; 12:14 AM

lN BLACKSBURG, VA. He's been through six months of chemotherapy, another four weeks of radiation treatments and surgery to insert a 12-inch titanium rod to help stabilize his weakened left leg. Yet when asked about the hardest part of his recovery from cancer, Boston College senior linebacker Mark Herzlich thinks about his right foot.

In May 2009, doctors found a large tumor in Herzlich's left leg and diagnosed Ewing's sarcoma , a rate form of bone cancer that afflicts just two out of every million people younger than 30. After being declared cancer-free last October and cleared to participate in team activities this past spring, Herzlich was anxious to return to the field. He was so eager, though, that he overdid it and suffered a stress fracture in his right foot in June that forced him to miss all of the Eagles'training camp leading up to the 2010 season.

"It was frustrating because it just happened during regular workouts," Herzlich said. "lt was just the constant stress and pounding on it after a full year of not really doing anything. Mentally, it was annoying because I sat out for so long and having to sit out another four weeks during camp was very tough." But Herzlich has given a new meaning to overcoming setbacks over the past year and a half. When he got the cancer diagnosis, the 6-foot-4,244-pound linebacker was coming off a 2008 season in which he was named the ACC defensive player of the year and a Butkus Award finalist after finishing with 110 tackles. He was forced to sit out the 2009 season for treatment. But while he struggled with the chemotherapy sessions that took away his long brown locks of hair and sapped his energy, he didn't allow the disease to take over his spirit.

Herzlich tried his best to maintain his workout schedule and remain at his playing weight. He became a quasiassistant for the Eagles, giving advice on the sideline at practice and traveling with the team to every game. He continued to attend class and graduated with a degree in marketing. He's currently pursuing an MBA. Herzlich's story has garnered national acclaim, and he has been the recipient of several awards because of his perseverance. Last year when Boston College visited Blacksburg to play Virginia Tech on Oct. 10, the Hokies' football program held a fundraiser leading up to the game and presented Herzlich with a check for $9.400, in the name of a nonprofrt organrzation that raises attention to rare diseases. But ultimately, all Herzlich wanted was a return to competitive football, something he accomplished three weeks ago when he started and had five tackles in a 38-20 win over Weber State. He had another four tackles when the Eagles defeated Kent State. 26-13. a week later.

"I believed the whole time I was going to come through, but it became more of a reality after I had my surgery and everything went well and it felt good and I started running again," Herzlich said. "That's when I really understood that it was going to happen, but I always had the drive and the push to be able to play again."

Said Virginia Tech Coach Frank Beamer, whose team visits Boston College on Saturday: hasn't lost a step. He's back where he belongs, back on the football field."

"It looks to me like


Herzlich admits, though, that he still has some hurdles in order to return to his 2008 form. His stamina hasn't been up to par after missing- ro rnuny practices, although he believes intensive workouts during the Eagles' bye week leading into Saturday's game against the Hokies will solve that. pick after the 2008 Herzlich remains the energetic and physical dynamo whom many projected as a first-round NFL draft to grow season, but some of his natural instincts and reads on the field are not quite there yet. He must also continue linebacker comfortable with middle linebacker Luke Kuechly, a sophomore who last year stepped into Herzlich's outside

spot and was ACC defensive rookie of the year.

His progress, though, has amazed those around him.

"Mark experienced one, ',Not many of us have experienced miracles," Boston College Coach Frank Spaziani said. and he's on the verge of doing the next one. It's just a joy, a pleasure to watch." the Herzlich says he's more relaxed now, and even more focused on football since his recovery. other than that, with dealing only thing that's changed about his lif'e is his involvement with numerous charity organizations cancer.

only The moral of this journey, he says, is to "never give up, never quit on your dreams." But now, Herzlich's 30-12, College, Boston defeated it concern is Virginia Tech, the team that kept him frorna BCS bowl game when in the 2008 ACC chamPionshiP game. any'thing better," Herzlich said. "l'm fVirginia Tech] be our first [ACC] game, you couldn't ask for of the hardest things I've done in my it's one alwuys gonnu b. u.un..r. survivor and I'm pioud of that because and help life. buimy goal right now is for the next 10, Il,12 weeks to become the best football player I can be my team win. ,,Having

"lf I can get back to being

happy with how I'm playing, I'll be in a good spot."



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belli has donated $3 miliion tc endow a Boston College professorship, and Alan Marcus rnili be the first professor to oecupy the Gabeili ctrair in finance at BC's Carroli School of Managernent. "Mry x'ife, Regina, and I ]:elieve thai a fundamental under-

He has funded ihe constrrrc-

tion cf a ocrrnitorg and in 2002, the Gabelti Foundation made a $10 million gift to endow the Gabelli Distinguished Fresideniial Scholars trund.

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ehairrnan Peier Lynch and his wife, Caro\m, to fund a program that trains schcol principals; and $2C million fiorn Roche Bros. supermbrkets cofounder Fatriek

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Ch,ris Reid,g csn be rea*ted reid,y @globe.ccrn.



KKsffi &W&ee ruKffitrffi K #â‚Ź}Wffiruffi SEPTEMBER 23,2OIO

To Mario Gabelli, America is best run as a free-market meritocracy. To restore the notion that power should go to those with merit and talent, the chief executive of Gamco Investors Inc. announce two multimillion-dollar gifts to educational institutions that he says are the best drivers of meritocracy.

will this week

With a $25 million donation to his alma mater, Fordham University, the largest in the university's 769-year history, he rename the undergraduate business school, expand student scholarships and faculty chairs and create the Center of Global Investment Analysis, a series of classroom curriculum and internship programs that will focus on global


capital markets. The gift is toward a $500 million capital campaign the university launched last year to "strengthen the school as a global program based in New York, which with all due respect to London, is the financial capital of the world," says Joseph McShane, the university's president.


million gift to Boston College will create an endowed professorship in finance in the college's Canoll School of Management. The school will award it to Alan Marcus, a finance professor whose most recent work is on models of asset allocation and risk characteristics of securities. Previously, Mr. Gabelli, who serves on the college's board of trustees, gave $10 million to create the Gabelli Distinguished Presidential Scholars Fund, which provides 15 students will full tuition every year. $3

"America's global competitive advantage is maintained through education," Mr. Gabelli says. "The only way to get us back in the game and compete with the best minds in the world is to invest in faculty and students of these institutions."

Mr. Gabelli, who is 68 years old, was born in the Bronx to Italian immigrants and was the first in his family to attend college. He won a scholarship to attend Fordham and received an MBA MARIO GABELLI from Columbia University, where he says instruction by the late Roger Murray on Benjamin Graham and David Dodd's approach to value investing set the course of Mr. Gabelli's career. He founded Gabelli Asset Managementin 1977, which now manages $30 billion in global investments. drou,n by Noli Novak

"Educators now face a challenge to make sure immigrant children still can say, 'If I work hard, nothing can stop me from going to the college of my choosing, becoming the owner of my own business or a CEO of a Fortune 500 company,"' Mr. Gabelli says.

Frofsnrsrfi Professor receives hon or at BC Posted September 23,2010 09:00


A Needham resident and Boston College finance professor, Alan Marcus, has been named the first recipient of the Mario J. Gabelli Endowed Professorship at Boston College, according to a press release. The professorship was established by Mario Gabelli, chairman and CEO of Gamco Investors, at the college's Canoll School of Management to help ensure business students will receive the best education possible, said the release.

"My wife Regina and I believe that a fundamental underpinning of our democratic system is meritocracy, and that America's global competitive advantage is maintained through education," said Gabelli in the release. "For a great university to help accomplish that goal, it should honor excellent faculty such as Alan Marcus at Boston College." Gabelli is the father of four Boston College graduates and joined the college's Board of Trustees in 2003. He founded the Wall Street Council at BC, endowed the Gabelli Distinguished Scholars Fund and funded a dorm named after him on Commonwealth Avenue. Alan Marcus of Needham.

"Mario Gabelli is one of the all-time most successful investors, whose investment philosophy ... is consistent with what we teach as best practice," said Marcus. "While I would be honored to be selected for any chaired professorship at BC, I am particularly honored to have been chosen for the Gabelli Professorship." Marcus earned his Ph.D in economics from MIT and began teaching finance at BC in 1991. He has also taught business at Boston University and MIT as a visiting professor. He researches and teaches derivatives and securities markets, risk and asset management and investments. He has co-authored three leading finance textbooks: Investments, Essentials of Investments, and Fundamentals Corporate Finance.


xffi$ffiAMmmffiA Portraits of Irish Writers in Boston Boston College's McMullen Museum showcases a compelling collection of portraits of Irish writers as depicted by Irish artisits. By Tara Dougherty Irish America Magazine Pu


Th u rsday,

Septem ber 23, 2OIO,


:06 PM

Over the past several centuries, a number of lrish artists have produced compelling portraits of lrish writers in painting,

sculpture and photography, and now for the first time, those collected works are on view in the United States. Entitled "Literary Lives: Portraits from the Crawford Art Gallery and Abbey Theatre, tgl3ld," the exhibition is comprised of 49 works and runs through December 5,2010, at Boston College's McMullen Museum. Peter Murray, director of the Crawford Gallery, Cork, and co-curator, explains that the show has a dual purpose: "The works of art in this exhibition celebrate literary achievements, but they also celebrate the talents of lrish visual artists. The painters, photographers, and sculptors who created these portraits give an insight both into the writer's world and also

into the way in which they were seen by those around them." Murray goes on to explain that in many cases the subject and the artist knew each other and that "often the portraits are an expression of respect.

"Jonathan Swift is depicted by his friend Francis Bindon, while over two centuries later, the poet Micheal O'Siadhail is painted by his friend MichaelO'Deal. Patrick Hennessy's portrait of Elizabeth Bowen is clearly a celebration of the writer's home and heritage, while Norah McGuinness' image of Frank O'Connor is an intimate portrayal of one of Cork's greatest

writers." ln addition to the visuals provided entirely by lrish artists, the exhibit also includes a range of books, manuscripts, letters and

illustrations from Boston College's John J. Burns Library of Rare Books and Special Collections, which add to the experience. Prof. Marjorie Howe of BC's lrish Studies program explains that the artifacts from the Burns Library "examine how different objects embody aspects of a literary life." The museum, located in Delvin Hall on Boston College's Chestnut Hill campus, is open Monday through Friday from



to 4 p.m. and Saturday and Sunday from noon until 5 p.m. For more information on extended hours and holiday closings visit or call (617) 552-8100.

ffiNlilllomey*orn Beyond the 401(k): Seniors must work longer

By Penelope Wang, senior writer September 75,2010:3:19 PM ET (MONEY Magazine) -- After 30 years studying pension systems around the world, Alicia Munnell knows what works -- and what doesn't. As head of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, she warned early on that 401(k) plans would fail to provide the level of income that retirees would need. Not many agreed with her at first. But by 2006, Congress, other academics, and much of the financial serr,zices industry had concluded that defined-contribution plans had some serious flaws. The result: the Pension Protection Act, which mandated 401(k) refotms such as encouraging autoenrollment and the use of target-date retirement funds. Those measures, however, aren't enough to fend off a coming crisis, Munnell argues.

With savings and housing wealth below peak levels, workers are less prepared for retirement even as Social Security deficits are expected to balloon, threatening future benefits. How to fix the mess? Munnell, a former economics adviser to President Bill Clinton, calls for broad changes in America's retirement system. She shared her ideas with senior writer Penelope Wang. Let's start with Social Security. There's a lot of discussion now about how to ensure its solvency. What's your view? There's no silver bullet. Certainly higher payroll taxes have to be part of the discussion. If people understood the tradeofl which is either having lower Social Security benefits in the future or putting in more money now, they'd be willing to put in the money.

With 401(k) balances so low, people will be increasingly relying on Social Security in the future. If payroll taxes are raised I .9 percentage points, split between workers and employers, Social Security would be solvent for 75 years. Raising the retirement age for full benefits to 70 or higher is something that's being talked about a lot now. It should be on the table. We are living longer, and jobs are less physical, so we can work longer. The age for full benefits has been pushed to 67 from 65. So it makes sense to index the age of full benefits to longevity in the future. There are some problems with doing that, however. One, about half of those claiming benefits claim early, at 62. So if the fullbenefits age goes up, the early-retirement age has to rise too. "'We are living longer, and jobs are less physical, so we can work longer. The age for full benefits has been pushed to 67 from 65."

Alice Munnell Then there's the issue of older people who have health problems or whose skills have eroded and cannot get jobs. They might need to rely on an expanded disability option. That's not an easy or costless thing to create. But those kinds of fixes have to be included. Otherwise people will retire at 62 with very low benefits, and by the time they get to 80, they may be in bad financial shape.

What about other fixeso such as tifting the earnings cap on Social Security


which is now $106,800?

I can see raising the maximum taxable income back to where 90Yo of wages are covered, where it used to be, vs. 83% now. But if we tax higher incomes, we have to decide whether to provide benefits for the additional taxes. Paying out more in benefits reduces the positive impact the additional revenues would have on the system's solvency. But not doing that would break the link between contributions and benefits. It's better to provide some benefits, so the basic promise of the system remains intact -- that there's a relationship between how much you pay in and what you ultimately collect. Otherwise you change the nature of the program from universal insurance to something that is for other people, not for you. The govemment programs that work best are those that work for everyone.

Another proposed fix is to change the way benefit increases are set, indexing them to general price increases rather than to wage hikes, which tend to run higher than the inflation rate. Doing that would provide lower benefits than were promised. Social Security ties benefits to earnings; the system was designed so the average worker would get 40Yo of pre-retirement wages. Advocates of price indexing say, "lt's really just the dollar amount that matters, and your benefits will keep pace with inflation." But with price indexing, recipients would end up with a lower percentage of their pre-retirement earnings. That's not a minor change.

Given the problems with Social Security and 401(k)so you've proposed a new national savings plan. How would it work? Let me be clear: I'm not at war with 401(k) plans. A lot of money has been spent putting that system in place, and it would be crazy to rip it apart and not build on it. As for expanding Social Security, we've got about the right amount of pay-as-you-go financing. [The system is based on the premise that payroll taxes on current workers can support the benefits paid to retirees. If there's a shortfall, Social Security will tap its reserves, or "trust fund."] Still, if you add the Social Security benefits people are going to receive to what they're likely to get from 401(k)s, it's not enough. We need to fill the gap with a third tier of savings.

I envision something that provides an additional20Yo of pre-retirement earnings through a defined-contribution system, which would be paid out as an annuity at retirement. Saving in the plan should be mandatory, with the money managed by private financial services companies and invested conservatively -- mainly in fixed-income assets like inflation-protected securities. Conversely, you would take more risk with Social Security funds.

It makes sense to invest in stocks in the Social Security trust fund [instead of government bonds, as done now]. That's the place to put risky investments, since that risk can be smoothed out over generations. To the extent that stocks deliver decent returns, people will have to contribute less for Social Security than they would have to otherwise -- and that would free up money for them to contribute to the new savings tier. I'm open to discussion about the details. I just need people to be persuaded that we need a bigger retirement system.

What if stocks perform poorly? Wouldn't that jeopardize Social Security? Over the very long run, stocks successfully.

will reflect economic growth

and should give you a better return. Canada has done this




Trent launches world revolution in theology Sep. 07, 2OL0 | Global By |ohn L Allen fr E ;F;!.



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Five centuries ago, Trent launched a revolution in Catholic life. The famous councilthat met in this northern ltalian enclave from 1545 to 1563 engineered the Counter Reformation, thus equipping Catholicism to respond to the most significant megatrend of the day: the Protestant Reformation and the dissolution of Christendom. It just may be that in the summer of 2010, Trent did it again.

At the gathering of moral theologians in Trent, Italy, Maggie Ssebunya, a Ugandan doctoral student in theology at Boston College, talks with Jesuit Fr. Peter Henriot, an American who works in Zambia. (Yiu Sing Luke Chan)

That, at least, was the ambition of a July 24-27 galhering of nearly 600 Catholic ethicists and moraltheologians, representing four continents and 73 countries. They came together under the aegis of "Catholic Theological Ethics in the World Church," for a conference titled "ln the Currents of History: From Trent to the Future."

Participants say the event both symbolized and advanced another Catholic revolution, this one methodological: ln an era in which two-thirds of the Catholics in the world live outside Europe and North America, theology can only be done in a global key.

"Historically, there's been a lot of nationalism deeply embedded in how we train, study and work," said Jesuit Fr. James Keenan of Boston College, the architect of the gathering in Trent. Keenan spearheaded efforts to raise more than $70O,OOO to ensure that theologians from developing countries were strongly represented. "Today, there's a new Catholicity taking shape," Keenan said. "We recognize that we have to be voices with others, not just for others." The turnout included more than 200 theologians from the developing world, almost 150 "new scholars" (meaning recent doctorate recipients), and a few of the best theological minds in the European hierarchy, including Archbishops Bruno Forte of Chieti-Vasto, ltaly, and Reinhard Marxof Munich and Freising, Germany, alongwith Bishop KarlGolserof BolzanoBressanone, ltaly. lt offered a dramatic visual expression of how much the theological guild has changed since the Council of Trent, as half the theologians were laity and at least 200 were women.

That sense of being part of a global community became the leitmotif. "The most important fruit of Trent is not so much a new agenda for theology, but a new way of doing theology," said Jesuit Fr. Agbonkhianmeghe E. Orobator, a Nigerian who teaches at Hekima College Jesuit School of Theology and lnstitute of Peace Studies and lnternational Relations in Nairobi, Kenya.

"lt's about having the kind of conversation that allows us to move forward as a world church, not just one small corner of the world," said Orobator, who was on the planning committee for Trent. The gathering built upon an earlier summit of ethicists and theologians organized by Keenan in Padua, ltaly, in July 2006. Both events responded to what is arguably the most important seismic shift in Catholicism today, which is the emergence of what analysts call a "world church."

At the dawn of the 20th century, there were 266 million Catholics in the world, concentrated in Europe and North America, so that the church's demographic profile was roughly what it was at the time of the Council of Trent. Just a century later, there were 1.1 billion Catholics in the world, with two-thirds living in the global South. The projection is that by midcentury, three-quarters of all Catholics will reside in the Southern Hemisphere. A shift to a global way of doing theology has at least three immediate implications, according

to participants.

First, it means greater attentiveness to diversity of all sorts in the church.

"lt's very comfortable to just stay with like-minded theologians," said Agnes Brazal of the Philippines. "But if we are to prevent increasing polarization in the church, we need to engage in what we can call an 'intrareligious' dialogue." Such a dialogue, Brazal said, must include "greater inclusion of women, theologians from the South, young scholars, and the

participation of representatives from other faiths." The assembly included 88 female theologians. To ensure the presence of African women at Trent, scholarships were awarded to seven women doing advanced studies in theological ethics in Uganda, Kenya, Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Second, a global method means a broader sense of what the issues in theology are. Jesuit Fr. Andrea Vicini, an ltalian bioethicist, flagged five key themes that emerged in Trent:

o . . . .

Human dignity (and not just in the context of health care and "life" issues); Justice (North/South, but also within cultures); The environment; New technologies; The position of persons within institutions.

Third, doing theology in a global key means that no matter what the issue may be, it's simply impossible to think about them exclusively from one's own national or regional perspective. "We can't use one narrative as the paradigm forwhat is going on," Keenan said. "lf l'm writing on Catholicism and citizenship, I can't just look at the American experience. I need to hear how they're thinking about these issues in Ukraine, and in ltaly, and in Brazil." Brazal, however, stressed that the transition to a global method in Catholic theology is a work in progress. "Oftentimes

theologians from the South are expected to provide the 'context,' meaning the examples, while theologians from the North are in charge of the theoreticalframeworks," she said. A truly global theological method, Brazal said, will have to overcome that inequity.

Orobator said, "lt's no longer just the North that teaches values or norms, but it's becoming a really global conversation." Going forward, Keenan said he doesn't foresee another massive global conference in the near future. lnstead, he wants to focus on building networks so that cross-border conversation becomes systematic. That likely means greater use of communications technologies and other "virtual" ways of connecting, Keenan said. Uohn L. Allen Jr. is NCR senior correspondent. His e-mail address is

Venture Capital Dispatch An inside look from VentureWire at high-tech starl-ups and their investors.

From Boston College Mascot To Venture-Backed CEO August 1,3,20IO,5:58 PM By Ty McMahan


Highland Capital Partners General Partner Peter Bell used to teach a few classes at Boston College and would often ask professors to recommend the school's best and brightest for positions within his portfolio companies. One of the students who ended up at his doorstep was Bill Clerico.

"I knew

he was a good student and had good grades, but I asked Bill what else he does," Bell said, recounting an interyiew with Clerico for a position at

medical tourism company Healthbase Online Inc. "He said, 'Well, I don't know if you're a fan of BC sports, but I'm Baldwin."'

That's Baldwin The Eagle, mascot of Boston College athletics. Bell just happened to be a season ticket holder to just about every sport on campus.

Bell's response: "'You're hired."' Seven years later Bell has led a $7.5

million Series B for Clerico's WePay Inc.

and joined the board of directors. Go Eagles.

Clerico co-founded WePay with Rich Aberman in 2008 to make it easier for groups of people, such as roomates or friends ordering concert tickets together, to collect and manage payments online. When Clerico and Aberman met at Boston College, they were both heavily involved in a wide range of groups that needed to manage money. Clerico was the treasurer of multiple on-campus clubs and was tasked with hounding people to pay bills. Aberman found the same trouble when organizing a trip with friends. Released in April, WePay enables users to establish an FDlC-insured account for each group they want to manage. Users can accept payments from bank accounts and credit cards, accept donations and sell tickets. Payments can then be made from the account with a WePay prepaid Visa card, paper checks or online transfers.The Palo Alto, Calif.based company charges either a3.5%o transaction lee or a 50 cent transaction fee, depending on whether group members pay with a bank account or credit card. The company says it signed up nearly 2,000 groups last month alone and saw payment volume increase 80o% over the same period.

Highland Capital Partners led the new round, with participation from existing investor August Capital. The company previously raised about $ 1.7 million from individuals including PayPal founder Max Levchin, angel investor Ron Conway, YouTube co-founder Steve Chen, and Eric Dunn, the former Intuit Inc. chief technology officer and chief financial officer.

Bell said that with most personal checks being written person-to-person, he saw to-use model.

"They've carved out


really interesting multi-billion dollar niche," Bell said.


big opportunity in WePay's easy-

Special Report

America's Best Colleges 08.11.10, 06:00 PM EDT

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People Who Are Angry Pay More Attention to Rewards

Than Threats ScienceDaily (Aug. 11, 2010) Anger is a negative emotion. But, like being happy or excited, feeling angry makes people want to seek rewards, according to a new study of emotion and visual attention. The researchers found that people who are angry pay more attention to rewards than to threats -- the opposite of people feeling other negative emotions like fear. Previous research has shown that emotion affects what someone pays attention to. If a fearful or anxious person is given a choice of a rewarding picture, like a sexy couple, or a threatening picture, like a person waving a knife threateningly, they'll spend more time looking at the threat than at the rewarding picture. People feeling excitement, however, are the other way -- they'll go for the reward.

But nobody knows whether those reactions occur because the emotions are positive or negative, or because of something else, says Brett Q. Ford of Boston College, who wrote the study with Maya Tamir, also of Boston College, and four other authors. For example, she says, "emotions can vary in what they make you want to do. Fear is associated with a motivation to avoid, whereas excitement is associated with a motivation to approach. It can make you want to seek out certain things, like rewards." The research is publishedrn Psychological Science,


joumal of the Association for Psychological Science.

For her study, Ford focused on anger. Like fear, anger is a negative emotion. But, like excitement, anger motivates someone to go out and get rewards. First, participants in the study were assigned to write for 15 minutes about one of four memories in their past: a time when they were angry, afraid, excited and happy, or felt little or no emotion. A five-minute piece of music reinforced whichever emotion the participant had been assigned. Then they completed a task in whish they had to examine two side-by-side pictures. An eye-tracking device monitored how much time they spent looking at each picture.

Angry people spent more time looking at the rewarding pictures -- which suggests that this kind of visual attention bias is related more to how an emotion motivates someone than whether it's positive or negative. Looking at something is the first step before the thoughts and actions that follow, says Ford. "Attention kicks off an entire string of events that can end up influencing behavior." The people who felt happy and excited also looked more at the rewarding photos, but the two groups might act differently -- an angry person might be motivated approach something in a confrontational or aggressive way, while a happy person might go for something they want in a nicer way -- by collaborating, being sociable and friendly.

Cancer-free, Boston College's Mark Herzlich back for 2OIO By Andv Gardiner, USA TODAY July


GREENSBORO, N.C. defensive coordinator Bill McGovern was on a recruiting trip in May 2009 -BqSIeneAUggg when he received a phone call from the father of Mark Herzlich, the reigning Atlantic Coast Conference defensive player of the year. The good news came first: Doctors had figured out what had been causing the junior linebacker's lingering leg pain. Then came the bad news: Herzlich had cancer, a bone tumor called Ewing's sarcoma.

"I was so stunned I literally almost crashed my car," McGovem recalled. "I didn't want to believe it. Maybe two hours later Mark called me ... He said it was a shock but that he was going to beat it. He already had his mind set on how he was going to get squared away and go forward." Fourteen months later Herzlich has done all of that and more. Speaking at the ACC's annual football media gathering Sunday, he could not disguise his enthusiasm.

"I have almost all my hair again, but it's actually straighter," Herzlich said with his curly m?ne. "It's so great to be back."


big smile, running his hands through

Herzlich was in constant motion during the player's luncheon before media interviews Sunday, moving from table to table to introduce himself to other ACC players assembled for the summit. "He was just so excited to be here," said Wake Forest center Russell Nenon. "I've had a family issue with cancer as well, and I have so much respect for what he's done. No one really knows what he's been through. But anyone who's played against him knows what a terrific linebacker he is. It's an honor to play against him."

Herzlich underwent seven months of chemotherapy and five weeks of radiation. He now has a titanium rod running the length of his lower leg. The hardest part was the nausea caused by the chemo.

"It makes everything taste bad, so I caked everything in Frank's RedHot sauce," Herzlich said. "Every.thing I ate was just loaded with hot sauce." Herzlich was a three-sport star (football, basketball and lacrosse) at Conestoga High in Wayne, Pa.. He focused on football after being challenged by his father, Sandy, during his freshman season to play the sport with more passion and commitment or give it up. Herzlich started twice as a freshman at Boston College, started all 14 games as a sophomore, and became a player of national consequence after a junior season in which he led BC with 110 tackles and six interceptions, returning two for touchdowns. Then came the diagnosis of cancer after BC's spring game.

"I'd had the cancer since January of that year, I just didn't know it," Herzlich said. The survival rate for Ewing's sarcoma is around 70o/o.But doctors told Herzlich football would no longer be an option.

"I wasn't overly religious before, but I began praying every day that I would be cured of cancer and that I could play football again," Herzlich said. "That's what I love most." Herzlich (6-4,238 pounds) has regained his strength and been cleared by BC's medical staff to play. The question that remains is what happens when he begins full-contact drills next month.

"Hitting is the best part about what I do, and I have no anxiety about that," Herzlich said. "I have to be physical and angry when I play.

"All the tests have been good, and I'm the best judge of my own body. Getting back, whether I'm ready to hit or ready to run full speed, has always been on my terms. Well, I'm ready." Count McGovern among the believers. "Whatever Mark says he's going to do, he's going to do," he said. "He's one of those guys you never bet against." Boston College senior Mark Herzlich wasn't the only Atlantic Coast Conference linebacker to miss all of last season because of misfortune. While Herzlich battled back from cancer, North Carolina State's Nate Irving recovered from an automobile accident that left him battered and broken.

Irving suffered a punctured lung, separated shoulder, broken rib and compound fracture of his left leg after he lost control of his car while driving near his North Carolina home last June. A determined rehabilitation regimen has restored him to full strength and made him eager to return to the heart of the Wolfpack defense. "Everything is back to normal, I'm just trying to get back in football shape," Irving said Sunday at the ACC football media summit. "I was uncertain how my body would react but (going through spring practice) has helped me trust my body again."

A 6-1, 235-pound redshirt senior, Irving was battling for first-team all-ACC honors in 2008 until an injury cost him third of the season. Even so, he led the team with four interceptions and tied for third in tackles.


"Having Nate back is a huge morale boost," said N.C. State wide receiver Owen Spencer. "He brings a definite level of comfort to our defense. It could have gone the other way for him and his career, so I am excited for him to step on the field again."

Irving followed Herzlich's comeback closely, and the two shared stories and a few laughs Sunday at the media session.

"It was different injuries but it affected us the same w&)," Irving said. "It was good to with him."


him and good to be back

Irving lost almost 30 pounds in three days after the accident and would still like to add 10 pounds before the season begins. Whatever his weight, he will return with a different mindset. even getting up at 4 a.m. to run," he said. " I don't want to "I took too much for granted and now I savor everything go back to the player I was. I want to be better than that, and I know I can do it."

THE CHRffNICIE uf Flighc:. Etluuafiun

The Dead Tetl No Tales but They Stitl Have Rights July 25,2010 By Jill Laster Ray D. Madoff finds the study of laws on death and inheritance fascinating. But perhaps even more interesting, she says, is what those laws say about the living. Ms. Madoff, a professor at Boston College Law School, has studied and written extensively about estates and trusts. In her latest project, she explores what the American legal system says about death, and what that says about our culture.

Q. What makes America's legal system distinct in how it views the rights of the dead?

A. When it comes to our most personal interests, things like our bodies and our reputations, the law takes the view that we have virtually no interest in what happens after our death. ... What's interesting is, this is 180 degrees different from the position that we take with respect to property. When it comes to properly, the law bends over backward with respect to the wishes ofdead people.

Mimi Bernadin

Q. In your new booko Immortality snd the Law: The Rising Power of the American Dead,, you say those property rights have increased significantly in the past century. Why has that happened?

A. It's being driven by corporate interests. Corporate interests are using the dead as a decoy, basically to profit themselves. So if you look at things like dynasty trusts, perpetual charitable foundations, copyright, and rights of publicity, in all of these areas the expansion of rights of the dead has benefited corporate interests, either because they derive management fees or have outright ownership. And they have lobbied their local legislatures to expand the value of their rights. Q. Historicallyo why does a person not have greater rights over his or her body?

A. There is no property interest in the corpse. This principle might have made sense at a time when the body really had no value and was just a burden that needed to be disposed of in away that wouldn't contaminate the community. ... But as uses of the body have changed over time, the laws have necessarily tried to follow. Q. What sort of changes?

A. There have been very modest changes, mostly in connection with organ transplants, where there's been a big desire to increase the number of organs. That's why we have the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, which is designed to allow people to give their bodies to science for medical study and for organ transplants. Q. Do decedents have the right to control how their identities are eventually used?

A. Not really. They can designate who gets their right of publicity, but not what they ultimately do with it. For example, if you look at the identities owned by this Indiana company, CMG Worldwide, which is one of the leading companies that own individuals'rights of identity, they own people who I imagine would be slightly honified to know

that they had become a corporate asset, people like Rosa Parks and Malcolm X. Jack Kerouac is also owned by CMG Worldwide. Q. What can a company do with those people's images? Hypothetically, could Rosa Parks sell Coca-Cola?

A. The corporation's rights are a matter of contract. I would imagine that, in most cases, CMG Worldwide acquires all rights of publicity that the heirs would otherwise own, in which case Rosa Parks could absolutely be used to sell Coca-Cola. Q. How does one acquire rights to use a person's identify?

A. They buy it from the estate, and then they control it in all sorts of ways that we don't even think about. For example, you could have an Elvis look-alike contest, but even if you're a nonprofit, you'd still have to pay the company that owns Elvis's identity $5,000. Q. What can


do to make sure my heirs follow my wishes about my body and image?

A. Let people know in advance what your wishes are, and keep your hngers crossed that they're going to carry through. Being clear with your wishes while you're alive is always the most helpful thing that somebody can do.



It's tiny at the top By G.MAHADEVAN July 19,2010

Philip G. Altbach, education experl, talks about the maladies afflicting the higher education sector in India Invitingforeign universities is a bad idea, partnerships are better Kapil Sibal's plan to build more world-class universities, top-quality research institutions, expanding the number IITs... it isn't going to work


Philip G. Altbach is J. Donald Monan S.J. University Professor and Director of the Centre for International Higher Education in the Lynch School of Education at Boston College. He was the 2004-2006 Distinguished Scholar Leader for the New Century Scholars' initiative of the Fulbright programme. He has been a senior associate of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, and served as editor of the Review of Higher Education, Comparative Education Review, and as an editor of Educational Policy.

Philip G. Altbach

He is author of 'Turmoil and Transition: The International Imperative in Higher Education', 'Comparative Higher Education', 'Student Politics in America', and other books. He coedited the 'Intemational Handbook of Higher Education'. His most recent book is 'World Class Worldwide: Transforming Research Universities in Asia and Latin America'.

Prof. Altbach spoke to The Hindu-EducationPlus on various issues related to education. Excerpts from an interview. Most significant changes in the higher education sector The most significant change over the past 30 years is what the Europeans calls 'massification' the development - of the world. universities and the access of larger and larger pockets of population to higher education over much


In the coming 20 years most of the developments in higher education would be in China and India because the two countries still enrol only a modest percentage of the age group for higher education. In China now, it is 22 per cent and in India, 10 per cent. So, there is a huge scope for growth here and that is a dramatic challenge for the higher education system. Another factor is globalisation which affects a lot of sectors including higher education. Science and scholarship have become much more internationalised. You have large numbers of students going abroad to study. The two largest sources of students for the U.S. are China and India. On quality of education

Just last week one of the branch campuses of the Michigan State University in Dubai failed



there weren't enough

India should not be relying on foreigners to improve the higher education system. It is not practical. Most of the institutions which are going to rush in if India opened its policy doors wider are low-end institutions. Here, I think the Chinese have got it right. There the regulatory environment is about partnering. Their rules say that if a foreign university comes it has to partner with a Chinese university and it has to be 51 per cent owned by the Chinese. Some, not many, decent foreign institutions have gone there. There may be 10 or 15 such partnerships. But there are low-end institutions too going there.

I am sort of happy that the legislation planned here is so restrictive. But all the same I think inviting foreign universities is a bad idea. Some of the IITs and such institutions already partner with the U.S. institutions. Expand this model.

O Copyright 2000 - 2009 The Hindu

Kâ&#x201A;ŹffiKi* Are You Overpaying for your 401(kX Posted by Stephen Gandel Tuesday, July 13, 2010 at 5:12 pm

Boston College's Center for Retirement Research Center has a study out this month about the cost of 401(k) plans, and they have found another flaw in the nation's defacto retirement savings system: It is overpriced. So not only do 401(k) plans not meet the needs of the average American, they aren't cost effective either. I wrote about tlre pi"cl-tlem r.vith 40i{ki pians in a cover story for TIME last year. The ugly truth, though, is that the 401(k) is a lousy idea, a financial flop, a rotten repository for our retirement reserves. In the past two years, that has become all too clear. From the end of 2007 to the end of March 2009, the average 40I(k) balance fell3lo/o, according to Fidelity. The accounts have rebounded, along with the rest of the market, but that's little help for those who retired or were forced to during the recession. In a system in which year's gains one build on the next, the disaster of 2008 will dent retirement savings long after the recession ends.



One of the issues with the plans that I didn't look into was fees. But given the many problems with the savings vehicles, it is not a surprise that they are higher than they should be. Here's why: The problem, aecqlrdillg to lhe tsC sluel"y-, has to do with ETFs and actively managed mutual funds. Most of the money invested in stocks in 401(k) plans are in actively managed mutual funds, which cost significantly more than ETFs. That would be fine if actively managed funds outperformed ETFs, but they don't. These data show that the funds with the greatest expenses are essentially evenly divided between those that covered their costs and portfolio risks, thereby outperforming the market, and those that did not. Therefore, on balance, actively-managed funds can entail a substantial amount of additional risk for investors, resulting from their failure to

cover their transaction costs. The problem is it is very hard to pick mutual funds i?aseJ u,n past pcrf'urrnancu'. Now it is always the case that most people would be better off most of the time in an low-cost index fund or ETF, rather than an actively managed mutual fund. And that's true no matter how you are investing, be it in a retirement savings.account or a regular brokerage account.

But 401(k)s magnify the problem. The BC study. which is co-authored by Richard W. Kopcke. Francis M. Vitagliano" and Zhenya S. Karamcheva, finds that not only are actively managed mutual funds more expensive on their own, but having them as choices in 401(k) plans make the plans themselves more expensive. So it's a double expense whammy for 40i(k) participants. On top of the higher expenses of the funds, the study finds that a01(k)s would be able to cut their expenses 0.3% ta 0.45o/o ayear if they were to cut out actively managed funds. And while that might not sound like much, over 30 years the added costs of having actively managed mutual funds in 401(k) plans ends up being significant.

Within defined contribution pension plans, most of the money that is invested in equity mutual funds is held in actively-managed funds. Without giving up the investment objectives offered by these funds, phrticipants in 401(k) plans could pay significantly lower costs on their assets by shifting to ETFs and commingled trusts. Together, the potential savings in explicit fees and trading costs.can amount to 0.7 percent of assets or more for the average.40i(k) plan. These savings boost the net return on balances in these accounts by the same amount.

The bigger problem with 401(K) plans that this study brings up is this: The market for 401(k) plans does not allow the consumers to shop around. And that drives up costs, rather than what our free market system is supposed to do. Employers pick their company 401(k) plans, but they are not the end uset, and usually pass the cost of those plans onto their employees. Typically, your company offers a plan or it doesn't. And you have the choice to take the plan or walk. And since 401(k)s are still the best available option, most of us decide to take it rather than go without. Yes, our employers are supposed to shop around for us, and find the plans with the lowest expenses. But as this study shows, clearly they don't. Just another sign that our current 401(k) retirement system is broke (pun intended).

EntrryFren*ur Risk it When You're Young Why you shouldn't wait to start your business: You may never get back to it. By Joel



Entrepreneur Magazine - July 20'10

Rich Aberman and Bill Clerico faced a tough decision as they approached the end of their senior year at Boston College. Start an innovative onlinepayment processing business, or start a new job and grad school? ln the end, they decided to go the safe routeAberman set out for law school at New York University and Clerico took a job as an investment banker at Jefferies-and they promised themselves that, one day soon, they'd get back to starting their business. But all too quickly, they saw themselves getting sucked into the workaday world and their entrepreneurial ambitions slipping away.

Go for it: WeFay co-lcunders Bill Clerico,left, end Rich AhErman PhotoG Eva Kolenko

"lt only gets harder to start a company as time goes on," says Aberman, 25. "As you get used to a salary, you start getting comfortable with a certain lifestyle, which becomes hard to leave for the uncertainly of being an entrepreneur." Clerico was worried that if he tried starting a company and failed, he would be six months out of school with no relevant job experience or tangible success. "ln hindsight, I think that was a dumb fear," says Clerico, 24."You can always go get an entry-level job." So after just a few months, they changed course: Aberman left law school and Clerico quit his job, and they founded WePay , an online system for groups to manage their funds. They scraped by on income from odd jobs--Aberman taught LSAT courses while Clerico did technology consulting-as they worked to get their business off the ground. "We just kind of did what we had to do to make rent every month," Aberman says. "And it's completely doable, too. There's the fear of not having any money, but in actuality, you can usually find a way to scrape up six or seven hundred bucks to make your rent payment." The decision paid off, and a little over a year after founding the company, Aberman and Clerico have raised nearly $2 million for WePay from high-profile lnternet investors such as Max Levchin, Eric Dunn and Ron Conway.

WePay launched its service March 30, allowing individuals and groups all over the world to establish an account and collect money in a variety of ways--from paper checks to credit cards--and then use a debit card to spend the money in the account. They already have several thousand users, ranging from sports teams to fraternities to groups of roommates managing rent and utilities. WePay collects transaction fees ranging from 50 cents for bank account payments to 3.5 percent of credit-card payments for each payment received; outgoing transactions are free. Aberman and Clerico were able to get their college business idea back on track after a minor detour, but they strongly recommend starting right out of college.

"You have the degree under your belt, and you haven't tied yourself into a particular lifestyle or career path," Aberman says. "lf you take a risk, and it fails, the worst that happens is that you have a unique experience that you can use as an impressive factor to get you into graduate school or to rock a job interview." Adds Clerico, "lf you wait until you work for a few years or go to graduate school, you are just piling on reasons not to take the risk, and you reduce the chances that you ever will." Joel Holland, 25, is the founder and CEO of Footage Firm in Reston, Va. He can be reached al


il K0REATI*fE.1 |

A certain alumni event 07-01-201018:04 By Lee Sun-ho

On May 'l 1, I was privileged to be invited to join the Boston College Korean Alumni Association (BC-KAA) dinner held at the Hotel Shilla in Seoul. The meeting was specially organized by ardent alumni members of BC and hosted by Christine Ahn (class of 1983), a professor at Sogang University, and her banker husband Charles C. Ahn to welcome the Seoul visit of President Fr. William P. Leahy, S.J. and his deputy on the ceremonial occasion of the 50th founding anniversary of Sogang University which shares the common mission of Jesuit Catholic higher education with BC. Until I was invited to the BC-KAA function, I didn't expect that I would be able to meet over 80 participants at the party all of whom are BC graduates residing in Korea. They are engaged in different brackets of diverse white-collar jobs in Seoul. The lively G-generation youngsters of BC alumni, almost half-a-century my junior, mostly finishing four year undergraduate courses, seemed to be very enthusiastic about the alumni activities for their alma mater. They also have close contacts with one another back home from BC. There was one BC-KAA couple married last September, and such a union could exist at any time. Quite a number of BC-KAA members use English first names, as shown in the case of Matthew Kim (class of 1985), CEO of a manufacturing company who plays a leading role in BC-KAA. The main sponsors, the Ahns, Christine and Charles, became parents of the university as their son is enrolled at BC now.

Youthful BC-KAA members were surprisingly attentive to their alma mater. A video presentation on the school that evening reminded me not only of the Chestnut Hill campus in Greater Boston and the atmosphere of faculty-student immersion in the desire to have empowering college days, but also the traditional athletic activities of BC, especially American football games and men's ice hockey matches. For the more than four decades since I returned home in the mid-1960s, I could find very few people in Korea educated at BC. Due to my age of over 70, the oldest among the dinner participants that night and my bygone BC campus life at Chestnut Hill, Mass., between 1964 and 1966, I was naturally in the spotlight as a rare oldster of having "asked and answered questions" seemingly like a black swan coming from the external world.

Above all, Father Leahy was interested in listening to tales of my student life at BC as a foreign graduate student in the mid-1960s. I conversed with him about the scenic Jesuit campus called Eagle Heights at Chestnut Hill long before the present-day expansion of the site and the up-to-date reorganization of many buildings through renovations. told him, "Not many students from the Orient could be seen at the school during the mid-1960s unlike the 72 "Commuting from my residence in Newton Corner to the undergraduate students from Korea nowadays." I also said, Chestnut Hill campus was done mostly by bicycle during the school semesters." I

On the other hand, BC-KAA youngsters, some the age of my grandchildren, were curious about my studies at BC "Strenuous qualifying examinatiors for studying even a couple of decades before they were born. I mentioned, abroad given by then Ministry of Education of Korea were an obstacle. Both Korean history and English had to be

passed at any rate." Korean history was much more difficult to pass than English for liberal arts students."

"At the inception of Korea's economic development plans in the To answer questions on why I chose BC, I said, underdeveloped Korea on a full tuition scholarship. That was why then a come from me to 1g60s BC kindly allowed chose BC Graduate School of Arts and Sciences for my further study,"


them, " l had to put up with language barriers for a couple of years not only in English for the two-year graduate work but also in French for the second language requirement test to receive my master's degree in I candidly told

economics at that time." Father Leahy and his companion kindly brought some BC brochures, campaigning for financial aid and undergraduate admission information for Korean applicants.

the university's motto from Homer's lliad, "Ever to Excel" remains with every member of the BC community throughout the world a challenge yearning for greatness in all realms of human endeavors. I hope

As a fountain of learning, BC has experienced a tremendous growth in recent decades, ranked 34th among universities in the Statei by U.S. News and World Report. I am sure BC will accept more freshman admissions for applicants from Korea hereafter. It is my earnest wish that all the members of BC-KAA from the younger generation continue to display a vigorous passion for their alma mater, prosper in their individual professional fields in the global community, and eventually iignt tfre world as BC's 150th anniversary (slated for 2013) campaign signifies.

The witer is an outside director of Kunwha Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. in Seoul. He can be reached at kexi m2@ u

ffifts Wsst$nTffitmhe Thursday, June 24,2010

Men are redefining success, fatherhood ByDougMost GLOBE STAFF

Ifthe folks at the Boston College Ceirter for Work & FarnilY couldpicktwo dads from pop culhrle as the models for Lhe fatherhood study they released iast week, they could easily be Ari Gold andAdam Braverman. Braveflnan, Peter Krause's sensitive, always-apologizing, baseball-coaching dad on "Parenthood," is all aboutfamjlyfirst, Goid, Jeremy Piven's hYPerstressed, power-hugy, sexist Pig ofan agent on "Entourage," is,

well, not.


It's the Gold stereoBpe


Brad Harrin$on, the executive d;reg.or dt the BC cen-teJ woldd like io see emdicated. He said the aim ofthe study, which centered on yearlong interviews with 33 ma;ried, coliege-educated, first-

time dads, v/as to

mate atwork, but not athome. Then the women's movement comes along. Butwith men, there was no revolution ofthe sarne sort." Irutead, it's been more like a slow and steady evolution to where we axe today, wilh young fathers relishing the opportunity ofbeing a dad, but struggling to balance the child care responsibilities, housework chores, and other new duties irrto their work life. "Dads are not legitim at:tzed at homeyet," said Hturirlgton, a S4-year-old father of three himself whose wife works irll tirne.

Whentheywere askedhow fatherhood had changed their aspirations in their careers, the dads answered that there was a time when climb[rg up the "org chaxt" mattered. Now Hardngton said, the fathers in the siudy \\â&#x201A;Ź-ntedtobe sure "that

reclefine success,


andwhaiitmeans tobe afa*.}rcr. The

py, a.nd

study also reflects

intheorgchartl' TothatrAd

it doesn


matterwhere I am


Goidwould laugh, crack!'Iet's trug it

naliy,begirming to wre.stle with.the same issiies that



wom.rliibve struggled with foryears


-makfugtimefor pedia-

notzuddenly cravingthehome

m'ents, andother

Iife (Diapers? Dishes? Dirty

childcare, trician appoint-

offrce. Dads are








Afewkeypoints: e Dads found thatthey gained respect atwork afier having a child, and that new career options even axose. e Thp "traditional" family, where one paxent works and the other stays home, is more outdated than bell-boBom s. In 197 5, 45 percent of families fit that modei. Today, it's 20 percent. Unlike manymoms, who openly rearrange their schedules aroun<lchild care or take advantage of flexible time their job provides, most dads tlid not, and instead used more infotmal, or "stealth" approarhes, quietly slipping away to takb of their duty and then retuming without any detailed exlilanation. The men said their approarh was not because

laundry? Brins it onl). Sure, men are more involvecl withtheir children. Butthere is no mistaking whbb still the boss. In 1992, 21 percent ofwomen saicl their pa"rherc weretaking as much


ofalackof support ft'om

or more resporsibilityfor their children. In 2008, the number was 31 percent, accordingto the Families andWork Instituie. And in families where one spouse stays home to care forthe kicls, 97 percent of the time, it's the wife. But what Harrington hopes his study does make ciear is this: Today's new dadhas eaxned the same respect for care-giving, cook ing, cleaning, and comforting as morns deserve for their role in the

workplace. "If we talked about women in the workplace the waywe talked aboutmen athome, weclbe suedi' he said. "But somehow itb OK for people to painttlds picture ofmen as haDless in their role as fajhcrs

ffiffi&ffiffi BOSTON SUNDAY GLOBE, JUNE 20, 2O1o



schoo3s &tre fCIeaps



Lyrrches gtoe $2om

to train principals ByTbacyJan GLOBE STAFF

Boston CoUeSe will launch an innovative training program for school principals in January to improve ur-

ban education and prepare more low-income students for college, with a $20 million donation from.Eidelityvice chairman Peter Lynch and hiswife, Carolyn The new Lynch Leadership Academy, to be housed at Boston College's

School of Education, will be the first program in the nation,to bring together education leaders from Catholic, charter, and district public schools, said Boston College


officials, who will formaliy announee the gift, one of the largest in the col-

history tomolrow. "America has the best colleges and universities in the world but that's not true for prekindergarten through high school," said Peter L1'nch, a 1965 BC graduate who atlege's



schools &re f,ocus

eftsC gift >

BOSTOil COTLEGE Continucd{romPageBl

tended Newton public schools.

The principals will also participate in oniine seminars alrd online meetings with colleagues at other schools. Program leaders

hope that after the principals' year of formal training they will

continue to tap into the program's network of educators for support and new ideas, said Carolyn Lynch, president and CEO of the Lynch Foundation.

"This type of communication principals. The isolation is inherent in is especially important for

the job, and we're hoping to elim-

inate that," said Carolyn Lynch,

"There's great disparity between suburban and urban schools," Lynch, a longtime supporter of Catholic sehools and Teach for

whose father was a public school principal in Delaware. Catholic schools, which have a

America, said he wanted the


leadership academy to include public schools to reach more students because "parochial schools alone can't solve the problem." During the yearlong training, new andaspiring principals from different types of Boston schools will learn from professors at Boston College's schools of educa' tion, management, laq nursing, and social work to better understand and respond to the issues facing urban students, said the Lynches in a phone interview. More than ever, schools of all kinds must know how to adfuess a myriad of health and social problems such as neighborhood violence, bullyrng, homelessness, and childhood obesity, educators said. Urban schools also struggle with how to deal with undocu-

mented immigrants and students whose parents are incarcerated or on parole, theysaid.

"On the public policy level, district public schools, charter schools, and Catholic schools are one another as ad-

i pitted against

versaries. But on the gtassroots levei, they have the same commitment to kids," said the Rev. Joe O'Keefe, dean of the Lynch School of Education. "We face ; the same kinds of issues and have I the shared mission of providing educational opportunity for undersewed populations." Each year, 25 school leaders will be selected to particiPate. Theywill keep their day jobs and

receive a $5,000 stiPend and

three gtaduate school credits to attend a two-week intensive sum-

mer program, weekly coaching sessions at their schools with assigned mentors, and monthlY seminars at Boston College with professors and national exPerts.

sttong track record of academic

in the city, can share lessons about character education, said Mary Grassa O'Neill, secretary of education and superintendent ofschools for the Archdiocese of Boston. And charter schools, she said, could spread

innovations such as extended school days and providing health care, counseling, and job-trainingforparents in tle evening.

"The more we can stitch to' gether the educational leaders across charter, district and Parochial schools, the stronger educational opportunities will be for children and their families in the city of Boston," said Meg CamP bell, executive director of Codman Acaderny, a charter school in Dorchester. "It shouldn'treally matter what kind of sdrools children goto interms of outcomes." The fellows will initially be drawn from Boston's 135 district

public schools, 16 bharter

schools, and the 129 parochial schools of the Archdiocese of Boston, O'Keefe said, but could expand to other cities in Massachusetts such as Malden and Lawrence. Lynch said he hoPes the academy will be a model and be replicated across the country. Lynch estimates that bY 201'!

about 4,5 percent of all se-trool leaders in Greater Boston will have had the opportunity to go throughthe institute.

"!tom my career in business, the definition of management is getting things done through,others, which is what a princiPal doesi'Lynch said. 'Tt's a comPlex job, and there's no handbook for it. it's avery uneven educational

experience for kids today and principals can turnttrat around."

Tracy Jan can be reached at tjan@gl,


$ZSIW K,yxecEe $essed airses &o smaEce foeteer prfrreeipaBs By *ENEE DUDTEY

Academy says it

wiil award country's kindergariens grades is the most impor- Lynch Fcundation, have for ther was a principal, called through its high schools tant issue in America," more than a decade donated the job "one ofthe most destruggle. Lynch, who serves as vice to causes that expand op- manding and important" in

25 fellowships annually to

Citing the "cancer" of principais for a leadership weak education in America,

retreat, two-week summer "There's a cancer affect- chairmaa of Fidelity Man- portunities to urban youth. the nation and said the new philanthropists Carolyn A. program, and monthly an{ ing the country in that stu- agement and Research Co., "For us, the essential ingre- program will deploy reweekly sessions with lead- dents. in some schools are ership coaches. not being weli-sewed and In an interoiew Friday, Pe- that.only limits their future to train priniipals of ter Lynch pointed out that opportunities in life," said Boston's Catholic, charter althor:gh the United States Lynch, a 1965 graduate of and public schools. has an enviabie higher-edu- Boston College. The Lynch Leadership cation system, many of the "Education in the early and Peter S. Lynch have donated $20 million to Bosron College for a new program

added in a prepared statement. "The principal is the key individual who can affect everyone in the school." Lynch and his wife, Carolyn, who is president ofthe

dient is education, and this sources at Boston College to academy will help to im- train principals. prove educational leader"I know how critical it is ship at public, charter and that they receive the best urban-centered parochial training and support availschoo1s," he said.

Carolyn Lynch, whose fa-

able," she said. -renee.d!diey@bostonhe€


.ffiffi ffiffiffiffiffiffi wffi€ffi ffiffiffiffiK ffiffi€ wffiffiffiw Tvro unusual things about Peter Lynch have noihing ro do wilh be-

ing a legendary philanlhropisr.

\['all Streei guru, the most



cessful mutual fund manager in U.S. histon and aurhor ofthree in-

vesring best-sellers. including

"Beai the Street." He did that at Fidelity, repeatedly, for decades.

First, he's given miliions and millions to help lxAmerica's very yet retroubled urban schoois - leciure sisted the temptai:ion to everybody on how to fix them. Second, he's given miliions md millions to Catholic causes as well. Yet again, he's resisred the lemplation to bash cr w;eak the Catholic hierachy, which has become a second job for legions of heatbroken Catholics, myseif included. Clearly, temptation is the wrong word. When you speak to Peter Lynch, he does not sound at all iempted to ser anybody straighi. Discussing schools, he sounds simply passionate and pragmatic. He is steeped in urban education's problems and amious to pul his ! energy where he and his wife. Car{g olyn. see lhe most obvious need. "We iust Lhink rhis could be a $grert 16turn on invesLmenr." he € said Fridav of his latesr gift: $20 .€ million to'iaunch at Boston Col3 leee the nation's first inlensive j trining academy for principals. i It uill ofler degrees ro leaders of Boston's 135 public schocls. Io cha= ters and all Boston Archdiocesan schools. These sctroois norv compete for chiJdren. Lymch's vision: prircipa-ls shuing u ith each orher iheir triumphs and over




iure of lots of families, post-traumatic stress issues, all the

shootilgs," said Joseph O'Keefe,

prominent Catholic business-

men raising


donathg moaey to revive Bosion's

parochial schools-

In March, Patrick dem of BC's Lynch Roche, co-founder School ofEducation lmed fot Peter ald Carolpr of Roche Bros. supermarkets, do-Lynch. to BC to help miliion principal urbm nated il an $20 "If a school doesn tknow anlthing about irah Catholic teachers and adhousiag issues or imigration law, ministrators. Jack Connors, who you cm' those kids in need." co-founded the ad llrm Hill HoliO'Keele hopes that in five Years. day, has raised iens of millions to haif of the schools' principals will upgrade city parochial schools. The Lynches have also provided have learned this and more at the huge suppon to the Urbm Lynch-funded academy. Teacher Corps, the lnner Catholic several is among Peter Lynch

City Scholars:rip T-und. Ciry Year, Bosion iibraries ald Bcvs S*Giri.s Clubs. AskeC if it's been hard not to weigh Ln on the simering con-

troversies in education - charier schools, teacher merit pay, tenure; Lynch declared himself an etc. "agnostic." "t iust want all schools to bc good, he said. Lynch i" a man well-versed in word couihing. His every pronouncement is el'eballed on Wall Stree t. He can move markets with a whisper. It's why he would rather speak with restraant, let actions show his intentions.

stq i*--

!+::r :i:r!'s .- -i\.

li::i;---:** .l:i:!ia,:i::l:

ber from business school is that

Lynch. That's what principals

have to do, too.

And mmagement training for them in cash-strapped and crimeri,'lrlan.iries i< iust ndt haopening.

in the leaders ofthe faith.

But in deference to an extraordinarily generous man trying to Apparently restraint in cri- move mountains for city kids of all tiquirg rhe Cathoiic Church hier- faiihs, I will, for today, stoP here.

students of the imer city. "One of the few things I remem-

management as getting 1 ou define things done through others," said

aichy comes naturaliy to him, too. 'I think the Catholic Church is fire," Lynch said. "It's improving. It made a loI of mistales and ii going in the right direction." It is? Clearly, I don't agree. When Lwch sajd those rvords, I coulC noi help tllnt hcw mmy disillusioned Cathoiics might be in Bcston pelfs rere powedul nen likc he md Patri-'k Roche willing io speak out about irjustices not in the faith but, as Jack Comors has put it,



Associahd Frgss June 20, 2010


gift to fund leadership program for educators

Boston (AP) -- The former manager of Fidelity Investments' Magellan Fund is making a $20 million investment of a different kind, with a return he hopes will be measured in stronger leadership for Boston's schools, The gift to Boston College from Peter Lynch and his wife, Carolyn, will be used to establish a program to train and mentor principals in the city's public, charter and Catholic schools. The job of the modern-day school principal is "incredibly complex," as principals cope with difficult financial and managerial challenges while educating children from an array of socio-economic backgrounds, Lynch said.

Starting in January, the Lynch Leadership Academy will award 25 yearly fellowships to principals or assistant principals nominated by superintendents or other educators, The fellows will participate in weekly meetings with leadership coaches, monthly workshops, a two-week summer institute and a leadership retreat. The fellows will be chosen from the city's 135 public schools and 16 charter schools and the 135 area Catholic schools run by the Archdiocese of Boston. Lynch said he could envision similar initiatives popping up in other urban school districts around the cou ntry.

"When you start something, you don't know what it's going to turn out to be," he said, Under Lynch, the Magellan Fund averaged a 29 percent annual return from 7977 to 1990 and helped Boston-based Fidelity become the nation's largest mutual fund company. Lynch continues as a parttime consultant to the firm, but focuses much of his attention on his charitable foundation, which has provided financial support for such programs as City Year and Teach for America. Carolyn Lynch, the

daughter of a high school principal, is the foundation's president. The academy will be run by the school of education at Boston College that also bears Lynch's name, thanks to a $10 million gift from the 1965 BC graduate about a decade ago. Joseph O'Keefe, dean of the Lynch School, said principals are often frustrated by the lack of

mentoring. "Sometimes it's, 'Here's your master's degree, here's your certificate from the state to be a principal, goodbye,"' he said. O'Keefe said the relationship between public, charter and parochial schools has often been acrimonious as the sectors have competed for diminishing educational resources. Bringing their principals together could spur better understanding and an exchange of mutually beneficial ideas, O'Keefe said. For example, he pointed to the recent controversy over an archdiocesean school in Hingham that revoked acceptance of an B-year-old boy with lesbian parents. Catholic school principals could benefit from the input of public school leaders who have grappled with social or moral issues in other ways, O'Keefe said.

Improved student performance and test scoresf particularly for inner-city schools, are some ways to measure the academy's effectiveness, but Lynch believes success would also be achieved by developing a more confident, self-assured and energized cadre of principals. "They're just going to feel better about what they are doing and they'll probably stay longer at it," Lynch said. "They won't get discouraged, they'll be more effective and they'll help other principals."

Silssmberg June 20, 2010

Fidelity's Lynch Gives $20 Million for Boston College Center By Tom Moroney June 20 (Bloomberg) -- Peter S. Lynch, the vice chairman of Fidelity Management & Research, and his wife, Carolyn, are donating $20 million to form a center at Boston College to mentor new principals in the Boston area.

The Lynch Leadership Acadeffiy, to be funded by the Lynch School of Education, will award 25 fellowships annually to principals from Boston's 135 public schools, 16 charter schools and the 135 schools of the Archdiocese of Boston, Lynch said.

Principals will attend a leadership retreat, a two-week institute, monthly workshops and weekly sessions with advisers. The goal is to help create a network of colleagues for them to exchange ideas, Lynch said in an interview.

"There's no handbook for these people on how to be a better principal," Lynch said. "It's a really tough job and often you're isolated." The couple was inspired parlly by Carolyn's father, who was a principal, Carolyn Lynch said. Fellows will receive three graduate school credits and a certificate in school leadership.

Lynch is a I 965 graduate of Boston College. The Lynches gave $ 10 million to launch Boston College's Lynch School in 1999. Lynch, one of the nation's best-known investors, managed Fidelity's Magellan Fund from May 1977 to May 1990. Assets under management during that time grew to $14 billion from $22 million, according to Adam Banker, Fidelity spokesman.

--Editors: Robin D. Schatz,Jonathan Kaufman To contact the reporter on this story: Tom Moroney in Boston at To contact the editor responsible for this story: Jonathqn Kaufman at i kuilm an I 7 @,bl oomber g. ne t

Sam ffirnmr.{rrs 6bromfr

Fusiness Report


The chrontcle withE{*trahery

Fidelity's Lynch Gives $20 Million for Boston College Center Saturday, June 19,2010

O2010 Bloomberg News June 20 (Bloomberg) -- Peter S. Lynch, the vice chairman of Fidelity Management & Research, and his wife, Carolyn, are donating $20 million to form a center at Boston College to mentor

new principals in the Boston area. The Lynch Leadership Academy, to be funded by the Lynch School of Education, will award25 fellowships annually to principals from Boston's 135 public schools, 16 charter schools and the 135 schools of the Archdiocese of Boston, Lynch said. Principals will attend a leadership retreat, a two-week institute, monthly workshops and weekly sessions with advisers. The goal is to help create a network of colleagues for them to exchange ideas, Lynch said in an interview. "There's no handbook for these people on how to be a better principal," Lynch said. "It's a really tough job and often you're isolated." The couple was inspired partly by Carolyn's father, who was a principal, Carolyn Lynch said. Fellows will receive three graduate school credits and a certificate in school leadership.

l,ynch is a 1965 graduate of Boston College. The Lynches gave $10 million to launch Boston College's Lynch School in 1999. Lynch, one of the nation's best-known investors, managed Fidelity's Magellan Fund from May 1977 to May 1990. Assets under management during that time grew to $14 billion from $22 million, according to Adam Banker, Fidelity spokesman. --Editors: Robin D. Schatz,Jonathan Kaufman

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&€€sa?*g €Bae v*€ses

#fffumr aem€€v* €msad EyGailWaterkoese GLOBE CORRESPONDENT

Boston Coliege senior Soumia

Aitelhaj thought she knew what she would do when she graduat-

ed. She had plans to go ta larnr school and learn how to arlvoca,te for the people of irer native Ama= zigh culture in ncrthern Africa. But one poetryr class changed her plans dramatically.

The 22-year-ald Revere resident and 28XS graduate took an introduction to poetry ciass. Instructor Kim Garcia saw Soumia had an irnmediate knackforwrit-

ingpoetry. "Soumia came into my class with strong poetic gitts already

present, and from her earliesi vrork produced poems with remarkabiy rich imagery. . . which is not what you see in a i:eginning pcetry st*dent," Garcia said in an e-mail. rnuch for iaw schooi. On Monday, Aitelhaj left for a So

two-month trip to Morocco to record the poetry that is vital to the Amazigh people" Slie wiil begin with another poet -uery close to her: her grandmother. Garcia said Aitelhaj didn't reveal that her grand.mother was a poet untii the class of the semester.

"Ther: lhe id-ea of recording and translating Amazigh oral tradition brought the love of poetry and the activism together," Garcia said. Aitelhaj said recording poems would be a way t0 preserve her

grandmother's poems and the


greater culture ofher peopie.

"I was still siruggling to describe the project to my grandmother when I told her about my idea. Everyone - mygrandmothwas exeited," er, my brothers she said.

Sournia Aitelhaj (with her grandrnother below) is deterrcdned to reeord the poetry of the.drrrazigh in nor"thern Africa. and Garcia that her g-randmotler was visiting frorn Moroceo last spring, Prichard said she knew she had to become a part of the


Poetry runs deep in Aitethaj's roots in the Amazigh villages of norlhem Africa vrest of the Niie River, in countries including Morocco andAlgeria" Orai recitation is an important tradition, ihough the number of those who can recite is


'Apart from my grandmofher, there are very few elders who have this gift," Aitelhaj said. Aitelhaj said the loss of tradiiion is a result of many factors, the strongest being the wish for young Amazigh to assimilate into the broader trYench andArab culture of Moroccc. 'I4rhen I lived in Morocco, we moved to the city when I was 5 or

6 years old," she said. "Before that is when I remember people

project. "She told rne her grandmoth' er was in Boston, and then Kinr

and I fiipped out and thought, 'We have to get her grandincther

on film singing these poem doing poetry, and dancing and

songs,' " Prichard said. "That was

mcving." The project took on a new dinaension when Garcia contacted a filmmaker friend about record-

the aha moment for me, that whatever Soumia's doilg, I'm on

ingthe poems.

summer recording and laying the groundwork in Nforoeco, Prichard's film crew plans to go there

"It was h very exciting prospect for me," said Alexia Frichard, executive producer ofClosed Loop Films. "The mission of my comparly is sociai and economic justice and io bring those messages to a broader audience."

When Aiteltraj told Prichard


After Aitelhaj speads this

nextsummer. The project is being partially funded by grants from The Phiianthropic Initiative. Aitelhaj also has received support from the BC Human Rights Center and law schooi, but she must siili find more funding before a film crew can follow her to Morocco next summer.

Prichard estimated the cost of

the documentary would be behveen $150,000 and $200,000.



FAT}9ER KNOWS BE53; Bem Gatto gets a htrg

from his daughter Eve, 5r yesterday,

He's is affiong a

grorving numher of dads getting mose imvolved in day-tsday ehild-reasing. HERALD PHOTO BY MATTHEW HEALEY

ffiffiffi ffiKffiffiffi LEGION OF DADS Efu,IBRACE'NEW' ROLE AS fu]R. IVIOhI By 80&$EIH $$llLEY


A new Boston Coliege

study finds that dads may be stepping into traditional caregiver roles out ofecbnomic necessity - but they are finding fulfillment as Mr. Mom. "They are reacting to the reality ofthe situation and doing what needs to get done," said professor Brad Harrington of the Boston Colleqe Center for Work & Family. "But we found that there is joy amonq these fa:i:,thers in interactinq with their kids." The center's study, "The New Dad," found that men are changing the rcles in what was once defined as a

tmditionalfamily. "The old tmditional roles and stereotypes of mothers and fathers don't hold any

more," said Harrington, noting that men lost 70 percent of thejobs in the last recession. After years in the minority, women now make up 50 percent of the nation's work force. Women accounted for 51 percent of workers in the hiEh-paying management, professional and re-

lated occupations, according to the U.S. Department of Labor The Boston College study of changing roles followed 33 futhers naiionwide for more than a year, most in their mid-30s. The study found 75 percent ofthe men in the study are in dual-career households both father and mother work. ln 25 percent ofthese couples, the men are earning less than their wives and bringing a desire to instead engage in nising


the children. "Mothers are now playing an important role in being breadwinners" and "tathers are becominE more interested in caregiving," Hatrington sid. "Beeuse their wives work, men are picking up more responsibilities - caring forthe children, feeding, changing, bathing." Needham dad Steve

Fransblow 32, director ofthe analytics group at CVS Caremark, said he relishes his tlme alone with his kids when his wife, ateacher, has to tEvel forwork. "l take time off to help support her and her career," he said. "l enioy it the most because I'm responsible for their full schedule and I'm

able to be a dad as opposed to someone who's balancing work and family. My wife has her way, but I do things a little differently and learn from it." That fits with what local parenting expeds report. "Dads are findinq the balance between providing for and spending time with the family," Said Marena Burnett

ofthe Early Parenting Program at lsis Parenting, which offere classes through locai

hoipitals in Greater BostonSince 2OOZ the organization has had growing interest in their "Time for Dads" class for new fathers. lsis instructor Ben Gatto, a father and elementary school principal, said hefits the category ofthe "new dad" and gets involved as much as possible with his two daughters - cooking dinner, playing with them after school on and on the weekends and takinq them to ballet practice. "l want to be involved so I Gn guide my children through this process ofearly life as best as I can," he said. "You getthem through the rough spots and praise them when they are successful. It's notjust being there, but being there for a reason,"

â&#x201A;Ź â&#x201A;Ź a e o

e b o 3




Nowu Dad Feels as Stressed as Mom By TARA PARKER-POPE Published: June 18, 2010

Father's Day brings this offering of a dubious milestone: Husbands are now just as stressed out


their hanied


For decades, the debate about balancing work and family life has been framed as an issue for women. Many studies have shown that motherhood is more taxing than fatherhood; mothers typically reported higher levels of unhappiness than women without children or men in general. Over the years, this disparity has helped fuel the gender wars, in policy debates and at home, often over a pile of dirty laundry. Men, the truism went, did not do their share of the grocery shopping or diaper changing. They let women pull the double shift. and sometimes even more But several studies show that fathers are now struggling just as much Just last week, Boston home in office. and the than mothers in trying to fulfill their responsibilities at C-ollege lsiqased, a study calied "'fhe T{era, Dar3" suggesting that new fathers face a subtle bias in the u,orkplace, which fails to recognize their stepped-up family responsibilities and presumes that they will be largely unaffected by children. Fathers also seem more unhappy than mothers with the juggling act: In dual-eamer couples, 59 percent of fathers repoft some level of "work-life conflict," compared with about 45 percent of women, aceardingtr' a 2Q0.8 report fiorn the Farailies and WeIk Instrtute_in New' York.

The research highlights the singular challenges of fathers. Men are typically the primary breadwinner, but they also increasingly report a desire to spend more time with their children. To do so, they must first navigate a workplace that is often reluctant to give them time off for family reasons. And they must negotiate with a wife who may not always recagnize their contributions at home.

how do you be "Men are facing the same clash of social ideals that women have faced since the 1970s i,Yetki-ife Law at a good parent and a good worker?" said Joan C. Williams, the director of the Center fbr the Hastings College of the Law at the LlqiV_â&#x201A;Ź{Siiy cf Califbrnia. "This is:a pretty sensitive indicator of,the rise of the new ideal of the good father as a nurturing father, not just a provider father." When it comes to taking time off for children, men seem to be second-class citizens. Several studies show that men, compared with their female cotrleagues, are less likely to take advantage of benefits like flexible schedules and family leavg. The Boston College study fgund that when men needed tq take their offspring to the doctor or pick them up from child care, they tended to do so in a "stealth" fashion rather than ask for a formal flexible work arangement. The reluctance to ask for help may not stem from a bias in the office. Instead. men may just be wandering into strange. fri ghtening territory.

"The conflict is newer to men, and it feels bigger than the same amount of conflict might feel to a woman," notes Ellen Galinsky, president of the Families and Work Institute. "Women have been doing it for a longer time, and they have more role models."

It doesn't help that work eats up more time. In 1970, about two-thirds of married couples had a spouse at home (usually the wife). But today, only 40 percent of families have a stay-at-home spouse to handle domestic demands during the workday. Couples now work a combined average of 63 hours a week, up from just 52.5 in 1970, according to a2009 report on workplace flexibility from the Georgetown Universit)' Law Center. Men may be stressed out, but try telling that to their wives. Although men do more vacuuming and dishwashing than their fathers did, they still lag behind women when it comes to housework. When both husband and wife work outside the home, the woman spends about 28 hours a week on housework. Her husband can claim only about 16 hours, according to the National Survey of Families and Households from the Universit)'of Wisconsin. And men and women themselves paint very different pictures of their domestic duties. In the 2008 Families and Work report, 49 percent of men said they provided most or an equal amount of child care. But only 3 1 percent of women gave their husbands that much credit. The perception gap continued for cooking and housecleaning more than 50 percent of men say they do most or half the work; 70 percent of wives say they do all of it.

If women

are right, how bad could men's work-life conflict be? "You will get complaints about men exaggerating their conflict," Dr. Galinsky conceded.

Then again, some contributions may be unrecognized by the other partner. For instance, a father may prepare school lunches half the time, so he thinks he's sharing that chore. But he doesn't factor in the time his wife spent shopping for the ingredients, planning healthy, appetizing menus and emptying and cleaning the lunchboxes every day.

"Women remain psychologically responsible, and that's a burden," said Dr. Galinsky. "That psychological responsibility adds to the sense of feeling like you're doing more, even though it may be somewhat invisible." For his part, a father may spend time fixing a tricycle, playing video games or putting away outdoor toys time that his wife doesn't count when she's mentally keeping tabs.


"Women consistently underestimate how much their husbands do," said Stephanie Coontz, amaniage historian and author of "A Strange Stining: The Feminine Mystique and American Women at the Dawn of the 1960s," to be published next year. "'Women don't necessarily give his contribution the same value as theirs," she added. "They don't always recognize that what he does with the kids is a form of care, too." Tara Parker-Pope writes the Well columnfor The Times and is author of "For Better: The Science of a Good Marriage," published by Dutton.

New dads want to be more than breadwinners: study (Agencies) Updatedr 2010-06-18 09:


Today's crop of first-time dads aren't just relishing in the first smile, steps and laugh of their new bundle


These days they are also garnering increased respect and responsibilities in the workplace just for being a new father, according to a study published by the Boston College Center for Work & Family.

During conversations with 33 first-time fathers, researchers probed how these professional men are striking a work-family balance that may have eluded their own fathers a generation ago, when being the breadwinner often meant missing pivotal childhood moments.

"With these young guys, they're not willing to be robbed of those experiences," said Brad Hanington, a research professor at the Carroll School of Management at Boston College and executive director ofthe center sponsoring the study. The research for "The New Dad: Exploring Fatherhood within a Career Context" were compiled over a year by Harrington, Fred Van Deusen, a senior research associate with Boston College, and Norlheastem University professor Jamie Ladge. Ladge's 2007 study on first-time mothers re-entering the workforce helped inspire this fresh look at new dads'role in the home and office, the researchers said.

With nearly 50 percent of the U.S. workforce now made up by women, and nearly 60 percent of all U.S. bachelor's degrees and master's degrees awarded to women, Harrington said the changing dynamic of females in the workplace is affecting how men are behaving in a parenting role.

Young people, and especially new fathers, are redefining what it means to be successful and happy, Harrington said.

A solid career trajectory is not the only factor anymore, he said: being a hands-on dad is also topping the list. In a modern twist, first-time fathers interviewed for the study said that most managers were supportive of their need for flexibility they adapted to a new schedule at home.


The men also said they enjoyed an enhanced workplace reputation in the eyes of their colleagues, given their new parental role. The researchgrs also found that most of these young fathers are still struggling to find a rhythm at home with their wives who also

work. Fathers today, and particularly those in the survey, "have an interest in being more than a hands-off breadwinner," said Hanington. The majorify of the 33 fathers in the survey saw their own mothers curb their careers to manage the home and family, but don't expect their wives to take the same break, he said. That means finding a balance with their equally ambitious and career-minded wives when it comes to activities such as car-pooling, bedtime rituals and cooking.

Harrington said he didn't notice a gender-type stereotypical division of child rearing duties among the suley participants.

New dads want to be more than breadwinners: study Lauren Keiper

Thu Jun 17,2010 8:40pm BST These days they are also garnering increased respect and responsibilities in the workplace just for being a new father, according to a study published by the Boston College Center for Work & Family.

During conversations with 33 first-time fathers, researchers probed how these professional men are striking a work-family balance that may have eluded their own fathers a generation ago, when being the breadwinner often meant missing pivotal childhood moments.

"With these young guys, they're not willing to be robbed of those experiences," said Brad Hanington, a research professor at the Carroll School of Management at Boston College and executive director of the center sponsoring the study. (Reuters Life!) - Today's crop of first-time dads

aren't just relishing in the first smile, steps and laugh of their new bundle of


The research for "The New Dad: Exploring Fatherhood within a Career Context" were compiled over ayear by Hanington, Fred Van Deusen, a senior research associate with Boston College, and Northeastern University professor Jamie Ladge.

Ladge's 2007 study on first-time mothers re-entering the workforce helped inspire this fresh look at new dads' role in the home and office, the researchers said.

With nearly 50 percent of the U.S. workforce now made up by women, and nearly 60 percent of all U.S. bachelor's degrees and master's degrees awarded to women, Harrington said the changing dynamic of females in the workplace is affecting how men are behaving in a parenting role. Young people, and especially new fathers, are redefining what it means to be successful and happy, Harrington said.

A solid career trajectory is not the only factor anymore, he said: being

a hands-on dad is also topping the list.

In a modern twist, first-time fathers interviewed for the study said that most managers were supportive of their need for flexibility as they adapted to a new schedule at home. The men also said they enjoyed an enhanced workplace reputation in the eyes of their colleagues, given their new parental role. The researchers also found that most of these young fathers are still struggling to find a rhythm at home with their wives who also work. Fathers today, and particularly those in the survey, "have an interest in being more than a hands-off breadwinner," said

Harringlon. The majority of the 33 fathers in the survey saw their own mothers curb their careers to manage the home and family, but don't expect their wives to take the same break, he said.

That means finding a balance with their equally ambitious and career-minded wives when it comes to activities such as carpooling, bedtime rituals and cooking. Harrington said he didn't notice a gender-type stereotypical division of child rearing duties among the survey participants.




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Bcst*n C*l}*ge profess*r emerita RebeecaValet&e staads with Fic:re ?iln**t, Fra:-ree's amhassador to tla* tTrdtectr $tates.


French, p:'esident of theAilianee Fbanqaise of Eoston, and viee president cfthe Fedr "arion of Aliiances F?angaise USA. "Receiing lhis honcr:,vas a

treautiful culminaiion !c a care*r d.evc:ed lc v,'hal i loved daing i:rosi: :ea,ching and prc*:oiing FYench r'anguage and ':u] Lu re. and piay-ing a rcie in preparing the neat generaiions cflt'ench

teachersj'Valetle said. "Ii


tn.ily moving for me io be so honored by French Ambassador



How to Get In: Boston College Law School What can you do to set yourself apart in your application? Admissions officials have the answers. PostedJune 11,2010 We posed questions to admissions officials at the Boston College Law School regarding the application process, what they look for in applicants, and what sets their school aparl. These are their responses: 1.

What can applicants do to set themselves apart from their peers?

The admissions committee understands, respects, and embraces the diversity that each individual candidate offers. Our applicant pool represents various school types, academic programs, personal backgrounds, extra-curricular interests, and professional experiences, among other characteristics. As one pursues a professional degree, we hope that a person possesses great self awareness. An applicant may distinguish him/herself by demonstrating strength and confidence in his/her choices and accomplishments. There is no formula to the admissions process. We want to accept someone for his/her unique talents, perspectives, and contributions. Genuine engagement is evident in a competitive candidate. 2. What do you look for in the application essays? What do the essays tell you about a candidate? Each candidate has a unique voice and perspective. We respect an individual's choice of topic and writing style. Committee members look for profound and nuanced self reflection. A personal statement may expound on personal goals, professional aspirations, or formative experiences. The ability to articulate a narrative in a concise manner is among the skills we look for in and value in a personal statement. 3. How important is the applicant's LSAT score? How do you weigh it against undergraduate GPA and work/internship experience? Which of these carry the most weight? The least? The LSAT is an important element in the application review process as are the other components of the application (transcript, personal statement, r6sum6, and letters of recommendation). Each component is important for different reasons because each provides a snapshot of the candidate. No individual component should be considered or "weighed" outside of the context of the entire application. The LSAT is the one component that every candidate shares in common; therefore it provides the committee with valuable comparative information. The LSAT does evaluate a skill set that is relevant to success in the first year of law school. The test does have predictive value, but it cannot give us a complete measure of a candidate's potential for success in law school. A candidate's performance during college must be considered alongside performance on the LSAT to gauge academic achievement and preparedness. Study skills, time management, organization and prioritization of assignments are important to success in law school. A student's academic achievement measures qualities that one sitting for a standardized exam may not. 4. How much does prior work/internship experience weigh into your decision making? What's the typical or expected amount of work experience from an applicant?

Prior work/internship experience is an important element in our process because it reflects a candidate's ability to excel in a professional environment. Practical applications of one's academic skill set (communication, critical thinking, problem solving, ethics, etc.) are essential to success in the legal profession. Employment experience also

skill set and helps define ons's interests and professional paths and goals. The (professional ability to interact with co-workers and support staff, colleagues and superiors) and clients/constituents are among various personal qualities we evaluate during the application process. sharpens and expands one's existing

5. What sets you apart from other schools? What can students gain from your school that they might not be able to find anywhere else? The members of Boston College Law School's community cannot comment on the offerings of other institutions. We can only highlight what we feel makes our community particularly appealing. Students, faculty, and staff contribute to a collegial atmosphere. Our Jesuit ethos promotes academic rigor, personal well being, and service to others. We appreciate pluralism of belief systems and we support the unique talents and achievements of each member of our community. Our graduates come away with lifelong friendships and a deep respect for humanity. Our students and alumni possess a strong sense of leadership and work/life balance. Members of our community enjoy tremendous professional success and appreciate the value of personal relationships with colleagues, mentors, and constituents.

What do you look for in recommendation letters? How important is it that the letter's writer has worked regularly with the candidate in an office or school setting?


We hope that letters of recommendation are thoughtful and detailed. Letters from academic sources, usually from professors, provide us with valuable insight on a student's written assignments and classroom disposition. Letters from professional sources, usually from a supervisor, should also address a candidate's intellectual capabilities, in addition to highlighting personal qualities. It is tremendously valuable to the admissions committee for a reference to be familiar with a candidate over a period of time because the substance and tone of the letter will likely reflect the strength of the relationship.

7. Can you give a brief description of the life cycle of an application? What's the timeline applicants should expect?

A complete and thorough evaluation of an application usually takes eight to 12 weeks due to high volume of applications we receive annually. Each application is reviewed by multiple members of the admissions committee. We begin reviewing applications in November and render decisions on a rolling basis. Our final postmark deadline for receipt of applications is March


Which firms/organizations recruit heavily from your school? Which ones hire the highest percentage of your graduates? 8.

Boston College Law School is very fortunate to have the finest law firms and organizations recruit at our school. A few of the firms and organizations that heavily recruit our students include the following:

Bingham McCutchen LLP Committee for Public Counsel Services

Foley Hoag LLP Fried Frank

Goodwin Procter LLP



Manhattan District Attorney's Office

$nm ffi,ouuipum.Whr*mtclw Boston College Venture Competition produces Silicon Valley startups June 4,2010

New York, NY - (Zennie62's trip to TechCrunch was sponsored by Christine Smith Associates, lnc., the Premier Female Contractor in NYC.) The TechCrunch Disrupt Conference in New York City featured startups that were considered to have the best chance of "disrupting" or changing a given industry. Such a compartmentalized event makes it's easy to forget there are other organizations that support startups. One such organization is the Boston College Venture Competition


I learned about BCVC from Sophia Monroe, a volunteer at TechCrunch Disrupt. I ran into three of them multiple times each day and it was during those encounters that I learned about the Boston College Venture Competition, As it turned out, Sophia Monroe is the Executive Director of BCVC, so I asked for an interview. Boston College Venture Competition funds startups The BCVC is a student run business plan competition at Boston College. "Next year, will be our fifth year anniversary," Sophia said, "We have three companies out in Silicon Valley right now. Two of which are funded and the third is looking for funding." The best known of them is WePay, started by Boston College alumn Bill Clerico and Rich Aberman, who also founded BCVC. WePay allows groups to collect money online and for fundraisers,or events, or something like a bachelor party. Sophia said WePay "just raised $1.65 million from investors including Ron Conway (the founder of SV Angels)." The second company is Wakemate, which was funded by Y Combinator (as was WePay). Wakemate produces a cell phone accessory that "will analyze your sleep to find the optimal time for you to wake up. You will feel refreshed and energized every time you wake, even from naps!" according to its website. It's developed by "Perfect Third, Inc." The third one is called and is in search of funding. PIQC is an exciting visually-based student-run search engine that also needs some work. When I typed "zennie abraham" the largest bubble I got was listed as "Victorian Houses." Well, I must have done something wrong, but that aside, the three companies have exciting products and services. Sophia said BCVC started to fill a void in the Boston College community, As much bad news comes out about our education system as a whole, this is a good news story. Boston College Venture Competition, and other programs like it, give students a chance to realize their dreams of starting a successful tech business. Yes, one has to be a student at Boston Collage to benefit from BCVC, but if there's not a similar program at your college, contact BCVC for advice and guidance. For more information visit their website:

E*lI* hsrtan ist Local College Library Gallery: BC's Bapst "Most

Beautiful" College Library By Kerrv Skemp in Miscellaneous on June 2,2010 2:00 PM

Ah, lists. They're good for giving us stuff to post about, we suppose. And

stuffto look at, too. The latest list in a series of lists of

stuff where Massachusetts ranks pretty well is a list of the most beautiful colleee libraries. BC's Bapst Librarv, with its gorgeous Gothic architecture, tops the list, while Harvard nabs two spots (Widener aI#14 and Baker at #20). Yale is also recognized twice, with the classicalSterline Memorial Librarv at #10 and the modern Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscriot Librarv is#24. Mount Holyoke's Williston Librarv comes in al#21- and the Baker Memorial Librarv at Dartmouth sneaks in at #25 to round out the New England contributions. To celebrate, here's a gallery of a few of the local beauties, all showcasing a distinct lack of studying.

Bapst Library at Boston College

Boston College's Bapst Library windows

Stairs up to the Bapst Library at Boston College



TF{E CHRONTCLE ol'High*r Iduc.rtion

Faculty Opinion @h*.$ietrr$ork@tm *g

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KrewKffireryp May 23,2OtI

4 Reasons Your Retirement ls Riskier Than Your Parents' By Alicia Munnell

Alicid Munnell, the director of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, will contribute to "Encore" every Monday. Everyone wants financial security once they stop working. Americans weaned on post-war affluence have come to expect an extended period of leisure at the end of their work life. And, indeed, the majority of today's retirees are able to afford a decent retirement. However, this group is living in a "golden age" that will fade as Baby Boomers and Generation Xers reach traditional retirement ages in the coming decades.

Many Baby Boomers and Gen Xers face a significant retirement income shortfall. To quantify the impact of this retirement security crunch, the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College developed the National Retirement Risk lndex. The lndex measures the share of working American households who are 'at risk' of being unable to maintain their pre-retirement standard of living in retirement. The results for 2004,,2007 , and 2OO9 are shown in the table. Even before the financial crisis, almost 45 percent of working households were projected to be 'at risk'; after the crisis, this level increased to 51 percent. Table: Percent of Households'At Risk' at Age 65 by Cohort, 2004, 2007, ond 2009

Cohort All Early Boomers Late Boomers Gen Xers

2004 43% 3s% 44% 49%

2007 44% 37% 43% 49%

2009 5L%

41% 48% 56%

Moreover, the percent 'at risk' increases with each cohort. Late Boomers show more households 'at risk' than Early Boomers, and Generation Xers have even larger numbers 'at risk.' This gloomy forecast is due to the changing retirement income landscape. Today's workers will be retiring in a substantially different environment than their parents did for these reasons: 1. We're living longer

The length of retirement is increasing, as the average retirement age hovers at 64 for men and 63 for women while life expectancy continues to rise. This longer retirement means retirees will likely need more savings than their parents' did. 2. Replacement rates are falling Replacement rates - retirement benefits as a percent of pre-retirement earnings - are falling for a number of reasons. First, at any given retirement age, Social Security benefits will replace a smaller fraction of pre-retirement earnings as the Full Retirement Age rises from 65 to 67. Second, while the share of the workforce covered by a pension has not changed over the last quarter of a century, the

type of coverage has shifted from defined benefit plans, where workers receive a life annuity based on years of service and final salary, to 401(k) plans, where individuals are responsible for their own saving. ln theory 401-(k) plans could provide adequate retirement income, but individuals make mistakes at every step along the way and the median balance for household heads approaching retirement is only 578,000. Third, most of the working-age population saves virtually nothing outside of their employersponsored pension plan. 3. Out-of-pocket health costs are rising

Out-of-pocket health costs are projected to consume an ever greater proportion of retirement income. 4. Returns have declined Asset returns in general, and bond yields in particular, have declined over the past two decades so given accumulation of retirement assets will yield less income.


It is important to note that the lndex is based on very conservative assumptions. Everyone is assumed to retire at 65; they don't, they retire earlier. Everyone is assumed to tap the equity in their home through a reverse mortgage; only a fraction of those eligible elects this option. All financial assets are assumed to be annutized so that retirees gain the maximum income from their assets; in fact, annuitization is rare. ln short, the NRRI probably understates the challenges ahead.

Ditch the school recruiters LIZ REISBERG and PHILIP G. ALTBACH Special to The Japan Times


Intemational student mobility is big business. Approximately 2.8 million students study TBOSTON abroad, distributing at least $50 billion around the globe annually. ,Most international students come from developing or middle-income countries, the majority from East and South Asia, and most are self-financed. They contribute major revenues to the institutions and lcountries where they study and represent a key part of internationalizalion. rThe number of students pursuing opportunities abroad is no longer limited to individuals from elite backgrounds. This larger pool has less intemational exposure and fewer personal sources of information than earlier generations of mobile students. This group is looking for help and willing to pay for it. ;Universities see these students as important sources of revenue and contributors to diversity; competition i lor them has soared.

As a result, new enterprises have appeared to address the demands of this growing market. Recruitment ,agents are not new operators, and their participation in the university admissions process has always lbeen controversial. No data are available on how many companies or individuals there are, but their :presence is growing and an increasing number of universities are using these services. ,Recruitment agents typically serve as local salespeople, but they are not university employees. Their :presence ensures that the institutions that hire them are more accessible to students interested in going tabroad. They act as local promoters and a conduit of intemational applications for their university ,clients. They are typically paid a commission that ranges from 10 to 25 percent of the first year's tuition. The agents may, but do not necessarily, receive professional training from their university clients. There iare generally no formal mechanisms for keeping them current on programs :

may guide students through the overwhelming amount of inforrnation available on the Internet, 'Agents but their motivation does not consist of providing impartial information. Instead, it's steering students to specific institutions. i

iThe primary client for agents is the institution that hires them. In order to be successful, they must , deliver an acceptable number of students to their sponsoring institutions. Of concern is their activities, :source of their fees, propriety of their services and transparency, particularly to students. Many ,universities suspect that agents sometimes complete applications and write essays for their student ,clients. :The dynamic among an intermediary, an institution and a student is inevitably influenced by incentives iand rewards. A recruitment agent's income depends on directing students to specific institutions. While ,this action may result in a good match for the student, the incentives do not ensure the best match for the ,student.

iAgents are entrepreneurs who eam their income from providing a service to two entities whose best ,inLrests -uy noi be the same. Thsrewards arise from the relationship b"t*""n the agent and an :institution- not from service orovided to the student. This presents a potential conflict ofinterest that

professional standards cannot eliminate. As long as incentives favor the interests of the institution and agent over the interests of the student, professional standards will have limited effect. ,Most of the arguments in defense of overseas agents appear somewhat hollow: Students cannot be expected to sort through vast amounts of data on opportunities abroad on their own; small institutions do ,not have staff or resources for effective international marketing campaigns; since agents are not going to tdisappear, standards should be set for their behavior; and the market will weed out unscrupulous :recruiters. .Given the investment and consequences, students must participate actively in researching overseas ioptions. It is too risky to have someone else make their decisions or influence them. :

;International students enrich every campus, but hosting them is a responsibility. When institutions work ithrough agents, they sacrifice the benefits that result from the direct engagement in recruitment and the iflow of information about foreign cultures, education systems and international student needs. Alternatives exist. Universities can travel with companies that orgarize intemational recruitment trips or :participate in overseas fairs. Institutions with limited budgets have found creative ways to increase their lvisibility overseas including recruiting through students on study-abroad programs, faculty who travel, iWeb-based events or by combining efforts (and budgets) of the admissions, alumni relations and rdevelopment offices. They may make use of nonprofit advising centers maintained by the U.S. State rDepartment, British Council, Canadian Education Centers and other agencies.

Not knowing what agents actually tell their clients leaves students (and universities) vulnerable. It is :unrealistic to expect "the market" to regulate quality or unethical agents to be unsuccessful. The "market model" assumes that students (as consumers) have the knowledge and experience necessary to distinguish quality service; that is unrealistic. Adequate oversight is impossible, and professional certification will only provide "ethical cover" and a false sense of security to the institutions and students alike. The use of recruitment agents by universities and colleges is clouded by many factors. Their activities cannot be adequately monitored to guarantee that student interests are protected. No intemational standards can guarantee local activity or that the relationship between an agent and a university will be entirely transparent to the student. Furthermore, the incentives and rewards do not depend on ethical behavior. Some universities are participating in a process to certify agents who adhere to ethical standards. Yet

ethical behavior is interpreted differently in various cultures. Who will provide the necessary oversight to insure compliance with standards? By "outsourcing" recruitment, institutions are trusting their this is a serious mistake. reputation and vital communication with students to a third pafty


rProspective students must ask good questions and make informed decisions about where to study. tAlumni of foreign universities can help them. The Internet is a good tool, visits to education information icenters or fairs can help and contact with university staff is essential. Paid recruiters are simply not necessary and work to the detriment of the process by standing between the exchange of information between students and institutions.

'Liz Reisberg, a research associute at the Center for International Higher Education, Boston ,College, has 30 years of experience in internatio4al admissions. Philip G. Altb.ach is Monan ,professor of higher education und director of the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College. (C) All rights reserved

TRTfiHTIMES,CGTN Dear Cabinet: Magdalene survivors need justice now May 2,2011

OPEN LETTER: The Cabinet is to discuss the legacy of the Magdalene laundries. It is time for an official apology for the abuse meted out there

DEAR MEMBERS of the Cabinet, On behalf of the Justice for Magdalenes advocacy group, we are writing to solicit your support for survivors of Ireland's Magdalene laundries. The Cabinet, we understand, is expected to take up this matter.

Almost six months ago, the Irish Human Rights Commission published its assessment of our application for an inquiry, in which we documented human rights violations in the laundry institutions. The assessment recommended that the State "establish a statutory mechanism to investigate the matters advanced by Justice for Magdalenes, and, in appropriate cases, to grant redress where warranted". The assessment details the State's historical failure to adequately protect women and girls from abusive conditions, specifically from wrongful and unlawful detention, inhuman and degrading treatment, and forced labour and servitude. It also recognises the impofiance of restorative justice for aging and elderly women. On November 1 1th, 2010, the then taoiseach Brian Cowen referred the commission's assessment for review by the attomey general. On March 23rd,2011, Minister for Justice Alan Shatter announced he was considering 'oa draft submission for the Government" on the matter. The Cabinet will now decide what happens. We ask you to consider the following.

No representative of Irish society has apologised to these institutional abuse survivors. The laundries were not included in the Residential lnstitutional Redress Act,2002. These women were excluded from the Residential Institutions Redress Board. They are the nation's disappeared, abandoned and shunned in the present as in the past.

For almost two years, Justice for Magdalenes worked with various govemment departments in advocating for survivors' needs. In September 2009, the then minister for education, Batt O'Keeffe, rejected our group's initial proposal for a distinct redress scheme. He asserted that the State "did not refer individuals, nor was it complicit in referring individuals to the laundries". The previous govemment argued that the laundries were privately owned and operated and so did not come within the responsibility of the State. Justice for Magdalenes rejects this position. lt is now a matter of public record that the courts entered into arrangements whereby women given a suspended sentence were sent to a Magdalene laundry rather than prison. Likewise, members of the judiciary placed women "on probation" and "on remand" at these same institutions. The deparlment of education knew in 1 970 that there were at least "70 girls between the age of 1 3 and l9 years confined in this way who should properly be dealt with under the reformatory schools system". Meanwhile, the department of health was paying a capitation grant for young "problem" girls sent to these convent institutions in the 1980s. As late as 1982, the department of defence met the religious congregations to discuss the insertion of a "fair wage clause" in laundry contracts, contracts that were issued without such a clause since at least 1 941 .

At no time did the State license, regulate or inspect the Magdalene laundries, which always operated on a for-profit basis. Consequently, survivors do not receive a pension for their compulsory yet unpaid work in harsh conditions. After 1953 there was a statutory obligation governing employers' withholding of pension contributions. The nuns made no contributions for the workers in the laundries. The State did not enforce the law. The women do not receive healthcare or education to assist them in overcoming the physical and psychological effects of abuse and exploitation suffered in the laundries. Compounding their trauma, many of the women continue to feel a deep sense of stigma and shame.

They experience the Govemment's unwillingness to take meaningful political action as the pursuit of the policy "deny

'til they

die". Justice for Magdalenes submitted a revised Restorative Justice and Reparations Scheme to Alan Shatter on March 29th. This reflects the group's ongoing dialogue and consultation with individual survivors in Ireland, the US and the UK.

In addition to an apology, the women are seeking a lump sum compensation scheme, a statutory pension reflecting their years of access to their records. They are not interested in an extension of the current redress scheme, which would involve a stressful adversarial legal process incompatible with their age and vulnerable position in

work in the laundry institutions, and complete life.

Justice for Magdalenes is also seeking support for its campaign in the intemational human rights arena. We recently made a formal submission to the United Nations Committee Against Torture, which, on May 23rd and 24th, is due to examine Ireland for the first time on the extent to which it is meeting its human rights obligations. Justice for Magdalenes's submission draws attention to the continuing degrading treatment suffered by the women, and to Ireland's legal duties to promptly and impartially investigate allegations of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and to ensure redress for the victims of such treatment. Justice for Magdalenes asks for the State's assistance in bringing the church and the religious orders to the table. We continue to reach out to the four religious congregations that operated the laundries, and to members of the lrish hierarchy. The orders refuse to meet with us; they do not answer our coffespondence. We did meet Cardinal Se6n Brady in June 2010, and he o'fair and balanced". Moreover, he recommended that we approach Cori, characterised Justice for Magdalenes's presentation as the Conference of Religious of Ireland, as a way to facilitate dialogue with the congregations. However, Cori refused our request for a meeting, on October 1st,2010.

The State and Catholic Church both need to acknowledge that the women who spent time in the nation's Magdalene laundries are survivors of institutional abuse, that they were not at fault, but instead had a grave injustice perpetrated upon them. An apology is a significant signal that the Republic oflreland is prepared to right past injustices,

Your decision on these matters will have real and meaningful consequences. We urge you to lead us all as citizens on the path towards fairness and equality, and to right a historical wrong that remains otherwise a dishonour to the nation. Sincerely,

James Smith, associate professor, English

& Irish studies, Boston College;

Mari Steed, director, Justice For Magdalene co-ordinating committee; Claire McGettrick, Angela Murphy and Judy Campbell, Justice For Magdalene committees; Katherine O'Donnell, women's studies, School of Social Justice, UCD; Maeve O'Rourke, Harvard Law School 2010 global human rights Fellow;

Cllr Sally Mulready, chairwoman, Irish Women Survivors Network, London; Mary McAuliffe, women's studies, School of Social Justice, UCD; Sandra McAvoy, women's studies, UCC;

Paddy Doyle, author of The God Squad;

Tom Kitt, former co-chairman of Oireachtas ad-hoc committee/Magdalene laundries; Michael Kennedy, former co-chairman of Oireachtas ad-hoc committee/Magdalene laundries.


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Shaun Tan's Wild Imagination



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By Carlo Rotella



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A vine has invaded Shaun Tan's house in suburban Melbourne, Australia, through a previously unnoticed gap where the window of his studio doesn't quite meet the sill.


Advancing along a curtain rod and sinking offshoots into the dark places behind his desk, the vine has overgrown Tan's workspace. He has to trim it back, because it keeps trying to grab things an electric pencil sharpener, unopened letters in his inbox. Recently he retumed -from a trip to find that it was exploring the bottom drawer of his filing cabinet, where he keeps new projects.

f"* fl f i

The vine had a chance to make some headway in February when Tan spent a week in Los Angeles for the Academy Awards, where he collected an Oscar as co-director of "The Lost Thing," a short animated film based on one of his picture books. ln it, a young man collecting bottle caps at the beach befriends a tentacled beast with a bright red metal shell and tries to find a home for it in a cheerless city where people ignore such anomalies. In his acceptance speech, Tan said, "Our film is about a creature that nobody pays any attention to, so this is wonderfully ironic."



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Mia Mala McDonald for The New York

"The Lost Thing" is a kind of manifesto for Tan's way of looking at the world. Again and again, his stories introduce a lonely character in an alienating landscape and then, often by concentrating on some previously overlooked detail, transmute the feeling of isolation into something more like an aftist's sensibility: a more purposeful and yet more playful state infused with an intensely observant appreciation ofthe secret beauty oflife. In his book "The Red Tree," a girl toils through a series oftableaus including a parlicularly memorable one in which she trudges down the sidewalk in the shadow of a of crushing anomie titanic gape-mouthed- fish floating above her with dark gunk streaming from its eye but retums home at the end of the day to find her little room transformed by the miraculous appearance of a bright red tree. If-you go back and look carefully, you can find a leaf from the red tree, unnoticed the first time through, in every one of the book's pictures. In "The Arrival," a wordless monochrome immigrant fantasy that became an international best seller, a young man leaves an obscurely menacing Old Country and makes his way to a city that looks like a dream vision of New York. His eventual achievement of belonging in this strange new place, his arrival in full, depends upon attending closely to the details of fellow newcomers' stories, customs and advice. Tan himself has arrived in a big way this year. A few weeks ago, a month after collecting his Oscar, he received the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award, the richest ($765,000) international prize for children's literature, adding to a string of past honors that include the Hugo and the World Fantasy awards. Already celebrated in his native Australia, he has emerged on the global stage at age 37 as a major visual stor1.teller. This spring, Arthur A. Levine, his American publisher, followed up 'oThe Arrival" and a book of illustrated stories titled "Tales From Outer Suburbia" with "Lost and Found," a volume collecting three of Tan's most popular Australian picture books. And he's in talks with Nick Wechsler, producer of "The Road" and "Requiem for a Dream," about a feature-film adaptation of "The Atrival." Tan creates picture books, but he's not a children's author, exactly; "The Arrival" is a masterpiece of the graphic-novel form, but he's not really a graphic novelist either. Chris van Allsburg, author of "The Polar Express" and other picture books that parents are happy to pore over repeatedly with their children, comes to mind as a peer, but the Japanese animator Hayao Miyazaki, perhaps best known for "Spirited Away," might make a better comparison. Like Miyazaki, Tan engages audiences across a wide range of age and sophistication. I teach "The Arrival" in a graduate seminar on the city in literature, and my wife teaches it in an undergraduate course on immigrant narratives, but our daughters enjoyed it when they were kindergarlners, and one of them, now 10, has recently been stealing "Lost and Found" from my desk. Tan's low-key, open-ended, enigmatic stories an are often about coming at a forbidding world from a fresh angle, making it strange on the way to making it one's own with immigrants and with arlists. experience that children share



discover how confounding the world is when you try to draw it," Tan says. "You look at a car, and you try to see its carness, and you're like an immigrant to your own world. You don't have to travel to encounter weirdness. You wake up to it."

THE COASTAL WESTERN AUSTRALIAN suburbia around Perth in which Tan grew up has a kind of Marlian grandeur. Gigantic cloudscapes roil over a repeating pattern of developments, freeways, chain stores. Nick Stathopoulos, an illustrator and

WHEN MSITED Tan at his oceanfront hotel in Santa Monica, Calif., the day before the Academy Awards ceremony, he was perhaps alone among the nominees in wondering out loud whether winning the Oscar would be a good thing. Discussions about a feature-film adaptation of "The Arrival" were under way before his nomination, and he was already well known in Hollywood (he consulted on "Wall-E" and "Horton Hears a Who"), but an Oscar would undoubtedly bring more opportunities to make movies, more invitations to do things other than hang around at home and draw. "l'm not dying to make a feature film," he said, "which people around here can be surprised to hear. It's about money and therefore audience, and that's somewhat counterproductive for me. I kind of like not having to feel that the work's going to be successful. Money does buy you time, it's true, but I have time now." Being nominated for an Oscar had already taken him away from his routine as an arlist. "This has not been a very productive period," he said. What with travel, press appearances and meetings, he hadn't been doing much of the low-stakes sketching that drives his creativity. "The Lost Thing," for instance, grew from a sketch of a hermit crab he made at the beach. Idly imagining what it would be like if the crab were huge, he drew a man next to it for scale, and the possibility of a relationship between the two figures became the germ of the book. "There are two worlds that I move in as a creator," Tan said. "One is my own, in my suburban surroundings with my cup of green tea, and it feels like nothing's really going on and nothing's consequential. Since I was a kid, that's when everything gets done." He and his wife, Inari Kiuru, a graphic designer and jewelry maker from Finland,lead a peaceful life in Brunswick, an "Haven't got to that bridge yet," Tan says and their time is their inner suburb of Melboume. They don't have children own. They work at home on their separate projects in a house they share with a yellow panot named Diego and two budgies. They share an eye for neglected, out-of-the-way things, so their aftemoon walks in the neighborhood can be "transforming experiences," Kiuru told me in an e-mail. "When the light changes, when something's fallen by the roadside in a parlicularly interesting way, when afat cat chases a two-legged dog up a hill. . . ."



That's the artist's world, where Tan's sensibility can order his days and the work gets done. "Then there's the social world," he said, ooand there's nothing more social than the Oscars. That makes me a little skeptical about fi1m." Making a feature film would allow his sensibility to take new forms and extend its reach by commandeering some of the matchless resources that the traveling, negotiating, movie industry usually devotes to reproducing well-tested formulas. But embarking on the project delegating, compromising might well carry him away from the wellspring of that sensibility.


And making movies means collaborating with multiple authors, a change of pace for an artist who usually works alone. Tan worked with a very small crew on the movie of "The Lost Thing," but making a feature would oblige him to reckon with many more potential muddiers of his clarity of vision. "I wrote that book for $600 in a studio in Perlh," he told me. It might be easier to see the overlooked, to collect lost things, when operating on that cottage-industry artistic scale. He was also perhaps alone among Oscar nominees in preferring a book to his own filmed adaptation of it. "I'm proud of the movie we made," he said, "but, without being immodest, I think that book is perfect. The film is a powerful experience, but there's something about the book that nailed the slightly Asperger's quality of the city."

Andrew Ruhemann, his co-director, pushed for more narrative drive, greater drama, but Tan wanted flat affect, a sense of nothing much happening, and he mostly got his way. After the young man in the movie finds an appropriate place for the lost thing, he fades back into workaday life, his sense of wonder eclipsed by mundane experience. The last we see of him, he's on a tram identical to all the others chugging across the cityscape, passing into a state of overlooking, of forgetting. So the movie is true to the book, but it has greater forward momentum just by virtue of being a film. Even with remote control in hand, the viewer doesn't dictate the duration of images the way a reader does. Picture books encourage Tan's kind of lingering, contemplative attention to detail. o'The Arrival," he declined an offer to be Tan has turned down Hollywood before. During the five years that he worked on production designer on a major feature film. And he has already turned down a good offer for film rights to "The Arrival," because he would have had to give up artistic control. But if he can bargain for the resources and authority to do it right, he'll be sorely tempted to take a lead role in adapting "The Arrival." If he does, it will extend the logic of the book in at least one sense. Using live models, including children he "borrowed" from a nearby school, he shot video and photographic images that he compiled into a storyboard to guide him in drawing the book's hundreds of gorgeously meticulous pictures. He shot the footage in his garage, using a cheap video camera, empty boxes to simulate sets, lights from a hardware store and bedsheets to manage the sunlight. "It ended up being all about lighting," he said, sounding like a guy who might find it interesting to direct a feature

film. For now, though, he's back home, working on a new picture book, tending the vine growing across his desk, settling back into the life that nourishes his sensibility. He seems to be keeping his recent triumphs in the perspective afforded by that vantage point. Shortly after he got back from Los Angeles, a photograph circulated among his friends of Diego the parrot biting Tan's Oscar on the head.

How to build a public consensus for the moral treatment of detainees By Kenneth R. Himes


18, 2011

T his year marks the second anniversary of President Barack Obama's executive order reversing IJ.S. policies regarding detainees captured in armed conflict. Presidential Order 13491 set minimal standards for the treatment and interrogation of captured individuals, required the Central Intelligence Agency to close any detention facilities it was operating and guaranteed that the International Committee of the Red Cross would have timely access to all detainees in U.S. custody.

Although Mr. Obama's order was welcomed by critics of the administration of George W. Bush, questions about America's long-term policy on torture remain. Another president could issue a new executive order that ovefturns the Obama policy. A presidential executive order is nonstatutory; it does not entail a change in the law but is an executive decision that can be reversed by a successor. Future presidents may find themselves under pressure to change policies because the United States has yet to establish a moral consensus regarding detainee treatment and the inappropriateness of torture.

In his recently

published memoir Decision Points, President Bush admitted that he personally authorized the

waterboarding of Khaled Sheikh Mohammed, a key figure in the A1 Qaeda network. Despite abundant evidence at the time that waterboarding was morally condemned and legally prohibited (including the historical fact that the United States charged Japanese military figures with war crimes precisely for waterboarding during World War II), Mr. Bush's admission caused little subsequent outcry.

During a televised interview on NBC on Nov. 9,2010, Matt Lauer asked the former president, "Why is waterboarding legal, in your opinion?" Mr. Bush replied, "Because the lawyers said it was legal." If the Bush administration was able to skirt or simply violate treaties and legislation that prohibit tofture and the cruel and inhumane treatment of detainees, what assurance is there that the abuse of human beings in custody will not happen again? How can one deal with the fact that the United States adopted as govemment policy methods of interrogation that violated norrns against the inhumane treatment of detainees and, in at least some cases, rose to the level of torture? What can be done to prevent the nation's return to such methods in the future?

What Should Citizens Do? Some critics of Mr. Bush's administration called for criminal prosecution of those who were involved in the formulation and carrying out of abuse of detainees. Upon taking office, President Obama demonstrated little interest in pursuing this

strategy. His decision was a disappointment to some, who discussed the feasibility and the wisdom of pursuing prosecution. In time, as the nation became engrossed in the economic recession, that debate seemed to quiet down. It was revived briefly a few months later when Attorney General Eric Holder released previously secret memos of the Office of Legal Counsel that revealed the reasoning behind the Bush detainee policy and details of its enactment. Calls for prosecution were drowned out again by the arguments over economic policy and health care reform.

Holding civilian and military leaders accountable for misdeeds can be an effective way to deter future wrongdoing. Yet any criminal prosecution would face daunting challenges. Public officials would take legal cover in the memos of the

because those who think torture can "rarely" be used are likely to weaken


ever there is another major terrorist attack on

American soil. The Pew Center surveys also show that more than half of American Catholics support the use of torture and that this support correlates positively with more frequent church attendance. (Also revealed in the Pew survey: Catholic Republicans are far more willing to approve torture than are Catholic Democrats.) Opposition to torture within the Catholic moral tradition is founded upon the theological claim that all persons possess an inalienable dignity as a result of being created in the image and likeness of God. Respect for the human dignity of all persons is the bedrock for much of Catholic ethical reasoning, and torture is judged to be a direct assault upon that dignity. Hence the church's teaching, as expressed in the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, that the "prohibition against torture" is a principle that "cannot be contravened under any circumstances." To understand that claim and to encourage Catholic citizens to oppose torture, the U.S. bishops approved a study guide, Torture Is a Moral lssue (2006).

Confronting Ourselves The nation's political leaders cannot be expected to withstand the pressure to torture suspected tenorists if a majority of the citizenry endorses the use of torture in order to gain information. Torture must be brought into the public forum where society can confront it. Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France remarked, "War is too important to be left to the generals." One might offer a parallel that "torture is too important to be left to the interrogators." For the sake of the national conscience, we Americans must learn what our nation did after the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11,2001, why it was done and whether it was indeed "necessary." There are large holes in our public knowledge of how tofture came to be practiced by our government, how it was implemented and whether it produced anything of import. Did some actors go beyond what even the Office of Legal Counsel approved? How much did the Congressional leadership know and when? Is it true, as the C.I.A.'s own inspector general repofied, that there was no clear evidence that crucial ooenhanced interrogation" techniques? In sum, there is much to learn from a thorough intelligence was obtained by the investigation and honest report to the public. Despite the cohstant criticism of politicians, the fact is that citizens usually elect public officials who reflect the broad currents of the American mainstream. It is imperative, therefore, that as a people we establish a moral consensus that will condemn unworthy acts done in our name and support political leaders who will oppose terrorists without transgressing our moral convictions.

Sidebar: 18th-Century Reforms The first great popular movement to abolish torture occurred during the l8th century on the European continent. In 17 64 the Jesuit-educated Italian humanist Cesare Beccaria wrote a short book, On Crimes and Punishments, which examined the system of criminal law. In particular, Beccaria advocated the abolition of the death penalty and of torture as part of legal proceedings. Translated into several languages, the book helped set off movements that removed torture within the criminal justice system. At the outset of the 1700s every European country allowed tofture in its criminal law code; by the end ofthe century no European country did. The abolition of tofture affected the legal system, but it did not end the use of torture in other circumstances. The 19th and 20th centuries continued to see torture employed during times of revolution and war. While international treaties and national legislation ban torture today, these legal instruments are frequently violated, often with the tacit or explicit consent of leaders and citizens who believe national security to be at stake. In the 21st century what is needed is a popular will to extend the abolition of torture from criminal law to all state activity.

Kenneth R. Himeso O.F.M., teaches Christian ethics in the theology depurtment of Boston College, Chestnut Hill' Mass,

Some Kind of Deficit Mh,"L"ffili:it""f around to addressing substantive issues ofjustice, such as the shape of public finance and budgedng. So I suppose I ought ro be rejoicing that our narion is

conducting serious high-level debates about economic prioritiesl fierce budget battles in Washington; statehouse

rallies in Wisconsin in support of beleaguered public-secror unions; deficit hawks wielding the budget axe with a vengeance; Congressional wrangling on debt ceiling excensions. Sure, I am glad that such matters at least occasionally eclipse celebrity scandals and have maintained a place on the front page alongside the recent crises in Japan and Libya. If I harbor disappointment, it is because so many of our political leaders are gettingit aIl wrong and are endorsing the wrong

priorities entitely,

The shape of the current budget from minute to

debares changes

minute, and there is no way to predict the eventual outcome. Will we avert a

government shutdown,

or will


reckless game of 'thicken" prevent sen-

uation, homelessness and destitution. Deficit hawks always seem to circle above rhe prey of anri-poverty pro-

imate rights of workersj' Scapegoating

grams, especially those with shadowy names like community services block grants, But the more you know about the crucial assistance they provide to struggling people and neighborhoods, the more eager you will be to exempt these particular heads from the chopping block. fnvestments in community

eration is turning away from authentic social justice.

Current proposals to cut them sharply amount to

eating our seed


outcomes or from ethics, it is easy to agtee with a line

in collecti-ve

the bedrock ethical principles that

public-sector unions. Even some Catholic voices, like the Rev. Roberc

and Mirtistry, Chestnut Hill, Mass.

10 ,{merica April

18. 20I I

saving public health and

social service outreach co some of the poorest people on earth. Cutting humanitarian aid and international pover-

ty-focused development assistance would seri-

ously undermine our nation! leadership posi-

fromarecentletterfromtheU.S.bish- munity. Fighting epidemics and helpops' conference to the Senate: "In a time of economic crisis, poor and vulnerable people are in greater need of assistance, not lessj' 2, Protects tbe rigbts of workers to organize and engage

eth,ics at the Boston College School of Theolagl


makes possible life-

tion in the world com-

gaining. Several cash-strapped states are seeking to limit the influence of

THOMAS MASSARO, S.!., te;ches social

to assist programs crucial for develop-


sible bipartisan compromisei But

desire') to capture this task of discerning proper and heartfelt goals. I deeply desire to live in a country thatl. 1. Does not abandon irs poor to star-

slash-and-burn approach to budgetcutting has targeted the already modest funding the United States provides

our seed

beyond the ebb and flow of events, a key challenge is to stay in touch with

should guide any process of social deliberation. Spiritual writers use the phrase id quod volo ("that which I

3. Maintains a commitment to the The

proposals amount to eating

Whether we argue from


drift of public delib-

least privileged around the world.

Current budget


disadvantaged groups, through programs like Head Start, will surely in the long run save money for government at all levels.

sure sign that the

ment. Foreign

health centers, job training and early childhood devel-


and demonizing organized labor is


Sirico of the Acton Institute, are piling

on against the unions, demonizing rhem as impediments ro prosperiry and justice. To his great credit, Archbishop Jerome. Listecki .of Milwaukee stepped up to defend the constant tradition of church support for organized labor, writingr "Hard times do not nuilifi' the moral obligation each ofus has to respect the legit-

ing people grow subsistence crops are

not optional




responsible 'nation, no matter how badly it needs to pinch pennies. Each of us could compile a much longer list of deep deqires, but these three priorities wiil always be near the top of my list. Sure, deficirs are serious concerns, but the current budget process is heading in a direction that is ethically and ptaciicalLy indefensible. Leaders from both parties appear not to be acting on

consistent principles and


unaware of the.real human.costs they are imposing through austerity plans. When politicians hide behind the mantra, ".We are broke," I am often

rempted to rhink, "Moraily bankrupt may be more like itl'


To Cut the Deficit, Look to Social Security retirements are already at risk. The need for retirement income is increasing as people live longer. Health care costs are soaring and two-thirds of Americans will need .some long-term care. At the same time, resources for retirement are diminishing. The gradual rise of Social Security's full retirement age to 67 serves as an across-the-board




wrangles over how much can be cut from a

sliver of the federal budget - the 12 percent that makes up nondefense dispolicretionary spending - ofresponsible the aisle know tliians from both sides t\at the real issue is entitlement pro-

benefit cut. And employer-sponsored

retirement plans,

g?ams like Social Security.

'solting Social Security's problems would not only reduce the long-term

Simply put, more and more Americans just don't have enough for retirement. The National Retirement Risk Index, which I helped develop, shows that 51 percent of households are at risk of not being able to maintain their preretirement living standards after retirement. Solving Social Securily's financing problem is conceptually easy - it's relatively manageable and dozens of proposals have been evaluated. While experts have put forth various solutions, it

deficit, but also improve the {uture securiry of retirees. "That view might surprise analysts who point out that Sociai Security has not contributed to the deficit in the past,

'Reassuring Americans .-about their retirements, and the country's credit.

seems reasonable to draw on the recent

work of the Debt Reduction Task Force, a panel convened bJ the Bipartisan Policy Center and led by Pete V. Domenici, a Republican who is a former senator from New Mexico, and Alice M. Rivlin, a Democrat who is a foriner director of both White House and Congressional

because it's been financed by payroll taxes, and technically cannot in the futir?e because, by law, it cannot spend dloney it doesn't have. But in reality, scheduled Social Securiiy benefits and current payroll taxes a{e included in long-term deficit projectipns by the Congresslonal Budget Officb, the office of Management and fiidget and the Government Accountability Office. These projections matter: policymakers, investors and the bond niarkets use them to gauge the nation's fiScal heaith. Since a shortfall in Social Security is embedded in these prbjec-

ti6ns, eliminating that shortfall would siibstantially improve the long-term budget outlook and the nation's creditworthiness. Restoring balance to Social Security wbuld also make Americans feel more secure about their retirement. Surveys trave repeatedly shown that many Afrrericans do not believe that Social Security will be there for them. While such even without an assessment is wrong


for those lucky

enough to have them, are increasingly in the form of 401(k)'s with modest balances rather than defined-benefit pensions.

budget offices.

The task force suggested four major changes: indexing the full retirement age (after it reaches 67) to improve-



any changes, Social Security payroll

taxes could pay 100 percent of benefits for the next 25 years, and 75 percent to 80 percent of benefits for decades thereanxiety about the program's fuafter ture -leads people to grab benefits as soon as they can. The problem is that benefits claimed at the early retirement age, 62, are 25 percent smaller than at the full retirement age (currently 66) and are likely to be inadequate when re-


longevity; switching td a

measure of inflation that grows more slowly than th6 one notv used to calculate Social Security's cost-of-living adjustment; gradually the earnings subject to the payroll tax (and the basis for benefits) to about $180,000 from $106,800 today; and gradually subjecting both employer and employee premiums for group health insurance to payroll and income taxes. A balanced plan of beneflt cuts and tax increases can more than solve the Social Secunty problem for 75 ybars. While the Domenici-Rivlin plan is far the change from perfect - for example, adjustment would in the cost-of-living

tirees have exhausted their other sources of income later in life. Eliminat-

ing the Social Security shortfall will, therefore, reduce the misplaced fear that causes Americans to claim benefits

it can serve as a starting point. Restoring balance to

early. The key question is how much of Social Security's financing gap should be cutting benefits Versus raising taxes. Some of both vrill be needed, but slashing benefits is dangerous because

Social Security would make Americans feel more secure, increase national confidence in our finances and set a precedent for hjpartisan action. This is not a political game. Someone has to go first and put a proposal on the

hurt the oldest of the old





FILM Searchers

Jumes Franco, Hurt Crune und me By Paul Mariani April 19, 2011 You're standing on the fourth step of an old brownstone stoop in Brooklyn Heights, N.Y., on a cold, raw, cloudy moming in early December. It's 7:30 a.m. and you've been up since 6:00 a.m., when two young women came to the door and began transforming your 7O-year-old self into the 58-year-old photographer Alfred Stieglitz, who was married to the painter Georgia O'Keeffe and who reinvented photography for the modern age. You're wearing an authentic suit of clothes dating back to the 1920s, an overcoat that you can barely button, a fedora and a pair of leather shoes that must weigh five pounds, which you must negotiate with. They have removed your own glasses and given you a pair of wire-rimmed glasses with little oval lenses through which the world looks distorted and teary. Then there's the fluffed-out graying hair and that gray-white moustache to top it all off.

You look into the mimor and swear that you are looking at the ghost of your father


grandfather, those quintessential New Yorkers who lived just across the East River in Stieglitz's


Now you're looking into the eyes of the actor James Franco, who is on the cement sidewalk below you. He is speaking fast and reverently up at you. He is dressed in a handsome old camel coat and striped sweater. He----or rather the poet Hart Crane, whom he is porlraying-is telling you how much your photographs, especially the new batch you took up at Lake George earlier that year, have spoken to his own sense of the kinetic possibilities of the image for the poetry he wants to create.

By which you (you meaning the biographer and poet, but likewise the dead photographer Stieglitz standing there) take him to mean the sense of a majestic, larger-than-life image that will lend a myth to God. You (the poet) take this to mean a kind of dynamic stillness, the still point of the tuming world, what he-the poet-has found in that icon of New York: the 140-year-old Brooklyn Bridge that strides the East River just blocks from here.

"Apples and gable," you say after a nervous hesitation, which you hope will come across as a considered profundity. It is spoken with a slight Jewish-German accent to recreate what you take Stieglitz's voice to be, considering he was raised in Hoboken, N.J., and spent 15 years of his youth studying photography in Berlin before retuming to the States. You have practiced those three words before a mirror countless times, and you are still afraid you're going to blurt out "apples and oranges," but you don't. The scene is shot once to the quiet applause of the young film crew taking all of this in. James looks pleased.

Good, he says, but let's do a second take for insurance, and we do. We shake hands and Hart Crane walks off down the deserted street to see Charlie Chaplin in the classic film"The Kid." You turn and walk up the steps as your moustache begins to slide down over your lips.

The Movie of the Book Two years ago, James Franco's agent e-mailed me to say Franco was interested in tuming my biography of Hart Crane, The Broken Tower, into a movie. The book's title is after the last poem Crane wrote before he killed himself at the age of 32byjumping from the stem of the S.S. Orizaba somewhere off the coast of Florida. He was retuming, broken in spirit, to the "chained bay waters," as he called them, of the East River and New York. The date was April 2J, 7932,just before noon---+ight bells. He had been severely beaten by members of the ship's crew hours earlier after trying to hit on one of them, even as his fianc6e was in her cabin sleeping.

Hart Crane-Harold Hart Crane-bom in 1899 in Garrettsville, Ohio, raised in Cleveland, was the only child of a set of honibly mismatched parents who seemed always to be going at one another. The boy from the Midwest meant to change American literature as those other two Midwesterners, Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald, would also do. In spite of every.thing, Hart (he took his mother's family name to replace Harold when he reinvented himself and moved to New York) was going to show America a sense of new possibilities. He saw Walt Whitman as his gay brother-in-arms and Isadora Duncan as the courageous figure who would remake dance and movement for the young century. When T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land was published in 1922--2ood, Hart thought, but so

damned dead-he saw it as his duty to rewrite that epic and give it an optimistic ending mirrored in the Brooklyn Bridge, which, against the odds of Tammany Hall and business-as-usual, had actually been built and stood now, like a New World cathedral, replete with its Gothic towers and choiring strings playing on by the North Atlantic day and night, sleepless and spanning the river of time


"How many dawns, chill from his rippling rest," Crane would write from his rooms facing the East River and the bridge itself, rising like Rip Van Winkle from his long sleep into the vision of those white buildings down in Manhattan's business district, transfigured by the morning light reflecting back across the river, the Woolworth skyscraper rising into the heavens like a vision of some New Jerusalem:

How many dawns, chill from his rippling rest The seagull's wings shall dip and pivot him, Shedding white rings of tumult, building high

Over the chained bay waters


a new era, a brave announcement more than a question, shaped by this gull, this joke, this sod, this Charlie Chaplin figure in baggy pants and bowler, who would either prevail or die trying.

A new day, a new dawn,

This energy, this promise, this brilliance, this tragic dance that was Haft Crane's short life, I have learned to my amazement, is what the young James Franco, now 32, has captured in his filming of The Broken Tower. Franco is a brilliant young actor who seems to have modeled himself after that icon of the 1950s, James Dean, even to the point of taking his first name and rendering Dean in a biopic. His porlrayal of that tragic actor, who died in a car crash on a highway in central Califor-nia back in 1955, still awes me.


James says he's going to do something," Miles Levy, his agent, told me one August morning 20 months ago in a hotel down in it." I took that statement with a New Yorker's grain of salt, but the truth is that-if James says he is going to do something, he does it. l've been lucky enough to work with him and his good friend Vince Jolivette, often via Blackberry and e-mails back and forth, forlh and back, about every conceivable question under the sun, such as poets and biographers don't normally deal with, but which actors and directors do-everything from translations of Catullus's salty language (in the original Latin) to the Danish accent of Hart Crane's lover, Emil Opffer, to the music Crane would have heard in Taxco as he beat the ancient Aztec drums in the broken tower of the Catholic cathedral there.

Soho, "he does

The Searching Heart flew into Boston's Logan Airporl on the red-eye out of Los Angeles, where he was picked up in a black limo by his driver and deposited at the CrownePlaza in Newton, Mass., where I waited for him with three pots of coffee, skim milk, granola and fresh fruit. We sat down at once to business. We went over the most recent cut of the film-black and white, 100 minutes-that had been delivered to me the night before at my home 90 miles to the west. What about Robert Lowell's take on the poet in his "Words for Hart Crane"? What was Lowell's take on Crane's homosexuality? What was Hart Crane's vision of America, coming as it did 70 years after Whitman's Leaves of Grass and the bloodletting of the Civil War and the Spanish-American War and World War I? James recently

What about Allen Ginsberg's take on Hart Crane? After all, James had rendered Ginsberg in his film adaptation of the legal proceedings that stemmed from the publication of his long poem, o'Howl," back in the late '50s. What about the pacing of the film he was creating in what he calls Twelve Voyages-named after Crane's own ooVoyages" sequence? What about the voiceovers? What about the flamboyance of Crane's lifestyle, wolfing down sailors in Brooklyn or Paris or Cuba or Mexico? How to reconcile that with the almost mystical sensibility of the man? What about the juxtaposition of 1920s jazz pieces against the recurrent "Dona nobis pacem" one hears? Or the crash of waves against the shore, the wind brushing against the trees along the Seine in the Paris sequence James filmed months ago? Or the low bellow of a cow in a field somewhere on the Isle of Pines off Cuba? Or-even more poignantly-the long, ineluctable silence of the hearl in search of answers?

It is the search that holds, I have come to

see over these past months, Hart Crane and James Franco and the biographer together as one.

Paul Mariani, poet, biogrupher and memoirist, former poetry editor of America, k the University Professor of English at Boston College, where Jumes Franco's adaptution of Mariani's biography of lIart Crane, The Broken Tower, was screened before a large audience of students on



The role for DC plans in the public sector By Alicia H. Munnell March 3l,20ll In the wake of the financial crisis, policymakers have been chattering about moving to defined contribution (DC) plans in the public sector. Defined contribution plans may well have a role in the public sector, but not as an alternative to defined benefit (DB) plans. Defined benefit plans should remain as a secure base for the tlpical public employee and defined conhibution plans could be "stacked on top" of them to provide additional retirement income for those at the higher end of the pay scale. Before the financial crisis, ten states had introduced some kind of comprehensive DC plan. Many of these states provide stand-alone DC plans, either as a requirement (Alaska and Michigan) or an option. Two states (Oregon and Indiana), however, recognizing the value of offering some secure benefit, provide a combined

DB/DC plan. In the wake of the financial crisis, three states (Michigan's public schools, Georgia, and Utah) have introduced such combined DB/DC plans, where new employees will get some of their retirement income from each tlpe of plan. And an additional six states are discussing DC options. Why the enthusiasm for DC plans? Some arguments are wrong; others hold water. Starling with wrong: Some supporters highlight the magnitude of the unfunded liabilities in public sector DB plans as justification for switching to a DC. The reality is that even with a new DC plan, states and localities are still left to deal with past underfunding. A new plan only addresses pension costs going forward, it does not help close the current gap between pension assets and liabilities.

Similarly, some contend that switching to a DC plan would save money in the future. But for any given level of benefits, DC plans have higher investment and administrative expenses than DB plans. Some proponents think that even if total costs increased, taxpayers could gain by shifting contributions flom the govemment to the employee. Transferring the burden to the employee provided a major economic incentive in the private sector to move from DB plans, where employees make no contributions, to 401(k) plans, where employees make the bulk of the conkibutions. But such a gain is difficult to achieve in the public sector where employees already make substantial contributions to their DB pensions.

A more legitimate argument is that shifting to a DC plan would eliminate risk for sponsoring governments and, thereby, taxpayers. A DC plan avoids the "moral hazard" of not funding benefits promises, as the plans are fully funded by design. And when things go wrong in financial markets, the taxpayer is not on the hook for covering any shortfall. The flip side is that public employees must face the risk of poor investment returns, the risk that they might outlive their assets, and the risk that inflation will erode the value of their income in retirement. Private sector workers who are dependent on 40 I(k)s have accumulated only modest amounts ($78,000 for the median worker approaching retirement before the financial crisis according to the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances) and many will not be able to maintain their standard of living once they stop working. Thus, the choice of plan t)?e comes down to a question of who should bear how much risk. A strong argument can be made that public employees with modest salaries should not be forced to decide how much to contribute, how to invest their contributions, how to change that investment risk over time, and how to withdraw money at retirement. On the other hand, it does not seem reasonable for the tlpical taxpayer, earning $50,000, to be forced to pay higher taxes when the stock market tanks to cover benefits for public employees at the high end ofthe scale, such as university presidents. Therefore, the compromise in the public sector should be a mix of DB and DC plans, but not of the "hybrid" form adopted to date. Instead, DB plans should serve as the base in the public sector, so that, say, school teachers do not face 401(k)-type risks and are assured a secure basic retirement income that will last their lifetime.

It seems reasonable to cap the earnings covered by public sector defined benefit plans at the income ofthe average taxpayer in the state. The public employer could then provide a DC plan on top of the DB plan to provide added retirement income for the higher paid. Such an approach would ensure a more equitable sharing of risks and would also avoid headlines generated by the occasional inflated public pension

benefit. Center for Retirement Research ut Boston College and the Peter F. Drucker Professor Manugement Sciences ut Boston College's Curroll Scltool of Managemenl. The opinions expressed ltere are her own.

Aliciu H. Munnell is the Director of the




The home of the blues By Carlo Rotella March 30, 201I I WAS FEELING homesick for Chicago music, so on a recent night I drove down to Chan's Fine Oriental Dining in Woonsocket, R.I., to hear bluesman Michael Burks. A full house of 125 or so patrons were eating, drinking, and mostly not talking as they attended closely to the music. Burks, a big man in his 50s, is a forceful singer, and he plays guitar in the dense, fluid, rock-tinged wailing style common among blues virtuosos of his generation. Flanking the stage were tr,vo signs. One declared that USA Today named Chan's one of the top l0 places in the Western Hemisphere to celebrate the Year of the Rabbit, the other that the Blues Foundation has given Chan's its Keeping the Blues Alive Award. The latter distinction is the one to ponder. How did it come to pass that a Chinese restaurant in an old New England mill town qualifies as an official home of the blues?

You probably have a generic notion of what the home of the blues should look like a juke joint in the Mississippi Delta, say. In my case, it's a tavern on the South Side of Chicago in which the air is-thick with the nightlife bouquet of my youth: menthol cigarettes, Old Style beer, and hair care products made by the Johnson Products Company. A tangle of assumptions about the larger historical and cultural significance of the blues tradition come attached to such places. The country or inner city joint serves as an emblem of foundational stories about peoplehood that you can also hear in the music: stories of African-Americans in motion from the agrartan Jim Crow South to the segregated urban industrial Nofth, and before that from slavery to freedom, and before that frorn Africa to America. But the story of the blues has taken further turns in the past half-century, and they lead to Chan's, of all places. Starting in the I 960s, the rise of blues-rooted genres of pop music like rock and R&B drew away some of the audience for the blues, and those baby boomers who did find their way to the blues often did so by way of these other, increasingly more popular forms. As more fans and musicians came to the blues via classic rock, rather than through first-hand training in Southern culture, influence flowed back the other way. There's some Jimmy Page in Michael Burks's guitar heroism. The blues became both a respected musical ancestor and a junior commercial partner. The Blues Foundation gives out Keeping the Blues Alive awards because the blues doesn't compete well in the market and needs support from foundations, festivals, schools, tourism and cultural agencies, and other evangelizing and preservation-minded institutions. John Chan tries to do his part. Born in Hong Kong and raised in New York City and Rhode Island, he discovered blues and jazz at Providence College in the '60s, eventually taking over his parents' restaurant and turning it into a venue for the music he loves. Chan says that the menu, not the music, pays the bills, and "every gig is a calculated risk" as he balances his own musical taste with the need to draw a good crowd. o'l love country blues," he says, "but blues-rock is the most popular style." That makes sense, given the irnporlance of Clapton, Hendrix, and company in recruiting blues fans. When Burks played at Chan's, the audience was composed mostly of white boomers. A lot of gray heads nodded along to the shuffle grooves. Chan credits his patrons with knowing the music and appreciating the room's acoustics. "People come in here to listen. It's not a bamoom. Musicians like playing for that kind of audience. There's good energy." Between sets, Burks, who has played at Chan's before, took a moment from signing CDs to say, "John knows how to treat people; I wouldn't drive all the way out here if it wasn't such a great place." Burks's grandfather played country blues in Arkansas; Burks was born in Milwaukee; and his music has found a home away from home, a home of the blues, at Chan's.

Carlo Rotellu is director of American studies at Boston College. His column appesrs regularly in the Globe.

The l)is-Integration of Europe European leaders are attacking'multiculturalism' in a transparent ploy to appeal to far-right voters. But they're threatening decades of progress in reaching out to Muslim minorities.



veisse I MARCH 28.20tl

One by one, the leaders of Europe's three biggest immigration destinations have stepped up to solemnly repudiate a policy that has long ceased to exist. In recent months, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, British Prime Minister David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy have let it be known that multiculturalism shall no longer be

the continent's doctrine of immigrant integration. "The multicultural approach, saying that we simply live side by side and be happy about one another, utterly failed," declared Merkel in a speech in October 2010. "Under the doctrine of state multiculturalism, we have encouraged different cultures to live separate lives, apart from each other and apart from the mainstream. We've failed to provide a vision of society to which they feel they want to belong," said Cameron on February 2011.

"Multiculturalism is a failure. The truth is that in our democracies, we cared too much about the identity of the migrant and not sufficiently about the identity of the country that welcomed him," Nicolas Sarkozy announced on French TV later that month. These unusually convergent statements would seem to signal a dramatic tuming point in Europe's relations with its Muslim populations, who are the target of these putative reforms. The speeches were designed to convey the image of political leaders fully in control of their national destiny, boldly charting a new course for their societies. The reality, however, is far less grandiose. Merkel, Cameron, and Sarkozy are playing a catch-up game with the right wing of their constituency by savaging a straw man -- multiculturalism -- and offering precious few concrete proposals behind their new proposed course ofaction.

They are also ignoring and jeopardizing years of hard work by their own interior ministries to refine and streamline a new generation of demanding yet fair policies toward local Muslim organizations. In the process, these national leaders are feeding the very fire they hope their speeches will contain: a growing far-right populism based on the rejection of Islam. The anti-immigrant opinions first voiced in late 2Oth-century Europe increased in intensity during the terrorism jitters of the 2000s and have been reinforced by burgeoning anti-Islam sentiment during the 2010s. What's happening is that the deleterious political impact of the 2008-2009 economic crises is now being felt, and the result is a sizeable populist wave throughout Westem Europe.

This wave generally takes the form of extreme right parlies -- even though some of them, like in the Netherlands and Britain, incorporate liberal elements like the defense of gay rights and women's rights. (The English Defence League has both Jewish and gay branches.) A11 of these populist movements, however, have one feature in common: they are explicitly anti-Islam. Just as anti-Semitism was the common denominator of populist movements in the 1930s, the single-minded focus on Muslim immigration has become the defining trait of anti-establishment parties in today's Europe. The logical effect is to push the center-right parties to the right, for fear of losing their constituency. And tack right they have. In Germany, Merkel's speech was designed to catch up with the national debate sparked by Thilo Samazin's bestselling book, Germany Does Away With ltself, as well as with an assertive nativist wing of her

Clegg's statement is strikingly similar to the logic Sarkozy used in 2003 when he rejected criticism of his engagement with Islamic groups while at the interior ministry: "If you find Islam to be incompatible with the Republic, then what do you do with the five million people of Muslim origin living in France? Do you kick them out, or make them convert, or ask them not to practice their religion? With the French Council for the Muslim Religion, we are organizing an Islam that is compatible with the values of the Republic." Incidentally, Sarkozy's highest favorability ratings, 58-59 percent so far), came between January and May 2003, at the height of his involvement with the French Council for the Muslim Religion. The understandable urge of European leaders to watch their right flank has the potential to backfire politically. Government leaders have amplified the anti-Islam discontent by making it official and respectable. The "national identity" and burqa debates in France were blatant overtures to the National Front electorate. But as Le Pen himself once observed, voters tend to prefer the original to the photocopy. Sarkozy's strategy, far from containing the far-right challenge in France, appears to have vindicated the National Front's long-time insistence on the Muslim threat to French identity. For example, Marine Le Pen, Jean-Marie's daughter who has recently taken over leadership of the party, now leads in some polls for the first round of the 2012 presidential elections. She recently quipped, "A little more blah-blah about Islam and lalcitd, and I'll soon be at25 percent" in the polls. This is exactly what happened.

Nor is scare-mongering about Islam a winning formula for domestic tranquility. Muslim citizens may well tire of being singled out not only by far-right parties but also by centrist govemments themselves. That may wind up giving common cause to disparate and diverse Muslim populations, now divided by ethnicity and national origin, as well as sectarian and ideological orientation. In other words, imposing restrictions on religious freedoms without ensuring basic institutional equality for Islam could eventually lead Muslims to rally in defense of religious values -- exactly the outcome governments are hoping to avoid. The current posturing of Merkel, Cameron, and Sarkozy may also set back the successful efforts of the last decade to integrate Muslim communities, creating new rifts and unraveling the more subtle policy evolutions of recent years, when states secured guarantees from Islamic groups that they would respect the law of the land and adapt their practices to the local context. Muslim religious leaders may now legitimately ask themselves, to take just one example, what purpose is served by a council convened by the Interior Ministry if one minister says "Islam is part of Germany" (as Wolfgang Schliuble did in 2006) only to have his successor say, "No it's not"? Those in government face a choice, and it is the same choice they've faced for years: Roll up your sleeves and help mediate between religious groups, or keep your cuffs buttoned and let foreign governments and transnational movements handle it for you. These issues are not going to go away. Recent demographic projections published by the Pew Forum foresee an overall increase of Muslim minorities in Europe from 6 percent of the total population to 8 percent over the next 20 years. Italy, Britain, Belgium, and Sweden are all likely to see their Muslim populations double by 2030. These Muslims will increasingly be native citizens, born and raised in their respective societies. They will no longer be the mere object of policy debates, but will increasingly participate in them as full voting members of society, albeit still as a minority. The kind of citizens they are encouraged to be will matter more than their sheer numbers. seek out Muslim participation? Will school and university planners rise to the challenges presented by an ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged minority? Will there be an ambience of religious freedom and efforts to punish illegal discrimination? Or will the forces of intolerance and mutual suspicion win out? The past decade provided some heartening examples of "state-mosque relations," but the new decade is off to an inauspicious start. Many non-Muslims are clearly wonied about their future in a changing Europe. But the prospect of failed integration should be far more frightening to all concerned.

Will political parties actively

Jonathun Laurence is associate professor of political science at Boston College and author of"the Emancipation of Europe's Muslims. Justin Vuisse is director of research of the Center on the U.S. and Earope at the Brookings


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The New Grave Robbers By Ray D. Madoff NEmoN, Mass.

AN a wlld wig and a bushy

mustache be packaged and called an A.lbert Einstein costume? According to Hebrew University of Jerusalem and

its American marketing agent, the answer is no - al lebt not withoul permis-

sion. The university says that when it inherited Einstein's estate, the bequest included ownership of Einstein's very iden' tity, giving it exclusive legal control over who could use Eiostein's name and irr age, md atwhatcost. Einstein is notthâ&#x201A;Ź only example. While we might think of people like the Ren DL Martin Luther King Jr, George Patton, Rosa Parks, Frmk Lloyd Wright and Babe Ruth as part of our cultural heritage, available for all tq use, the identities ofeach of them, and thousands morc, are claimed as pdvate property, usable only with permission and for a fee, This phenomenon is fairly recenr ild it's getting out ofcontrol. For mqst of this country's history, a person's identity w6 not sonething that could be owned. While the unauthorized use of someone's name or image was sometimes barred ff u invasion ofprivacy, the rightbelonged to that person alone and could norbe assigned to others. It was not until 1953, in a case involving baseball players licensing lheir jmages for use on baseball cards, thatAmerican law first constructed identity as a property interest that could be sold or licensed. This interest becanre known as the right of publicity. Today rhe right oI publicity clearly allows people to control the commercial

use of their names and images during their lives. What happens after death is much murkief, Throughout muth of the world, the dght ol'publicity ends at death, after whjch a person's identity becomes gener ally available for public use. In the United States, however, this issUe is govemed by state laws, which have laken a remarkably lhried approach, In New York, the right of publiciry terminares at dealh; other sEtes prcvide that rhe right of publiciry survives death for linriled terms. But in Tennessee (whose laws govern the use of Elvis Presley's image, since he prolessor aI Boslon 1 College Law S(hool, is the aulhor al "lmI mortality ond the Law: The Ri'inq Power of the Ameticon Deod."

fnoy D.




died there), Washington (home of a com pany that pumorts to own Jimi Hendrix's

right of publicity) and lndiana (where CMG Worldwide, which manages the identities of hundreds of dead people, is based), control over the identities of the dead has beeB secured lor terms rmging from 100 years to, potenlially, eternity. In a case involving Marilyn Monroe, the California Legislature even created a retroactive right of publicity, establishing new private property interests in the identities of the long dead. (It didn't work, because a court later found that Monroe was a resident of New York when she died. Her identity remains in the publlc domain.) This so.called descendible right of publicity has created a new kind of business: corporations that

The identities of the dead are a big business. acquire and market dead people. So Rosa Parks sells CherT trucks and Albert Einstein peddles everything from baby products to Apple computers. (And who knows how Elizabeth Taylor mightbe put to work now that she has gone to the other side?)

But say you wanted to write a play about a charce meeting between these lwo historic figurcs. Could you? while th6 play itself may be protected by the First Amendment, that doesn't mean that the companies thal manage Patks and.EiDstein might not attempt to assert control. Hebrew Univeffity has aggressively defended Einstein's image; even blocking its use on a book called 'Everything's Relative." And don't expect to sell prograrns, posters, T-shi$s or the other paraphernalia that might supporl your play without getting approval aild paying whatever fee the ownerc of Park's and EinsteiD's dghts of publiciry demmd, Contrary to what the owners of these identities claim, a ight of publicity that continues afler dealh does lrttle to protecr the repuratrons of rhe deceased. American law, unhke rhat in nruch of Europe, explicilly and uniformly provides that reputational protections - including libel and slmder and the right of privacy all eDd at dealh. The expansion of the -right of publicity does nothing to change tltis.



has afforded riches to the

heirs of the dead and the companies that rcpresent them. Einstein's estate has

generated $76 million in the last five years. Bul lhe dead thernselves partic-

ultrly those who would have preferred to avord being markered as a conrmodjry may not be sowell sened. While people can provide for the postmorlem exploitation of rheir idenliries,

there is no legal mechanism by which they can prevent it. It is a basic tenet of wills law that a person cannot order the destruction of a valuable property interest, Therefore, if Parks had written in her will that she did notwant her identity to be marketed, there is a good chmce that a court would not enforce those wishes.

The economic value uf a dead celebrity's image imposes another cost as well. Namely, rights of publicity, like all other property interests, are subject to estate tdes at their highest market vrilue. This means that even if heirs choose not to market a person's identity (perhaps to protect their loved one's dignity), dley nonetheless must pay tues on the ight. In some cases, that could compel heirs to nlarket their loved ones'identity in order to pay the taxes associated with it. Paradoxically, the values would likely be highest for those individuals who most coveted their privacy while alive (thinRJ. D. Salinger). The patchwork approach of state laws

has resulted in uncertaioty regarding

what isr and isn't, privately owned under the right of publicity. There has been considerable litigation in recent years over such questions as these: What happens when the right of publicity bumps up against First Amendment rights? How do we determine which state's law applies to a particular decedent? And how fcr can states go in creailtig and control-

ling these righls? (Just last

month, Washington State's right of publicity was found by a lederal coufl ro be unconsLirutionallv broad.) Yet, because lhcse ile issues of state law, the litigation has not brought clarity on a national level. Congress should step in and enact a federal right oI publicity. In doing so, it should establish clear Firct Amendment

protections and set forth a relatively short term for the right of publicity to survive death (perhaps I0 years). Most

important, the law shouid provide a mechanism that allows people to opt out of marketing rheir idenri(i(s after dearh.

After all, sometirnes the dead should be allowed to simDlv rest ilr



Scripture Passages The Bible's influence through history By Daniel J. Harrington March 21,2011 One of the most attractive and productive approaches in biblical studies in recent years goes by the German lerm llirkungsgeschichte, that is, the history of the Bible's influence or effects. The books covered in this survey illustrate in various ways the influence of the Bible and its interpretation throughout the centuries and today.

Henry Wansbrough's The Use and Abuse of the Bible: A Brief History of Biblical Interpretation (T&T Clark) offers a sound, concise, engaging and stimulating joumey through the history of biblical interpretation from New Testament times to the present. Wansbrough, a British Benedictine monk of Ampleforth Abbey, seeks to capture some of the ways in which the Scriptures have been interpreted in Christianity and on its fringes-for good (mostly) or for ill (in some cases). His volume contains general chapters on the interpretation of the Old Testament in the New Testament, the Bible in the politics of early 17th-century England, the Bible and the State of Israel, and the Second Vatican Council and the revival of lectio divina.It also considers individuals and their contributions to the history of biblical interpretation: Melito of Sardis, Irenaeus, Origen, Jerome, Bede, Bemard of Clairvaux, Thomas Aquinas, Julian of Norwich, Margery Kempe, Martin Luther, John and Charles Wesley and John Henry Newman. In treating these topics and figures, Wansbrough offers a nice blend of historical and biographical context, samples of their approaches to the Bible and appropriate praise and blame for the results. For example, he praises Origen for insisting on the mystical sense of Scripture and Jerome for stressing the literal sense, while noting the dangers of overemphasizing either approach. And he applauds the Wesley brothers for their abundant use of Scripture in their hymns and preaching, but also lauds Newman for striking a balance between Scripture and tradition and facing up to the challenges posed by the new archaeological, historical and literary studies of the Bible in the l9th century. He regards most of these interpreters sympathetically and even affectionately, though he is very tough on the early Zionists' political/propagandistic use of the Old Testament and biblical archaeology in the Land of Israel. A11 in all, this is a remarkably solid and appealing sulvey of Christian biblical interpretation and theology by a distinguished biblical interpreter in his own right. What happens when familiar interpretations of biblical texts (such as the creation story in Genesis 1) clash with history and archaeology, modem science, biblical scholarship and good sense? In Making Sense of the Bible: Dfficult Texts and Modern Faith (Paulist), Antony F. Campbell, S.J., explores how critical study of the Old Testament, along with current trends in biblical scholarship, can assist readers today in understanding what may appear to be difficult and problematic scriptural texts in ways that are beneficial to modem faith and do not endanger it. His motto is "Go, think!" Campbell first treats Israel's traditions in the Pentateuch about humanity (creation, the garden, Cain, the flood, Babel), Israel's ancestors (Abraham and Sarah; Isaac and Rebekah; Jacob, Leah and Rachel; Joseph) and Mount Sinai (the law, the sanctuary). Then he considers issues regarding Joshua and the land (Israel's doing, God's doing, the absolutely appalling-with an appendix on archaeology and the book of Joshua) and King David (his climb to power and his middle years). Campbell contends that while we can no longer do what our forebears did with these texts, when we now see what we can do with them we can and should be encouraged. Campbell regards Genesis 1, for example, not as an account about how God created the world but rather as a grand portrayal of Israel's longing for an ideal and ordered world and a fitting preface to the book's dour reflections on human limit (he garden), human violence (Cain), human existence (the flood) and human ambition (Babel). Bible readers who find themselves puzzled or even embanassed by certain Old Testament texts will discover here many fresh and stimulating insights for today. Among the enduring (and questionable) legacies of the Bible over the centuries have been the model of the patriarchal family and the complementarity of the sexes (as in "women's work"). In W'omen's Lives in Biblical Times (T&T Clark), Jennie R. Ebeling, associate professor of archaeology at the University of Evansville, presents a reconstruction of the life of a fictional woman named '6Q1n["-

On Being a Disciple of the Crucified Nazarene (Eerdmans) is the English version of the 2005 German collection of 28 previously unpublished lectures and sermons delivered by Kiisemann between 1975 and 1996. They treat many of his favorite topics: the kingdom of God, discipleship and faith, the righteousness of God according to Paul, the body and Christ's body, justification and gospel freedom, Paul's letter to the Galatians, the Sermon on the Mount, possession and healing, and so on. Kiisemann was always both an exegete and a preacher, and his challenging (and sometimes cantankerous) statements keep alive the theological legacies of both Paul and Luther. His essays are full of theological passion and will surely stimulate all who read them today. The Pauline Year observed in 2008-9 produced many excellent studies of Paul's life, missionary activity, letters and theology (see America, 319109,pp.22-25). A somewhat overlooked topic, however, was the legacy of Paul in early Christian circles. InThe Making of Paul: Constructions of the Apostle in Early Christianity (Fortress), Richard L Pervo, the author of the massive and learned commentary on the Acts of the Apostles (2009) for the Hermeneia series, seeks to provide a survey of how Paul was remembered, honored and vilified in the early churches. His goal is to describe how Paul became the pillar and founder of catholic Christianity, that is, the emerging "great church" of the period from A.D. 150 to A.D. 250. His focus is on how Paul's undisputed letters and the figure of Paul the Apostle were used to carry on the Pauline tradition and were adapted to speak to the needs of Christians long after Paul's death.

Pervo first describes how Paul's undisputed letters (Romans, I and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians and Philemon) were gathered, edited and circulated in the form of a collection around A.D. 100. Then he considers how the pseudepigraphical Pauline letters (Colossians, Ephesians, 2 Thessalonians, Pastorals, etc.) carried on and developed the Pauline tradition in various ways and how the figure of Paul appears in other early Christian letters (such as Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, etc.) and in narratives (Acts of the Apostles, Acts of Paul, Epistula Apostolorum, etc.). Next he deals with possible examples of opposition to Paul in Matthew's Gospel and with the silences about Paul in other early writings. Finally he discusses how Paul was interpreted and used by Marcion, the Gnostics and lrenaeus.

This volume is immensely leamed, full of fresh insights and connections and written in a lively and engaging style. Pervo plays very as detective, always in search of loose ends, inconsistencies and contradictions, and other clues in the ancient sources. He defines the legacy of Paul as an inspiration to generate fresh understandings of his message for the service of the church and the world. He observes ironically that although Paul gave his life in pursuit of unity, he has often been the apostle of disunity; but that the complexity of his legacy is a fitting tribute to his memory.

well the role of the historian

The year 20 1 1 marks the 400th anniversary of the publication of the King James Version, the British Protestant translation that has functioned as "the Bible" for English-speaking Christians for many centuries. ln Pen of lron: American Prose end the King James Bible (Princeton University Press), Robert Alter, who has taught Hebrew and comparative literature at the University of Califomia at Berkeley since 1967 and has for many years been a pioneer in the literary study of the Old Testament, contends that it is in America that the potential of the 1611 KJV to determine the foundational language and symbolic imagery of a whole culture has been most fully realized. Taking his title from its translation of Jer 17:1, Alter explores the role of this translation in the shaping of style in the American novel, and so seeks to reanimate the sense of the importance of literary style in the novel.

After a seven-page prelude, he discusses literary style in the United States and the King James Version, and then considers various aspects of its stylistic influence in Herman Melville's Moby Dick-polyphony; William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom!-lexicon; Saul Bellow's Seize the Day-American amalgam; Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises-the world through parataxis; and other American novels, including Marilynne Robinson's Gilead and Cormac McCarthy's The Road. Alter concludes that the resonant language and the arresting vision of the King James Version, however old fashioned they may seem, continue to ring in our cultural memory. For those who love the Bible, the English language, literary stylistics and great American novels, this will be an engaging and stimulating book. The legacy of the Bible can be found in many different forms and places. Tracking its influence is a fascinating enterprise in itself. It is yet another indication that the word of God is "living and active" (Heb 4:12).

Daniel J. Harrington,s.J.rprofessor of New Testument and editor of New TestamentAbstracts at the Boston College School Theology and Ministry, hus contributed an annual survey of new books on the Bible to Americafor over 25 years.


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The Spinion Fages

The Politicized Light Bulb Why are some Americans upset with attempts to encourage more energy efficiency in their homes?

Who's Really Upset? By Juliet Schor March 20,2011

Let's rewrite the question. The trope of offended consumers is a trap set by the public relations folks at climate change denier central: in fact, Americans believe strongly in energy-efficient appliances, love the financial payback and appreciate the chance to help the environment. This debate about light bulbs and toilets is a page from a playbook we've seen time and again. Senator Rand Paul, on the other hand, sure looks as if he's trying to provide a large and quick return on investment to his two largest campaign contributors. Those would be Alliance Resource Partners, the coal producer that is doing what it can to stop the shift to clean energy, and the Koch brothers, notorious oil barons, climate change deniers and stealth political donors.

This debate about light bulbs and toilets is a page from a playbook we've seen time and again. For years, the tobacco industry framed its attempts to hook consumers on an addictive and dangerous product through the prism of individual choice and freedom. The junk food industry set up the Center for Consumer Freedom to scare people into thinking that the government wants to take away their Twinkies. The dirty fuels industry is now doing the same, perhaps because public opinion is turning against it.

A January survey by the Consumer Federation of America finds that 95 percent of Americans support more energyefficient appliances and that 72 percent support federal minimum standards. Ninety-six percent consider the financial savings important, and they're also motivated by reducing air pollution (92 percent) and cutting greenhouse gas emissions (84 percent). But the industry saw an opening here, as only twothirds of the public even know that the government sets standards.

Isn't there some aspect of consumer choice? Yes. But the small segment of the market that wants the outdated products can still get them: while the big producers move on to provide cheaper, cleaner products, a few legacy companies can provide the old bulbs or appliances. That's not what Republican Senator Rand Paul or Representative Michele Bachmann of Minnesota want they're out to torpedo energy conservation and the shift to clean fuels. But it's time to expose this well-worn trope -for what it is: an underhanded attempt by polluters to escape public accountability. Juliet Schor is a professor of sociology at Boston College and co-chair of the board of the Center for a New American Dreum. She is the author of ttPlentitude: The New Economics of True Wealth."

ffihs ffiusfinnffituhc A local character resurfaces By Carlo Rotella March 16,2011 RECENTLY I went to hear Charles Fanell play solo piano at the Cambridge Center for Adult Education. This was his first performance in the Boston area after a decades-long hiatus in which he did other things in managed boxers, for instance the twilight where the talented consoft with the shady. He's a local character, a prodigy from Newton who hung around with the celebrated piano guru Madame Chaloff and played with Ornette Coleman and other major jazz figures. Around the Boston jazz scene in the 1970s, Farrell was known as a pitiless avant-gardist, a maker of noise and trouble. That's not the kind of music I know well, but I went to his show with what I hoped was an open mind. Famell, wearing black, sat down at the piano and with little preamble threw himself into an extended improvisation at what seemed an impossible, unsustainable pace, a blur-handed fugue state that nevertheless lasted most of an hour. There were elements of both free jazz and classical music, centrifuged at speeds high enough to transmute them into some other, original form. Swarming up and down the keyboard with fearsome technique, he built a dense, vibrant soundscape from which occasionally emerged semirecognizable figures a phrase from Coltrane, a snatch of Scriabin.


After a while, I no longer heard the speed of his playing; I heard the substance of his creation. It was as if he were assembling on fly a whole city: exploring its neighborhoods, peopling its streets, telling the many stories that gave it life. A party of befuddled squares from central casting left aller I 0 minutes, but the rest of the full house of 60 battle-tested veterans of the avant-garde stayed raptly with him the whole way.


I found myself in the grip of opposing responses that may be familiar to those who rarely venture to the fringe. I had been moved, even overwhelmed, but the part of my mind detailed to ride herd on sentiment was asking if I had also somehow been had.

I first met Farrell because we both write about boxing, a world rich in shifty characters. He speaks with the authority of experience about fixes, mismatches, the bunkum behind the facade of heroic competition. He's forthright about having been a hustler, and those who remember him as a young j azz insurgent in the '70s say that he had a Barnumesque air that could clash with the rigor of his virtuosity. Steve Elman, who hosted a jazz show on WBUR, told me: "You could hear right away that he had the technique and training, but he was going out of his way to make it hard to listen. He went on too long, thumbing his nose at people, turning them away. He had a serious musical idea, but mixed in with that was a desire to be a charismatic character."

Bob Blumenthal, who was a jazz critic for the Globe, said, "He was a true experimenter, not a charlatan, but experimenters do give cover to charlatans by breaking the rules." And Farrell sometimes muddied the distinction. Blumenthal said: "He called me when I was writing for the Phoenix in the mid-70s, at a time when I had never heard of him, and invited me to his house to hear him play. He asked me to come on a Wednesday, but since he had decided not to speak on Wednesdays, I was informed that I would not be able to converse with him. I went and was impressed with his playing, and a few days later we had a nice conversation on the phone."

My knowledge of Farrell's intimacy with the hustler's craft encouraged me to second-guess my own reaction to his conceft. But Elman and Blumenthal urged me to suspend my doubts, to take powerful music atface value. "It's possible," said Elman, "for someone to both be a self-promoter and have something real to say." And artists can mature. Farell's formidable playing has a humane lyricism that was missing before, and he has shed his Uncompromising Genius persona. It appears that now, older and wiser, he just wants to play, and he can really play. He intends to schedule more gigs around town; I'm ready for a rematch. Curlo Rotellu is director of Americun studies ut Boston College. His column sppears regularly in the Globe.




A portrait of American Muslims March


As Congressman Peter King conducts hearings on Islamic radicalization in the (L5., the nation's growing Muslim community is coming under the microscope. International Business Times spokes to Peter Skeny about the Muslim community in the U.S. Skerry is Professor of Politicul Science at Boston College und Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, where his research focuses on social policy, racial und ethnic politics, und immigration.

IBTIMES: How many Muslims are there in the U.S. today? SKERRY: It's hard to state exactly since the US Census Bureau isn't permitted to collect

data on religion. But

estimates by demographers on their numbers range from 2-million to 3-million - that is, less than 1 percent of the total population. However, I should say that most Muslim-Americans I've talked to think that figure is an under-estimate.

IBTIMES: Are Muslims the fastest-growing minority group in the U.S? SKERRY: That's also hard to estimate, but they are clearly growing in size. But many minority groups are also rapidly increasing in size, particularly Hispanics, who form a much larger segment of the population. In any case, there are far fewer Muslims in the U.S. compared to Westem Europe [for example, there are at least 5million Muslims in France alone.l However, what is perhaps more relevant politically in a society in which different groups inevitably compete for attention and influence is the number of Muslims versus the number of Jews in the U.S. There are currently more Jews than Muslims in the U.S., but in the future that can change since Muslims have a higher birth rate and continue to migrate here; while Jews are concerned that they are losing people through intermarriage and assimilation.

IBTIMES: Are most U.S. Muslims of Middle

Eastern descent?

SKERRY: Not at all; Muslims in the U.S. form an extremely diverse and polyglot community. I would say that generally speak, one-third of the Muslim community are black Americans who have converted to Islam (or descendants thereo|; another third are of Middle Eastern/Arablhanian descent; and another third come from South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh). fAccording to the Arab American Institute, 63 percent of Arab-Americans are Christian and only 24 percent are Muslim.]

IBTIMES: Immigrants from Lebanon

and Syria first came to US more than 100 years ago. But were the original

immigrants mostly Christians? Or were Muslims part of that migration as well? SKERRY: The huge majority of those early immigrants were Christians. As the Ottoman Empire was breaking up, Muslims were reluctant to migrate to non-Muslim countries and the Ottoman rulers were not eager to see them go anyway. But there is some evidence that Muslims were part of that exodus, however.


does Detroit Michigan have a high concentration of Arabs and Muslims? SKERRY: The original influx of Arabs was very working-class and/or rural villagers, like most other immigrant groups. They came to Detroit because Henry Ford recruited them to work at his auto company. Other cities, including Toledo, Ohio and Schenectady, NY also have long history of Arab settlements.


ByJEsurrs oF THE

UNlrsl Srarm

MARCH 7, 2011



tlntil Next Year

uper Bowl XLV thrilled the nation on Feb. 6. About 111 million pairs of eyes were fixed on the hundred or so players racing about the gridiron in the largest domed stadium in the world. But once again, alas, none of those players was wearing the green and rvhite uniform of the New YorkJets. Much to the chagrin of us long-suffering Jets fans, it has been nearly two

generations since that glorious day (Jan.12,1969, lest anyone forget) when Joe Namath and Gang Green brought home the Super Bowl III trophy. The Jets have come closg including appearances in the last two A.F.C. dtle games, but have never again made it to the Super Bowl. While simple arithmetic attests to longer droughts by other pro-

more complicated.

ever In our highly is growing

mobile society, where families

far from the media markets of our redemption for the star quarterback favodte franchises, I know of many (not to mention his rifle arm and "mixed marciages" (between Yankee exceptional scrambling ability). and Red Sox fans, for example) and A second sports phenomenon with have met children who root against the wider life currency involves the skills of teams of their parents, who dialogue and reasoned had migrated to regio-nr debate. The ability to StaVing t,''e that are home gerritory for - --./ ---o er'g ge constructively their rival



from city to city (true or falser The real Cleveland Drowns are


professional sports. Even when our teams fail us, as the vast majority of teams must do each year, being a sports fan prepares millions of us, male and female, young and old alike, for crucial

life experiences. I will address just two such areas, thouglr they could be


plied many times over. The most obvious conrour of modern life reflected in sports fandom is Ioyalry. Sraying true to your teanr in good times as well as in lean years is a valuable character trait; but like so

rnorr,rns MASSARo, 5.t.,



rthirs al thp Boston Collcge School of Theolog and, Ministry, Chestnut HiIl, Mass.

tO yOUf

with others does not

IS a I I I

is often the first topic on



which vounssters form valuable #;l#':1:inrer-

and ChafaCtef

rent Baltimore Ravens)

the increasingly rapid turnover of phf"r. d.o"'ro rade and free-agency. (Is it

am growing increasingly philosophical about the entire enterprise of following


Scott have sent some Jets fans to the exits (not me, at least not yet). Some Philadelphia Eagles fans cursed the day their team acquired the convicted

residences and even regions frequently, sticking with one team for a lifetime is felon Michael Vck, while others not easy. Many of us live in cruel exile cheered this offer of a chance at

Cubs or Detroit Lions fans out therei), I rurely feel more bitter disappointment

I do every year when my favorite team is eliminated. Perhaps as a defense mechanism, I



fessional sports franchises (any Chicago



many virtues today,

fro^ their obser"r,.", vations and learn to argue civilly with peers. When I served as a high coach, I encouraged neoschool debate phytes to cut their teeth by defending their opinions about favorite teams ("Be it resolved that the Celtics should

1, tfalt'

still O.K. to like Johnny Damon after his fifth uniform changei) These many diasporas-of teams, ownership, players and fans alikeleave a landscape cluttered with conflicted loyalties. Maybe Jerry Seinfeld had it right when he quipped, upon seeing mostly unfamiliar players wearing the uniform of his favorite team: Aren't we rooting for just the laundry nowadaysi The ties of loyalty can be shaken by more than the rapid change of players and locations. Fierce debates rage over whether it is justifiable to withdraw one's loyalty when a franchise grows ugly-when features too many

draft a new backcourt"). Once adolescents learn how to analyze and interpret facts, they are well positioned to debate

wide range of ethical issues, including those arising within the sports world itself (salary caps, performance-enhancing drugs). My coaching efforts did noi produce any state champions, but they a

may have elevated the discourse of local sports-talk radio just a hain Far from being'bnly a game," sports echo the topography of our lives. They

thuggish players, for example, or exceeds the quota for empty swagger. The antics of the blustery coach Rex

to cause anguish or exhilaracion, to give fans a sense of belonging and to prompt deep reflection on social values. How long until

Ryan and the mouthy linebacker Bart

Opening Dayi


QTJOTH THtr DtrTE,CTI\rS Edgar Allan Poe's case against the Boston literati

By Paur, Lnwrs WHBN ABC RECENTLY announced it was picking up the pilot for a TV series in which EdgarAllan Poe will solve crimes as a detective rvorking in preCivil War Boston, the news delighted Poe fans here but triggered a backlash among aficionados in other cities. The problem wasnlt historical accuracy: The show, after all, is supposed to be.flction. The problem was Boston. Writing in The Baltimore Sun, Michael Sragow called the show's settfui an in-

sult to Baltimore, the city where Poe connected with his father's farnily, met


his young wife, and-died. in Philadelphi4 Poe biogger Edward pettit decried the choice of Boston because Philadelphia was the "darh gothic eiSr where Poe first started writing urban gothic tales." These critics have a point. Poe spent rnost of his life, and did psE, Kxz PauI Lewis is an Engtish professor at Bostan Calkge und.the chnir of the Edgar Allan Poe Faundatktn af Boston"



borrowed his "habitual manner" from "the German fauthor

the GREAT MOGUL of the



writer guilty

rf "the most barbarous class of literary robbery."



poetry to vent


a "mystic for mvsticisn-r'.s sake"

his "prejudices and crotchets"

Johann LudwigJ Tieck."

Foe Contittwdfrompa,ge Kl much more of his wo*, in other citis. But in mother seroe, ABC is on solid gound. Il we thjnk of P@ s an irvestigatot Boston males per{ect sense. Poe ne\er rctually lvorked 6 a detective, but throughout his ffeer m a critic md reviewer, he repeatddly, perhaps obsssivelli investigated



the distinguished Miie$ and editors of Boston. In the process, he uncorered what he saw 6 literary crimes md erposed a den of crcn]ism, imitatjon, md self-righteousness in the ciry that faucied ltself tlle 'Athens ofAtrneict' Over the couse ofhjs short life, Poe lived in Boston for ai lest 1 1 months. He ws bom two blocks from tl1e Commo[ on Jan. 19, 1809, after u'hich his parelts remained ]rere for several months, As a young man, he moved here in 1827 md stayed long enough to put together his f,rst book, "Thnerlane md Other Poem," md see it tlrough to publication by Calvin R S. Thom6, a Wdhington Sheet plinter In 1843, though living in Philadelphia at the time, he published his most fmos short story, "The TellThle Heart," herc. In 1849 his l6t poeru were published in the Rag of Our Union, a Boston periodical. And his Aug. 28, 1849, leuer to his mother-jnlaw, Muia Clemm, suggots that he w6 detemined to move brck to the $eater Boston area in the weeks before his unerlected death in Baltimore. And all along, ro a critic dd b@k rcviewer working in Richmond; ?hiladelphi4 or New York, Poe

kept at le6t one of his \adturc eyes on Bostonb literati. Boston at the time w-s the center ofAmedcu literature, not 6 large commercially 6 New York or Philadelphia" but deeply influential md alive to new ide6, including (to nme a few) Unittriilism,

universalism, hansendentalism, rommticism, feminisn, and abolitionisn. Wherc othe$ saw a "flovering of the New England mind;' how. ever, Poe saw something else: "the hercsy ofthe didrctic."'Fron 1845 on, he called our srilers'ftogporrdians. perhaps be@use he rcgaded them tu so mmy croakers rvho ured lilemture not to delight and move rpndeE. bur to argue ild prerch-m weil a to endch i.,;:1 one dolhcr essay "American drErrLdu ?o- i:.'. rut..;l , In his 1845 EssdJ etryj' Poe miled against "the nachi-

nations of coteries



Boston' that

had been conspiring with "leading bookselle$" md publishe$ to provide nempaper edito$ with positive reviews of local witers. Adding chalgs to his indictment, Poe called this compiracy both 'blacknail" md a "system of petty and contemptible briberyi' In arother review witten uound the sme time, he chilrctâ&#x201A;Źdzed Bostont literaxy elite 6 a 'ftnot of rcgus md madmenl' When it came to individual Boston witeN, P@ slEnt yeils mcmulating evidence of their misdeeds, their violations ofboth ethi6 md tate. At the top oi hjs mosl-wantf,d list ws Henry Wadswofth Intrgfellow. Though he might now seem u

unlikely perp, the beloved autllor of "Paul Revere's Ride'and "The Village Blacksmith's'6, in Poe's yieu', the wo6l of Bostonk literary offenders. Held aloft by m adoing 'Junto" of dishonst Bostonians,

Irngfdllow's "celebrityi


wote, wtr b6ed on

"the ad\â&#x201A;Źntitious influence ofhis s@ial position s Prcfessor of Modem leguages and Belles Lettrcs

at IIARVARD," md his "mariage with an hetess."

Aad Poe had a more specific charge to level aSainst hngfellow: plagiilism. \ryith a detectivet intensi!, ofobsewa-


tion, Pre qamined a luge number of @es in which Longfellow used t}le metaphors, rhj,ms, and idetr of other ETiteN. For exmple, ilguing thai Longfellowl 'l4idnight M6s fot the Dying Yd" w6 "a singular admirture ofCordeliaS death scene in .Kingl Lear" and Tenn)sJn! Dcarh of the Old Yenj' Poe @ncluded that "a more palpa-ble plagia.ism


never com-


$6 GRE {l

To Poe, Longfeilow

not just m occkional MOGLTL of the Inita-

bonower but "the tors;' a witer guilty of "the most bilbilous clss of literax)'robbery: In a late ssay pointedly titled "Mr. Longfeliow md Other Plagiilists," Poe deployed the detective3 v.ocabulay, "chilging" Longfeilorv with "theft" md "stealing;' iroisting that Lotrgfellow had "mmitted a...wong D'hose incompilable meanness...dseNels ] erposure." Beneath the dramatic lmguage, Poe made the

c6e against long{ellow in


much detajl that, al-

thowh few at the time

believed him, longfellow biog?pher Christoph Imscher htr accepted tbe gdlry verdict: tr chaged. "Longfelios/s wolk," lmscher srites, "published md unpublished, were pervaded by borowings, smetjmes erdicit, more often unrcknowledged from other authois:' While P@ retmed rcpeatedly to Iongfellory's abuss, he had time to gather evidence agaimt other trtogpondian authors 6 well. He chagedNathmiei Hawthome with a lack of origina]ity, clijming that he bo{owed his habitual manner" flom 'lhe Ger-

mm lauthor Johm Ludwig] Tirck] He chdged James Russell lpwell wjth trvo offenses: 6ing poetry to vent his "prcjudics and crotchets" md using criticism to promote his ftiends. "Ali whom llrwetl_l pnises,"-Poe obseryed, "are Bostonians." He convicted Ralph Waldo Emerson of being a "mystic lor nysticism's sake," md he famously mocked the "soca.lledpoetryof the sccalledT!ilscendentalists." ABC h6n t yet said when its Poe pilot s'ill air, but when it does, it's unlikely to pay much attetrtion to lhe "crimes" Poe uncovered herc or the poeLs he accuserl of commihing thpm. More likel1, the Poe it features will be the atmospheric Miter

credited with inventing detective fiction in the startlingly odginal 1841 story "The MurdeN in the Rue Morgue." Sti[, it ws critical sleuthin8 that defined Poe's engagement with the ciq, of his birth. In exposing the dubious Nsumptions and ethical lapses beneath the glowing surface of BostoD! lit erary culture, Poe $,m attentive, drivel, and always on the







Bearing Witness: The War, the Shoah and the Legacy of Vasily Grossman By Maxim D Shrayer February 2l,20ll And once again, a feeling of superstitious terror took hold of the enemy: Were the ones attacking them people, could they be mortal?' In a slightly modified form, these and other words from Vasily Grossman's essay'The Direction of the Main Strike' (1942) are engraved on Mamaev Kurgan memorial on a hill overlooking Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad. Grossman's words refer to the shock of Nazi forces as they faced the heroism of Soviet soldiers fighting under Stalin's order: 'Not a step back'.The Soviet victory at Stalingrad turned the tide of World War II, but it could not stop the Shoah. When the Soviet troops, Grossman embedded with them, came to the death camps in Poland in the summer of 1944, most of the Jews of Europe had been annihilated. The Jewish-Russian writer and political thinker Vasily Grossman (1905-1964) is not identified as the source of the seething words carved out on the Stalingrad memorial. Grossman's deletion-words 'popular' author 'unknown',constitutes much more than a double twist of black Soviet humour. According to John and Carol Garrard, Grossman's dedicated biographers, the absence of Grossman's name on the Stalingrad memorial is an'open wound' on the writer's legacy. Fifty-nine year old Vasily Grossman died in Moscow of stomach cancer, devastated by the Soviet efforts to erase him from history. His novel Life and Fate, a comparative indictment of Stalinism and Hitlerism, had been 'arrested' by the KGB rn 196I,leaving him free to die of illness and grief during the headiest years of the Thaw. 'They strangled me in the back alley', Grossman had said to Boris Yampolsky, author of the novel Country Fair (1940), a lament for Jewish life in the former Pale. Ironically, some of Grossman's loyal official supporters were the ageing generals he had interviewed at Stalingrad, who understood his love for the 'holy Red Army' and the extent to which it had bolstered the war effort. In orchestrating Grossman's literary death, the regime was symbolically murdering the legacy of the people's war against Hitler while also pogromising the Soviet memory of the Shoah.

Bom Iosif Grossman but accustomed to being called Vasya (diminutive of Vasily), Grossman adopted the emblematic Jewish-Russian pen name 'Vasily Grossman'. His first novel, Gliick Auf!, a Soviet Germinal devoid of desire or violence, is stronger and less formulaic than his next novel Stepan Kolchugin (1937-1940), a story of a working class youth's path to Bolshevism. His early prose of the 1930s is a search for his own voice, via the styles and artistic devices of other Soviet writers, both Jewish and non-Jewish. Perhaps Grossman's greatest inspiration was Chekhov (he would title one of his Stalingrad essays 'Through Chekhov's Eyes'; the essay zoomed in on the experience of the famous sniper Anatoly Chekhov). To write in a form that resisted pathos and narrative closure would remain a lifelong aim, even as a Tolstoyan novelistic ambition pulsed in his temples. These early works gave little indication of the authorial voice Grossman would acquire in 1941 at the war front reporting from the trenches, gathering his material directly from the fighting soldiers. There is courage and sacrifice in his wartime articles, but there is also humour and tendemess; despite being a time of personal trauma the war against Nazism was also, for Grossman, a time of glory-literary, civic, and military. For him and many other Jewish soldiers, including poets and novelists serving as military journalists, this was a war with double the cause and double the commitment. (In the notebooks, Grossman recorded a comment by a Jewish commanding officer that 'in a war like this Jews should be fighting like fanatics').

Muxim D Shruyer is u professor of Slavic & Eastern Languages and Literutures at Boston CoUege.

1r +THE

I}ITTIOITAL IITTEREST The Coming ooArab Revolution" By Franck Salameh February I,20II With the recent Tunisian uprisings-now termed the "Jasmine Revolution"-and the ensuing giddiness about some impending copycat revolutions soon to be sweeping the "Arab World," very few voices of reason are being heard. Troubling as this may sound, one is on solid ground suggesting that there are no "coming revolutions" on the Arab World's horizons, and that there isn't even a distinct uniform "Arab World" to begin with, let alone one gearing up for en masse popular uprisings and regime changes. Despite many religious, cultural and linguistic similarities among Middle Easterners, the modern Middle East, like the ancient Near East, lacks the requisite historical uniformity or continuity to warrant the reductive appellation o'Arab World"-and by inference, it lacks the conditions justifying all the premature talk of a "coming Arab Revolution." Instead, like Europe or, say, Latin America, the ooArab World" is a patchwork of varied identities and language communities that may have a great deal in common, but which can also boast a wealth of distinctive national features honed by different historical experiences. And so, it would be neither presumptuous nor defeatist to suggest that the news of a looming o'Arab Revolution" has been grossly exaggerated; what happens in Tunisia or Egypt is very likely to stay in Tunisia and Egypt. As Robert Kaplan aptly put it in a recent New York Times essay "as the situation evolves in Tunis, and as we watch other Arab capitals expectantly, we would do well to focus less on what unites these places than on what divides them. . . . The more we focus on the particularities of each place, the less surprised we will be by

political developments. " This revelation is nothing new. [t is unorthodox and unfashionable, but it is hardly an earth-shattering discovery about the Middle East. Indeed, Kaplan had been speaking in those same terms since at least the early 1990s. No stranger to the cultural and linguistic complexities of the region, Kaplan's work underlined the obstinate devotion of America's Middle East experts to dogmas and archetypes with exclusive Arab biases; faulty standards that depicted tens of millions of autochthonous Middle Eastern minorities as remnants of European (Crusader) intrusions, and the State of Israel as a modern incarnation of that same (Crusader) colonial entetprise; both schemes ostensibly designed to ever keep disrupting Arab consensus and Arab unity. The conclusion of Kaplan's remarkable book, The Arabists, spoke ominously of America's failures of policy, comprehension and interpretation in the Middle East. He attributed those flops to the vain persistence of an "Arabist" paradigm that underestimated (perhaps even undermined) Middle Eastern diversity, and spoke of (perhaps even concocted) a glamorized Arab unifotmity and harmony. Kaplan wrote that traditional State Department bureaucrats have consistently dismissed the Middle East's ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity in favor of a monochromatic "Arab World." Arabists-as he dubbed twentieth-century American experts who defined America's Middle East policy-have been known to despise Middle Easterners who deviated from the comme il faut Arab-Muslim praxis. The Arabists' prescriptive Middle Eastern model as a homogenous "Arab World" was not an honest, ideologically neutral depiction of the region; it was a caricature and a chimera reflecting European examples, not Eastern, and certainly not Arab, parameters of identity. On this point, Joel Carmichael wrote that:

It was in fact the Western habit of refening to Arabic-speaking Muslims . . . as 'Arabs' because of their language----on the analogy of German-speakers as Germans, French-speakers as French . . . imposed itself on an East that had never regarded language as a basic social classifier. lt was natural for Europeans-that to use the word 'Arab' about a Muslim . . . whose native language was Arabic; they were quite indifferent to the principles of classification in the East.

The oddity of these sorts of typologies is that they induced an illusion of a uniform Arab identity out of a patently European abstraction that had no foundations in a Middle East defined by time-honored, polyglot multicultural traditions. Yet the European creators of Araby stuck to their guns and worked feverishly to tum their fuzzy fairytale of a monocultural "Arab World" into a politically soothing reality. In the process, they stunted and delegitimized pre-Arab Middle Eastern narratives, branding them alien, subversive, isolationist, reactionary.

Arabists 'ohave not liked Middle Eastern minorities," wrote Kaplan in 1993; they "have been guilty . . . of loving the majority and the idea of Uruba, which roughly translates as 'Arabism."' He mentioned hearing American officials at Foreign Service functions during the 1970s and 1980s refer to the Maronite Christians of Lebanon as fascists. In this same vein, Lebanese commentator Michael Young wrote that "[w]hat pro-Arab Americans couldn't stomach was that the fMiddle East's] Christians were often estranged from | . . . the Muslims] and from the Arab nationalism the region engendered." Never mind that those same Christians had been calling that "region" home (in Aramaic, Coptic, Greek andHebrew no less) for some seven centuries prior to the coming of Islam and the Arabic language into the Levant and Northern Africa. The profoundly flawed assumptions about a monolithic "Arab world" need to be unpacked before rushing to herald a "coming revolution." The Middle East's cultural, religious and linguistic diversity deserves recognition, and the distinctive "microclimate" that might have given rise to Tunisia's "Jasmine Revolution" should not be expected to afford the same conditions for a Cairene Rose, a Lebanese Cedar, or a Damascene Lilac. People with a common literary language do not necessarily share similar values, aspirations or destinies. Although native English-speakers, Scotsmen, Irishmen, Americans and Nigerians are not Englishmen and are hardly shaped by the same identity and the same historical experience as Englishmen. Similarly, the hundreds of millions of users of Arabic are a vigorously disparate and diverse lot, "divided by the same language," to paraphrase George Bernard Shaw. The idea of "Arab uniformity" or a coherent "Arab World" throbbing in unison is illusion and folly similar to "English-speaking" unity conceded by T.E. Lawrence in his later years. Even Edward Said, one of our time's most committed advocates of Arabness, dismissed the assumed adequacy of the Arabic language as a definer of some uniform Arab identity. "Var[ying] considerably between one . . . country and another," wrote Said, Arabic is a "written language fthat] is quite different" from the bevy of speech forms used in the Middle East; it is a textual, not a spoken language; the equivalent of "Latin for the European colloquial languages . . . i.e. a dead and forbidding language."

Yet this illusion of Arab harmony, constructed on a presumed linguistic unity, is the sole prism through which the Middle East continues to be viewed today. It is also through this same prism that the hyped, looming, "Arab Revolution" is expected to erupt. Alas, what was lost in all this frenzy of oversimplifications is arguably one of the most moving moments in Tunisia's march to freedom. The people's joyful cries "we are happy fthe deposed autocrat] spoke our language" were overlooked and drowned in a rush of speculations as to where might the "Arab Revolution" make landfall next. Why should it matter that the tyrant "spoke our language," the language of the people? Why should it matter that Ben Ali spoke the vernacular speech-form of Tunisia instead of customary textual Arabic, a foreign tongue to most Tunisians and, at best, a second language to the literates among them?

Why, it matters because Nicholas Sarkozy, David Cameron, Barrack Obama and Silvio Berlusconi address their people not in Latin, but respectively in vemacular French, English and Italian; it matters because the Christian Reformation was triggered by a Martin Luther hammering his "95 Theses" in vernacular German, not in Church Latin; it matters because Dante's La Divina Commedia, Descartes' Discours de la Mdthode, and John Locke's Two Treatises of Government (among other works that paved the road to the Age of Enlightenment) were, again, written not in elitist inaccessible Latin, but in the languages of illiterate commoners; in vernacular Italian, French and English. The Middle East is certainly heading in that same direction, and a "coming revolution" is, no doubt, lurking in the region's future. But the "coming revolution" will remain idle talk and empty speculation so long as the autarchy of Arabic continues to be hallowed, so long as the languages of the people continue to be shunned, and so long as the Middle East's wealth of Luthers, Dantes, Descartes and Lockes (in-waiting) continue tobe muzzled, stunted and shunted.

Until the "Revolution" comes, and until the people dare to begin speaking their languages, they will continue to merit their chains and the whips bruising their backs, to the same extent that Rome was worthy of its Nero. And until the "coming revolution," G.E. Borgese's words will continue to ring true: "all servitude is voluntary and the slave is more despicable than the tyrant is hateful."

Franck Salameh is an Assistant Professor of Slavic & Eustern Languages and Literatures at Boston CoIIege.

trhs ffinstsnffilnbs Silence from Muslim- Americans By Peter Skerry and Gary Schmitt January 29,2011

AMID THE, uproar earlier this month over the assassination of Salmaan Taseer, the secularist governor of the Pakistani province of Punjab, MuslimAmerican organizations have been largely silent. At a time when mainstream Muslim leaders have been trying to demonstrate their embrace of religious tolerance and pluralism to their fellow Americans, few have had a word to say about this People's Parly leader whose denunciation of Pakistan's draconian a zealol blasphemy law led to his death at the hands of a Muslim zealot who has since been celebrated by fundamentalists around the globe.


The most notable silence is on the part of the Islamic Circle of North America. Pakistani civil society activists protest in Lahore against the Operating in this country for about 40 years, this organization has ideological killing o;f late Punjab Goterner Salman Taseer. (Ari;f Ali/ AFP/ ties to the Jamaat-e-lslami, one of Pakistan's main Islamist political parties. Getty Inages) The Jamaat explained away the assassination of Taseer on the grounds that it could have been avoided if the government had simply removed him from office. Though the lslamic Circle of Norlh America does not necessarily take orders from its Pakistani parent, it appears unwilling to challenge the views of its overwhelmingly immigrant membership from Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh many of whom seem to have little sympathy for the slain politician's secularist



Nor is this the first instance of such silence. Last May, when the Pakistani Taliban slaughtered 93 members of a persecuted Muslim sect, the Ahmadiyya, the Islamic Circle of Norlh America held its annual convention in Hartford. Speakers continually reminded the several thousand attendees that "lslam is a religion ofpeace," yet one ofus in attendance heard not a word about the killings all weekend. Other Muslirn-American organizations, none of which has such direct and exclusive ties to Pakistan and the region, had even less excuse for their silence.

While Muslim-American leaders are constantly reminding their followers to exercise their rights as Americans, they also embrace the view that Muslims here are part of the worldwide community of fellow believers the ummah. As such, these organizations are riven by numberless fissures that run along linguistic, ethnic, racial, and doctrinal lines.-Their leaders are preoccupied with not saying or doing any.thing that would cause such fissures to develop into major ruptures. So while many Muslim-Americans may abhor what happened in Pakistan, others may agree with friends and relatives back home that Taseer's killing was justified, or at least to be tolerated. In between are Muslims who are conflicted about such events but who get little guidance from leaders who seem to lack either the wisdom or the courage to speak with moral clarity. Some of these leaders are not the pluralists they claim to be. Others have simply grown accustomed to avoiding the difficult choices facing them and instead, whether it is the especially since 9/l 1, would rather mobilize and unify their fractious members by pointing to a common enemy FBl, the Patriot Act, or lslamophobes.


The situation is not hopeless, however. It is certainly noteworlhy that all the leaders and organizations that have been silent about Taseer's assassination have been equally vocal and explicit in their denunciation of the slaughter of Coptic Christians in Egypt on Jan. They clearly understood that the killing of Christians by Muslims is not something about which they could remain silent. Now these leaders must confront the reality that in contemporary America, genuine religious pluralism requires them to be just as outraged when


Muslims kill Muslims.

ln the name of Muslim unity, many Muslim-American leaders and organizations have been less than coherent when it comes to violent extremism. As a result, they have confused their members as to what true religious toleration and pluralism require, and consequently feed the very suspicions of those inclined to doubt the possibility of Muslims fully assimilating to the American way of life. This is a profound disservice to the many Muslim-Americans who are doing just that. Peter Skerry is professor of politicul science ut Boston College and nonresident senior fellow ut the Brookings Institution. Gary Schmitt is resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.


Canadaos culture of excellence in education By Andy Hargreaves January 26,2011 Last year, I was driving through Toronto when I spied a bumper sticker ahead. It didn't proclaim "God Bless Canada" or even.,proud to be Canadian." It simply said "Content to be Canadian!" That's Canada in a nutshell. Canada scores quite well (but not spectacularly) on arange of international indicators: 8th in human development,25th most equal, 14th least corrupt, and characteristically half way on UNICEF's index of child well-being. Canada ranks in the middle of lots of things, except perhaps hockey, the Winter Olympics and now, education. Last month, the media had a feeding frenzy over the release by the Organrzation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) of the results of their Program for Intemational Student Assessment (PISA). The big story was the prominence of Asian countries on the top- 1 0 list. What the media elsewhere overlooked was the strong performance of Canada.

Canadaranked 6th overall, and the OECD picked out Canada as one of four "strong performers" and "successful reformets. "

PatrickcorriganitlusyatiTn Parrick Corriganlroronto

Strictly speaking, though, the OECD concentrated not on the whole of Canada but on just one province: Ontario. In a video promotion of PISA's policy implications, the OECD's change guru, Andres Schleicher, praises Canada for its positive approach to immigration that is evident in narrow achievement gaps between students from different social backgrounds. Then, without explanation, he switches to Ontario' It's as if Ontario stands for all of Canada'


The province is praised for its urgent focus on measurable improvement in literacy and numeracy; its ability to set a clear plan and sign up key stakeholders to commit to it, including teachers; its sophisticateduse of achlevement data to pinpoint problems in underperformance among certain students or schools; and then its response: to "flood" these sclools with resources, technical assistance and support. Bravo, Ontario!

But here's the puzzle. Ontario isn't the only high-performing province on PISA. On reading literacy, Alberta leads, followed by Ontario and British Columbia. On math, Quebec leads, followed by Alberta and Ontario. On science, barely a percentage point or so. Alberla leads, followed by B.C. and Ontario. Some of these differences are tiny Yet the policies and strategies are often quite different. Take Alberta. There, the Conservative government has supported an $80-million-per-year program spanning more than a decade to support school-designed innovations in more than 90 per cent of the province's schools. It doesn't have government targets and it doesn't concentrate so tightly on literacy and numeracy. In many ways, it's the oppor-it" of Ontario. So perhaps we should give bigger applause to Alberta for its bottom-up approach? Or to B.C.! Or quebec! The provin"., irurr. different policies, different relationships between government and teachers' unions, and but the PISA results are pretty much the same. What's going on? different parties in power


There's obviously something about Canada, or at least the more prosperous parts of it. Canadahas some striking commonalities with Finland, the only non-Asian performer above it in the OECD ranking. Both countries value

teachers and insist on a professional program of university-based training for all public-school teachers. Working conditions are favourable with good facilities, acceptable pay, wide availability of professional development, and discretion for teachers to make their own professional judgments. Both countries have a strong commitment to public schools and only a very modest private sector in education. Both countries have strong social welfare and public health systems with broad safety nets to protect the youngest and most vulnerable members of the population. Last, both nations are characterized by deeper cultures of cooperation and inclusiveness that make them more competitive

internationally. Being Canadian is not about occupying the middle ground in everything. It's also about being cooperative and inclusive and about valuing shared community and public life. It's not this or that province's policy that makes Canada such a strong educational performer, but a social fabric that values education and teachers, prizes the public good, and doesn't abandon the weak in its efforts to become economically stronger. These are the things that make Canada educationally successful, and that it should cherish and protect compared to poorer PISA performers, like the U.S. (17th) and U.K. (24th). Let's be content to be Canadian in most things if we must, but Canadians in general Ontarians, Albertans, British Columbians and Qu6b6cois alike should feel proud - in education. to be among the world's very best

Andy Hurgreaves k the Brennan Chair in Educution ut Boston College. Although he lives in the U.5., he is content to be Canadiun.

world to build 100 world-class innovation

Scholars, come home

bases at top Chinese universities. in cooperation with domestic experts. The ambition of the programme sparked lot of interest in China and, indeed, many universities have useJ rhis opportunity to establish research initiatives and centres.

Philip G. Altbach and Wanhua Ma assess China's initiatives to persuade its academics working abroad to bring their expertise back

So Iar,662 scientists have been selected

lf,onventional wisdom says that we Iive

brain drain continues to a significant degree and governments that expect to be able to lure academics back to their home countries are misguided. Several countries have cleveloped programmes to reverse their brain drains,

including Taiwan, Japan, France, Germany and Israel, which last March approved a $300 million fund to attract top-class researchers back home. Statistics about the success of these programmes are patchy, possibly because the results are often

disappointing. In India and China - two countries that have put much effort into reversing their brain drains over the past 20 years - the majority of students who have gone abroad for study have not returned. India has admittedly had some success in luring back its information technology workers: more than 60,000 Indian professionals returned home in 2009, the majority of them in IT. But when it comes to academics, India has found it difficult to match overseas salaries 28 Times Higher Education 20 January 201L

and must also overcome the often problematic academic conditions in its universities and laboratories. Some academics who were lured by the country's special programmes found working conditions and the acaclemic culture inadequate and returned to their positions in the West. Only at the Indian Institute of Technology and Management has there been

limited success. China reportedly suffers from the worst brain drain in the world. According to a 2007 study by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 1.05 million Chinese had gone overseas to study since 1978, but only

275.000 returned. China's impresrive economic and academic growth has apparently done little to reverse the trend. The outcome of a Chinese programme launched five years ago, the 111 Project, reveals some of the deep problems involved. Introduced by the Ministry of Education and the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs in 2005, the scheme was meant to lure scholars back home by providing significant financial and other incentives to Chinese PhDs lr,'orking abroad. They invited 1,000 top scholars from the top 100 universities in the


the 111 Project, and 310 of them are now working at Chinese research universities. However, the programme has created some unanticipated problems. Some Chinese universities do not fully understand the international academic labour market and have relied on 16sum6s, educational background, titles, personal contacts and recommendations rather than on careful evaluations of prospective candidates and their academic work. In some cases, the sponsoring universities found that the scholars and scientists who agreed to return were not the ones most desired; they tended to be late-career professors from middle-ranking US and UK universities who, perhaps, saw a stagnant carecr in the \7est and desired eithcr a frcsh start or a cushy job in China. Top-ranking Chinese academics from the bcst \Testern universities gcncrally have not been willing to return permanently. At best, they agree to some kind of joint affiliation with an clite Chinese univcrsity and visit periodically to Iecture, provide advice and collaborate with professors in China. Another unanticipatcd rcsult is salary compression - highly paid returnees earn much higher salaries than local academics, often crcating envy and morale problcms. The success of any acadenic department involver a sense of acedemic community, which can be shattered by highly unequal salaries or better working conditions for the returnees. When domestic professors find that a returnee may not contributc more than they do, they may become disaffected. And while many of the returncd scholars can still speak Chinese, they may not understand the new academic culture in China, and may be grcctcd by a lack of cooperation from local colleagues. The truth is that as long as the conditions of academic work vary significantly from country to country - including salaries, the academic culture and academic freedom the "best and brightest" are unlikely to return to developing and middle-income countries. Those who are most desirable - mid-career academics at top universities who are highly productive - are the least likely to return. The best that can be done - and it is in fact quite a good alternative - is for universities to


I - in the new era of the "hrein exch;nqc". lJrn. rrurn ls. nowever. rnar rne oro-qryle


build ties with these overseas academic "stars". These ties can yield practical results that will neither harm the local academic culture nor demand impractical results.


PhilipG.Alffi for International Higher Education at Boston College. Wanhua Ma is director of the Center for International Higher Education at Peking University Beiiing, China.

Trrri BcsrGN Gr,t>en


all is I the film "The Company Menj' and :i Boston, which opens on Fliday. An '' There's rich material for storytellers in this . The latest drama of deindustialization




ensernble melodramawith cast



lhat includes Ben Affleck, Tommy



Jones, and Kevin Costner (on whom the vigilant locat accent police ra,-iil be putting


urban a tax




the and dabblingin manuallabor - but a

melodramacandoitsculturalworkpedectly well withouthaving anything originalto say' Where "The Company Meri' can be faulted is in doing too little to make its characters come

\Arhen the johs leave


alive for us, so that the rushes of strong feeling a muted, by-thenumbers quality. And the fairytale ending, in which the forces of history that have shaped the characters' lives are inexplicably suspended, sells the rest of the movie shorl. For abracing nonfictional con'ective, read Paul Clemens'newbook, "Punching Out," in which he spends a year in an auto piant in Detroit that has been closed and is being emptied and soid offpiecemeal. Clemens, whose previous book was a powerful memoiri 'Made in Detroit," about growing up in a city . in decline, paints the definitive portrait of a strange, resonant feature of the contemporarfr American landscape: the defunct factory, populated by crervs of blue-collar workers the temporarily booming disassembly busi- , ness and visited by exeeutives from other countries to which the piant's machinery wiil be shipped.

that define the genre have


HE DECLINE of Americaa manufac-

turing is one of those ongoing transformations that canbegin to seem like an abstraction. The collapse of industrial work and ways of life associated with it has been going on so long and has biended with so many other changes that it can be hard to see as a discrete process. ThereS story after familiar storyin the busi-

ofthe paper about manufactur- l

ingjobs going overseas, like recent accounts of how Evergreen Solar took at least $4,8 rnillionl in assistance frorn the state sf Massachusetts " and then decidedto close its facilityin Devens'. and shifr production to cenrral China, afler awhile the transformation becomes so I pen'asive that it seems like the weather. But of course industrial deciine is not . .i natural process, and those stories in the busi- -: ness seclion #e not justbusiness Eews especiallyin the cities of the Rust Belt, w&ich ..' were organized around tlieu factories. notjusi economicallybut also physically and socially ' . t' and culturally. In suchplaces, the decline industrial work also affects ethnic and racia! "'l and ciass orders, definitions ofwhat it means to be aman or awoman, the meaning ofwork and ofpiay.









There's somethingepicailysad



postapocalyptic spectacle of expert scavenger . work crews, American cousins of the Indiart ship-breakers in Sebastiao Salgado's celebrat'ed photographs, takjng apart the giant press i lines and loading them on trucks for transport to Mexico. There, reassembled, the machines' will be manned by.workers who make a lot less than UAW members but witl simiiariy try to feed their famiiies and sustain a way of life '


whiie it lasts"


to we

;;;il **v

Kevin Costner and Ben Affleck in,.The CompanyMen,"x'hich is set in Boston,

ness section

flexible as capital. The money and jobs flow away, but workers stay and try to make :" Clemens concludes that "in addition to ther': immediate, ground{evel pain and dislocation ' : they caused, plant ciosings provided an un- :', welcome glimpse into something astral: they ". proved lifeb impermanence." For an industri{. city's native son, tlere's nothing harder ,, i r! , accept. "Things changg stories end.understand this. But how can aplant stoTt?" 'i- I

an APB), ii follows the trilails of white-eollar workers downsized by a manufacturing glomerate. "The Company Men ' ertends the suburban middle class the sustained med' itation on the aging-out of traditiona] working-class ways of life that has been recurrirrg theme of the Massachusetts film renaissance. credit * -nt;;; *tptit.s in this )[4arle Rotelln is director af Ameriran stu.d at -n Boston Coilege. His column appears regula rlq be ready for shame, anger, despair, painful selling-offof prized possessions, inthn Glnbe.



'?unching Out" is an elegiac reminder of a. , truth lurking behind those abstract- * r soundingbusiness headlines: people maybe , astonishingly resilient and adaptable, but the-" lives theymake forthemselves are never as scary



Stop Defending the Liberal Arts By Mary Crane January


As director of the new Institute for the Liberal Arts at Boston College, I recently hosted an inaugural symposium that brought in five important public intellectuals to talk about "Remapping the Liberal Arts for the 21st Century." My premise was that on my campus, at least, with a new humanities building in the works and a significant commitment to a new institute, we could proceed for one day as if the liberal afts were not in crisis, and turn the conversation instead to what we might say about liberal arls education, and how we might question and redefine it, if we didn't have to spend all of our time hunkered down in foxholes of defense.

The talks were splendid and discussions were fruitful, but no one was able entirely to resist the impulse to assume a defensive posture. Liberal arts professors today seem incapable of talking about what they do without metaphorically assuming a "duck and cover" position.

Why is this? And is it in the best interests of the liberal arts that we are perpetually defending them? Of course, the perpetual posture of defense is grounded in reality: Louis Menand, one of our speakers, has provided the data to prove it: "From 1955 to 1970,the proportion of liberal arts degrees among all bachelor's degrees awarded annually had risen for the first time in this century; after 1970, it began going down again. Today, only one-third of all bachelor's degrees awarded annually in the United States are in the liberal arts, and less than one-third of these are in humanities. The most common major by far, according to the American Council of Learned Societies, is business, with 20 percent of all undergraduate degrees are awarded in this field." Although many private universities and colleges are, like Boston College, making new investments in the humanities and liberal arts, access to this kind of education is being eroded at public institutions, as evidenced by the recent decision of the State University of New York to end many language programs. And in these harsh economic times, many students feel that liberal arts education is a luxury they can't afford.

I think, as well, that humanities professors, who are most often the advocates for the liberal arts, feel generally underappreciated, since our culture (and even university culture) sometimes seems not to value what we do. Speakers such as the Rev. John O'Malley of Georgetown and Alan Ryan of Princeton University both offered nuanced, cautious, and effective defenses of the power of liberal arts education to confer upon students a critical awareness of the world, and a kind of intellectual freedom through immersion in a discipline. But a nagging sense of margrnalization can also sometimes lead liberal arts faculty to become defensive.

It can be dangerous for our cause when defense tums into defensiveness. Defensiveness is not necessarily a healthy attitude to inhabit for a long period of time. Defensive people are often not very persuasive, because they're afraid to entertain any critique of what they're defending. When defense becomes automatic, it may close off inquiry and innovation. Professors who teach liberal arts subjects may not be their most convincing defenders, anyway. Although most of us had a liberal education, it was for us also a vocational education. I knew as a college sophomore that I wanted to be an English professor if I could manage it, and the courses I took in English, history, and Latin were, for me, a preprofessional education with a specific career goal in mind. Even people who came late to the decision to pursue a

career in the academy ended up using their liberal arts education for professional purposes. So many liberal arts faculty don't have direct experience of the kind of education that they are recommending that students pursue. I've spent my whole adult life in a university setting. I believe that liberal arts education confers skills in reading, writing, and critical thinking that will be useful for many non-academic careers, but I have not experienced this myself.

We are also not especially credible as the first line of defense, since our jobs depend on the perpetuation of liberal arts education. When Stanley Fish suggested in his //eia, York Times column that "I believe fully in the core curriculum as a device of employment for me and my fellow humanists," many readers were horrified, but he was putting on the table what must undermine the most ardent professorial defense in many non-academic eyes.

I would make two suggestions. Of course, we do need to be able to defend ourselves, and to explain what we do in accessible terms. But I think that instead of always trying to defend liberal arts education by ourselves, we might work to marshal others who may bring kinds of credibility that we lack to contribute to the defense. Former students could attest to their experiences; managers could speak to the skills they want. It would be interesting to see if brain imaging could shed light on the effects of different kinds of higher education on the brain. Instead of always defending, we can show what the liberal arts can do. Catharine Stimpson, one of our speakers, gave a moving talk on liberal arts education and the problem of war at our symposium demonstrated how arange of liberal arts disciplines might illuminate some difficult aspect of the human condition. Liberal arts faculty at Boston College and elsewhere increasingly write for general as well as specialized audiences and these efforts let people outside the academy experience the benefits of our habits of thought. (Note. This article was updatedfrom an earlier version to conect an error.) Second, I think we should try to leave off defending for long enough to see what we could say about liberal arts education if we let ourselves think about it more speculatively and less defensively. I believe that liberal arts education needs to rethink its scope and definition for the 21st century. Many people treat "humanities" as a synonym for "liberal arts" or assume that the humanities are necessarily central to it, but are they now central in the same way that they used to be? As fields like cultural studies and area studies blur the boundaries between the humanities and social sciences, the center of gravity may have shifted in productive ways that we need to acknowledge.

Liberal arts can sometimes be conflated with a Westem intellectual tradition, but in our era of globalization, its boundaries need to be broadened and reconfigured and the importance of language learning rearticulated in this context. Faculties ofarts and sciences include the hard sciences, and they arcpart ofa liberal arts education, but are usually not central to discussions of its importance. How would liberal afts education look if science played a more prominent role? Attention to the relationship between liberal arts education and professional education and building of bridges between the two might give students the confidence to pursue a liberal arts degree. Service leaming initiatives like the PULSE program at Boston College,a service-learning program that combines mandatory weekly community service with an examination of classical and contemporary works of philosophy and theology, There are efforts around the country to do all of these things, and yet I'm afraid they are sometimes drowned out by the loud clamor of lament and defense.

I propose that all professors who are concerned about the future of the liberal arts try this thought experiment: pretend, for a moment, that we inhabit a utopian world where the value of liberal arts education is universally accepted. If you are freed from the burden of defense, what can you imagine? What can you create? The future of liberal arts education may well depend on our collective response.

Mary Crune is the Thomas F. Rattigun Professor of Englkh and the director of the Institutefor the Liberal Arts at Boston College.

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The Value of Multi-Generational Workplaces By Marcie Pitt-Catsouphes, Ph.D. Director, The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College January 8,2017

If you're reading this post at work, I'd like you to

stop, look around you, and identify the four co-workers you

collaborate with most often.

Got'em? Now let me ask you -- how do these four co-workers compare to yourself in terms of age and on-the-job experience? If you're like most of us, you'll notice that, as the population rapidly ages, today's workplaces are more age-diverse than ever before. Your colleagues may no longer be close to your own age group and experience level. Does this hinder your collaboration? Probably not. But there is still widespread speculation that multiple generations in the workforce is a recipe for segregation or conflict. Why? Some of it has to do with expectations and career progression in corporate culture -- employees want to move up to management, management to VP, VP to executive, and so on -- and the idea that one generation of workers may be holding up the advancement of the next. Then there are also stereotypes of older and younger workers, and the common assumption that these groups are inclined to clash in the workplace; that they simply don't work well


However, the Sloan Center on Aging and Work's pilot project called the "Executive Innovation Lab" has shown exactly the opposite -- when younger workers and older workers collaborate, it can be good for business. Unfortunately, most employers have not yet adapted their practices to harness the power of multi-generational workplaces to identify innovative business solutions. To jumpstart this process we created the Lab. We invited a group of companies to come together who were interested in exploring how multi-generational teams of employees work together. We reached out to executives from various industries and asked them to handpick teams of employees to participate, taking care to select people from different age groups and experience levels. The teams then engaged in a rapid prototyping exercise where they were tasked with finding a solution to a pressing workplace problem in a rigidly structured amount of time.

What we found may surprise you. When these age-diverse teams were taken out of their normal work situations and tasked with quickly solving a challenging problem, they came up with very viable solutions in just a few hours. Brought together on teams different from what they were used to, these groups quickly found the type of innovate, creative solutions that are so hard to come by in the workplace. What we saw in the Lab, across the board, is that when older workers, younger workers and executives can put myths and misconceptions behind then. And, when given supportive, creative opportunities to collaborate, their collective innovation is a real outcome. Employees who participated in the Lab noticed this, too. At the end of the Lab, participants'perceptions of colleagues 10 or more years older than themselves actually changed. They reported seeing their older counterparts as more creative, more willing to learn, and more innovative than they had expected them to be. The employees were enthusiastic about their new teams, noting an injection of energy. Team members would grab their leaders in the hall and ask, "When are we going to have that meeting again?"

In addition, the executives expressed positive assessments of age-diverse teams; specifically, that they were able to get started working quicker, were more likely to push beyond difficult parts of their work, and had a new ability to reach quality results in a shorter period of time. Many of the organizations that participated in the lab are planning to implement the process for other projects. It would behoove other businesses to follow their lead. Every employee comes to the workplace with a different set of life experiences. The veteran worker who has been in the same job for 30 years, the middle-age career changer and the 22-year-oldjust starting out may seem like they have irreconcilable outlooks, but in reality these contrasting perspectives are just what workplaces need to thrive. Instead of adhering to the age-old myths that older workers are bad for business, today's corporate leaders must learn to take advantage of their age-diverse workforces. Today's workforce is aging more rapidly than ever before, and employers who act now to leverage the creativity of age experience and diversity will have an immediate competitive advantage over their peers. As the American economy stafts to find its way out of the recession, we need innovative and creative workplaces more than ever before. Companies can make this happen, but only by creating conditions that leverage the strengths of the age diverse workforce.

Wffiffi ffi ffiffiHfu Times Higher Education December 23-30,2010

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Boston College Year End Compilation 2010 - 2011  

Part 2 of 3

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