Issuu on Google+

INVESTIGATION # 5

E G D I R B D E THE R


E G D I R B D THE RE tte Bridge o l r a h C s s e h c u D d n a Gr 25 July 1952, 3:00 a.m. Temporary granting of the headquarters of CECA to Luxembourg

1957 Launch of an international competition for the building of a bridge over the Alzette valley

3 February 1958 Setting up of a special commission for the expropriation of land on the Fort Olisy and Kirchberg plateau

21 and 22 April 1958 Meeting of the international Jury in the Victor Hugo Hall

2 April 1962 Cutting of the first sod

24 October 1966 Official opening by Grand Duchess Charlotte

1975 Siting of the European Commission on the Kirchberg plateau

19 October 1993, 5:00 a.m. Last death beneath the bridge before the installation of an anti-suicide device

22 October 2018 First tram to cross the bridge

© Théo Mey, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


Š 2014 - Laruade - Kostohryz - Langevin


WHAT?


ALIGNMENT OF THE NEW ROUTE


EVACUATION 8 houses, 22 households, 47 people

MADAME LÉONIE K. Shopkeeper, resident of Luxembourg-Pfaffenthal, now unable to live quietly in her home... almost directly below the bridge...


TREE FELLING


MELUSINE RESIDENCE: REFUSED Building permission for a block of flats on rue de la côte d’Eich in Luxembourg, presented by the architect, Camille Frieden.


THE SOLERI AFFAIR

1957 SEEN IN THE FRANKFURTER ILLUSTRIERTE


REQUEST FOR INFORMATION ABOUT THE „TOMORROW’S BRIDGE “ © archives DOA


„TOMORROW’S BRIDGE “


REVIEW OF THE SOLERI FILE © Archives D.O.A

Monsieur Soleri’s concept is very bold and extremely interesting but it does not tackle our problem.


1958 COMPETITION Paolo Soleri takes part in the competition for the bridge.


PAOLO SOLERI’S PROPOSAL FOR LUXEMBOURG A series of multi-functional bridges designed for the Luxembourg Bridge Design Competition in 1958. Seven designs are entered; Campanula Bridge, Levitation Bridge, Balance Bridge, Helium Bridge, Spanning Bridge, Omega Bridge and Flight Bridge. © David DeGomez


LUXEMBOURG, PARADISE VALLEY

PAOLO SOLERI 1969 ARCOSANTI, ARIZONA As architecture develops to become a phenomenon of human ecology, cities will become like an organism reflecting, in their complexity, the life that they contain.


ARCOSANTI 1963 In 1963, Soleri conceived the idea of an alternative urban community, ARCOSANTI. Today, students and volunteers continue to build the city.


INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION


ORGANISATION OF THE COMPETITION The question of the form of the present competition has given rise to discussion...


BAUFORUM N째9


1957 AGENDA A GCOMPETITION ENDA O OF FT THE HE J JURY URYA FOR NEW BRIDGE IN BERN


PROCEDURE TO FOLLOW


MEMBERS OF THE JURY


JURY © Pol Aschman Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg / Photo-montage S.Laruade


FOREIGN MEMBERS

GRELOT Inspector General of Civil Engineering, Director of the „Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées” Paris

GEORGES TOURY D.P.L.G architect Engineer from the prestigious Higher Education establishment, the „Ecole Polytechnique” Paris

Dr. -Ing. Curt KOLLBRUNNER

Dr. Ing KLINGENBERG

Dipl.Bau-Ing. ETH, Director of the A.G Conrad Zschokke, steel construction

Ministerial adviser, Federal Transport Ministry – Department for Road Construction

Döttingen (Aargau)

Bonn

H. TEN BOKKEL HUININK

R. FOUGNIES

Chief engineer on the Board of Directors at Rijkswaterstaat

Inspector General of Civil Engineering

The Hague

Brussels

Bridges Office


HOTEL ALFA A room for two booked at the Alfa Hotel © Pol Aschman Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


GEORGES TOURY 1904-1991 Architect DPLG, Engineer polytechnician, town planner in Paris © Archives de la Ville de Lorient

M. TOURY He teaches at the Civil Engineering School under the leadership of Monsieur Louis Grelot. In the spring of 1943 G. Toury is appointed as town planner and chief architect of Lorient’s reconstruction.


LOUIS GRELOT Author of the Coursebook on Metallic Bridges

MEMORIES OF STUDENTS IN THE CLASS OF 51 ...wearing a black jacket and striped trousers, with drooping whiskers and a blank expression, he was, you must admit, really boring... Memories of Philippe Oblin, student of the „Grelot generation” class of 51


NATIONAL MEMBERS

HUBERT SCHUMACHER 1896-1961

© La Revue Technique


HENRY LUJA 1899-1977

Š La ville et ses architectes de Pierre Gilbert


VICTOR ENGELS 1892-1963

© La Revue Technique


MICHEL LUCIUS 1976-1961

© La Revue Technique


Michel Lucius in Baku 1912-1918

Michel Lucius in Baku 1922


STATEMENTS OF THE JURY 21 April 1958 and 22 April 1958

M. WEILER „Can we allow a bridge to be built of metal, from the aesthetic point of view?”

CONCRETE OR METAL? After discussion the jury agrees to consider a metal bridge on equal footing with a stone-built or a concrete bridge.

M. WILLEMS „Appearance of concrete in 40 years? Concrete is very difficult to repair.”

M. HALDER „A construction in metal should be selected.”

M. WILLEMS „Research into anticorrosion is growing quickly.”

R. FOUGNIES „Building a suspended bridge in the valley would not be successful.”


M. WEILER Government adviser, unable to take part in this meeting, M. Willems acts as Chairman.

M. TOURY „I am behind you, let’s choose a project right now!”

M. MICHELS „I am against straight lines. The MAN project is not the ideal solution, this project does not have any originality, it’s quite simply a type of bridge that you can find everywhere, either a little bigger or a little smaller.”

M. ENGELS „The leg bridge’s oblique struts appall me in our landscape!”

HUBERT SCHUMACHER „Something beautiful and elegant should be selected and it should be slightly ahead of our time. Following the Roman arches in our viaducts and the great arch of the Adolphe bridge, perhaps a simple straight line as a symbol of modernity?”


CONCRETE OR METAL? ESTHETIC OR ECONOMIC?


Reflexions du Jury

STILL MODERN IN 60 YEARS? 1958 - 2018


THE GREAT ARCH OF THE ADOLPHE BRIDGE From the architectural point of view it is exactly right to be very cautious. Caution... within the city of Luxembourg stands the Adolphe bridge built between 1900 and 1903 ... Around 1900 those magnificent arches dazzled engineers from all over the world.


Ouvrage symbolique de la capitale, le Pont Adolphe doit impérativement être renforcé et élargi pour accueillir bientôt le tram! Le Conseil de gouvernement a adopté, vendredi, le projet de loi pour réhabiliter le pont. Les travaux ne pourront excéder 62,9 millions d'euros. Photo: Gerry Huberty Le projet de loi autorise le gouvernement à réaliser les travaux pour la réhabilitation complète du pont mais aussi le réaménagement des Places de Metz et de Bruxelles, dans la capitale. "Les dépenses occasionnées par les travaux ne pourront pas dépasser le montant de 62,9 millions", précise bien le ministère d'Etat.

L'un des objectifs principaux du projet consiste à renforcer durablement les arcs principaux du Pont Adolphe pour contrer le phénomène de délaminage qui a été constaté. Pour que le futur tram puisse y circuler demain, il est prévu de rehausser et d'élargir le tablier du pont. Le projet prévoit ainsi la dépose du tablier actuel, puis la réalisation d'un nouveau tablier qui sera plus large et plus épais et qui constituera également une couverture étanche pour les maçonneries sousjacentes. Le tablier sera ainsi élargi de 1,50 m. La largeur de la chaussée passera à 13,50 m (7,50 m de gabarit du tram et deux voies de 3 m pour le trafic routier ou quatre voies de 3,37 m). L’approvisionnement en courant du tram est prévu par le bas. S’y ajouteront deux trottoirs de 2,10 m (élargissement de 2 x 30 cm), chacun sécurisé par une barrière chasse-roues de 0,50 m. Au total, la largeur sera ainsi portée à 18,70 m.

2014 63 MILLION TO REMAKE THE ADOLPHE BRIDGE

April 11, 2014 FIRST STEP ON THE THE BLUE BRIDGE


THE ROMAN ARCHES OF THE VIADUCT Pétrusse Valley Luxembourg


RESEARCH INTO ANTI-CORROSION The laboratory of Professor BECKPOT


INTERNATIONAL DAYS OF STEEL Liège Luxembourg Charleroi Bruxelles 18- 28 juin 1958


INTERNATIONAL DAYS OF STEEL LUXEMBOURG 1958 © La Revue Technique


SHORTAGE OF SAND © Le Jeudi


19 TONNES This is the tonnage of sand used by a resident of Luxembourg, one of the highest ratios in the world. Š Le Jeudi


CHAPEL ST ELOI DUDELANGE


1958 PROJECTS

FROM: GERMANY, AUSTRIA, BELGIUM, FRANCE, ITALY, LUXEMBOURG, SWITZERLAND Concrete girders Concrete arches Leg bridges Metallic girders Metallic arches Suspension bridges

15 18 3 15 7 6

projects projects projects projects projects projects


I CONCRETE GIRDERS


I CONCRETE GIRDERS


II CONCRETE ARCHES


II CONCRETE ARCHES


II CONCRETE ARCHES


III LEG BRIDGES


IV METALLIC GIRDERS


V METALLIC ARCHES


VI SUSPENSION BRIDGES


N° I. POLENSKY ZÖLLNER & ARTHUR SIMON, KÖLN

ABANDONED Too many pillars.

N° II. BAU & BODEN DÜSSELDORF

ABANDONED No arched bridge too similar to the Adolphe bridge.


N째 III. DICKERHOFF & WIDMANN

ABANDONED The same as N째II, no arched bridge too similar to the Adolphe bridge.

N째 IV. UNION

SELECTED Originality of the concept, support by most of the jury members.


N째 V. MAN

SELECTED Continuous metal frame.

N째 VI. SOCOL

ABANDONED The same as N째V, but 18 million more expensive.


N° VII. BAUWENS, KÖLN

ABANDONED Problem with the bond between concrete and metal.


2 FINAL PROJECTS

Voted for the bridge with metal girders:

FO

N A RM

KLINGENBERG CLÉMENT WURTH ENGELS LUCIUS


Voted for the leg bridge:

R O F

N O I UN

MICHELS GRELOT FOUGNIES REIFF WILLEMS KINNEN SCHUMACHER KOLLBRUNER

8 VOTES TO 5 IN FAVOUR OF THE LEG BRIDGE


INFLUENCE


EXPO 58 RHEINSTAHL UNION © Archives DOA


CENTURY 21 - THE 1962 SEATTLE WORLD’S FAIR © Archives DOA

Stand of the European Communities and of the six Member States


SEATTLE SPACE NEEDLE 1962 © Archives DOA


LUXEMBOURG CITY Bridge surfacing plate deck with asphalt

SIERRA LEONE Rutile mining project


WORLD CAMERA November 1967

LONDON Guiniting the inside of high cooling tower at a generating station


VISIT OF RUDOLF HILLEBRECHT


RUDOLF

HILLEBRECHT

Urban architect of the city of Hanover


VISIT OF Dr. J.A.K. HAMILTON Engineer on the construction of the Forth Road Bridge Edinburgh FORTH ROAD BRIDGE EDINBURGH 1964


25 May 1966

9 June 1966

21 June 1966

18 July 1966

27 July 1966

22 August 1966

26 August 1966


---------- Message ---------De: Gilles Guézo Date: samedi 12 octobre 2013 Objet: Bohus et une requette À: Bohumil Kostohryz <boshua@boshua.com> Dobriden Bohus, Je suis content d’avoir de tes nouvelles. Je suis toujours prof à l’école d’architecture de Rennes et je m’occupe toujours des échanges. Je suis aussi grand-père et mes petits-enfants ont l’âge de vos enfants (7 ans et 2 ans 1/2). Je connaissais le pont à béquille de la Grande Duchesse Charlotte, mais pas le nom de son architecte. Je ne crois pas qu’Egon Jux soit très connu en France. Il y a peut-être des informations dans ces deux ouvrages: LEONHARDT (Fritz), Brücken, Bridges, (4ème édition),Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart (Allemagne), 1994. PRADE (Marcel), Les grands ponts du monde: pont remarquables d’Europe, Brissaud, Poitiers (France), 1990. Il y a plus d’infos sur le pont Adolphe (1900-1903), record de portée dans sa catégorie à l’époque, construit par Paul Séjourné qui était ingénieur des ponts et chaussées et spécialiste des pont en arche de pierre. Mais c’est de l’histoire ancienne.... Comme autre grand et beau pont à béquilles, il y a aussi celui de Sfalassa en Italie: Voilà, je suis pas d’une très grande aide. Par coïncidence, j’ai croisé cette semaine à l’école, Éliane Sourget qui était avec nous à Milevsko en 1995. Elle va venir donner des cours d’informatique. Amitiés

BRIDGE SFALASSA ITALY 1984 © Fritz Leonhardt


OCTOBER 10, 2013 FILE N° 64 85N1.3 Photographic archives of Mr. Théo Mey Strange discovery of a miniature reproduction of the concrete version of our national red bridge... Where is this bridge located?


16 OCTOBER 2013 The investigation leads us to Dudelange, a few metres from the French border. From our information, the bridge was built in 1969 to link a farm situated in the fields on the other side of the railway. The man on the right is probably the owner of the farm, the one on the left remains unidentified.


under the bridge COLLISION RAILWAY 6 DEAD, 23 INJURED UNDER THE BRIDGE

11 october 2006, 11:45 RAILWAY COLLISION 6 DEAD, 23 INJURED


ARCHITECT


INFLUENCE

REIDY & LEVY

STUDENT OF LE CORBUSIER

Architects, Brasil

JEAN-PAUL SARTRE Philosopher, Paris

WALTER GROPIUS Architect, Boston

OSCAR NIEMEYER Architect, Brasil


FRIENDSHIPS

ROBERTO BURLE MARX Landscape Architect, Brasil 1909-1994


HARDY KRUGER Actor

HATARI LODGE 1970, rebuilding of the „Momella Game Lodge” Farm by the film actor, Hardy Krüger in Tanzania


ARCHITECTURAL PRINCIPLES


JEHOVAH WITNESSES’ MEETING HALL Munich 1980


He gains his architectural principles from the spiritual world


1974 KÖHLBRANDBRÜCKE ON THE ELBE source - carte postale David Liaudet

Total length with driveway ramps: 3,975 m Height: 53,8 m above mean water beach Pylon height: 135 m.

2014, 35.000 CARS DAILY The Köhlbrandbrücke will be completely overhauled


SUICIDES Several people have committed suicide by jumping from the Kรถhlbrand Bridge source: Der Joker, Peter Maffay


CONSTRUCTION


ADALBERT BOROS Engineer for the RED BRIDGE 1931-2013

A burial and mass take place in his honour on

Thursday 2 May at 11.00 a.m. LIVING IN THE STREET Living in the street in Luxembourg for 50 years. His new home was the station in Luxembourg. He slept there and spent most of his time there.

in the Schléeschen chapel

A GREAT TEACHER IN THE STREET „There were lots of us who asked him for help. As for me, I used to pay him 50 Luxembourg francs and he’d help me with my mathematics or geometry homework”


„He arrived on 1 August 2006 ... I wanted to make him happy by putting up a photo of the Grand Duchess Charlotte bridge in his room. I was very surprised when I saw him really struggling with this. In the end, we realised that

he preferred not being reminded too much about his past“ Marcel Noé, Am Schléeschen care home in Echternach

1957 ENGINEER ON THE DAM OVER THE LAKE AT ESCH-SUR-SÛRE


CHOICE OF COLOR


SPRING

SUMMER

AUTUMN

WINTER


COLOR RESEARCH Such a startling coloration that you can state its color as easily as you can describe its shape.


MARSEILLE HARBOUR FREITAG FACTORY


„WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THE RED BRIDGE“ Article From „Lëtzebuergerland” 2 September 1966


FRANTZ KINNEN Painter

LUCIEN WERCOLLIER

„Why ask for opinions only now”

Sculptor „Shade of color suitable for a cheap toy”

JOSEPH - EMILE MULLER Art critic „For that, there is only one word: awful”

JOSEPH BESCH Honorary Prime Minister „From one extreme to the other”

J.P. KOLTZ Director of traffic „Tourists make fun of us”

J.P. MICHELS Architect and president of the „Artistic Cercle” „Red is my favourite color but not that red”

JOSEPH PROBST

LEON LOMMEL

Artist/painter

Bishop of Luxembourg

„I’m giving up my nationality”

„I am against the red”

ROGER BERTEMES

EDOUARD PROBST

Painter

President of the conservation of historic monuments

„The rust will not be obvious...”

„We haven’t been asked our opinion”


INAUGURATION


LUXEMBOURG, CECA HEADQUARTERS â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Even though, as is often recalled, the decision to start working on CECA (European Coal and Steel Community) in Luxembourg was taken at the end of a night of bitter argument, during which the chances of Luxembourg only became a possibility thanks to the ongoing disagreement about other options, it would, however, be wrong to attribute this outcome to inertia or chance alone. If at the right time, Mr. Bech was able to speak up for a proposal, it was that he compellingly foresaw and showed the as yet unspoken destiny of the Grand Duchyâ&#x20AC;? Speech by M. Pierre Werner Prime Minister 24 October 1966


MONSEIGNEUR LEON LOMMEL 24 October 1966 „May God bless this decision and protect the new Grand Duchess Charlotte bridge so that all those who cross it will follow, in righteousness of heart,

PATHS OF PEACE AND HARMONY“


1964 MILLENNIUM CELEBRATION


1964 OPENING OF THE CHILDREN’S CLINIC

1964 OPENING OF THE NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL


WHY? CECA TRAFFIC ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT


TREATY OF ROME 25 MARCH 1957 The Foreign Ministers from the six member countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and West Germany) sign the treaties making up the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC) in Rome.


LUXEMBOURG, EUROPE’S CAPITAL? March 1957, Victor Bodson, Luxembourg Minister of Transport, presents his ambitious projects to a German journalist. The plan is to provide land to the European Communities at no cost for the construction of administrative and residential buildings. He also announces the construction of the largest concrete bridge in the world, measuring 450 meters, connecting the city centre to Kirchberg, the site of the future European Institutions.

© Frankfurter illustrierte N°1


„THIS WORK IS THE PRODUCT OF OUR EUROPEAN POLICY“ Speech by M. Pierre Werner Prime Minister 23 October 1966


FIRST CECA HEADQUARTERS


ARCHITECT HUBERT SCHUMACHER 1953


ALAIN POHER President of the European Parliament 23 October 1966 â&#x20AC;&#x17E;...This huge palace in Kirchberg, which was not meant for us, replaces our modest headquarters on Rue Beaumont and its many annexes.â&#x20AC;?


WHAT BELGIUM LOSES, THE GRAND - DUCHY GAINS!


KIRCHBERG PLATEAU

LAW OF 7 AUGUST 1961 APPROVED BY 49 VOTES TO 3 During its session of 13 July 1961 the Chamber of Deputies approved, by 49 votes to 3, the draft law pertaining to the creation of the Kirchberg plateau development fund.


350 HECTARES © Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

NEW ROAD TOWARDS UNEXPLOITED LAND This new road will have the great advantage of allowing the city of Luxembourg to expand into green-field sites. The Kirchberg plateau is specifically designed to create a future, possibly international, housing district, only 2 km away from the city centre.


VIRGIN TERRITORY


FARM © Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


LAND SPECULATION


CLAIMS OF THE KIRCHBERG FARMERS © Photothèque de la ville de Luxembourg

Schaffner go home We are no fair game for governmental speculations!

One square-meter for 26 cigarettes?... We „Kierchbierger “ (people from Kirchberg) may be farmers, but no stupid idiots!


Keep your bridge and leave us our ground! We want to stay where we are

The country urgently needs a protection of the Constitution. Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t the Constitution apply to us, the people from Kirchberg?


Mr. Schaffner, what would you think of Echternach for the Headquarters?

There is need for change: respect our Constitution!


URBAN PLANNING


KIRCHBERG PLATEAU PLANNING PROJECT 1967 source - revue : La technique des travaux 1967

Copy of a site plan drawn up by the Bridges and Roads Administration


ZONING 1968 source - revue: La technique des travaux 1967

Usable areas, boundaries of the expropriated land and division of the plateau into sectors. Sketch drawn up in 1968 by the architect Guillaume Erpelding from the State Town Planning Service.

KENNEDY MOTORWAY This road ... gently sloping ... reminds you of ... the incline of the Avenue des Champs Elysée towards l’Etoile, in Paris.


PLANNING 1968 source - revue : La technique des travaux 1967


1958 PROJECT OF R.A COULON AND A.J CRIVELLI © Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


EXPO 1958 BRUXELLES © Photothèque de la Ville de luxembourg

Model of the urbanisation project of the Kirchberg plateau, shown in Brussels, to support the bid by Luxembourg to become the new European city.


LUXEMBOURG BUILT FOR THE FUTURE OF EUROPE


FORECAST FOR 2020-2025, 10.000 RESIDENTS, 35.000 EMPLOYEES


1968 HEADQUARTERS OF THE EUROPEAN BANK

1970 EUROPEAN COURT OF AUDITORS

1973 EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

1973 EUROPEAN MONETARY FUND


Dear Monsieur Kinnen, what would all this be without your bridge!


ALCIDE DE GASPERI’S TOWER 1966 Architect Michel Mousel and Gaston Witry

22 FLOORS

The MP Wolter can be quoted as follows: „Everywhere I have been these past few years, big administrative buildings are springing up. They are

39 FLOORS

BUILDINGS LIKE THE UN. We can see it in Thionville, Brussels and in Geneva. We can talk about them but we can’t possibly now go on building residentialtype buildings to house the services of CECA.”

HEADQUARTERS OF THE UN 1952

Minutes from the debate in the Lower Chamber of Deputies on 13 July 1961, 64th session.


2001 SPACE ODYSSEY Stanley Kubrick 1968

2001 NEW YORK

When re-reading the article I I am listening to France Inter and a programme about cinema, the journalist is talking about Stanley Kubrick, slow, clear and worrying pictures go through my head, 2001 space odyssey, an

FILM,

HYPNOTIC

I wake up the programme has finished itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the newsflash, still 11 September.


URBAN LIVING

Discover all facets of Luxembourg Smart City Conference Living City


SUSTAINABLE SMART CITY

GLOBAL CITY


TRAFFIC

ADHERE TO THE GENEVA DECLARATION ON INTERNATIONAL ROAD TRAFFIC OF 16 OCTOBER 1950


REASON 24 December 1957 For introducing the bill for the construction of a bridge above the Alzette river... Await report for 10.1.1958 at the latest!


REASON 1 Very sudden increase in road traffic, exceeding all imaginable forecast, even astounding all experts...


REASON 3 Access to the trimodal harbour at Mertert.

REASON 2 Vehicles are, at present, forced to cross the city and its outskirts with their narrow and twisting streets.


1960 MERTERT HARBOUR UNDER CONSTRUCTION © Théo Mey, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

INAUGURATION 1 september 1966 ©Théo Mey, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


2018 TAKE A TRAM RIDE THROUGH KIRCHBERG The Porte de l'Europe, which already features some striking architecture, such as the Philharmonie, will see further change, with the addition of a third European Court of Justice tower, as well as new offices, flats and a shopping centre.

(CS) Over the coming years the Luxembourg City district Kirchberg will undergo significant changes, with the tram only one of several construction projects, which also include large-scale housing developments, offices and a new shopping centre.

New residential areas will rise near Weimershof and Kiem, while the European Parliament's Konrad Adenauer building is already undergoing a significant expansion.

The tram will run along Avenue John F Kennedy, with the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pont GrandeDuchesse Charlotteâ&#x20AC;?, better known as the Red Bridge, to undergo a revamp in preparation for the new mode of transport.

Luxembourg's national library will also move to Kirchberg, with a brand-new building along Avenue John F Kennedy. The tram's final stop in its first phase of construction will be LuxExpo, with plans to extend the tracks to Findel airport already in place.


GROWTH

FEAR AMBITION PROTEST


GASTON THORN 1974-1979 Prime Minister of Luxembourg


1973 PROJECT FOR A NUCLEAR POWER STATION IN LUXEMBOURG

PROTEST © W.Osterheld

PROJECT ABANDONED

28 March 1979


1978 „ CENTRE 300 ” OR „ GROUSSE KUEB ” © Musée d’Histoire de la Ville de Luxembourg; Photo Christof Weber

Building of a big conference centre to bring the European parliament to a permanent seat in Luxembourg

ROGER TAILLIBERT architect, Paris

PROTEST

PROJECT ABANDONED


NON FUNCTIONAL

ENERGY EATING

AGAINST CONSTRUCTION REGULATIONS

MEGALOMANIAC NO BEAUTY UNECONOMIC

POINTLESSLY EXPENSIVE

MISANTHROPIC


PETITION AGAINST THE PROJECT


*KUEB=RAVEN


THE CITY SKYLINE


ANALYSIS AND PROJECT FOR AN ENDANGERED CITY LEON KRIER Press conference at the Café du Commerce at 11:00 on 9 November 1978


JEAN LANGERS architect

1980 HEMICYCLE OR „ KLENGE KUEB ”


OLYMPIC STADIUM IN MONTREAL source - carte postale David Liaudet

Created for the Olympic games in 1976, Architect Roger Taillibert


FIRED FROM THE PROJECT „On 6 July, 1972, these three men were unveiling the model of the future Olympic facilities during a press conference which went round the world. All three fired from the project in 1975, messieurs Jean Drapeau, Claude Phaneuf and Roger Taillibert today serve as an example of post-Olympic waste.” source: stadeolympiquemontreal.ca, Claude Phaneuf

THE STADIUM FRIGHTENS PEOPLE 56% of the people of Quebec would be afraid of entering the Olympic stadium


1982 SPORTS CENTRE KIRCHBERG Architect Roger Taillibert


29 September 1985 EXPLOSIVE ATTACK IN THE KIRCHBERG SWIMMING POOL During the night of Sunday to Monday around 1:00 a.m. The suspects are still on the run.


PUBLIC NOTICE

Has anybody seen the individual who was on the roof of the Olympic swimming pool in Kirchberg on Sunday 29 September 1985?

Have people or cars displaying suspicious behaviour been seen around the swimming pool?


1976 CAMPUS CHAMONIX-MONT-BLANC Architect Roger Taillibert


2014 ENERGY-EFFICIENT RENOVATION


CECA COMPETITION 1965 „THE UNIVERSAL HOUSING UNIT“ International competition for a project to industrially manufacture a steel housing unit. „A house of classic design, produced entirely in a factory, sold at the same price as a large car, assembled in 135 hours and adaptable from the Baltic sea coast to the foot of mount Etna...“ description of the competition by M. B. Murisier.


1ST PRIZE J. BRANDI, Gテ傍TINGEN source - Archives UIA

1965 Announcement of the CECA competition published in the magazine UIA No 35

14 to the 19 September

1967 Exhibition of projects


TOP 10 - TETRA ARCHITECTS LUXEMBOURG

MODEL: TETRA ARCHITECTS PROJECT source - Archives Fondation de l’Architecture


THE MODERN ECONOMY DEMANDS MODERN MAN

MODERNISE? What does that mean exactly? Can you talk of modernisation in the economic sphere? Is to automate the same thing as to modernise? Is to produce nuclear energy, to modernise? Is to apply new technology, to modernise?

MICHEL RASQUIN


CINQUANTENAIRE HOUSING ESTATE IN ESCH Power of traditions and local practices with regards to social housing


ABOUT THE HOUSING OF A FOREIGN WORKFORCE source - D’Letzebuerger entrepreneur


WHERE? NEW CITY

OLD CITY

LOWER CITY


PFAFFENTHAL DISTRICT


LIVING UNDER THE BRIDGE © Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


1965 A VIEW TO THE CECA’S TOWER FROM THE PFAFFENTHAL © Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


SUICIDES NEW SUICIDE 19 OCTOBER 1989 5:00 The victim crashed on to the roof of the house, 29 St. Mathieu Street, falling through into the loft. Syndicat dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Initiative de Pfaffenthal


PFAFFENTHAL: DESPAIR OF THOSE WHO COMMIT SUICIDE „Have you ever seen, Minister, like us the people who live in Pfaffenthal ... a human body that has been run over on a road after falling from a height of about 80 metres?” Fernand Theato in the name of the people who live in Pfaffenthal 14 May 1993 © Républicain Lorrain


THE CRY FROM THE DARKNESS OF ABBOT RIES OF PFAFFENTHAL „Yes, there’s a cry coming from the darkness when I glance up towards the top of the Red Bridge from where nothing good ever falls on us.”


NEW SUICIDE 16:30 17:00

15 JUNE 1985

10:00 31 MARCH 1988

14:25

28 SEPTEMBER 1985

27 FEBRUARY 1989


LETTER FROM THE CHILDREN OF PFAFFENTHAL source - Archives Fernand Théato


LETTER FROM THE NEIGHBOURHOOD source - Archives Fernand Théato


LOCAL ACTION source - Archives Fernand ThĂŠato


FILM „ THE RED BRIDGE ” GENEVIEVE MERSCH source - Archives Fernand Théato


SUPERJHEMP © Lucien Czuga, Roger Leiner source - Archives Fernand Théato


SYDNEY MORNING HEPALD 15 February 1991

A NORMAL DAY BENEATH THE RED BRIDGE


TORONTO STAR LUXEMBOURG (BELGIUM) No one has survived the fall.

WALL STREET JOURNAL 15 February 1991 First page


FALLING OBJECTS


FALLOUT OF THE SCHUEBERFOUER


SUPERJHEMP © Lucien Czuga, Roger Leiner source - Archives Fernand Théato


AN ORDINARY STONE „An ordinary stone, thrown from the bridge, effortlessly shatters a car roof and would kill the person inside the car...” Fernand Theato on behalf of the people who live in Pfaffenthal 14 May 1993


A SLAB OF CONCRETE WEIGHING 10 KG

A BIN LINER

A GAS CYLINDER 1 February 1990 23:00


WORK ON THE BRIDGE


WORKSITE TEMPORARILY STOPPED reason: dust fallout


ZINC POLLUTION


SANDBLASTING OF THE BRIDGE POLLUTES THE VEGETABLE GARDENS OF PFAFFENTHAL VALLEY 20 July 1989


CONCENTRATIONS OF ZINC HIGHER THAN USUAL


POLLUTION FROM HEAVY METALS Results regarding the analysis of the heavy metal content of the soils affected by the dust fallout from the sandblasting of Grand Duchess Charlotte bridge.


SOLUTIONS

A NET?

PAVEMENT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE BRIDGE?

DEMOLITION OF THE HOUSES BENEATH THE BRIDGE?

A PERMANENT WATCH? Establish a „Red Bridge“ permanent watch, in the Middle Ages they would certainly have had this idea!

AN EMERGENCY NUMBER? S.O.S. 41.28.68


THE PEOPLE LIVING THERE CLAIM A PARAPET Someone who has been run over... at the feet of a child who was playing... the traumatised schoolchild has had to receive medical treatment.

PARAPET?


PILOT PARAPET I It seems very unlikely that the minister will choose this „option”


PILOT PARAPET II


REPLY TO THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE THERE â&#x20AC;&#x17E;I understand the bitterness of those who live there... I strove for the installation of a parapet... the different possible solutions... always huge technical problems... remain determined to have the parapet built before summer...â&#x20AC;?


REPLY TO PARLIAMENTARY QUESTION NO. 24 I asked the Minister of Defence to heighten surveillance of the bridge in question.


GALLERY WITH A PLEXIGLAS ROOF „It has been proposed that a covered pedestrianised gallery be created on Grand Duchess Charlotte bridge. Yet this construction causes serious problems for the static balance of the bridge...” 25 April 1989 Parliamentary question 242

INCREASED SURVEILLANCE


PARAPET: THE CHOICE IS MADE Cost of the operation 40 million Luxembourg francs


14th International Architecture Exhibition Biennale di Venezia 2014

MODERNITY - LOVED, HATED OR IGNORED?

INVESTIGATION # 5 N° x/20 © 2014 - Laruade - Kostohryz - Langevin


INVESTIGATION #5 THE RED BRIDGE