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THE LIVING MACHINE In the city of Manhattan there are a total of 267 documented community gardens and 5 community greenhouses with close to 798,000 sq. ft. of plantable earth. The gardens operate in a rent method where the growers either pay month to month or seasonal renters charges for a plot of land. Within the 267 documented community gardens only 32 reside within a 2 mile radius from the site. Out of the 32 gardens only 3 produce 75-100% yield of edible crops. During the optimum growing times of New York (Mid April to Early October) the average garden produces 10 lbs. of crop within each square foot of planted space at harvesting. This number drops to zero within winter months, unless growing within a controlled temperature greenhouse. This project seeks to create a seasonally changing hydroponic farm providing refuge for these community growers seeking to plant year round. In order to compensate for the influx of growers during the late fall and winter, the structure’s hydroponics core will be recommissioned into individual growing plots for tenants rather than its other yearly function, a mass production hydroponics farm. In order to cut down on the carbon footprint that the structure will accumulate over its years of production, a living machine is incorporated in order to reuse and redistribute water throughout the hydroponic farm. A living machine is a form of ecological wastewater treatment designed to mimic the cleansing functions of wetlands. It functions as an intensive bioremediation system that can also produce beneficial by-products, such as reuse-quality water, ornamental plants and plant products--for building material, energy biomass, animal feed. In the case of this project the living machine collects rain water through the rooftop hydroponic park and recycles it to be able to be used in bathrooms, kitchens and laboratories.

Rooftop hydroponic tree farm doubles as a hydroponic park as well as a rain water collection system

Gray water from the hydroponic farm is used in the flushing of toilets

The Living Machine is a form of ecological wastewater treatment designed to mimic the cleansing functions of wetlands. It functions as an intensive bioremediation system that can also produce beneficial by-products, such as reuse-quality water, ornamental plants and plant products--for building material, energy biomass, animal feed. In the case of this project the Living Machine collects rain water through the rooftop hydroponic park and recycles it to be able to be used in bathrooms, kitchens and laboratories.

All gray and black water is passed through clarifiers to eliminate solids

Sludge from clarifiers is harvested to be burned and turned into raw energy

Fungal filtration Floral filtration

Water from the clarifiers is then processed through a set of hyperaccumulators accustomed to extract specific harmful

To ensure the water is safe for drinking and other uses the water is passed through UV filters in order to kill any microbes, cysts or parasites

Foliage filtration

Combustion generators








shape of site is extruded to maximum allowable height

shape deformed to allow maximize southern light exposure on rooftop hydroponics

Outdoor Restaurant seating and an outdoor hydroponics bay extracted

ADD Hydroponic farming core added

ADD Basement and rooftop systems added systems




















horizontally oriented Louvers reduce the majority of light for bathrooms, photosensitive laboratories and private bathrooms

Water transport pipe

structural pier

structural pier

Water transport pipe

slanted louvers reduce eastern light and open to souther light source for offices and photosensitive laboratories

vertically oriented louvers allow for maximum northern light exposure for kitchens, restaurants, and educational living machine areas

the louvers become strictly aesthetic when lining the hydroponic core with exception for two water carrying pipes which provide water to each hydroponic growing floor

The skin is comprised of hundreds of pipes which fall into three functional categories; water carriers, light controllers and structural piers. These pipes adjust their orientation in order to control the amount of light within the space. For instance photosensitive areas such as laboratories and auditoriums utilize a horizontal orientation in order to block out as much light as possible.

Facilities in Black Site & Precedents Circled

THE HIDDEN UNDERGROUND The Hidden Underground is a pragmatic approach to a comparison between banality and oddity. The narrative of a government bunker and office park investigates the tension between the structure that was created underground with the structures built over it to disguise and normalize an extreme doomsday scenario within a greater society. The project is staged in the now abandoned Jefferson Proving Ground in the outskirts of Indiana. It sprawls over 17,336,000 square feet of flat landscape within the proving ground’s air field. The project starts with the excavation into the limestone reserves located 80 feet below grade by a secret government department to house a recently sanctioned apocalyptic storage facility. With impending threats of war and ravaging epidemics, the most inner circle of military leadership approved this bunker in order to store everything from vaccines to top secret documents. However, the bunker can function only if there is a way for shipments to access the bunker on a semi-frequent basis. In order to facilitate the secrecy needed, the apocalyptic project management committee creates a set of dummy corporations and builds businesses and distribution facilities in an office park equipped with passively cooled basements for storing multitudes of dry and wet goods. Access to the passively cooled basements is via ramps and vertical core circulation. This circulation system is mimicked within the dummy corporation buildings, with the only difference being that the dummy corporations access the mine 80 feet below grade. Within sections of the site there are filtering gradients that mimic the temperature changes within the earth. In terms of the modern office park, banal is a perfect adjective to describe thematic boundaries of autonomous architectural set pieces arranged around parking lots and communal services, and are situated at the most accessible points of the metropolitan road network. This project utilizes the banality of the business park paradigm through its use of the orthogonal grid in order to delineate closed and open space, while adding a twist of quirkiness by depressing the park down into the ground in order to hide the site at eye level. As one approaches the site on foot, the landscape looks as if it is unchanged, with the only signs of life below coming from trucks descending into the landscape and the canopies of foliage peeking up from the several parks scattered throughout the site. With that in mind the project embraces the idea of flat in a way to not only define the business park but also to hide it by tucking it down into the already existing flat landscape. The project seeks to be insidious, developing so gradually as to be well established before becoming apparent to outside observers.

Partial World Map Mapping of underground government facilities, bunkers, laboratories, archives, food storage and apocalyptic safe havens

Above: Precedent photo (from left to right) Greenbrier Hotel, Pionen Data Center, Svalbard Global Seed Bank, Springfield Underground Food Storage, Corbis Film Archive, Saint Kinga’s Chaple Left: Site map depicting the field condition created from the underground storgae facility Below: Diagrams portraying the movement of corporations versus bunker storage corporations

Dummy Corporation

Dummy Corporation

SITE MAP 1/64 “ = 10 ‘

Vertical Circulation Access of Corporations and Dummy Corporations

Circulation Access of Corporations and Dummy Corporations

0 feet

-20 feet

[75 - 65 Fahrenheit]

-40 feet

[65 - 60 Fahrenheit]

-60 feet

[60 - 57 Fahrenheit]

-80 feet

[55 Fahrenheit]

The subject of the apocalypse is taboo in many circles. Few talk about it, and those who do address doomsday scenarios are labeled with a stigma much like a scarlet letter. This project, however, seeks to normalize the subject of impending doom and gloom through a pragmatic design with a narrative soaked in conspiracy and seasoned with anxiety. This anxiety in turn creates requirements ranging from passive cooling (to take the site as off-grid as possible) to tilted exterior walls to create aerial visual cover. To call out the creation of a secret government bunker behind or, in this case, below something as banal as an office park, I hope, alerts you to think forward and to never take anything at face value. I urge you to not only be aware of the implications of the abnormal, but also the banal. For all you know, government agents could be prepping for disaster right below your feet without ever arousing your suspicions. Could apocalypse now be just around the corner?

Shading Diagram

IInterior nterior V View iew Overall Section

Interior View

Street view

Entrance to the Underground

Commercial Storage

3.5 ft x 1.5 ft x 1.75 ft Routed MDF Museum board Graphic tape Acrylic

RACE-WALKING : DETROIT Progressing forward from race walking belle isle, the same program of a race walking facility is instituted; however, the project becomes constrained within a trapezoidal site roughly Ÿ of the size of the belle island peninsula. In response to an additional challenge of site constraint a think-tank program is applied. After careful consideration of both programs, projection and movement become the inspiration behind Race Walking Detroit. When comparing the race walker to the thinker, the walking speed and paths taken differ greatly. The speed walker pace forbids observation of the city’s details and allows city streets and sidewalks to delineate the path taken. In contrast, the thinker strays from the beaten paths, walks at a celestial pace and absorbs detail and aspect of their surroundings. The proposed design considers both characters. The building is comprised of two wings: the walker wing and the think-tank wing. The walker wing characterizes adherence to the boundaries of the site and surrounding streets whereas the think-tank wing secedes from the strict trapezoidal shaped site. While both walker and thinker are housed in the structure, the building is structurally proportioned more predominantly for the walker. The reason for this is that the building should be used as a meeting space for the think tank. It should aspire thinkers to leave the building and experience Detroit rather than be confined within the walls of the building. To accommodate the thinker, the building projects itself across Detroit creating pockets of program that parasite to other buildings. These parasites act as refuge for the thinkers allowing them to avoid the hustle and bustle of Detroit and reflect on their thoughts and travels. The proposed skin for the structure is a lattice that increases or decreases it’s pattern around pockets or lack of program. In a way it mimics Detroit, which includes both dense and sparse pockets within its limits.




The model acts both as a physical representation of the proposed structure as well as a diagram for the movement in and around the site. Dashes of black graphic tape denote pedestrian traffic while silver graphic tape is representation for car traffic.

3.75 ft x 3.5 ft x 2 ft Routed MDF Museum board Graphic tape

MAPPING : HAMTRAMCK Over the course of the past decade we have grown increasingly accustomed to and reliant on the authority of topdown satellite images. In addition, Google earth (and other online map databases) now present us with multiple points of view--not only planometric, but persepectivic and axonometric. Databases like photosynth allow for a collagic view of the world: contributions from the many add up to create an “average” image from an array of a potentially diverse set of images. It is possible to vicariously live through images and tags of others images, to learn historically about places through online research and to go “there” without “going there” and think we have done enough. But what about the primacy of lived experience? Is it enough to accept the collective “average” of an experience, or the “objective” view from above? Mapping: Hamtramck seeks to operate under the assumption that distanced research and analysis are not adequate descriptors of a site or territory. Taking into favor the subjective, the varied and the questionable. Hamtramck, Michigan is a highly dense city with 9732 inhabitants per square mile. Intimacy and partial overlap between residential, commercial and religious zones make it notable. The drawing illuminates the density and overlap of the city. Density is represented through the materials and amount of drawings both hand drawn and digital. The drawing is made up of 4 layers. The base layer consists of a digital drawn map derived from the site (upper left hand corner). Next, a Mylar layer of hand-drawn storefront elevations represents the site’s commercial zone. Following is a third Mylar layer of hand-drawn home elevations.

36 in x 24 in Layered Mylar Digital drawing Graphite Museum board

The drawing represents the overlap of the city through the layering of the information as well as the use of collage to represent the streets. The collage is comprised of Polish newspaper clippings to represent the residential zone and residential heritage,various business cards represent the commercial zone that consists of businesses on the central street of Joseph Campau and religious prayer cards from the Polish cathedral represent the religious zone. These overlapping materials weave together in order to represent the bleeding of program and interaction between the different sectors of the city. The model denotes ideas of overlapping and density translated from the two-dimensional drawing by means of two separate yet overlapping forms. Moments where the two forms meet are represented with a void allowing transient visitors to peer through from one space to the other. Density embodies the design of the skin. Irregular double-layered shingles represent the gaps between homes and businesses that allow for pockets of vision within the heavily populated city. The irregular perforated surface results in similar pockets of vision that add a new layer of density to the already dense city of Hamtramck.

ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY I have come to learn that architecture is a silent art form that comes alive during its occupation. In my opinion it is the engagement and the presence of life which define the beauty of space and form. It is this idea that I have recently pursued in my architectural photography; the impact of the figure within space.


5 ft x 3 ft x 5 in Routed MDF Museum board Graphic tape Dowels Acrylic

9 in x 5 in x 7 in Acrylic Zcorp 3d print

2 ft x 2 ft x 2 ft Museum board Acrylic

9 in x 5 in x 4 in Museum board

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