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Dictionary of Spanish Words from the Moorish Era Juan Alvarado Do you know Arabic? Well, you might not but if you know Spanish or Portuguese, chances are that you know more Arabic than you think. Indeed, if you know any Western European language, you may know more than you think. Spanish and Portuguese as well as many European languages are chock full of words that come from Arabic. This is an endeavor to list as many Spanish words from the Moorish era as possible. Others have come up with lists of Arabic-specific words. This list is mostly a list of Arabic words but there are a few that come from Persian, Turkish and from the various Berber languages. This list originally began just for fun. The list soon took a life of its own. It became a bit of an obsession. As I learned more Arabic, I saw and heard the same words I grew up with in Spanish. Some people of Hispanic descent who first learn about the history of Moorish Spain, look upon the bearer of this history with skepticism. Apart from showing pictures, what more proof could you give? This is my language – a language very much influenced by the Moors. Now, there are some words of Arabic origin that have come into Spanish relatively late or recently. These are listed as well. However, the majority here come from the Moorish period. Some people claim that many of these words are no longer used in Spanish or that they were specialized to begin with and their usefulness soon died out. To some extent, this is true. However, the medieval Spanish authorities also took it upon themselves to purge the Spanish language of many Arabic borrowings in their attempt to Europeanize the language. Despite the natural evolution of language and the unnatural removal of these words, there are still many words that are as alive as ever and are used in everyday speech. The words highlighted in YELLOW are for those words that either have an unknown background or origin and/or whose meaning is unknown. Within the list of words, I’ve also included lots of toponyms. Toponyms are place names. Many of these place names have evolved to become surnames and personal names. I’ve tried to list the ones found mostly in the Iberian peninsula of Arabic origin. Many of these same ones are also found in Latin America. There are literally hundreds of toponyms of Arabic origin in Spain, Portugal and Latin America. These include cities, towns, villages, provinces and regions. They even include nicknames for neighborhoods (barrios) and streets. They may also include names for the Earth’s physical features such as mountains, valleys, rivers, lakes, etc. Names such as Guadalquivir (literally, the big river) are an example of this. Arabic place names are common in all of the Iberian Peninsula. This includes much of the north of the peninsula (with the exception of those regions that never came under Moorish rule or where it was for the most part short-lived). Among those regions that didn’t come under Moorish rule are Galicia, Asturias, Catalonia, and the Basque country. That is not to say that there aren’t any such toponyms in these places. Most of the places where Arabic toponyms are most common are the eastern coast and the region of Andalusia (Andalucía). Within Portugal (as in Spain), the frequency of Arabic place names proliferate as one travels


south. Those areas that retained their pre-Islamic names during the Moorish period were generally Arabized. The pronunciation of the names were markedly changed and remain noticeable in their modern names: e.g. Pax Augusta became (‫ )بطليوس‬Baţlayūs. Baţlayūs then morphed into Badajoz in Spanish. Similarly, Hispania became Ishbiliyya (‫)أشبيلية‬ which then became Sevilla (or Seville) Many Spanish-speakers retain this ability to ‘Hispanize’ or change words they come across to make it easier to pronounce. For example, some of the street names that I grew up hearing were “Sin-son” (for Simpson St), “Solenbuleva” (for Southern Boulevard), Intévé (for Intervale), “Propé” (for Prospect) and so on. It is a common misperception that all words in Spanish that begin with “AL” are Arabic. Although, it it a truism that many such words do have their origins in Arabic or Mozarabic, certainly not all of them are. I have drudged through lists and lists of words only to be disappointed that some had Latin or Celtic or other language origins. Within the lists provided, I tried to find the Arabic, Berber or Persian equivalents. Some of the words had origins in other languages such as Greek or Sanskrit but were brought by the Arabs. Unfortunately, most of the words are probably archaic and so it is difficult to find them in their actual Arabic writing. However, whenever possible, I did try to convey them in their original script for those interested. In addition, I also tried to find other words related to the original word, such as “Azucarí” (sugary) coming from the more familiar “Azucar” (sugar). Spain had its own regional dialect of Arabic called Andalusian (Andalusí) Arabic. It also had something of a patois known as Mozarabic which was a Latin-based language heavily influenced by Arabic. Some things of note with these Spanish words, the Andalusian Arabic that influenced them was generally of a medieval North African variety that is no longer in use. Similar to how Egyptians presently pronounce the J (‫)ﺝ‬, the Spanish Muslims pronounced Arabic words with this letter with a G sound. Within the past 500 years, Spanish has also changed markedly. One notable change is the mixing and/or confusion of the F into H and vice versa. This happened specifically because of Basque influences on Spanish. Also, the J and X originally had the English SH sound (although the J may have also had the regular J sound we’re accustomed to). The reason I mention this is because many of the Arabic-influenced words no longer sound Arabic. *A note of transliteration and transcription – for those words that have or had letters starting with ‫ ﺽ‬hard D-sound, ‫ ﺡ‬hard H-sound, ‫ ﻁ‬hard T-sound, or other such letters, I tried to uniformly make them underlined capitals even if they were in the middle or end of words since they are considerably more forceful than the sounds we are accustomed to. Whenever I used ‫ ﺩ‬d-sound, ‫ ﻩ‬h-sound, ‫ ﺕ‬t-sound, I generally left them as lowercase unless they were in the beginning of a word. ---------


Spanish/English

Arabic

meaning

Ababol Habbabáwr (from Habb papāver – poppy seed) A silly, thoughtless person. A simpleton or a person that is distracted. Abacero SaHb Azzád (Andalusian Arabic [‫ ]صاحب الزاﺩ‬meaning owner of supplies) The owner of the abacería (food shop). A person who sells fruits and other food. Abad Abū, Abī, Ab (Classical Arabic [‫ ]أب‬meaning father) father Abadí Abbādī (Classical Arabic [‫ ]عبّاﺩي‬which is a patronym from Abbād) A descendant of Mohammed ben Abad, founder of the Taifa Kingdom of Seville in the 11th century CE. Abalorio al-Ballúri (Andalusian Arabic literally meaning made of glass or of glass. It comes from Classical Arabic [‫ ]البلوري‬al-Billawrī) Cheap jewelry; jewelry beads; a necklace or personal adornment of little value.

Abanto ??? A type of vulture from North Africa. Its scientific name is Neophron pernopterus. In Toledo, Spain, it is used colloquially to mean not only a vulture but a dimwitted person or a fool. Abarraz Habb Arrás (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Habb ar-Ra’s [‫ ]حب الرأس‬meaning head seeds) A plant commonly known as stavesacre. A medicinal plant in the family Ranunculaceae. Abasí Abasí (The Arabic [‫ ]عباسى‬patronym of Abbās) Anything relative to the "Abassid" dynasty. Anything having to do with the dynasty established by Abu-l-Abbās, who dethroned the Ummayyad dynasty from Damascus and moved his court to Baghdad in 8th century. Abdala Abdullah, Abd'Allah (Classical Arabic [‫ ]عبدهللا‬meaning servant of God or slave of God) One can find this both as a surname and first name. One famous Abdala is Abdalá Bucaram, ex-president of Ecuador. Abelmosco Habb el-Musk (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]حب المسك‬Habbu-l-Musk, meaning musk seed) An aromatic plant of the Malvaceae or the mallow family. It originates in India. Its seeds have the smell of musk and are used in perfumes and medicines. Abencerraje Yusuf ben-Serragh (or ben-Sirraj) Used in the expression ‘Zegríes y Abencerrajes’ which means "partisans of opposite interests." The Abencerrajes was an Arab family of the Kingdom of Granada, rivals of the Zegríes in the 15th century. Also, it is used to mean the son of a military man or soldier. Abenuz Abnúz or Abanúz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical


Arabic [‫ ]أبنوس‬Abanūs from Greek, ἔβενος, meaning ebony) ebony Abismal al-Mismár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]المسمار‬Mismār, meaning nail) The nail or screw in a head of a spear. Abitaque aT-Tibáq (Andalusian Arabic which is the plural of Tabáqa which comes from Classical Arabic, Tabaqah [‫ ]ﻁبقة‬meaning layer, intermediate chamber) A cut or slice of wood used in construction of certain shapes and dimensions. Abla ‘Ablah (‫)عبلة‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Abogue al-Buq (‫)البوق‬ flute Abolaga (same as Abulaga, Aliaga, & Aulaga) al-Yiláqa (From Andalusian Arabic originally from al-Awláqa which is from Classical Arabic Awlaqah.) This is a plant native to Spain that grows about a meter high. It is spiny with soft leaves that end with spikes and yellow flowers. Livestock like to eat the dried leaves. The plant is generally used to feed livestock by flattening and mashing it. Known in English as the Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum or Genista juncea) or the Weaver's Broom, it is a perennial, leguminous shrub native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, southwest Asia and northwest Africa, where it is found in sunny sites, usually on dry, sandy soils Abujardado ??? A type of ceramic tile generally made of rock or stone and shaped by a type of hammer called a bujarda. Abulaga al-Yiláqa (From Andalusian Arabic originally from alAwláqa which is from Classical Arabic Awlaqah.) This is a plant native to Spain that grows about a meter high. It is spiny with soft leaves that end with spikes and yellow flowers. Livestock like to eat the dried leaves. The plant is generally used to feed livestock by flattening and mashing it. Known in English as the Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum or Genista juncea) or the Weaver's Broom, it is a perennial, leguminous shrub native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, southwest Asia and northwest Africa, where it is found in sunny sites, usually on dry, sandy soils Abrucena Abrūsīna (‫)أبروسينا‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Abuchear An onomatopoeia from “uch” common among Arabs. It means to cheer on, applaud, to boo, make noises, shout in approval. Acafelar ??? To plaster with cement or mortar.


Acebibe az-Zabíb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]زبيب‬, Zabīb, meaning grape or prune raisin) Raisin or raisin made of grape. Acebuche az-Zabbúj Wild olive tree or wood from such a tree. Aceche az-Záj (Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic az-Zāj) The common name of various sulfates that are native to copper, iron, or zinc. It also means a sulfate containing copper that is used in medicine, painting and tinting. It can also mean zinc sulfate. It also means iron sulfate used in painting and tinting. Aceifa aS-Sáyfah (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sā’ifah, meaning to sow; also summer expedition) A summer military expedition undertaken by the Moors. Aceite az-Záyt (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]الزيت‬, az-Zayt, which is from Aramaic, Zaytā) The greasy or oily liquid substance that is obtained by squeezing olives. Also, the greasy or oily substances that are obtained from other fruits or seeds such as cotton, nuts, almonds, soy, coconut, etc. Also, the oil that is obtained from some animals such as whales, codfish, and seals. In general, any type of oil. The dense liquid that can be found naturally such as petroleum. Words related to Aceite are Aceitera meaning oil jug and Aceitoso/a meaning oily. Another word distantly related is Ajiaceite which is a composition used in food made of oil and garlic. Aceituna az-Zaytún or az-Zaytúna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zaytūn [‫]زيتون‬ or Zaytūnah which is a diminutive of Zaytā). Olive or the fruit of the olive. Also, the time in the agricultural calendar when olives have to be picked. Also, the effort to pick olives. Words related to Aceituna are Aceitunado/a meaning olive-colored. Aceituní az-Zaytūnī (The Arabic adaptation and pronunciation of the Chinese city of Tsao Tung) A rich, velvet fabric, cloth from the Orient and very much used in medieval times. Also, a certain style of architecture used on Moorish buildings. Acelga as-Sílqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Silqah, which comes from Greek, Σικελή, meaning the Sicilian) An edible plant of the family Chenopodiaceae; chard. It is also used for the beet (Beta vulgaris), a plant in the amaranth family. It is best known its numerous cultivated varieties, the most well known of which is probably the red root vegetable known as the garden beet. However, other cultivated varieties include the leaf vegetables chard, described above, and spinach beet, as well as the root vegetables sugar beet, which is important in the production of table sugar, and mangelwurzel, which is a fodder crop. Also, to say that person has una cara de acelga (acelga-faced) is to say a person is pale or very light-skinned. Acémila az-Zámila (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zāmilah, meaning beast of burden) A beast of burden, most often a mule or other pack animal. A donkey and by extension a rude person that behaves like a donkey. A tax formerly paid in Spain. Acemite as-Samíd (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Samīd [‫ ]السميد‬which is from Aramaic, Smīdā, which in turn is from Greek, σεμίδαλις) The clean husks that remain from wheat once peeled, soaked, and mashed or


ground. Also, a type of porridge made of toasted and ground wheat. Also a type of bran mixed with flour. Aceña as-Sanya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sāniyah, meaning the lifter) A watermill; a hydrolic wheel. Acenefa (same as Cenefa) Sanif, Sanifa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sanifah [‫ ]صنفة‬which is from Aramaic, Senafa, and Hebrew, Tznefa) An embroidered edge, ornamental border of a dress; edging, trimmings; fabrics, wood or stuccoes use for decorative aims. Acequia as-Saqyah (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, asSāqiyah [‫ ]الساقية‬meaning the irrigator) An irrigation ditch, canal, drainage channel, etc. Acerola az- Zu'rūrah (Arabic [‫ ]زعرورة‬originally from Syriac za‘rara) The fruit of a kind of cherry tree. Acerolo az-Zu'rūrah (Arabic [‫ ]زعرورة‬originally from Syriac za‘rara) A kind of cherry tree. Acetre as-SáTl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, as-SaTl [‫]السطل‬ A bucket or cauldron used to extract water from a well or pond. Also, a small cauldron used to spray holy water in Christian liturgy. Acial az-Ziyár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, azZiyār [‫)]الزيار‬ An instrument used to keep farm-animals still by squeezing an ear, lip or snout. Typically, the instrument is a pincer or tong used by a veterinarian. Acíbar as-Síbr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, aS-Sabr or aS-Sabbir [‫صبر‬ Aloe (both the plant and its bitter juice); bitterness, grief, ّ ‫)]ال‬ distaste. Acicalar Siqál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Siqāl, meaning an instrument to help polish or shine) To clean, polish, or smooth down a weapon. To polish, brush, adorn, dress up, or liven up someone or something. To clean or polish or adorn; to make oneself look good by combing, shaving etc. Acicate as-SiqáT (Andalusian Arabic meaning that which takes away weaknesses) Spurs or the spikes on spurs. Also, an wide spike placed on spurs so that they do not penetrate horses when riding. Also, an incentive. Acidaque as-Sidáq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sidāq or Sadāq which is the Muslim dowry. It literally means proof of sincere intentions) Muslim dowry; dowry in Islamic law. It was an obligatory gift given in money, jewelry, goods, or fine clothing. Acimut as-Simūt (Arabic plural of Samt [‫ ]السمت‬or Simt meaning direction) An astrological concept: angle with which the meridian forms a vertical circle which passes through a point in the globe. Ación as-Siyúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, asSuyūr [‫ ]سيور‬which is plural of Sayr [‫ ]سير‬meaning strap or belt) The belt of a saddle from which hangs the stirrup. Acirate (same as Cirate) as-SirāT (Classical Arabic [‫ ]صراﻁ‬meaning path or way) A line of soil used to separate different plots of land; path between two lines of trees; a boulevard; a path or way. Acitara as-Sitára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, asSitārah [‫ ]ستارة‬meaning parapet or barricade) A thin wall (normally on a


bridge) or a wall to prevent falls. Achacar Achakká (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tashakkà [‫ ]تشكى‬meaning to complain or blame) To blame, to attribute blame, accuse, of a crime or defect, usually maliciously and without causse. Achaque Achakká (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tashakkà [‫ ]تشكى‬meaning to complain or blame) An ailment; complaint, etc. that happens frequently, especially those accompany old age. An addiction or defect which could be moral or physical. An excuse or pretext. The motive or cause of something or why someone did something. Appearances or reputation. The pregnancy of a woman. Colloquially, it can also mean a woman’s menstruation. Also, as used in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, the faintness or morning sickness that pregnant women feel. Acólcetra (same as Cólcedra) al-Kusidra or al-Kúsitra (A Mozarabic word from “al” [Arabic meaning the] and the Latin, Culcitra) A bed or mattress. A mattress made with feathers or wool. Acollar ??? To shelter the base or foot of a plant or tree with dirt. Adafina ad-Dafina (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]ﺩفينة‬ Dafīnah, meaning buried) A pot used by Jews to cook for the Sabbath. It was buried in red-hot embers on Friday night where it cooks so the contents could be eaten on Saturday. Adalid ad-Dalíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dalīl [‫)]ﺩليل‬ Leader or general of Spanish militia. Also, a guide or leader or important person in a (political) party, corporation, or school. Adaraja ad-Daraja (‫ ﺩرجة‬Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Daraja) Each of the gaps made by the bricks in a horizontally unfinished wall. Adarga ad-Dárqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]درق ة‬ Daraqah meaning shield. It is also conceivable that the Arabic word ad-Dara’a [‫]الدرع‬ which also means shield could have had some influence on this word since the Ain letter [‫ ] ع‬could easily be confused with Ghain which may have been used for the G sound) (leather) shield Adárgama ad-Dármaka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Darmak[ah] which is from Persian, Dārmag, meaning fine) flour Adarme ad-Dárham (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ﺩرهم‬Dirham which is a form of currency) A small quantity of something or the minimal portion of something. A type of measurement equivalent to 3 Tomíns (see tomín below). Also, a way of saying something is in short supply or given with in a measured, miserly way. Adarvar aD-Dárb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]ضرب‬ Darb, meaning to hit, blow) To shock, to amaze, to stun, to confuse, to bewilder, to daze. Also, to fortify with defenses (see adarve below). Adarve aD-Dárb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]ضرب‬ Darb, which is from Pahlavi Persian, Dar, meaning door) Paths behind parapets; wall of a fortress; protection, defense. Adaza (same as Daza) ad-Dáqsa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Duqsah) corn, sorghum adefera ad-Dafíra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic


[‫ ] ض ف يرة‬Dafīrah, meaning braid or plait) A small, square wall or floor tile. Adehala ad-iHala (Mozarabic) + iHala (Arabic – offering credit) That which is granted or taken as obligatory with the price in the leasing or sale of a property. Adelfa ad-Dífla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Diflá [‫ ]الدفلى‬which comes from Greek, daφνη meaning laurel) A shrub belonging to the family Apocinacea. It is similar to the laurel. It blooms in the summer and is poisonous; oleander. Adelga ??? An iron ring that has two sharp points on one side and which is nailed into a piece of wood. The sharp edges are clinched on the opposite side. Adema (same as Ademe) ad-Dí’ma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Di’mah) Wooden structures or props used to offer support or strengthen tunnels within mines. Ademán aD-Díman or aD- Damán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Damán [‫ ]الضمان‬which literally means legal guarantees that were made through exaggerated movements, gestures and expressions) Gesticulation which expresses the will to do something – particularly exaggerated gestures. The change of meaning is due to the exaggerated promises and gesticulations which were offered in a plea. Movements, gestures, or expressions that illustrated a point or emotion. Ademe (same as Adema) ad-Dí’ma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Di’mah) Wooden structures used to offer support or strengthen tunnels within mines. Adermar Mozarabic word made of Ad + Ilm (‘ilm [‫ ]ع لم‬from Classical Arabic meaning knowledge, science, etc) A verb meaning to chip, damage, nick or notch something. Aderra ad-Dírra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dirrah, a noose or cord used to punish those who were guilty of fraud) A cord used to press grapes or olives in order to obtain their juice. Adiafa aD-Diyáfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ضيافة‬Diyāfah, meaning a present given in hospitality) A present or refreshment given to sailors when back from a voyage. Adivas adh-Dhībbah (Classical Arabic meaning wolverine from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ذئب‬Dhi’b) A disease that provokes throat inflammation in animals. Adive adh-Dhíb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]ذئب‬ Dhi’b) A type of dog-like canid similar to a fox or jackal. A jackal that has yellowish fur. It was in fashion in the medieval era to have kept tamed ones which were brought from Asia where they are abundant. Admiral Amirul Bahr (‫امير البحر‬, literally prince of the sea) Admiral Adobe aT-Tuba (From Arabic [‫]الطوبة‬ but originally from Coptic, Tôbe) Bricks made from clay; sun dried mud bricks. Also, colloquially, it is taken to mean prisoner’s shackles. Adoquín ad-Dukkán or ad-Dukkín (from Classical Arabic Dukkān, meaning bench or piece of rock or wood) Paving-stone, cobble, block; stone carved in the form of a prism or rectangle for various uses.


Ador

ad-Dáwr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dawr) In regions where water for irrigation is restricted and shared out by local authorities; it is the irrigation-time for each farm or field. Adra Adra (‫)اﺩرا‬ A place name in Almeria, Spain. Adrolla HaTara (Arabic root meaning to speak vulgarly or say vulgar jokes) In Spanish, it means a lie (untruth), to lie, a trap, a deception, a swindle, a trick, a ploy, a fraud – it especially jeans a trick to defraud someone of their money in a sale, barter, or interchange. Aduana ad-Diwán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]ﺩيوان‬ Dīwān, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Dēwān, meaning archive) A public office, generally set up in the coast or borders to register merchandise that is imported and exported, especially within international trade, and tax accordingly. Customs, customs office, or customs house. The taxes collected by this office. Also, a type of gambling game played with eight dice. Aduar Ad-Duwwār (From Bedouin Arabic) A Gypsy camp; a semi-permanent rural settlement normally used for Gypsies, Bedouins or Amerindians in South America. A small population of Bedouins composed of shacks, cabins and tents. It came to also mean the encampment where Gypsies lived and later an encampment of Native Americans. Adúcar Haddúqa (From Andalusian Arabic) Coarse cloth material; a type of silk made from the outside of the silk-worm's cocoon. Adufa ad-Dúffah (Andalusian Arabic meaning leaf from the door) Mill for making olive oil. Also, the inner door to the main entrance of a house Adufe (same as Aldufe) ad-Duff (Arabic [‫ ]ﺩف‬meaning tambourine) A tambourine used by Spanish Muslims. Adul ‘Udūl (The Classical Arabic plural of ‘Adl [‫ ]عدل‬as pronounced in North Africa. It means a reliable, trustworthy person) In Morocco, the assistant of the qadí (Muslim judge). Also, an extremy reliable and trustworthy person. Also, a notary or scribe. Adula (same as Dula) ??? A herd or flock of animals. Adunia ad-Dúnya (Andalusian Arabic meaning many or a lot which is from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الدنيا‬Dunyā meaning the whole world) A lot, many, in abundance, etc. Adutaque ad-Duqáq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]ﺩقاق‬ Duqāq meaning a fine flour, especially if its made from white lupin, scientific name Lupinus albus) Flour or fine flour. Afán/Afanar Faná (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]فناء‬Fanā’ meaning "extinction" or "annihilation through passion") A word with multiple meanings: effort; desire; zeal; to steal; to work with passion; obsession; distress; anguish.


Afice HáfiZ (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, HāfiZ [‫]حاف ظ‬, meaning guardian, especially guardian of the Quran through its memorization) Guardian, watcher, curator, etc. Agá Agha (Arabic [‫ ]آغا‬from Turkish meaning chief, master, lord, mister, or sir) An army official; a Turkish army official; mister or sir. Agarbarse Ad-gharáb-arse (Mozarabic from Arabic Gharaba or Yaghrūbu) To crouch down or bend down. Agareno Hajār (Classical Arabic [‫ ]حجار‬meaning Hagar) A descendant of Hagar. It is generally applied to Muslims. Agarrar Gharfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharfah meaning a fistful or an amount that you can take with a hand) To take or obtain. Aguacil (same as Alguacil) al-Wazír (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الوزير‬Wazīr) A lesser law official, minister, constable, bailiff. A lesser official that executes the law of the tribunal he serves. Also, the executive agent that is under the president or leader of the running of the bulls. In medieval times, the governor of a city, district or jurisdiction with authority over the civil and criminal code. Agua de azahar az-Zahár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zahra [‫ ]زهرة‬or Zahr meaning flower) Water obtained through the distillation of the leaves of the orange tree and used as a sedative. Aguajaque al-Wushsháq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, alWashshaaq, meaning contaminated with water) The whitish resin of fennel. Agüela Hawála (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hawālah) Rents on the rights of loans briefed in a public document. Ahorría (or Alhorría) al-Hurríyya (From Andalusian Arabic and this from Classical Arabic, Hurriyyah) In olden times, there were degrees of freedom. This means the quality or kind of freedom or the way it was obtained. It also means to liberate someone of their dues or debts in a business transaction. Ahorro/Ahorrar Húrr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hurr [‫]حر‬ meaning free) To save (money) or spare; savings. Ahuchear (same as Huchear and Abuchear) Originally an onomatopoeia from “uch” common among Arabs meaning to cheer on, applaud, to boo, make noises, shout in approval, especially while on horseback. Ajabeba ash-Shabbába (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shabbābah) A Moorish flute. Ajaquefa (same as Azaquefa) as-Saqífa (From Andalusian Arabic meaning portico and this from Classical Arabic, Saqīfah, meaning portico cover) Building/roof tiles; also, a place full of columns and arches, sometimes near a wall or patio. Usually spoken of religious buildings. Ajaraca ash-Sharáka (Andalusian Arabic meaning rope and this from Classical Arabic, Sharakah, meaning red). Lines, ropes, vines and flowers common to Islamic/Moorish ornamentation. Ajarafe (same as Aljarafe) as-Sharáf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الشرف‬Sharaf meaning a commanding height) A terrace or an elevated and extensive piece of land. Ajebe ash-Shább (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الشب‬ash-Shabb) Alum; rubber tree.


Ajedrea ash-ShaTríyya or ash-ShiTríyya (Andalusian Arabic from Latin Satureia) A plant very populated with branches and narrow leaves, of dark color. It is cultivated for adornment in the gardens. Ajedrez ash-ShaTaranj (‫الشطرنج‬, Arabic word was borrowed from Persian, Shatranj, but is ultimately from Sanskrit, Chaturanga, which translates to "the four divisions of the military." These were infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots which are represented by the pawn, knight, bishop and rook.) The game of chess. Ajenuz ash-Shanúz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ashShūnīz, from Persian, Shuniz) Nutmeg flower or Roman coriander. Ajimez ash-Shams (Classical Arabic [‫ ]الشمس‬meaning the sun – also, possibly from Andalusian Arabic, Shamís) Arched window; window divided in the center by a vertical divider or column; salient balcony made of wood and with lattice; windows. Ajomate al-Jummát (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jumam Pluricellular algae formed by very thin filaments, without knots, bright and of intense green color. It abounds in fresh waters of Spain. Ajonjolí Gulgulan (North African / Andalusian Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, Jaljala [‫ ]ج لج لة‬meaning sound and echo – this refers to the rattling sound of ripe seeds within the capsule) Sesame, sesame seeds. Ajorca (same as Aljorca) ash-Sharka/ash-Shúrka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shuruk, which is the plural for Shirāk, meaning belt) Bangle, anklet, or other type of jewelry hoop, made of gold, silver or another metal, used by women to adorn the wrists, arms or ankles. It can also be used to mean a belt.

Ajorrar al-Júrr (Andalusian Arabic [‫ ]جر‬from the imperative Járr, which is from Classical Arabic, Jarra, meaning to drag) To drag or to tow. To take by force people or animals from one place to another. Ajuagas ash-Shuqáq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shuqāq) Equine animal ulcers; a type of ulcer that forms on the head of horses and similar animals. Ajuar ash-Shiwár or ash-Shuwár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic Shawār or Shiwār) Drawer or chest or common furniture where the household stores clothing or linens. Also, a collection of household and personal items (clothes, furniture, jewelry etc.) which women in Spain traditionally prepare from a young age for the day when they marry and move in with their husband. Also, a bassinette where babies, especially newborns, are placed. Alá Allah (‫)هللا‬ The name that is given to God by Muslims and generally by those who speak Arabic. Alabama Allah bamya A state within the United States.


Alacena al-Khizána or al-Khanáza (‫خزانة‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-Khizānah) An armoire that is generally placed by the wall and where various objects are placed. Armoire, cupboard, pantry or closet where different objects are placed. Alacet al-Asás (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]أساس‬ Asās) The foundation of a building. Alacrán al-‘Aqráb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫‘ ]العقرب‬Aqrab, meaning scorpion) The word for scorpion. Colloquially, it can mean a person with bad intentions, especially one that talks bad of others. Also, a piece that is hooked onto the brakes of a horse’s mouthpiece. Aladar al-Adár (Andalusian Arabic which is from the Classical Arabic, al-‘idār.) Lock of hair that falls between the forehead and the ear. Aladroque al-HaTrúk (From Andalusian Arabic which literally means “large mouth” because of the large size of the mouth on this fish. In turn, this word comes from the Arabic word, HaTr, meaning dirty joke.) A type of fish with a large mouth that frequent the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean; anchovy. Aladul ??? cauldron Alafa al-‘Afah (Classical Arabic meaning subsistence allowance) Generally, salary, wage, or pay. Alafia al-‘Afya/al-‘Afiya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic ‘Afiyah [‫ ]عافية‬meaning health) Grace; pardon; mercy. It can be used as in the phrase, pedir alafia. Alahílca al-‘Iláqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Ilāqah [‫ ]عالقة‬meaning hanger) Tapestry to adorn the walls. Alajor al-Ashúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]ع شر‬ ‘Ashr, meaning ten) Tax which was paid to owners of land where buildings were built. It is also period of ten days before Easter when debts were paid and alms were given. Alajú al-Hashu (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hashū [‫ ]حشو‬meaning a roll or stuffing) A pastry made of or with honey. Alama ¿?? A leguminous plant. It is not spiny like others. It is about a meter high. It has yellow flowers and is used to feed livestock. Alamar Alam (From Andalusian Arabic meaning an adornment for clothing) A type of adornment that is sewn onto the corners of a dress or cape. It can be used to button up such articles of clothings or just for show or it can be used for both. Alambique al-Anbiq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic alInbīq) An instrument that serves to distill or separate substances from another through heat, usually one of which is more volatile; a type of beaker. It is basically two beakers – one where the liquid is placed connected by a winding piece of glass to another beaker where the distilled end product goes. It also means alembic; still; and generally a container holding water. Alambor al-'Ubur or al-Hambad or Harabúl (Andalusian Arabic meaning adornments, borders, etc., which comes from Classical Arabic, Hawwala, to alter) Bricks or other materials on a building or house made of false rocks or wood.


Alambor el Ambor (Catalán which is singular of els zambors which comes from Andalusian Arabic, az-Zanbú‘) A type of orange. Alameda al-Muwatta (Arabic meaning clear path, well-trodden path) An avenue or boulevard. A path where there are trees of any type. A path where poplar trees grow. A place where poplar trees grow. Alamín al-Amín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]األمين‬ meaning the trustworthy) The clerk who checks weights. Also, the official who dealt with irrigation. Also, a deputized architect that made sure that building works were built correctly. Alamina Alamín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Alamīn [ ‫ ]عال م ين‬which literally means worlds referring to the universe or worlds or all that exists) Fines that were paid in Seville by pottery makers for exceeding the fill of pottery ovens with vases. Alamo Alamu A tree in the family Salicaceae. It grows in a short period of time and is resistant to water damage. It has white timber. The poplar tree. Also, any wood that come from trees in this family. Alamud al-Amúd (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Amūd). A bar or obstacle made of a rectangular or square shaped piece of iron or steel to secure doors or windows; bar or obstacle to secure doors or windows. Alange al-Hansh HaSn (Arabic [‫ ]الحنش حصن‬meaning fort of the snake) It is a municipality located in the province of Badajoz in Extremadura, Spain. Alárabe al-‘Arabi/al-‘Arabiyya (‫)العربية‬ The Arabic language, the Classical Arabic language, an Arab, a bedouin, foreigner, barbarian. Anything naturally pertaining or relative to Arabia or this region. Anything pertaining to the people that speak Arabic. Alaqueca al-Aqíq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Aqīq) Reddish colored or blood red agate Alarco (and Alarcos) al-Ark (‫)األرك‬ Used as a surname, it was the principal town in Toledo, Spain. Alarcón al-Ark (‫)األرك‬ A municipality in Cuenca , Castile-La Mancha , Spain Alarde/Alardear al-‘ArD (show) [‫]العرﺽ‬ A display or show that is made of something. A parade – primarily a military parade. A list or registry where the names of soldiers were written down. A military formation whereby the soldiers and their weaponry were exhibited. To boast, show off, or display ostentatiously. Alarido ??? A scream, screech, shriek, war cry, scream of joy, scream caused by some pain (emotional or physical) or conflict. Alarife al-'Aríf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Arīf meaning expert or foreman) An architect or master mason. Also, a bricklayer or builder or one that leads construction. In Argentina and Uruguay, this word means an astute, cunning, or crafty person. In Uruguay, it also means a boastful person that is full of himself or a person that is very sure of himself. Alarije al-‘Arísh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Arīsh) A type of red-colored grape. A type of black-colored grape. A type of grape common to Andalusia that has thin skin. Alaroz al-’Arúsh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic,


‘Arūsh) The door jamb or side of the window that divides the hollow part or hole of a door or window. Alaroza al-‘Arúsa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Arūs) A recently married lady. Alatar al-‘AHTár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘AHTār) A person who sells perfumes, medicines, or spices. Alatrón an-NaTrún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, NaTrūn which originates with Greek) Crust that forms when extracting nitrogen from the earth. Alazán al-AS-háb (From Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, AS-hab) Said of a color that is more or less red but very much like a cinnamon – something of a dun. There are varieties of this color, like a pale alazán or washed-out alazán, light, orangish, golden, wine-colored and toasted alazán. It is especially said about a horse’s color – “it has an alazán color.” Reddish or brown. Alazano/a (derivative of Alazán) al-AS-háb (From Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, AS-hab) Said of a color that is more or less red but very much like a cinnamon – something of a dun. There are varieties of this color, like a pale alazán or washed-out alazán, light, orangish, golden, wine-colored and toasted alazán. It is especially said about a horse’s color – “it has an alazán color.” Reddish or brown. Alazor al-‘Ahfúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic ‘Uhfur) or al-ASfúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘USfur, meaning yellow) A plant that grows yearly. It grows half a meter tall and has heavy branches, spiny leaves and yellow colored flowers. The flowers are used to tint or dye. The seeds produce oil that can be used to cook or eat. The seeds are also good for feeding fowls. Albacara Báb al-Baqqára (Andalusian Arabic meaning door of the cattle herder from Classical Arabic, Baqqār, meaning cattle herder) A wall around the outside of a fortress within which cattle were normally kept. Albacara al-Bakkára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bak[a]rah) A small wheel. Albacea SaHb al-WaSiyah (owner of the will [‫ ]صاحب الوصية‬from Andalusian Arabic) Executor; person given authority by a judge to carry out the last will and testament of a person, giving his belongings to the appropriate people. Albacete al-BasiiT (Arabic [‫ ]البسيط‬meaning the plain) City and province of Castilla La Mancha in central Spain. . It is bordered by the provinces of Granada, Murcia, Alicante, Valencia, Cuenca, Ciudad Real and Jaén. Albacora al-Bakura (‫البكورة‬, premature) and al-Bakra (young camel) albacore, type of tuna Albadena al-Badán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Badan, meaning torso) A type of tunic or dress made of silk. Albafara ??? A type of shark whose scientific name is Hexanchus griseus. Albahaca al-Habáqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Habaqah) A type of plant with white and purple flowers. It has a strong sweet smell and is usually cultivated for gardens and as a spice; basil.


Albahío al-BayāD (Arabic [‫ ]البياﺽ‬meaning whitish) or al-Bahí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bahī, meaning gleaming, resplendent, dazzling or sparkling) A whitish, off-white or yellowish-white color, usually said of cattle. Also, anything that may have this color. Albaicin (also Albayzin) al-Bayaaziin RibaD (‫)البيازين ربض‬ A district of present day Granada, Spain. It retains the narrow winding streets of its Medieval Moorish past. Albaida al-BáyDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BayDā', meaning white) A type of plant with lots of vines. It has whitish leaves and its flowers are small and yellow that open up in the spring. Albalá (same as Albarán) al-Bará (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barā'ah) A public document; document where something was given to another; a public or private document that states something explicitly. Albaladejo del Cuende al-Balad (Arabic [‫ ]ال ب لد‬meaning the city, the town, or the country – it is the name of the 90th chapter of the Quran) A municipality in Cuenca , Castile-La Mancha , Spain Albaladejo al-Balad (Arabic [‫ ]ال ب لد‬meaning the city, the town, or the country – it is the name of the 90th chapter of the Quran) A village and municipality situated in the south of the province of Ciudad Real in Spain. Albalate al-Balad (Arabic [‫ ]ال ب لد‬meaning the city, the town, or the country – it is the name of the 90th chapter of the Quran) The name of several municipalities in Spain. There is Albalate de las Nogueras which is a municipality in in the province of Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha. There is Albalate del Arzobispo which is a municipality located in the province of Teruel in Aragon. Albalate de Cinca is a municipality located in the province of Huesca in Aragon. Lastly, there is a municipality located in the province of Guadalajara in Castile-La Mancha named Albalate de Zorita. Albanar ¿?? To lean one thing on another; to place the foot in a stirrup when getting on a horse. Albanega al-Baníqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Banīqah which is from Latin “paganĭca” and “paganĭcus,” meaning something rustic or person from the countryside.) A triangular arch. Curved triangles that are found inside of a dome. Also, hairnet.

Albañí al-Banní (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bannā' (‫)البنا‬, possibly from Portuguese, alvanel) Mason, building or construction worker, bricklayer. A master mason or a masonry official. Albañal al-Ballá‘a (Andalusian Arabic literally meaning to swallow) A canal o conduit that give excess water an exit especially filthy, dirty, possibly bathroom water. Albanchez al-Bāntshīz (‫)البانتشيز‬ A municipality of the


Almería province in Andalusia, Spain. Albañil al-Banní (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bannā' (‫)البنا‬, possibly from Portuguese, alvanel) Mason, building or construction worker, bricklayer. A master mason or a masonry official. Albañilería al-Banní (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bannā' (‫)البنا‬, possibly from Portuguese, alvanel) The art of constructing buildings and works where, in some cases, bricks, rocks, sand, cement and other similar materials are used. Albaquía al-Bāqí [‫ ]الباقي‬or al-Baqíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ب ق ية‬Baqiyyah, meaning the remainder) The rest or remainder that is due on an account or rent that has not been paid. Albar al-BayD (Classical Arabic [‫ ]ال ب ياض‬meaning white or whitish) The color white, whitish. Also, dry, whitish land that is especially found on hills and plateaus. Albarán (same as Albalá) al-Bará (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barā'ah) A public document; document where something was given to another; a public or private document that states something explicitly. A delivery or dispatch note; public document. Albarazado (a derivative of Albarazo) al-Barásh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barash) Anything white; a type of grape with spotted skin. Albarazo al-Barásh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barash) A disease that affects horses characterized by white spots on the skin. A type of leprosy. Albarda al-Bárda’ah (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barda’ah) The main piece of equipment of load cavalries. The part of the belt of the saddle-like object that is placed on beasts of burden for them to carry their load. Another word related is the diminutive, Albardilla, which is a type of saddle used to tame or break the spirit of horses. Albardán al-Bardán (Andalusian Arabic meaning shameless from Classical Arabic, Bardān, meaning fool) The person charged with amusing kings and courtesans; court jester. Albardilla al-Bárda’ah (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barda’ah) A diminutive of Albarda. A seat by which a horse’s will is dominated, broken and tamed. Also, a type of small pillow or cushion made of leather on one side that is used by the person who sells water. He places the barrel on his shoulder with the cushion there to sustain its weight. Albardín al-Bardí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bardī, meaning papyrus, which originally comes from Coptic, “Pi rōti,” meaning “the vegetation.”) A plant very much like the Esparto plant. It is used to make rope and paper. Albardón al-Bárda’ah (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barda’ah) A type of hollow saddle that is placed on horses to ride them. Also, a type of saddle used by cowboys and country folk. Also, there is horse referred to as caballo albardón which is work horse. Albaricoque al-Barquq (Arabic [‫ ]البرقوق‬meaning plum or ripe) Apricot or plum. Another word related to this word is Albaricoquero meaning apricot tree.


Albarracin Aben Razin (Andalusian Arabic, named after a family that inhabited the town) A town in the province of Teruel, Spain, and part of the community of Aragon. The Albarracin mountains lie to the south and west of this town. Albarrada al-Barrada (Originally from Andalusian Arabic but ultimately from Latin, parata) A stone wall, a wall used for protection in war. Albarrada al-Barráda (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barrādah, which literally means “refresher.”) Clay cup that is porous. It has the property of being able to make liquids colder. Albarrán al-Barráni (Andalusian Arabic meaning stranger; originally from Aramaic, Bār[r]ā, foreign land) Said of a single man that works in the service of agriculture. Also, this is said of someone that did not have a home or belonged to any neighborhood or any town. This does not describe a vagrant but a person who works for someone else and lives there; a peon. Albarrana al-Barráni (Andalusian Arabic for stranger – originally from Aramaic, Bār[r]ā, meaning foreign land) A species of onion with long leaves and blue flowers. Albaranilla al-Barráni (Andalusian Arabic for stranger – originally from Aramaic, Bār[r]ā, meaning foreign land) A species of onion with long leaves and blue flowers. Albarsa ??? Basket that the fisherman uses to carry his clothes and tools of his trade. Albatoza al-HaTTúsa, (Possibly from Andalusian Arabic meaning nickname or diminutive from Classical Arabic HaTTās[ah], meaning a type of bird because it was habitual for Muslims to name their boats by different species of birds.) A type of small boat. Albayalde al-BayáD (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, bayāD) A basic carbonate made of lead. It is solid and its color is white. It is used in paint. Albazul ¿?? A wood piece that crosses the lines on the fishing boats. Albéitar al-BáyTr or al-BáyTar (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BayTar [‫ ]بيطري‬or BayTār) A veterinarian or person that practices veterinary medicine. Albelda al-BayDa’a (Arabic [‫ ]البيضاء‬meaning the white) A municipality located in the province of Huesca in Aragon, Spain. Albenda al-Bánd (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Band. This word originally comes from Persian, Band) Adornments that hang made of linen or canvas. They are white by color and were used in antiques with netting. They also had figurines carved of flowers or animals. Albendea al-Bándiyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Band. This word originally comes from Persian, Band) A municipality in Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Albengala al-Binghaaliyya (‫( )البنغاليه‬Originally from Portuguese, Bengala, which comes from Arabic and which ultimately comes from Persian, Bangāle.


Bengala is a province of Hindustan) It is a very fine weave that was used as an adornment by the Spanish Moors in their turbans. Alberca al-Bírka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]البركة‬ al-Birkah) A pond, reservoir, or artificial pool. In Mexico, it has come to mean swimming pool. Also, this is an adjective for a building without a roof whether because it is unfinished or because it has fallen. Albérchigo al-Bérshiq (Andalusian Arabic which originally comes from Greek) Fruit of the alberchiguero. It is has a varying size. The fruit’s meat is yellow and juicy. The skin is yellowish but it reddish on the side where it receives the most sun. Also, apricot or peach. Albihar al-Bihár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, bahār) A plant that is used for tea and is sometimes used in paints and tints. Albitana al-BiTána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BiTānah) fences that gardeners use to safeguard plants Alboaire al-BuHáyra (Andalusian Arabic for lagoon) Labor that is done on old buildings, religious buildings, parts of a church or buildings associated with them, especially in the domes or arches adding tiles to them. Albogue al-Búq (Arabic [‫ ]البوق‬meaning the horn; the trumpet) Single-reed clarinet used in Spain Alboheza al-Hubbáyz[a] (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hubbayz[ah]) A plant with purple flowers that has a fruit with lots of dry seeds. This plant is very abundant and used in medicine Albohol al-Hubúl (Andalusian Arabic for rope. From Classical Arabic, Hubūl, which is plural for Habl [‫]حبل‬.) A plant with white or pink flowers. It is used for medicine that cures injuries, ulcers and sores. Albollón al-Ballá‘a (Andalusian Arabic literally meaning to swallow) Conduit or canal where water can escape from ponds, barnyards, pens, courtyards, patios, yards, stalls, etc. Alboloduy al-Buluduy (‫)البولودوي‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Albóndiga al-Bunduq/al-Bundiqat (Literally meaning the ball) [‫]البندقة‬ which is from Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bunduqah, which is originally from Greek) meatballs Albondon ??? A town located in the province of Granada in Spain. Albuňol ??? A town located in the province of Granada in Spain. Albórbola al-Wálwala (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Walwalah) Shouting and loud commotion and noises especially those that demonstrate happiness; ululations. Alborga al-Búlja (Andalusian Arabic originally from a pre-Roman word, Abarca) Shoes or footwear that some of the country people used in certain provinces. They were made of rope, vegetation or hemp from the Esparto plant in the same manner as the alpargata shoe. Alborg (or Alborge) al-Burj (Arabic [‫ ]البرﺝ‬meaning the tower) Alborge is a municipality located in the province of Zaragoza in Aragon, Spain.


Albornía al-Burníyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barniyyah which is from Persian, Barni) Large glass-like clay cup in the form of a tea cup. Alboronía al- Buraniyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-Buraníyya meaning from Búrán, which implicitly means the wife of Caliph alMa'mún) A stew made of chopped vegetable Albornoz al-Burnús or al-Barnús (‫البرنس‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Burnús, which is originally from Greek) Bathrobe or cape with an attached hood. Also, jewelry or clothing accessory. Alboroque al-Borók (Possibly from Andalusian Arabic which is from Classical Arabic, ‘Arbūn) A gift or sample that buyers and sellers or both do when they meet for business. It could be a gift or a function or meeting with food that is done to repay a service or to make a festive mood or for whatever happy occasion. Alborotar al-Burúz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Burūz, which means a type of military parade before an expedition.) To perturb, disturb, make noise, irritate, etc. Alboroto al-Burúz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Burūz, which means a type of military parade before an expedition.) Yelling, making noise, lots of people making noise, disorder, etc. Alborozar al-Burúz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Burūz, which means a type of military parade before an expedition.) To cause extraordinary happiness, pleasure, etc. Also, to cause extraordinary disorder Alborozo al-Burúz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Burūz, which means a type of military parade before an expedition.) Extraordinary pleasure or happiness. Also, extraordinary disorder. Albotín al-BuTm (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BuTm) A tree common to Spain. Its wood is very hard and compact. It exudes a white liquid that has a pleasant smell. Albox al-Buks (Arabic [‫ ]البوكس‬meaning the woodlands; forest) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Albricia al-Bisharah or al-Bushra (Arabic [‫ ]بشرى‬for good news or glad tidings) A reward given to someone that brings good news. Usually it is given to the first person to do so. Albricias al-Bisharah or al-Bushra A reward given to someone that brings good news. Usually it is given to the first person to do so. Albudeca al-BaDDíkha (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BiDDākhah) Bad quality watermelon or melon fruit. Albufea al-BuHáyra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]البحيرة‬al-BuHayrah, which is the diminutive of BaHr [sea] giving it the meaning of small sea) A salt water marsh, lake or lagoon that is separated from the sea by a small slice of land or sandy area. Albufera al-BuHáyra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]البحيرة‬al-BuHayrah, which is the diminutive of BaHr [sea] giving it the meaning of small sea) A salt water marsh, lake or lagoon that is separated from the sea by a small slice of land or sandy area.


Albuñuelas ??? A village at the head of the Lecrin Valley in Granada, Spain. Albur al-Búri (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Būrī, which originates from Coptic, Bōre) A type of fish that has a flat head, short snout, very small teeth and eyes that are covered by a transluscent membrane. The body is almost cylindrical. It occurs mostly in the Mediterranean and its meat and eggs are highly prized. Alburquerque (later changed to Albuquerque in some places) Abu al-Qurq (Arabic meaning the place with cork or oaks) A town in the province of Badajoz in Spain. It is very close to the border with Portugal. Also, Praça Afonso de Albuquerque is a public square in the Belém district in the city of Lisbon in Portugal. Alcabala al-Qabála (From Andalusian Arabic) Tribute or tax of a certain percent paid by a seller in a transaction contract and by both seller and buyer in a trade or barter. Alcabor al-Qabú (From Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qabw) The hole in the chimney, fireplace and/or ancient stove. Alcabtea al-QabTíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QubTiyyah or QibTiyyah, meaning Coptic Egyptian. This was originally form Coptic, “gyptios,” which ultimately comes from Greek) Fine linen cloth. Alcacel al-QaSíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaSīl) A grain plant similar to wheat. It is used to feed animals and for other uses. Also, it is used colloquially about a person when he/she is not of age to learn or do something. Alcacer al-QaSíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaSīl) A grain plant similar to wheat. It is used as fodder to feed animals and for other uses. Also, it is used colloquially about a person when he/she is not of age to learn or do something. Alcacer al-QaSr (Arabic [‫ ]القصر‬meaning the palace or castle) Various places in Spain have the name Alcacer or Alcazar or other variant thereof. There is a municipality in Valencia, Spain known as such. It belongs to the province of Valencia in the district of Huerta Sur. In Valencian, it is called Alcàsser. Alcácer do Sal al-QaSr (Arabic [‫ ]القصر‬meaning the palace, castle or fortress) A municipality in Portugal, located in the district of Setúbal. Alcachofa al-Khurshúf or al-Kharshúf (Andalusian Arabic [‫]الخرشوف‬ from Classical Arabic, Khurshūf[ah], which is from Pahlavi Persian, Hār Chōb, meaning spiny tree or spiny stick) artichoke Alcací al-Qabsil or al-Qabsíl[a] (From Andalusian Arabic which originates from the Mozarabic word, Kapicéla. This was a diminutive of the Latin word, Capitia from whence the Spanish word for head, Cabeza, comes from. The plant is named as such because of its shape) An artichoke or wild artichoke. Alcacil al-Qabsil or al-Qabsíl[a] (From Andalusian Arabic which originates from the Mozarabic word, Kapicéla. This was a diminutive of the Latin word, Capitia from whence the Spanish word for head, Cabeza, comes from. The plant is named as such because of its shape) An artichoke or wild artichoke. Alcadafe al-QadaH (Andalusian Arabic meaning vase) A type of vase or clay pot that wine merchants and wine makers use. It is placed beneath a spigot in order to catch whatever falls out when the spigot is released. Alcaduz (same as Arcaduz) al-Qadús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic,


Qādūs, which is originally from Greek) A pipe or tube where water goes through. It is a short tube, particularly one that connects to other tubes and pipes. Also, a pipe where a gush of water or other liquid comes out through. It can be also be fountain of water or generally a gush of water from any place. Alcafar al-Kafál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kafal) The two parts that form the posterior of a quadruped animal. Colloquially, the thighs and posterior of a person. Alcahaz al-Qafásh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qafash, which is from Aramaic, Qafshā, which ultimately originates from Latin, Capsa) A large cage where fowl and other birds are held. Alcahuete al-Qawwád (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qawwād) A person that facilitates an amorous relationship, generally illicit. A person or thing that serves to divert attention or hide something that someone wants hidden. Alcaicería al-QaySaríyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]قيصر‬QaySar, which is from Latin Caesarea) In Granada and in other Moorish cities, a public building where silk sellers sold their silk to pay taxes. Also, a place or neighborhood that had shops where raw silk was sold.; generally a silk market. Alcaide al-Qáyid (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]القائد‬ Qā’id, meaning conductor or leader of the troops) A prison warden; a warden or commander. Also, the captain in charge of training subordinate personnel for the military. In medieval times, it meant the person in charge of the administration and conservation of the royal grounds. Also, in medieval times, the commander in charge of the guards and the defense of a castle or fort. Alcalá al-Qala’ah (Arabic [‫ ]قلعة‬meaning the fort or the castle) There are several places in Spain with the name Alcalá. Alcalá de Henares from al-Qal’at an-Nahar (‫قلعة النهر‬, the river fort on the river Henares – the name Henares coming from ‘Nahar’ meaning river) is a city in the community of Madrid, some 20 miles or so from the city of Madrid. Alcalá de Guadaíra (‫ )ال غدي رة ق ل عة‬is a town located approximately 7 miles or 10 km southeast of Seville. This Alcalá used to be known as Alcalá de los Panaderos or Alcalá of the bakers because it provided most of Seville's bread. Alcalá la Real is a city located in the province of Jaén. Alcalá de la Selva is a municipality located in the province of Teruel in Aragon. Vall de Alcalá is the Spanish name and in the Valencian language La Vall d'Alcalà is a valley in the Marina Alta region of Alicante. Lastly, there is Alcalá de la Vega (al-Qal’at al-Buq’ah which is Arabic for the fort of the field), which is a municipality in Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha. Alcalada ??? A piece of armor used to protect the necks of beasts of burdens and/or horses. Alcalde al-QaDī (Classical Arabic [‫ ]القاضي‬meaning judge) Mayor, judge, or governor. Other words related to this one are Alcaldesa meaning mayoress and Alcaldia meaning the mayor’s office. Álcali al-Qalawī (‫القلي‬, ‫)القالي‬ Same as alkali; a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal that is very soluble and dissolve in water. Álcalis al-Qalawī (‫ )ق لوي‬or al-Qaly (‫ال ق لي‬, ‫)ال قال ي‬ Same as alkali; a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal that is very soluble and dissolve in water. Alcaller (same as Alfarero & Alfaharero) al-Qallál (From Andalusian Arabic) A maker of clay cups and vases. The person who works for this clay cup maker.


Alcamiz Atamiz or al-Tamiz (From an erroneous transmission of Andalusian Arabic, at-Tamyíz or at-Tamíz, meaning a garrison of soldiers. This originally comes from Classical Arabic, Tamyīz, meaning distinction) The inspection that an official does. A parade, especially a military parade. Military formations where soldier showed off their discipline and their weaponry. A list or registry where the names of soldiers were written. Alcamonía ¿?? A sweet confection made of manioc meal and molasses. Alcana al-Khínna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khinnā') A plant of about 1 or 2 meters high. It has small flowers that are white and have a pleasant smell. Also, the flower of this plant. Powder is made from this flower collected in the spring and dried by leaving it out. The powder is used for henna and to tint. Alcaná al-Qaná (Possibly from Andalusian Arabic which comes from Classical Arabic, Qanāh, place where water runs) Street or place where the stores and shops of businesses were located. Alcancía al-Kanzíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, [‫ ]كنز‬Kanz, meaning treasure. This word originates with Pahlavi Persian, Ganj) A clay moneybox or general moneybox; in popular usage, the same as a ‘piggy bank’ or pennybank.

Alcándara al-Kándara (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kandarah, which is possibly from Persian, Kande rāh, which means path in the falcon’s cage.) Perch or area where birds of prey were placed. The art and the hunt with birds of prey was particularly practiced by the Moors. Also, the place where cloths were hung to dry. Alcandía al-QaTníyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QuTniyyah) Sorghum – a plant originally from India of the family Poaceae or Gramineae.


Alcandora al-Qandúra (Andalusian Arabic which ultimately comes from Persian, Qanture) Clothing in the form of a shirt; a basic shirt Alcanería al-Qannaríyya (Andalusian Arabic from Latin, Cannaria, which ultimately comes from Greek) Type of artichoke. Alcanfor al-Kafur (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Káfúr [‫]ك اف ور‬, which comes from Persian, Kápúr, which in turn comes from Sanksrit, Karpúrá) Camphor. A word related to Alcanfor is Alcanforero meaning camphor tree. Alcántara (surname) al-QanTarah (Arabic [‫ ]القنطرة‬meaning the bridge) A municipality in the province of Cáceres in Extremadura, Spain. It lies on the Tagus river near Portugal. It has come to be a surname. Alcantarilla al-QanTarah (Arabic [‫ ]القنطرة‬meaning the bridge) Small bridge, drain, or sewer. A word related to Alcantarilla is Alcantarillado meaning sewer system. Alcanzar ??? (Possibly a Mozarabic word) A verb with many varied meanings, many of which are somewhat related to eachother: To reach someone or something ahead of the one that is behind. To touch, hurt, or hit someone or something. To reach for something by extending the arm/s. To perceive something through vision, smell, or by hearing. To finally possess what was being solicited or sought out. To know, understand, or comprehend. Alcaparra al-Kabar (‫ )الكبر‬and al-Kappárra (Andalusian Arabic from Mozarabic which comes from Latin, Capparis, which comes from Greek) Caper, caper fruit or caper bush. The button of the flower of this plant is used as a condiment and hors d'oeurves. Alcaraván al-Karawán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Karawān, which comes from Persian Karvān) A type of falcon of the family Caradriform. Alcaravea al-Karawiyya (Andalusian Arabic from Aramaic, Karawyā, which originally comes from Greek) Parsnip or caraway. Alcarcel al-QaSíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaSīl) A grain plant similar to wheat. It is used to feed animals and for other uses. Also, it is used colloquially about a person when he/she is not of age to learn or do something. Alcarceña al-Karsánna (Andalusian Arabic which comes from Aramaic,Karsannā, meaning big stomach because taken in excess, this fruit will make the stomach swollen.) Fruit of the Algarrobo. It is edible and sugary. It has a brown color on the outside and is yellowish on the inside. It has hard seeds which livestock will eat. Alcarchofa al-Kharshúf[a] (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khurshūf[ah]. This possibly comes from Pahlavi Persian, Hār khōb, which means spiny stick.) artichoke Alcaría (same as Alquería) al-Qaríyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qaryah) Factory, work house, place of labor; typically with an agricultural field typical of Spain’s Levant. Alcarraza al-Karráza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kur[r]āz, which is from Persian, Korāz) A clay, porous jar that has the ability to make liquids in it colder. Alcarria ¿?? Land or terrain that is commonly high, is rough and has little grass.


Alcartaz al-QarTás or al-QirTás (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QirTās, which is originally from Greek.) Paper or carton rolled up into a cone-shape used for candy, confections, small things, and ice cream. Generally any paper rolled up into a cone-shape. Alcasar (same as Alcazar) al-QaSr (Arabic [‫ ]قصر‬meaning the castle, palace or fortress) A fortified precinct or area, a castle or fortress, or the royal quarters or house whether fortified or not. Alcatanes ¿?? The meaning of this one seems lost to history. It currently survives as a name of neighborhoods and streets in Madrid, Spain. Alcatara (same as Alquitara) al-QaTTára (Andalusian Arabic from the Arabic root, Q-T-R, meaning to distill.) An instrument used in distillation or to separate other substances using heat, typically other more volatile substances. It is made of a receptacle for liquid connected by a coiled tube to another receptacle where the distilled product ends up. Alcatenes al-Kattán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kattān, meaning linen.) A remedy that when mixed with various sulfates was used to cure sores and ulcers. Alcatifa (same as Alquetifa) al-QaTífa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaTīfah) A fine or luxurious rug or table cloth or tapestry. Alcatraz al-QaTrás (Andalusian Arabic) Albatross; sea bird, frigate bird. Alcatriña ¿?? A type of shark, whose scientific name is Heptranchias perlo. Alcaucil (same as Alcací, Arcacil and Alcacil) al-Qabsil or al-Qabsíl[a] (From Andalusian Arabic which originates from the Mozarabic word, Kapicéla. This was a diminutive of the Latin word, Capitia from whence the Spanish word for head, Cabeza, comes from. The plant is named as such because of its shape) An artichoke or wild artichoke. Alcaucín ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Alcaudique ??? A neighborhood in Almería in Andalusia, Spain. Alcaudón al-QabDún (Andalusian Arabic from Latin, capĭto, meaning head) A carnivorous bird that has greyish or ash-colored feathers with black wings and tail. It has a thick, curved beak and was used in falconry. Alcavela al-Qabíla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qabīlah) Caste, family, tribe. Alcayata al-KayáTa (Andalusian Arabic from Latin, Caia) or alKhaTāf (Arabic [‫ ]الخطاف‬meaning hook) A hook or a nail with a flat head. Also, a strong iron ring that can be placed on a wall or other area so as to hang a hammock. Alcazaba al-QaSába (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaSabah, from al-QaSbah [‫ ]ال ق ص بة‬meaning a walled-fortification in a city) A fortified precinct or place for a population; a place of refuge against attack from a marauding force; a fortress. Also a place where an army is stationed to protect the vicinity.


Alcázar al-QaSr (‫ل ق صرا‬, Arabic for palace, fortress or castle) Several places in the Iberian peninsula bear the Alcázar name. Alcázar del Rey is a municipality in Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Alcázar de Segovia is a stone fortification, located in the old city of Segovia in Spain. It was built in the 12th century. During the Middle Ages, Alcázar de Segovia was the favorite residence of the kings of Castile, and almost each king added new parts to the building. In the 16th century king Philip II added the conical spires and the slate roofs. Walt Disney is said to have been inspired by the Alcázar de Segovia to create his famous Cinderella Castle. The Alcázar de Madrid was an important royal palace built by Charles V, and the main royal residence in Madrid until the Buen Retiro Palace partly superseded it in the 17th century. Alcázar of Toledo is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Alcázar de Jerez de la Frontera is another stone fortification located in Cádiz, Spain. The Alcázar de Seville or "Alcázares Reales de Sevilla" (The Royal Alcazars of Seville) is a royal palace in Seville, Spain. It was originally a Moorish fort and has been expanded several times. The Almohades were the first to build a palace, called Al-Muwarak, on the site. Most of the modern alcázar was built over the Moorish ruins for King Pedro of Castile (known as Pedro el Cruel or Peter the cruel) with construction beginning in 1364. Pedro used Moorish workers to build his palace giving it a distinctly Islamic design. The palace is one of the best remaining examples of mudéjar architecture, a style using Islamic architectural influences. Lastly, The Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos (Alcázar [or palace] of the Christian Monarchs), also known as the Alcázar of Córdoba, is a medieval alcázar located in Córdoba, Spain next to the Guadalquivir River and near the Mezquita (Mezquita de Córdoba – built as the largest mosque of Spain, it was converted to a Catholic cathedral). The alcázar takes its name from the Reyes Católicos or Catholic Monarchs, Isabela of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Alcazarquivir al-QaSr Al-Kabīr (Arabic [‫ ]ال ك ب ير ال ق صر‬meaning the large palace or encampment) This is the name of a city in northwest Morocco near Larache. It is situated near the Loukous River. Alcazuz (same as Orozuz) ‘Irq assús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Irq assūs) A plant common to Spain. It is found near rivers. Its juice is sweet and is used as an emolient. Alchiperre (same as Archiperre) ??? A piece of junk or an unusable utensil. Also, a utensil or tool that can be used for anything. something small and of little use. Alchub (same as Aljibe) al-Júbb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jubb, meaning pond) A deposit or place where potable or drinkable water is housed or placed. A cistern or a place where rain water is collected. A system of canals then enables the use of the water. Also, a subterranean jail. Alcira (in Spanish or Alzira in Valencian) Jazirat Shuqr (Arabic [‫]جزيرة شقر‬ meaing the island of shuqr or thanks) A town and municipality in eastern Spain. It is the capital of the district of Ribera Alta in the province of Valencia. It later became known as Júcar then Alcira. Alcoba al-Qubbah (Arabic [‫ ]القبة‬meaning the vault, arch) An alcove, bedroom, dome or a type of net.


Alcofaina (same as Aljofaina) al-Jufáyna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jufaynah) A type of vase or container that was used for washing the hands and face. Alcofol al-KuHul (from KoHl or the fine powder of antimony used as eye makeup, ‫)الكحول‬ Alcohol. Other words related to this one are Alcoholemia meaning alcohol level, Alcohólico/a meaning alcoholic, Alcoholimetro meaning breathalyzer, and Alcoholismo meaning alcoholism. Alcohela al-KuHáyla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, KuHaylā') A plant with curly leaves that have a sour taste. The taste can improve and become sweet if left in the sun until they obtain a pale yellow color. Alcohol al-KuHul (from KoHl or the fine powder of antimony used as eye makeup, ‫)الكحول‬ Alcohol. Other words related to this one are Alcoholemia meaning alcohol level, Alcohólico/a meaning alcoholic, Alcoholimetro meaning breathalyzer, and Alcoholismo meaning alcoholism. Alcoholar (from Alcohol) al-KuHul (from KoHl or the fine powder of antimony used as eye makeup, ‫)الكحول‬ To obtain alcohol from a substance through fermentation or distillation. Alcoi (in Valencian) or Alcoy (in Spanish) al-Kuy (‫)ألكوي‬ A city and municipality located in the province of Alicante, Spain. Alcolea al-Kuliyā (‫ )الكوليا‬or al-Kulīyya (Arabic [‫ ] الكلية‬meaning the college) Various names of places in Spain. There is a municipality of the Almería province in Spain. There is a province with this name in Cordoba. There is a province with this name in Ciudad Real. There is a province in Huesca. There is a province in Guadalajara (Spain). There is a province in Seville. There is a province in Toledo. Alcolla al-Qúlla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qullah, from Coptic, Kelōl) A small, glass receptacle that is hermetically sealed that contains a liquid dose of medicine that has glass in it. Alcóntar al-Kūntār (‫)الكونتار‬ A municipality of Almería province, in Spain. Alcor al-Qúll (Andalusian Arabic from Latin, Collis) A natural elevation of a land or terrain but smaller than a mountain. Alcora al-Kúra (Andalusian Arabic) A type of ceramic tile. Also, the name of a municipality in Valencia, Spain. Also, an astronomical term for a globe or a sphere. Alcorán al-Qur’ān (Classical Arabic [‫ ]قرآن‬meaning the reading) The Islamic holy book. Alcorcí al-Kursí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kursī, meaning chair, seat, support, etc., from Aramaic, Kūrs[iy]yā.) A type of small jewelry. Alcornoque al-Qurnúq (Mozarabic from Latin Quernus) Cork oak; an evergreen of the family Fagacea; wood from these trees. Also, the cork oak of the scientific name Quercus suber which is a medium-sized, evergreen oak native to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. Also, a colloquial term for an ignorant person. Alcorque al-Qúrq (Andalusian Arabic from Aramaic, Qurqā or


Qarqā) Sandals made of certain grasses or vegetal material. Also, a hole made near the root of the plant in order to maintain water there. Also, a hole near plants in order that excess water can leave. Alcorza al-QúrTa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QurTah) A very white paste that is made of sugar and carbonated hydrate from which various types of sweets are covered. Also, various things and figures are covered with this paste. Alcotán al-QuTán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaTām) A migratory, falconlike bird, similar to a hawk. It has red feathers on its legs and tail. Alcotana al-quTán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaTām) A tool used in masonry. It has an axe head on one side. Alcove al-Qubbah (Arabic [‫ ]القبة‬meaning the dome) An architectural term for a recess in a room, usually screened off by pillars or drapery. Alcrebite al-Kibrít (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kibrīt, which comes from Akkadian, Kibrītu[m].) A chemical element, atomic element 16. It can be found naturally and also in sulfurite compounds like pyrite. It is fragile and can be electrically charged easily. It has a characteristic odor. It is used in vulcanization; also, it is used as a fungicide and insecticide and to make plastics, gunpowder, pharmaceutical products and sulfuric acid. Alcroco (same as Ancorca) al-Qruqo (Mozarabic from Latin Crocus and Arabic al-Qirq) The color ‘ochre’ (yellow-browns) and also the mineral ochre that is used for paint. Alcuacil ¿?? ??? Alcubilla al-Qúbba (Andalusian Arabic; it is a diminutive of this word. It is from Classical Arabic, Qubbah, from Pahlavi Persian, Gumbad, meaning dome of the fire temple) A deposit or place where to receive water and distribute it. It can be a small box and is usually made of noble materials because relics, treasures and other valuable things are also held in it. Alcúdia al-Kūdiya (Arabic meaning the hill or the pass) Alcúdia is a municipality and township on the island of Majorca. It is one of the main tourist centers of the Balearic Islands. Alcudia de Monteagud al-Kūdiya (Arabic meaning the hill or the pass) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Alcuja ??? A small stove for making bread. Alcuña al-Kúnya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kunyah, [‫ ]كنيه‬meaning nickname) Ascendency, lineage, especially if its noble. Alcuño al-Kúnya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kunyah, [‫ ]كنيه‬meaning nickname) A nickname; name someone is called by or known as. Alcurnia al-Kúnya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kunyah, [‫ ]كنيه‬meaning nickname) Ascendency, lineage, especially if its noble, surname, ancestry. Alcuxa al-Kúza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kūzah, from Aramaic, Kūz[ā], which is from Persian, Kuze) An olive oil can. A


vase made of clay or a can made of tin or other material that has a conical shape and is used to store oil. Alcuza al-Kúza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kūzah, from Aramaic, Kūz[ā], which is from Persian, Kuze) An olive oil can. A vase made of clay or a can made of tin or other material that has a conical shape and is used to store oil. Alcuzcuz al-Kuskús (Andalusian Arabic from North African Arabic, ‫)كسكوس‬ A food staple of the Maghreb made of with wheat and salsa. It is served with meat and vegetables. Aldaba ad-Dabba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dabbah, which literally means lizard because of the form that door knockers have) A door knocker. A piece of iron or bronze connected to the door which is then used to call attention to someone at the door. Also, a piece of iron, such as a door knocker that is placed on a wall near stables that is used to tie horses.

Aldebarán al-Dabbaran The name of star, it is the brightest in the constellation of Taurus. It is one of the brightest stars in the nighttime sky. Because of its location at the head of Taurus, it has historically been called the Bull's Eye. Aldea aD-Daya’a (‫)الضيعة‬ Village, hamlet, town with a small neighborhood; related words: Aldehuela, Aldealcardo, Aldealices, Aldealpozo, Aldealseñor, Aldeano/a. Aldeire ad-Dar (Arabic [‫ ]دار‬meaning the abode, the place, etc) A city located in the province of Granada, Spain. Aldiza ad-Dísa (From Andalusian Arabic) A perennial, medicinal plant. Aldufe ad-Duff (‫)الدف‬ tambourine Aledo AliiT (‫)أليط‬ Aledo is located in Murcia, Spain. Alefriz al-Ifríz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ifīz, which comes from Syriac, Prāzūmā, and which originates with Greek, περίζωμα, meaning waistband). wood that forms the ground in the church Alejija ad-Dashísha (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dashīshah) flour ground with water, salt and sesame. Aleleví ??? hide-and-seek Alema (same as Alhema) al-Khídma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khidmah, service) A portion of water meant for cultivated land. Alerce al-Arz[a] (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Arz[ah].) A tree that grows to considerable height. The trunk is usually straight and narrow. Its fruit is a cone that is smaller than a pine cone. The wood of this tree is aromatic. A type of pine tree. A tree in the family Abietacea.


Aletría al-aTríyya or al-iTríyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, iTriyah, which comes from Aramaic, iTTĕrī[tā], which is a type of noodle. This comes from the Latin, Attrīta, which means soup and broken to bits.) noodle Aleve al-‘áyb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Ayb, meaning defect or note of infamy). Treachery or betrayal committed against another, perfidious. A person that is treacherous. Alevosía al-‘áyb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Ayb, meaning defect or note of infamy.). Treachery, premeditation, perfidy, betrayal. Other words related to this are Aleve and Alevoso. Alevoso al-‘áyb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Ayb, meaning defect or note of infamy.). A betrayer; one who is treacherous. Aleya al-‘Ayah (Arabic [‫ ]اﻻية‬meaning sign, verse) Koranic verse Alfaba al-Hábba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Habbah, meaning grain or small portion.) Unity of evaluating a piece of land or terrain based on its value from rent taken. This was used in Murcia in the 13th century. Alfábega (same as Albahaca) al-Habáqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Habaqah). An annual plant. It has white flowers that have some purple in them. It has a strong aromatic smell and is cultivated in gardens. Basil. Alfabeto Alifbātā (‫الفباتا‬, literally the first three letters of the Arabic alphabet) alphabet Alfaca FárHa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Farkhah, meaning steel from a lance) A curved knife. A large, pointed knife that has a leather handle. A knife that is used to slaughter pigs. Alfacar ??? A municipality of Granada in Andalusia, Spain. Alfadía al-Hadíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hadíyyah) A bribe or bribery. Alfaguara al-Fawwára (Andalusian Arabc from Classical Arabic, Fawwārah, [‫ ]ف وارة‬jet of water) A geyser, spout, fountain, or jet d'eau. A copious waterfall or spring that surges with violence. Alfahar al-Fakhkhár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FaH Hār, ceramics, ceramic/clay making) The one who works for the ceramics/clay maker Alfaharería al-Fakhkhár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fakhkhār, ceramics, ceramic/clay making) The art or work of making clay moldings for cups, plates, utensils, etc. Alfaharero al-Fakhkhár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FaH Hār, ceramics, ceramic/clay making) The maker of cups from clay or ceramic. Alfaida al-FáyiDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fā'iDah, overflowing) Wherever rivers and seas meet, the tides of the river that grow through time as the waves of the sea cease. Alfajeme al-Hajjám (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hajjām) A barber or a man whose job it is to shave others. Alfajor Fashúr (Andalusian Arabic from Persian Afshor meaning juice) Sweet almond shortbread Alfalfa al-‘Alfa (‫العلﻒ‬, Arabic meaning the best kind of fodder) &


al-FáSfaS[a] (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FiSfiSah, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Aspast) A type of common plant that grows in the fields of the family Faboideae or Papilionaceae. It grows a spiral fruit. It is grown and cultivated because it is used for forage for livestock. Alfalfa Alfamar (same as Alhamar) al-Hánbal (Andalusian Arabic meaning a type of tapestry commonly used in Morocco from the Classical Arabic, Hanbal, meaning a used fur-lined coat) A cover (could be leather cover) for raw wool. Alfaneque al-Hanakí (Andalusian Arabic meaning black) A type of bird from Africa. It is a species of falcon. Its color is whitish to grey with spots or speckles with yellow legs and feet. It was often tamed and was used in falconry. Alfaneque al-Faráq or al-Fanak (Andalusian Arabic from Berber Afarag or Afrag meaning tent or enclosure) A store or pavillion for a camp. Alfanje al-Khanjar or al-Khanjal (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-Khanjar) A type of curved sword or sable that has the cutting edge on one side but on both sides at the tip or point; scimitar, cutlass. Alfaque al-Hájiz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hājiz, meaning obstacle or impediment) A sandbank, generally in the mouth of a river. Alfaqueque al-Fakkák (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fakkāk) A man that by virtue of being named for competent authority, fulfilled the office of redeeming captives or liberating slaves and prisoners of war. Alfaquí al-Faqí (‫ فقه‬,Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Faqīh) Among the Muslims, a lawyer or doctor of the law. Alfaquín al-Hakím (‫الحكيم‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hakīm) doctor, physician Alfar al-Fakhkhár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fakhkhār, ceramics, ceramic/clay making) The one who works for the ceramics/clay maker. Also, the stall where ceramics and clay items are made. Alfaraz al-Farás (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ف رس‬Faras, meaning horse) A cavalry horse; the type of horse that the Moors used in their cavalry. Alfarcar ??? Alfarcar is a city located in the province of Granada, Spain. Also, as a verb it means to render something in plaster or to make a plaster molding of something. Alfarda al-Farda & al-FarDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FarDah, meaning duty, quota, an obligation, policy, etc) A tax that Muslims and Jews paid within the Christian kingdoms of Spain. A related word is Farda which has the same meaning as well as a tax placed on the use of water. Alfarda al-Farda (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fardah, meaning one from a pair) A pair of a type of weaponry. Alfardón al-Fara (From Arabic meaning odd numbered) Moorish tiles that are elongated and hexagonal. The middle part is rectangular. Alfardón al-HarDún (Andalusian Arabic which comes from Classical


Arabic, HirDawn, meaning lizard.) A tax that Muslims and Jews paid within the Christian kingdoms in Spain. It also applies to a certain tax for using water from nearby rivers. Alfareme al-Harám (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, iHrām, ‫)إحرام‬ A headcovering similar to another called the almaizar, used by the Moors to cover the head. Alfarería al-Fakhkhár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fakhkhār, ceramics, ceramic/clay making) The art or work of making clay moldings for cups, plates, utensils, etc. Alfarero al-Fakhkhár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fakhkhār, ceramics, ceramic/clay making) Potter, maker of bowls and cups out of clay or ceramic. Alfarje al-Furshah or al-Fársh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Farsh, meaning a piece of tapestry or layer of something) The space between artwork; geometric carved decorations. Also, a grinding stone that is used in grinding olives in a mill. Also, the mill itself or the place where the grinding stone is housed. Also, a roof that is intricately and artistically made. Alfarjía al-Farshíyya (Andalusian Arabic adjective from al-Fársh, from where the word ‘alfarje’ comes from.) The pieces of wood used for the frame of ceilings in houses. Also, the pieces of wood used for the frames of windows and doors. Alfarnate al-FarnáT (Possibly from Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic which has it origins in late Latin, Farinātus, something that has been floured.) Lazy; vagabond; one who has an aversion to work or working. This term is still used in the Dominican Republic. Alfarnate al-FarnáT (Possibly from Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic which has it origins in late Latin, Farinātus, something that has been floured.) A small village located in the Province of Málaga in Andalucia, Spain. It also means a rascal, a scamp, or a mischievous person. Alfarnatejo al-FarnáT (Possibly from Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic which has it origins in late Latin, Farinātus, something that has been floured.) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Alfarrazar al-Kharrásh (Andalusian Arabic meaning the one who evaluates crops.) To adjust the price or value markedly of fruits on a tree before they’re picked. This term is still used in Murcia & Valencia, Spain. Alfaya al-Háyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hay'ah, meaning to loan.) Price or estimate. Alfayate al-KhayyáT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, KhayyāT, ‫)خياﻁ‬ Taylor or the person whose job it is to cut and sew clothing, primarily for men. Colloquially, it can be used to mean a person who is very adept at his/her trade or skill. Likewise, it can be used in the opposite way to mean a person that does not have much intelligence in his/her trade. Alfayo al-Fáyy (Andalusian Arabic possibly influenced by the words Alfaya and Alhaja) Skill or to very skillfully do something; ingenuity; inventiveness.


Alfazaque al-Khazzáq (Andalusian Arabic meaning “farter”) An insect , very much like a common scarab. It is bluish-black with small antennae. It is very common in Spain. Alfeitán ??? A eunuch, a servant, a page or generally someone that was trusted. Alféizar al-Fashah or al-Háyza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hā’izah, meaning she who takes possession or ownership) A flared opening or windowsill. Alfeñique fa[y]níd (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fānīd, which comes from Persian, Pānid, and which originates with Sanskrit, phanita, sugarcane juice concentrate) A paste made with cooked sugar. People stretch it and twist it. In Andalusia, this word is used to describe a woman from Valencia; colloquially, it also means a person with delicate features, complexion or physique. Alferecía al-Falijíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fālij, originally from Greek, ἀποπληξία) Epilepsy or a sickness that is characterized by convulsions and a loss of consciousness. It is common in during childhood and commonly associated with epilepsy. Alférez al-Fáris (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fāris, meaning gentleman) A lieutenant, ensign, or sub lieutenant. An officer that is immediately inferior in rank to the lieutenant. Also, the standard bearer in the infantry and the one who carries the flag on horseback. Also, a deputy, a leader or head of something or a representative.


Alferraz al-Farrás (Possibly Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Farrās, meaning one that seizes, captures, hunts, etc) A predatory bird. It is mostly ashy gray. It has a short, curved, black beak. The head and legs are reddish. It is or was employed in falconry. Alferza al-Farza (Andalusian Arabic which is an abbreviation of the Classical Arabic, Firzān. It comes from Persian, Farzin, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Frāzen, meaning guardian.) One of the pieces of chess that today is occupied by the ‘queen’ with the same movements. Alficoz al-Fiqqús (Andalusian Arabic from the Aramaic, Pikkūsā, meaning the action of taking of the stub of a cucumber so as to consume it.) A type of cucumber.

Alfil al-Fil (Arabic [‫ ]الفيل‬for elephant) The ‘bishop’ in a chess game. It also means elephant in Spanish but is rarely used in that sense. Alfilel al-Khilál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khilāl) A broach, peg, pin, tiepin, or razor. A metallic nail that for the most part is used to attach parts of the dress or to attach personal adornments. It can also be a piece of precious jewelry that is used to attach something to a suit or merely for its own merits as a piece of jewelry. It can be the broach that holds a tie in place or what is usually behind a picture frame. Alfiler al-Khilál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khilāl) A broach, peg, pin, tiepin, or razor. A metallic nail that for the most part is used to attach parts of the dress or to attach personal adornments. It can also be a piece of precious jewelry that is used to attach something to a suit or merely for its own merits as a piece of jewelry. It can be the broach that holds a tie in place or what is usually behind a picture frame. A word related to this one is Alfiletero meaning pincushion. Alfinge Isfánja (Andalusian Arabic from Latin, Spongĭa, which means sponge. It originally comes from Greek.) A food made by frying pan that is made with a mass of flour that is well stirred and fried in oil. When its fried, it comes out spongy. It comes out in various shapes and sizes. Alfitete alfitát[a] (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Futāt, meaning the smallest part de pan) A type of sweet food. It is composed of a mass made of wheat flour or paste made of rice, flour, or other fine grains cereals. Alfitra al-Fitrah (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fitrah, meaning innate human nature or primordial disposition/nature) A type of alms tax paid at the end of Ramadan. It was related to a tax known as the Trafi (the words are possibly related) that was charged on the Granadine Muslims. It is possibly related to the jizya poll tax collected on the Christians because Trafi is supposed to be related to the Arabic word Tafriq meaning to distribute or hand out. There was a common saying


regarding the Alfitra that goes, “repartimiento de cada cuatro cabezas cuatro maravedís” meaning ‘the distribution of four heads is four maravedis’ [a type of currency]. It is believed to have survived after the Christians took over all Moorish holdings and charged to the subjugated Muslims. Others take this word to mean a feast after Ramadan. Alfíz al-Khíz (Andalusian Arabic from al-Kháyyiz which comes from Classical Arabic, Khayyiz) The outline of the typical Moorish arch that has tiles starting from the floor. Alfócigo al-Fustaq or al-Fustuq (Arabic possibly from Persian) Name of the pistachio tree. The scientific name is Pistacia lentiscus. Other names is called are Lentisco, Alfócigo, Alfóncigo, Alfóstigo, and Árbol de la almaciga. Alfolí al-Hurí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hurī; which comes from Coptic, Ahor) grainery; salt warehouse/storage Alforia al-Khurj saddle bag Alfombra al-Humra (‫ألحمر‬, the red) Carpet, rug. A word related to this is Alfombrilla meaning a mat. Alfombra al-Hánbal (Andalusian Arabic meaning a type of tapestry commonly used in Morocco from the Classical Arabic, Hanbal, meaning a used fur-lined coat) A tapestry made of wool or other woven materials with various colors and designs. It is used to cover the floor of bedrooms and stairs for adornment. It can also be anything placed on the floor (as in ‘una alfombra de flores’ or a row of flowers placed on the floor). Alfóncigo al-Fustaq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fustuq, from Pahlavi Persian, Pistag, but originates in Greek) Pistachio fruit and/or the pistachio tree. Alfóndega al-Fúndaq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Funduq, from the Greek, Pandokeion by way of Aramaic), A public building or warehouse where wheat is brought and sold. In some towns, the warehouse may house other grains. Also, a saltwater fish found in the Mediterranean Sea and also from Northern Europe to North Africa. It’s scientific name is chelidonichthys-lucernus. It is also known by several other names such as Bejel, Rubio, Lucerna, Chirriola, Escacho and Garneo. It is a delicacy and has white albeit spiny meat.

Alfonso (or Alphonso) Athfonsh, Alfonsh, Adfonsh, or Alhansha (,‫ أذف نش‬,‫أل ف نش‬ ‫ ال ه ن شة‬,‫)أذف ون ش‬ A common first and last name, it was the name of several Spanish kings. Alforfón al-FáHfaH[a] (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FiHfiHah, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Aspast) An plant that grows annually. It grows about a meter high. It has large, heart-shaped leaves and rosy-white


flowers. Its fruit is triangular. They make bread out of it in certain regions of Spain. Alforja al-Khurja (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khurj A bag or sack with two sides that are placed on each side of the back of horses or on the shoulders of people to take certain loads. Also, a provision of food necessary for a journey. Alforre at-Táyr al-Húrr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, aT-Ta’irul-Hurr, meaning the noble bird) A type of falcon. Alforrocho al-Furrúsh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Farrūsh or Furrūsh) chicken or hen Alforza Al-Húzza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hujzah) Folds that become adornments for certain articles of jewelry; also folding the jewelry in such a way that they can be stretched out later when necessary. Alfóstigo al-Fustaq or al-Fustuq (Arabic possibly from Persian) Name of the pistachio tree. The scientific name is Pistacia lentiscus. Other names is called are Lentisco, Alfócigo, Alfóncigo, Alfóstigo, and Árbol de la almaciga. Alfoz al-Háwz (Andalusian arabic from Classical Arabic, Hawz) A neighborhood that belongs to one district that might be subject to another district or borough. Terms of payment or a tax from a district or a tax that a district depends on. Also, a group of different towns that depend on a main town or city and are subject to its laws. In general, it can simply mean a district or town. Algaba al-Ghába (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghābah) The forest or woods. Algabar al-Jabbar (‫الجبار‬, North African/Andalusian Arabic dialect) The name of a star. Algabarra ??? A type of net by which to capture the male martinete bird (scientific name, Nycticorax nycticorax) otherwise known as the black-crowned night heron. Algaida al-GháyDa (Andalusian/North African Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, GhayDah) Used primarily in Andalusia today – it means terrain or land that is sandy and by the shore of a sea or other water source. Algalia al-Ghálīya (Andalusian Arabic from Clasical Arabic, Ghāliyah) A greasy substance that has a honey-like consistency. It is initially white but becomes discolored. It has a strong smell and a very bitter taste. It is taken from the perineal gland of the civet cat and is employed in perfumes. Generally, civet oil. Algalia, gato de QiT al-Ghálīya civet cat Algar al-Ghár (Andalusian/North African Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, Ghār) Cave or cavern – term used in Andalusia Algara al-Ghára (Andalusian/North African Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, Ghārah) A troop of horsemen that went out and sacked the enemies land or camp. Also, the hostility of this troop is described as such. The vanguard of an armed force. Algara al-Ghilála (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghalālah, meaning tunic) The exterior skin that onions, garlic, and leek have. Also, the web-like membrane that eggs have. Algarabía al-‘Arabiyya (‫العربية‬, Arabic) The Arabic language. Also, an unintelligible language or writing. Also, incomprehensible talk; gabble;


gibberish, especially when its loud and people speak at simultaneously. To speak badly and mispronounce words. Algarabío al-‘Arabí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic ‘Arabī or al-‘Arabiyya, ‫)العربية‬ Something naturally found in Arabia or from Arabia. Algarada (Andalusian/North African Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, Ghārah) A loud shouting or uproar. Also, a troop of horsemen that went out and sacked the enemies land or camp. Also, the hostility of this troop is described as such. The vanguard of an armed force. Algaravía al-‘Arabiyya (‫العربية‬, Arabic) The Arabic language. Also, an unintelligible language or writing. Also, incomprehensible talk; gabble; gibberish, especially when its loud and people speak at simultaneously. To speak badly and mispronounce words. Algarbe al-Gharb (‫الغرب‬, Arabic meaning the west) The west or the westerly direction. Algarbía al-Gharb (‫الغرب‬, Arabic meaning the west) The west or the westerly direction. Algareador al-Ghára (Andalusian/North African Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, Ghārah) A mercenary hired to fight in the Algara unit. Algarero al-Ghára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghārah) A man on horseback that forms part of the Algara unit. Algarivo/a al-Jaríb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jarīb) Something strange, foreign, from another country, another class or caste, or from another profession. An unjust, rebellious, evil, nefarious, or wicked person Algarrada al-Kharrúba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kharrūbah (‫ )الخروب‬or Kharnūbah, which is from Persian, Khar Lup, meaning donkey mandibles) A broad bean. This plant in general, its seed; food from this plant, etc. It is used for forage for livestock and for human consumption. Algarrada al-‘ArráDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Arrāda) A type of machine or contraption used for war in medieval times. It was used to throw heavy rocks, boulders, or metal balls against towers and walls; a catapult. Algarroba al-Kharrúba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kharrūbah (‫ )الخروب‬or Kharnūbah, which is from Persian, Khar Lup, meaning donkey mandibles) A broad bean. This plant in general, its seed; food from this plant, etc. It is used for forage for livestock and for human consumption. It is sweet, light brown on the outside and yellow inside with hard seeds. The seeds can be fed to beasts of burden. It is known in English as the Carob. Algarrobo al-Kharrúba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kharrūbah (‫ )الخروب‬or Kharnūbah, which is from Persian, Khar Lup, meaning donkey mandibles) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Algarve al-Gharb (‫الغرب‬, Arabic meaning the west) Area & region of southern Portugal. Algatocin al-Atusiyin (Arabic meaning the place of the Attus [a Berber tribe]) This is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga, which is part of the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern Spain.


Algavaro al-Ghawwár (Andalusian Arabic meaning horseman because it describes an insect with large antennae that look like a lance or a sword) An insect that is very common to Spain. It is entirely black with antennas that are longer than its body.

Algazafán ¿?? A bitter herb used in making medicine. Algazara al-Ghazara (Andalusian Arabic meanng “talkative.” It comes from Classical Arabic, Ghazārah, meaning abundance) The noise or rumble that comes from lots of voices together that commonly erupt from happiness or during a happy gathering. It can also mean noise and/or screaming even if it comes from one person. It came to mean the yelling , whooping and noise made by the Moors and other troops when trying to surprise or take on their enemies. Algazul al-Ghasúl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghāsūl) An annual plant that has a yellowish green color. It is a plant from the steppes. Its ashes contain lots of alkaline salts and are used to obtain soda hydroxide which is very caustic. Algebra al-Jibr [‫( ]الجبر‬From the name of the book by al-Khwarizmi [see guarismo below] “al-kitab al-jabr w’al-muqābalah” or The Compendium of Calculus, Subtraction and Equality) Algebra – a type of math that uses numbers, letters and symbols. Each letter and symbol symbolically represents a number or other mathematical equation. Algeciras al-Jazirat al-KhuDra’ (Arabic [‫ ]الجزيرة الخضراء‬meaning the green island) City and port in Cadiz province. Algibes ¿?? Algodón al-QuTn (‫)القطن‬ cotton Algol al-Ghul (‫)الغول‬ name of a star Algorfa al-Ghúrfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghurfah) Left overs from animal feed. Also, the place where the animal feeds are stored. Algorizmo al-Khwarizmi (from the name of the famous mathematician, geographer, astronomer and astrologer “Muhammad ibn Musa alKhwarizmi,” ‫)محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي‬ An algorithm, digit, figure; calculation method. Algorza al-Ghúrsa (From Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic. It originates with the Celtic, gŏrtia) The exterior of the bricks used to block off or wall in something. Also, a type of armor that was used to protect cavalry horses during war.


Alguacil (same as Aguacil) bailiff, or a lesser justice official.

al-Wazir (‫)الوزير‬

A minister, constable,

Alguaquida al-Waqída (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Waqīd, meaning something combustible) Straw or other item used to make fire. Alguaza al-WáSl (Andalusian Arabic which means a string of leather that is tied onto something and serves as a hinge. It comes from Classical Arabic, WaSl, meaning something joined) A window or door hinge. Alguera ??? A place where rabbits are housed and raised. Also, a person that collects and deals with algae commercially. Algufia ??? North or the northerly direction. Alhabia al-Hābiyā (‫)الهابيا‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Alhacena al-Khizána or al-Khanáza (‫خزانة‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-Khizānah) An armoire that is generally placed by the wall and where various objects are placed. Armoire, cupboard, pantry or closet where different objects are placed. Alhadida al-KháyT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, KhayT, meaning thread) jewelry Alhaite al-KháyT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic KhayT meaning thread) Jewelry; type of jewelry. Alhaja al-Hajar al-Karim (‫ )الحجر الكريم‬and al-Hája (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hájah meaning valuable or necessary thing) Jewelry, valuable furniture, adornment, something highly valued or esteemed. A valuable thing, precious, jewel, gem, treasure. Sometimes used with irony or sarcasm: “¡Vaya, una alhaja de hija que tiene!” (What a fine daughter she’s got!) Alhajeme al-Hajjám (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hajjām) A barber or a man whose job it is to shave others. Alhama al-Hama (‫ ;)الحمة‬also al-Hammam (Arabic for baths) There are various places known as Alhama in Spain. Alhama de Almería is a town in the province of Almería in Spain. Alhama de Granada is a town in the province of Granada in Spain. Alhama de Murcia is a town in the province of Murcia in Spain. Lastly, Alhama River is a tributary of the Ebro in Navarra, Spain. Alhama de Almería al-Hama (‫ ;)الحمة‬also al-Hammam (Arabic for baths) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain; part of the autonomous region of Andalusia. Alhamar al-Hánbal (Andalusian Arabic meaning a type of cloth or woolen cloth for the women’s area of the home. It comes from Classical Arabic, Hanbal, meaning a used coat of the type where the sleeves and collar were of another material, accessories of a coat made of fine leather.) A blanket or bedcover. Also, a cover (could be leather cover) for raw wool. Alhambra Al-Hamra’a (Arabic [‫ ]الحمراﺀ‬meaning the red one) A palace and fortress complex of the Moorish rulers of Granada in southern Spain. The complete name of the complex was [ْ‫ ]ح ََْ ْْ ََْل ُ ْ َا ْر َمح ل‬al-Qal'at al-Hamrā' or "the red fortress.”


Alhamel al-Hammál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hammāl) In Andalusia, Spain, this word has the following meanings: Beast of burden; person that works with beasts of burden; person that makes his living by doing other people’s errands, sending messages, or transporting bags or items from one place to another. Alhamí al-Hama (Andalusian Arabic meaning a Granadine place or locality) A small wall made of stones and decorated with Moorish tiles. Alhandal al-Hándhal (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Handhal) A plant that goes by this name. More commonly, the fruit of this plant. It is the same color and size as an orange and very sour. It is used in medicine as a diuretic. Alhándega al-Khanduq (‫)الخندق‬ the trench Alhanía al-Haníyya (Andalusian Arabic meaning alcove. It comes from Classical Arabic, Haniyyah, meaning arch, dome) A type of small mattress; dormitory; an armoire. Also, a small room, cupboard, etc. Alhaquín al-Hay[i]kín (An erroneous transmission from Andalusian Arabic meaning weavers) A man whose profession is to weave or sew. Alhaquín al-Hakím (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]الحكيم‬ Hakīm, meaning wise) A doctor, physician or one licensed to cure/heal. Alhárabe ??? A minor river that flows into the Segura River. Alharaca al-Haráka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Harakah) An extraordinary demonstration or expression that is manifested through ire, complaint, admiration, happiness, etc. To gesticulate or wave one’s hands while talking. Alharma al-Harmal (Andalusian Arabic) A plant whose seeds serve as a condiment in the East. They’re also eaten toasted. It belongs to the Rutaceae family, commonly known as the Rue or Citrus family. Alhaurín al-Jawra (An Arabic last name) or RaHīm (as in the quality and name given to God in Islam) Alhaurín de la Torre and Alhaurín el Grande are two towns and municipalities in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Alhavara al-Hawwára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Huwwārà, flour) flour Alhaya al-Hája (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hājah, meaning ‘necessary thing’ or valued item.) A beautiful adornment, fixture or furniture; jewelry; something beautiful or agreeable; something with lots of value and esteem; colloquially, a person or animal with excellent qualities. Alhelí al-Khayrí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khīrī, from Persian Shiri) European flower cultivated for adornment in gardens. The flowers of this plant can be simple or doubled and come in various colors with a pleasant smell. The flower of this plant. Also, wallflower. Alhema al-Khídma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khidmah, service) A portion of water meant for cultivated land. Alheña al-Hínna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, [‫ ]الحناء‬Hinnā') A plant that grows about a meter high. It has small, white


flowers that are sweet smelling. Also, the flower of this plant. Also, the powder that is made from its leaves. They are used for tinting. The leaves are taken in the spring and dried in the outdoors. Alhiguí (same as Aligui) ¿?? A type of wood that is useful for the construction of buildings. Alhinde (same as Alinde) al-Hindi (Arabic meaning Indian) & Mirí min Hind (An abbreviation of the Andalusian Arabic word meaning mirror made of lead from India) steel; mercury attached to glass to form a mirror Alholva al-Húlba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hulbah) A plant with a disagreeable odor. Alhóndiga al-Fúndaq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Funduq, which is from Aramaic, Panduqiūm, which is originally from Greek) A public house where the business of buying and selling of wheat goes on. Some serve for buying and selling other grains and edibles. Same as Alfondiga. Alhorí (same as Alfolí) al-Hurí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hurī; from Egyptian m-H-r and Coptic, Ahor) grainery; salt warehouse; storage Alhorra ¿?? A dark-colored disease or parasitic fungus that affects cereals and legumes. Alhorre al-Khúrr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khur' meaning excrement, feces) Feces or excrement from a newborn baby. Alhorre al-Húrr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shakatul-Húrr meaning a skin condition that affects newborns) A skin condition that affects newborns usually on their faces, heads, thighs and buttocks. Alhorría (or Ahorría) al-Hurríyya (From Andalusian Arabic and this from Classical Arabic, Hurriyyah) In olden times, there were degrees of freedom. This means the quality or kind of freedom or the way it was obtained. It also means to liberate someone of their dues or debts in a business transaction. Alhorza Al-Húzza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hujzah) Folds that become adornments for certain articles of jewelry; also folding the jewelry in such a way that they can be stretched out later when necessary. Alhucema al-Khuzáma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khuzāmà) An aromatic plant with blue flowers from the Labiadas family. The whole plant is very aromatic. From the flowers are extracted an essential oil that this used in perfumes. The seeds of this plant are used as incense. Alhuceña Ukhshina (Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic from the original Greek for sour or harsh tasting) An edible plant that bears white flowers. Its fruit is a type of small, cylindrical grain. Alhurreca alHurrayqa (From Andalusian Arabic meaning nettle) Saline crust that the sea and oceans form on objects that they wet. Aliacán al-Yaraqán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]اليرقان‬Yaraqān meaning jaundice) An illness formed by the accumulation of bile pigment in the blood. Its tell-tale sign is the yellowing of the skin. Bile in the blood; jaundice. Aliaga al-Yiláqa (From Andalusian Arabic originally from alAwláqa which is from Classical Arabic Awlaqah.) This is a plant native to Spain


that grows about a meter high. It is spiny with soft leaves that end with spikes and yellow flowers. Livestock like to eat the dried leaves. The plant is generally used to feed livestock by flattening and mashing it. Known in English as the Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum or Genista juncea) or the Weaver's Broom, it is a perennial, leguminous shrub native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, southwest Asia and northwest Africa, where it is found in sunny sites, usually on dry, sandy soils Aliara al-Fiyára (Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic from Latin, Phiăla, meaning a type of plate used for religious or sacrificial reasons – the word originates in Greek) A type of vase with bovine horn attached for grasping that was common among the country folk in Spain. Alicante al-Liqant (‫)أليقنت‬ A city in Valencia, Spain. Alicatar al-QaTa' (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaT' meaning a slice or piece of something) To tile or to cut tiles to certain forms for convenience. Also to cover up with tiles. Alicates al-LiqqáT or al-LaqqáT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, LaqqāT, meaning pliers) Generally, a small set of pliers. In Puerto Rico, this word has come to mean a servant or helper but also a friend or comrade. In the Dominican Republic, this word has come to mean an influential person that is left in place of another who is absent and who takes care that the absent person’s duties or tasks are completed or taken care of. In Andalusia (Spain), this word has come to mean a nosey-body and also a jack-of-all-trades. Alicún al-Yakūn (‫)أليكون‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Alidada al-‘iDáda (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘iDādah) A mobile or firm ruler that has on each end a small metallic table where topographical instruments are placed. Also, binoculars are known as ‘Alidada.’ A tool for topography (the detailed study of surface features of a region) that serves to measure distance visually. Alifa Khalífa (From Andalusian Arabic which comes from Classical Arabic, Khalīfah, ‫خليفة‬, meaning successor) Used in Andalusia and Mexico it means sugarcane that is two years old. Alifafe al-‘ifáS (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘ifāS, meaning gardener’s bag) A slight or mild complaint, ailment. A disease that affects horses. A tumor that forms in the hind quarters of horses, especially due to the excessive movements of this area. Alifafe al-LiHáf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, LiHāf) A cover, a deck or roof. Alifara al-iHála (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, iHālah, meaning to cease credit) Still used in Argentina, a meeting or reunion involving food for workers. It could be a snack time, especially as a type of receipt for a sale or business transaction. Alifato Alif (‫اليﻒ‬, ‫ا‬, first letter of Arabic alphabet) Generally, the alphabet. Also, the Arabic letters in their traditional order. Aliguí (same as Alhigui) ¿?? A type of wood that is useful for the construction of buildings. Alijar ad-Dishár (From Andalusian Arabic which is from


Classical Arabic, Jushār) A small population of Bedouins composed of tents, cabins or shacks. It also means enclosed lands that are generally used for pasture. It has come to mean farmlands as well as lands where there are mountains. Alimara al-Imára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Imārah) A smoke signal from a watchtower. Alinde (same as Alhinde) al-Hindi & Mirí min Hind (An abbreviation of the Andalusian Arabic word meaning mirror made of lead from India) steel; mercury attached to glass to form a mirror Alioj Yashb (Andalusian Arabic from Aramaic, Yashpe which is from Akkadian, [J]ashpū, jasper) marble Alirón al-i‘lán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al'il‘lān, meaning proclamation) Celebrations held during a win of a sporting event. Alizace al-Isas (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Isās) Large man-made hole or excavation, especially a hole that is made to lay the foundations of a building. Alizar al-iH’Sár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, iH’Sār) Tiles in the form of a line or frieze used in the bedroom. Aljaba al-Já’ba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, alJa’aba) A quiver or a small cylindrical box made of wood or tin and sometimes leather skins. It has a small belt or rope by which a hunter carries it on his left shoulder. It is used to transport arrows but also used by hunters to transport ferrets during the hunt. Also, a hunter’s or shepherd’s pouch or leather bag. Aljabibe al-Jabbíb (Andalusian Arabic) A person who sells, whether he has a store or not, old or used clothing, dresses, trinkets, etc. Aljama al-Jamá'a (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]جامع‬ Jāmi’) In Spanish it has come to mean the gathering of Muslims or Jews in addition to it being a mosque. By extension, it also is the word for synagogue or Jewish temple. It can also mean a neighborhood or ghetto that is predominantly inhabited by Moors (Muslims) or Jews. By extension, a country or territory that is primarily Muslim or Moorish. Aljamía/Aljamiado ‘Ajamia (Arabic [‫ ]عجمية‬meaning foreign; non-Arab; Persian) Mozarabic (Old Spanish/Latin mixed with Arabic) written with Arabic letters. Aljarafe (same as Ajarafe) as-Sharaf (Arabic [‫ ]الشرف‬meaning commanding height) A terrain that is high and expansive. An elevated land or area. A terrace or flat roof. Aljaraz Aljarás (Andalusian Arabic [‫ ]جراس‬from Classical Arabic Jaras [‫ ]الجرس‬meaning bell) Bells normally worn by sheep, goats and ferrets. Aljarfa al-Járifa (Andalusian Arabic) The middle and hardest part of large nets used fishing within rivers. Aljébana al-Jáfna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jafnah)A type of vase or container that was used for washing the hands and face. Aljerife al-Járifa (Andalusian Arabic) A large net used for fishing within rivers.


Aljez al-JiSS (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-JaSS or al-JiSS, from Pahlavi Persian, Gash, and ultimately from Greek) Calcium sulfate minerals – also, plaster (possibly made from this). Aljibe al-Jubb (Arabic meaning pond) A deposit or place where potable or drinkable water is housed or placed. Usually, the rain water is collected here. A system of canals then enables the use of the water. A cistern, tank, container, etc. Also, because of the above definitions of an enclosed, underground place, it can mean a jail or dungeon. Aljofaina al-Jufáyna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jufaynah) A type of vase or container that was used for washing the hands and face. Aljófar al-Jawhar pearl Aljofífa al-Jaffífa (Andalusian Arabic for sponge) Piece of rough, course cloth made of wool to scrub the floor. Aljor al-[l]ajúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ājurr, which is from Aramaic, āgūrā, and is ultimately from Akkadian, agurrum, meaning bricks) calcium sulfate minerals Aljorca (same as Ajorca) ash-Sharkah/ash-Shuruk/ash-Shirāk bangle, anklet; type of gold hoop, silver or another metal, used by women to adorn the wrists, arms or the feet. Aljuba (same as Juba & Jubón) al-Júbba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jubbah) A type of men’s jacket. A type of clothing that covered the shoulders and went down to the waist. It was tied and adjusted at the waist to the body. Moorish clothing that was also used by Arabized Christians. It was one piece tied at the waist. It had buttons and long sleeves. It was long and went down to the knees. Aljuma al-Júmma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jummah, meaning noble woman) In Andalusia this word means a pine leaf or pine branch. Aljura al-Jubbah Moorish overcoat Allegheny Allah ghani (‫هللا غني‬, God is rich, is the Sustainer) Various place names in the United States. Alloza al-Láwza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Lawz [‫]اللوز‬, meaning almond) Fruit of the almond plant. Almacabra al-Maqbára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]المقبرة‬Maqbarah) Muslim or Moorish cemetary Almacebe ??? Almacén al-Mahazan/al-Makhzan (the storehouse, depot) [‫]المخزن‬ Warehouse. Other words related to this are Almacenamiento meaning warehousing, Almacena meaning to store, and Almacene meaning department store. Almacene al-Makhazin [‫]المخزن‬ department store


Almacería al-MaSríyya, (‫ مصرية‬, Andalusian Arabic, literally “The Egyptian [woman]) Upper house or chamber of a house with an independent access. Almáchar al-MaySar (Arabic meaning [land of] the meadow, field, garden, yard, etc.) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Almáciga al-MáSTaka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaSTakā[‘] which is originally from Greek, μαστχη) Clear resin; transluscent, yellowish and somewhat aromatic liquid that is extracted from a variety of evergreen trees from Spain. Almáciga al-Másqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Masqāh, meaning a deposit of water) A place where plants are seeded and/or reared before being transplanted somewhere else; a greenhouse. Almáda (same as Almohada) al-Mikhádda or al-Mukhádda (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mikhaddah) Pillow, cushion for the head. The sack where the pillow or cushion is placed. Almáde (same as Almohade) al-MuwaHHád (Andalusian Arabic meaning unified from Classical Arabic al-MuwaHHid, monotheist, ‫) الموحدون‬ The followers of Aben Tumart, a Muslim leader of the XII century. He inspired the Berber tribes of western North Africa where a new empire rose above the ruins of the Almoravid dynasty in Moorish Spain. Almadén al-Maydān (Arabic [‫ ]الميدان‬meaning the field) or al-Ma’adn (‫)المعدن‬ A town and municipality in the province of Ciudad Real, within the community of Castile-La Mancha in Spain. Generally it means a mine where metals are found or a miner that finds metal ore. Almádena (same as Almádina, Almágana & Almaguana) al-MáTana (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mi‘dan meaning junk or clay jar) Steel mallet with a long handle for breaking rocks. Almádina al-MáTana (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mi‘dan meaning junk or clay jar) Steel mallet with a long handle for breaking rocks. Almadía al-Ma‘díyya (Andalusian Arabic) A group of logs tied together to make them float; canoe or raft. Almadraba al-MaDrába (Andalusian Arabic for a place where people fight or wrestle) Tuna fishing; a word used primarily in Andalusia, particularly in the Cadiz province. Also, it defines the place where tuna fishing occurs and also the place where these fish are prepared. Nets that are prepared for tuna fishing. The time it takes to fish for tuna. Almadraque al-MaTráH, (Andalusian Arabic for mattress) A mattress, pillow, or cushion. Almadreña al-Matr[w]énna (From Mozarabic which originates from Latin, Materĭa, meaning wood) wooden shoes Almafala (same as Almahala & Almofalla) AlmuHálla or AlmaHálla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MuHallah, meaning camp, campsite) A military campsite or installation. People or an army devoted to war. A camp of people or group of followers devoted to a cause. Almagacén al-Makhzán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Makhzan, ‫)المخزن‬ storage, storehouse, warehouse


Almágana al-MáTana (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mi‘dan meaning junk or clay jar) Steel mallet with a long handle for breaking rocks. Almagazén al-Makhzán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Makhzan, ‫)المخزن‬ storage, storehouse, warehouse Almagra al-Májra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Maj[a]rah meaning red land) Rust, red oxidation of steel. Almagre al-Mághra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic magh[a]rah meaning red land) Rust, red oxidation of steel; a type of reddish terra-cotta used in ceramics; a claylike oxidation of iron that occurs naturally and is used in paints. Almagro al-Mághra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic magh[a]rah meaning red land) Almagro is a city located in the Ciudad Real province of Castile-La Mancha in Spain. It is also used as a surname. Almaguana al-MáTana (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mi‘dan meaning junk or clay jar) Steel mallet with a long handle for breaking rocks. Also, a land tax paid on rural land or country estates. Almahala al-MaHálla or al-MuHálla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaHallah, encampment) A military campsite or installation. People or an army devoted to war. A camp of people or group of followers devoted to a cause. Almaíbar al-Maybah a quince drink Almaizar al-Mayzár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mi'zar) Headcovering; turban made of chiffon used by the Moors. Almaja al-Maks (Andalusian Arabic) A tax that was paid in Murcia, Spain for some fruits obtained from lands that are watered naturally from rain or lands that did not belong to anyone. Almajaneque al-Manjaníq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Manjanīq, which originates in Greek) A military machine used to break through walls; battering ram or catapult. Almajar al-Ma‘jár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mi‘jar) A cape made of silk. Almajara al-Mashjára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mashjarah) Land that has been left alone or abandoned that has dung recently placed on it so that seeds can germinate soon. Almalafa al-MalHáfa or al-MaláHfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MilHafah) Moorish clothing normally worn by women that covers the body from the shoulders to the feet; a woman’s robe. Almanaca al-Makhnáqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mikhnaqah) A type of necklace. Almanaque al-Manakh (Arabic [‫ ]المناخ‬meaning the climate, possibly from Greek almenichiakon meaning "calendar.") almanac, calendar Almancebe al-ManSába (Andalusian Arabic) A type of fishing net that was used in the Guadalquivir river in Spain. Almansil al-Manzil (Arabic, ‫)المنزل‬ hotel, a stopping place


Almanzar al-ManSur (Arabic, ‫)ال م ن صور‬ A name that is used as a surname. It is probably derived from Abu Aamir Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Aamir, Al-Hajib Al-Mansur (see Almanzor below). Almanzor al-ManSur (Arabic, ‫)ن صورال م‬ The name by which Abu Aamir Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Aamir, Al-Hajib Al-Mansur ‫أبو عامر محمد بن‬ ‫( عبد هللا بن أبي عامر الحاجب المنصور‬circa 938 CE – August 8, 1002) is most often called or known by. He was the de facto ruler of Islamic Spain or Al-Andaluz in the late 10th to early 11th centuries. His rule marked the peak of power for Moorish Iberia. Almarada al-Makhráz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mikhraz) A large needle used to sew shoes made of hemp or esparto grass. Also, a dagger with three edges. Almaraz al-Makhráz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mikhraz) A large needle used to sew shoes made of hemp or esparto grass. Also, a dagger with three edges. Almarbate al-MarbáT (Andalusian Arabic for belt from Classical Arabic, MirbaT) Square piece of wood of the grinder that unites with other pieces of wood or frames. Almarcha al-Márj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Marj, from Avestan Persian, Margu) A population that lives in a valley. Almargen al-Marjān (Arabic [‫ ]المروﺠﺄن‬meaning the two meadows, gardens, fields, yards, etc.) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Almarjo al-Márj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Marj, from Avestan Persian, Margu) A plant that grows in salty terrain. Its ashes contain alkaline salts. Ashes from this plant are used to obtain caustic soda. Almaro al-Máru (Andalusian Arabic from Latin, Mārum, which originates in Greek) A plant that has a strong smell and bitter taste. It has medical applications as an antispasmodic. Almarrá al-MaHláj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MiHlāj) An slim, iron cylinder used to squeeze and separate sediment from cotton. Almarraja al-Maráshsha (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-Mirashshah) A glass receptacle generally used to sprinke water; a sprinkling bottle. Almarraza al-Maráshsha (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-Mirashshah) A glass receptacle generally used to sprinke water; a sprinkling bottle. Almártaga (same as Almártiga) al-Marta'a (Andalusian Arabic for livestock fence or obstacle) A type of headgear placed on horses to keep them from moving. It was used when horsemen got on or off their horses. Almártaga al-Mártaq or al-Mártak (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Martak, which comes from Persian Martak or Mortak) Lead oxide that is melted into sheets or plates that have a yellowish-orange color with a glass-like shine. Almártiga al-Marta'a (Andalusian Arabic for livestock fence or


obstacle) A type of headgear placed on horses to keep them from moving. It was used when horsemen got on or off their horses. Almástiga (same as Almáciga) al-MáSTaka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaSTakā[‘], which comes from Greek) Clear and transluscent resin. It is yellowish and somewhat aromatic. It is extracted from a variety of evergreens common to Spain. Almatroque al-MaTrúH (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaTrūH, meaning thrown or flung) Fishing nets used in the old days in the Guadalquivir River in Spain. Almazán al-MaH’San (Arabic [‫ ]المحصن‬meaning the fortified) A municipality located in the province of Soria in Castile-León in Spain. It is also used as a surname. Almazara al-Ma'Sára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ma'Sárah) Mill for making olive oil, oil mill. Almazarrón al-Magrazón (Andalusian Arabic from its original, alMagra) Rust, red oxidation from steel. Almeida al-Ma'idah (Classical Arabic, [‫ ]المائدة‬meaning the tablespread, dining table) There is a place called Almeida de Sayago which is a municipality located in the province of Zamora in Castile-León, Spain. There is also an Almeida in Portugal. It is located in Riba-Coa river valley. It is an historic town in Beira Interior. Lastly, it is a very common surname. Almea al-Máy'a (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, May’ah) The name of a tree whose scientific name is Styrax officinale in the family, Styracaceae. It is also called Estoraque. Incisions are made into the tree’s trunk in order to obtain its resin and balsam which has a strong smell. This is used in medicines and perfumes. Also, if this resinous liquid is left to dry, it is commercialized as an incense called Benjui (see below). Medicinally, it is used as a disinfectant, antiseptic, and expectorant (helps relieve respiratory difficulties due to mucus). It is also used to treat eczema and boils (carbuncles). It is also added to toothpaste in order to deal with oral infections. This is sometimes used as the name of another plant, the Azúmbar (see below). Almea ‘Almeh (Andalusian Arabic meaning music teacher or dance teacher from Classical Arabic, ‘Alimah, meaning understood) In Spanish it is said to mean an Oriental woman or woman from the east that can improvise poetic verse and sing or dances in public. Almeja al-Majjah clam Almejía al-Mahshiyah or al-Mawshī A short coat, tunic, or cape that was commonly used by the Moors but used by Christians as well. Almena al-Mira (Arabic-Latin [Mozarabic] hybrid, from Arabic (al) and Latin (Minae) Merlon; battlements; prisms that were placed on top of walls for soldiers or archers to hide behind. These prisms normally crowned the walls of old fortresses. Also, battlements; a rampart built around the top of a castle with regular gaps for firing arrows or guns. This word also gives rise to names of towns like Almenar, although it is possible that they gained these names from places where battles occurred or where fortress walls or towers signaled knights with fire. Almenar al-Manára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic


[‫ ]المنارة‬Manārah, meaning a place where there is light) A piece of iron that was mounted onto walls where torches could be hung to light up rooms in medieval times. Almenara al-Manára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]المنارة‬Manārah, meaning a place where there is light) A fire that is made in towers or watchtowers in order to warn of an attack by an enemy or to notify of an incoming ship. Also, a candelabra where various candles could be places in order to light up a whole room. Almenara al-Manhár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Manhar, meaning brook) Channels that are made for surplus water. Also, a place where water is collected for irrigation. Almenia al-Mani (‫[ )المانع‬The Preventer, The Shielder, The Defender, etc. One of the 99 divine attributes of God] Used as a surname, it now survives as a neighborhood in the municipality of Roquetas de Mar in the Almería province in Andalusia, Spain. Almería al-Mirayah (Arabic [‫ ]المرية‬meaning the mirror or the watchtower) & al-Mirāyat (Arabic [‫ ]ال مراي ة‬meaning "the mirror" which is a comparison to the "The Mirror of the Sea") A city and province of Andalucía. The city was founded by Abdur-Rahman III of Córdoba in 955. It is the capital of the Almería province in southeastern Spain. It is also used as a surname by some people. Also, it was a poll tax that Mudéjars (Muslims that remained in Spain after the reconquest) had to pay upon marriage – a marriage tax. Almez (same as Melmez) al-Máys (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mays) A type of tree in the family of Ulmaceae. It has smooth but spotted bark. Its fruit is called almeza. The wood of this tree is also known as Almez.

Almeza al-Máys (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mays) The fruit of the almez tree. Almiar ??? A supply or provision of something. Also, a type of mill where hay, straw or grains are squeezed or crushed. Almíbar al-Míba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Maybah, which comes from Persian, Mey beh, nectar of the quince tree) Sugar dissolved in water then cooked until it obtains the consistency of syrup. Syrup, jelly or preserve of the quince tree. Also, a syrup of any kind. Other words related to this are Almibarado/a meaning sticky, syrupy, and sickeningly-sweet. Almicantarat al-MuqanTarāt (From Classical Arabic) Each one of the circles that are parallel to the horizon that are thought to be in in skies. They are used to determine the height of the stars.


Almidón A Mozarabic word from Arabic (al-) and Latin (Amidum) Glucose, carbon hydrate, starch, the matter in vegetables that gives energy. It has food as well as industrial uses. Other words related to this are Almidonar meaning to starch. Almijar al-Manshár (Andalusian Arabic from the Classical Arabic root, NSh-R, meaning to extend in order to dry) Used in Andalusia, the place where grapes or olives are placed so that they are given air before they are squeezed or crushed. Almijara al-Mish‘ála (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mash‘alah, meaning torch, lantern) Oil deposits that were found in the mines of Almaden in Spain when the treasurer was in charge of keep up of the street lights. Almijarra al-Majárra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Majarr) The horizontal piece of wood within a grinder that is tied to horses. Almimbar al-Minbar (Possibly from French, minbar. Most likely from Andalusian Arabic which would be from Classical Arabic, Minbar, ‫)منبر‬ The pulpit within a mosque. Alminar al-Mināra or al-Manāra (Arabic [‫ ]منارة‬but Spanish may have possibly gotten the word from Turkish, Minare) The mosque tower which is an elevated and thin structure. The muezzin (see Almuédano) chants the call to prayer to the Muslims from here. Same as minaret or mosque tower. Almiraje al-Amirul BaHr (‫امير البحر‬, owner of the sea) Admiral, captain, noble, person with authority, leader, etc Almiral al-Amirul BaHr (‫امير البحر‬, owner of the sea) Admiral, captain, noble, person with authority, leader, etc Almirante al-Amirul BaHr (‫امير البحر‬, owner of the sea) Admiral, captain, noble, person with authority, leader, etc Almirez al-Mihrás or al-Mihráz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mihrās). A small and portable metal mortar. Crushing instrument, pestle or mortar made of metal used as a kitchen aide and utensil for crushing, grinding, and mixing Almizate ??? The center point or the middle of the roofs and/or ceilings made of wood. Almizcle al-Mísk (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-Misk [‫]مسك‬, which is from Persian, Mushk) Musk oil perfume. Also, the musk that is used in preparation of perfume and cosmetics. This oil is a greasy substance that many mammals and some birds secrete. The glands of the animals that produce this are usually beneath the tail, near the anus, and close to the perineum. The musk oil is used because of its consistency which is oily, greasy, and sticky and because of its smell. Almizque al-Mísk (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, al-Misk [‫]مسك‬, which is from Persian, Mushk) Musk oil perfume. Also, the musk that is used in preparation of perfume and cosmetics. This oil is a greasy substance that many mammals and some birds secrete. The glands of the animals that produce this are usually beneath the tail, near the anus, and close to the perineum. The musk oil is used because of its consistency which is oily, greasy, and sticky and because of its smell. Almobidana ??? A tax paid on the ownership of livestock, especially larger livestock such as cattle. Almocadén al-Muqaddám (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic,


Muqaddam) In the medieval military, the leader or captain of the foot soldiers. In Morocco, the mayor of a city or district. In the army, he would be the equivalent of a sargeant. Almocafre Abu Káff (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Abū Kaff, meaning “he of the hand”) A gardening instrument used to take out weeds and to transplant small plants. Almocárabe (same as Almocarbe & Mocárabe) al-Muqárbas (Andalusian Arabic meaning constructed like a tomb with stalactites. It comes from Greek originally). Artwork that is formed with a geometric combination of prisms. Its interior is cut in a concave way. It is used for adorment in domes, rooftops, etc. Almocarbe al-Muqárbas (Andalusian Arabic meaning constructed like a tomb with stalactites. It comes from Greek originally). Artwork that is formed with a geometric combination of prisms. Its interior is cut in a concave way. It is used for adorment in domes, rooftops, etc. Almoceda al-Muqsí’a (Arabic meaning equitable) The right to use irrigation water. Also, the cup, jug, or pail used to take the irrigation water. Almócita al-Mūsāytā (‫)الموسايتا‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. It was founded by the descendants of Tubal. Almocrebe al-Mukári (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mukārī) The person who handles mules for a living. Almocrí al-Muqrí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Muqri‘, teacher of Quranic recitation) The one who reads or teaches the Quran in the mosques Almodón al-Madhún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Madhūn, literally “applied” as in to apply ointment onto someone.) Flour from wheat that is wetted and then ground. The thick parts are then taken out to make bread. Almodóvar (or Almodóvar del Campo) al-Mudoor (‫)المدور‬ A town and municipality in the province of Ciudad Real in Spain. Almodóvar was a Moorish fortress in medieval times. The name is also used as a surname. Almodrote al-MaTrúq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaTrūq meaning mashed) A paste composed of oil, garlic, cheese and other ingredients. It is then used to season eggplants. A popular homemade edible paste made of cured cheese, garlic and olive oil – it is generally eaten with bread. Almofalla al-MaHálla or al-MuHálla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaHallah meaning encampment) A military campsite or installation. People or an army devoted to war. A camp of people or group of followers devoted to a cause. Almófar al-Mághfar (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mighfar) Part of ancient armor where the helmet could be screwed on or attached to an iron mesh to protect the neck and other areas. Almofariz (same as Almirez) al-Mihrás or al-Mihráz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mihrās). A small and portable metal mortar. Crushing instrument, pestle or mortar made of metal used as a kitchen aide and utensil for crushing, grinding, and mixing.


Almofía (same as Aljofaina) al-Mukhfíyya (From Andalusian Arabic literally meaning “hidden” or “occult”') A small bowl or vase that was used to wash the hands and face. Almoflate ??? A round knife that leather tanners and makers used. Almofre al-Mághfar (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mighfar) Part of ancient armor where the helmet could be screwed on or attached to an iron mesh to protect the neck and other areas. Almofrej al-Mafrásh (Andalusian Arabic) A traveling bag made of cloth or cured leather on the outside and a very thick cloth on the inside. Almofrez al-Mafrásh (Andalusian Arabic) A traveling bag made of cloth or cured leather on the outside and a very thick cloth on the inside. Almogama al-Mujámma‘ (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mujamma‘, meaning joined) ship’s logs Almogávar al-Muhájam (‫ )المهاجم‬or al-Mugháwir (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mughāwir) In the medieval infantry and armies, a group of trained raiders that were chosen to infiltrate enemy lines and/or enemy territory. Also, the term for a single man that was part of this unit – a raider. In medieval times, the name of troops in Cataluña and Aragon. Almogede ??? An infantry in a battle line or battle formation. Almogía al-Mashiyya (Name of a Berber tribe, al-Mashi, meaning the beautiful) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Almogote ??? An infantry in a battle line or battle formation. Almohad al-MuwaHHidun (Arabic [‫ ]الموحدون‬meaning the Unitarians or “those who profess God's unity”) It was a Berber Muslim dynasty that conquered most of North Africa and Islamic Spain in the 12th century. Almohada al-Mikhádda or al-Mukhádda (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mikhaddah) Pillow, cushion for the head. Other words related to Almohada are Almohadilla meaning a small cushion and Almohadón meaning large cushion pillow. Almohade al-MuwaHHád (Andalusian Arabic meaning unified from Classical Arabic al-MuwaHHid, monotheist, ‫) الموحدون‬ The followers of Aben Tumart, a Muslim leader of the XII century. He inspired the Berber tribes of western North Africa where a new empire rose above the ruins of the Almoravid dynasty in Moorish Spain.


Almoharrefa al-MuHarrífa (Andalusian Arabic for “the one that levels things”) A row of ceramic floor tiles that are paved near walls or parallel to the wall. Almoharrique ??? A man who uses a crossbow or bow or served with one during war. A person who makes crossbows or bows for a living. A man whose job it was to take care of the royal armaments such as the arquebus (a medieval muzzle-loaded firearm) and other firearms especially during hunting seasons. Almoháter (same as Almohatre) an-NusháTar or an-NusháTir (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nushādir or Nūshādir, from Persian, Nowshādor, which is originally from Pahlavi Persian, Anōsh Âtaxsh, meaning eternal fire) Salt prepared with some volatile ingredients. Salt prepared through the distillation of nitrogenic substances, clorohydrate acid and ammonia. Almohatre an-NusháTar or an-NusháTir (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nushādir or Nūshādir, from Persian, Nowshādor, which is originally from Pahlavi Persian, Anōsh Âtaxsh, meaning eternal fire) Salt prepared with some volatile ingredients. Salt prepared through the distillation of nitrogenic substances, clorohydrate acid and ammonia. Almohaza al-Mushámma‘ (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mushamma‘, made from wax) Dried, salted tuna meat. The drying process could include being dried by smoking, leaving it in the sun or outside. Almojábana al-Mujábbanah (Andalusian Arabic meaning made from cheese, from Classical Arabic, jibna or jubn or jibn [‫ ]الجبن‬meaning cheese) Cheesecake; also, a cake, fritter, bread roll or bun made with fruit, lard, eggs, and sugar. Almojama (same as Mojama) al-Mushámma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mushamma meaning made of clay) Dried and salted tuna fish. Almojarife al-Mushríf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mushrif) An official or royal minister that in medieval times used to collect rent and royal taxes. Also, in medieval times, the person in charge of the treasury or simply a tax collector. Almojáter (same as Almohatre) an-NusháTar or an-NusháTir (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nushādir or Nūshādir, from Persian, Nowshādor, which is originally from Pahlavi Persian, Anōsh Âtaxsh, meaning eternal fire) Salt prepared with some volatile ingredients. Salt prepared through the distillation of nitrogenic substances, clorohydrate acid and ammonia. Almojatre an-NusháTar or an-NusháTir (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nushādir or Nūshādir, from Persian, Nowshādor, which is originally from Pahlavi Persian, Anōsh Âtaxsh, meaning eternal fire) Salt prepared with some volatile ingredients. Salt prepared through the distillation of nitrogenic substances, clorohydrate acid and ammonia. Almojaya al-Mushayya‘ (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mushayyi‘ meaning friend or companion) Piece of strong wood that is placed horizontally and is used as a bridge during construction of a house or building. It is meant for people to walk on or sit on so as to lift or lower things. Almojerife al-Mushríf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mushrif) An official or royal minister that in medieval times used to collect


rent and royal taxes. Also, in medieval times, the person in charge of the treasury or simply a tax collector. Almona al-Máwna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ma'ūnah) In Andalusia, it is a place where soap is made and/or sold. In Cadiz, it is a place where people go shad fishing or where you can buy shad. Informally, it can also be a house, public storage, warehouse, etc. Almóndiga al-Bunduq/al-Bundiqat (Literally meaning the ball) [‫]البندقة‬ which is from Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bunduqah, which is originally from Greek) meatballs Almoneda al-Munadin, al-Munáda (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Munādāh) Public sale of goods and furnitures to be sold usually below cost; an auction. Also, the place where the auction takes place; auction sale. Almora al-Móra (From Mozarabic) Bits and pieces that are of no use and piled up in work areas. They can be used to border up or close gaps. Almoraduj al-Murdaqush or al-Mardaddúsh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Marzanjūsh, which is originally from Persian, Marzān Gush, meaning mouse’s ear) Marjoram; also, sandalwood. Almoradux al-Murdaqush or al-Mardaddúsh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Marzanjūsh, which is originally from Persian, Marzān Gush, meaning mouse’s ear) Marjoram; also, sandalwood. Almoravid al-Murabit Literally, the people of the Ribat in Morocco. It was a Moorish dynasty in medieval Spain. Almorávide al-Murabit Literally, the people of the Ribat in Morocco. It was a Moorish dynasty in medieval Spain. Almorí al-Murí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Murrī, which is from Aramaic, Mūryā, which is ultimately from Latin, Murĭa) A mass of flour, salt, honey and other ingredients from which cakes are made in the oven. Almorranas ??? hemorrhoids Almotacén al-MuHtasib or al-MuHtasáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MuHŏtasib, literally, “the one who has lots of blessings from God on account of his worry over the community.”) The person that was officially in charge of weights and measures. The office where such operation was conducted. In medieval times, it was the steward of the land of the king. In Morocco, the official in charge of vigilance of the marketplace and of setting the price for merchandise. Market inspector. Almotalafe al-Mustakhlaf (Andalusian Arabic for delegate) silk needle Almotazaf (same as Almotazán) MuHtasáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MuHŏtasib, literally, “the one who has lots of blessings from God on account of his worry over the community.”) The person that was officially in charge of weights and measures. The office where such operation was conducted. In medieval times, it was the steward of the land of the king. In Morocco, the official in charge of vigilance of the marketplace and of setting the price for merchandise. Almotazán MuHtasáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MuHŏtasib, literally, “the one who has lots of blessings from God on account of his worry over the community.”) The person that was officially in charge of weights


and measures. The office where such operation was conducted. In medieval times, it was the steward of the land of the king. In Morocco, the official in charge of vigilance of the marketplace and of setting the price for merchandise. Almozala (almozalla) al-MuSálla (Andalusian Arabic meaning tapistry of prayer from MuSallà, place for prayer) In Moorish and Mozarabic texts, the rug or tapestry used for prayer. Also, in Moorish and Mozarabic texts, the place where prayer takes place. An ornamental cloth. Also, a bed cover. Almozalla al-MuSálla (Andalusian Arabic meaning tapistry of prayer from MuSallà, place for prayer) In Moorish and Mozarabic texts, the rug or tapestry used for prayer. Also, in Moorish and Mozarabic texts, the place where prayer takes place. An ornamental cloth. Also, a bed cover. Almucama ??? maid, housekeeper Almud al-Mudd The measure/weight, measurement of capacity for aggregates such as sand and gravel for mortar. Almudaina ??? A citadel; a fortification within the interior of a plaza the purpose of which serves for a garrison or army to dominate it or as a last refuge or stronghold for the army. Almudena al-Madinat (Classical Arabic [‫ ]مدينة‬meaning the city) A female name that is taken in honor of the patron saint of Madrid, the Virgin of the Almudena. There is also a cathedral in Madrid dedicated to this saint called Santa María la Real de La Almudena. Almudí (almudín) al-Mudí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mudy which is from Latin, Modĭus) A public house destined for the buying and selling of wheat. In some towns it also serves to deposit grains and for the buying and selling of other grains and merchandise that are not taxed while they are not sold. Almudín al-Mudí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mudy which is from Latin, Modĭus) A public house destined for the buying and selling of wheat. In some towns it also serves to deposit grains and for the buying and selling of other grains and merchandise that are not taxed while they are not sold. Almuecín al-Mu’adhdhin (‫)المؤذن‬ The Muslim caller to prayer. Almuédano al-Muwádhdhan (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mu'adhdhin, ‫)المؤذن‬ The Muslim that from the minaret makes the call to prayer. Almuerzo A Mozarabic word from Arabic (al-) and Latin (Morsus) Food that is eaten in the morning; food that is eaten at noon; lunch. Another word related to this one is Almorzar which means to have lunch. Almuña al-Múnya (Andalusian Arabic meaning fifth from Classical Arabic, Munyah, meaning desire) A garden, orchard or farm. Also, a country house or country estate. Almuñécar al-Munikab (‫)المنكب‬ A municipality in Andalusia between Málaga and Granada. Almunia al-Múnya (Andalusian Arabic meaning fifth from Classical Arabic, Munyah, meaning desire) A garden, orchard or farm. Also, a country house or country estate. Almutacén Alnafe an-Náfikh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nāfikh, blower) Portable oven


Alomar (surname) al-‘Amr (‫)العمر‬ age, epoch, time Aloque Khalúqi (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Khalūqī, meaning diluted saffron color) A light red color. It is especially said of a light red wine or of a red wine mixed with a white wine. Aloquín ad-Dukkán or ad-Dukkín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dukkān, meaning a bench of wood or stone) A rock that has been labored on in the form of a rectangular prism for pavements and other uses. Álora ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Alozaina ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Alpandeire al-Pandeire (Mozarabic word from the Arabic, Al, and Latin, Pand, meaning to bend) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Alpargata al-Parghát (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, alBarghat) Hemp slippers, sandals, or espadrilles. Shoes or footwear made of canvas or sackcloth with the sole made of esparto grass or hemp. They are tied with ribbons. Alpargate al-Parghát (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, alBarghat) Hemp slippers, sandals, or espadrilles. Shoes or footwear made of canvas or sackcloth with the sole made of esparto grass or hemp. They are tied with ribbons. Alpechín al-Bishín (Andalusian Arabic from Mozarabic, Pésh, meaning tar. This originally comes from Latin, pix, picis, pez, with the romance suffixín) A dark, fetid liquid that comes out of olives when they are piled up in the mill and when the oil is obtained with the help of boiling water. Alpende ??? A shed; a portable shed or structure; a place where belongings or possessions are stored. Alpendre ??? A shed; a portable shed or structure; a place where belongings or possessions are stored. Alporchón Alpórce (A Mozarabic word [mixed Arabic and Romance/Latin] from “al” [Arabic] and "porticus" [Latin].) A building or place where the auction to sell the rights to irrigation water was sold or where the public servant verified who had the right to use the irrigation waters. Alpujarras (originally Alpuxarras) al-Bashurāt (Arabic [‫ ]البشراﺕ‬meaning the bastion or the news) and al-Bajara (Andalusian Arabic meaning the highlands or grasslands) Region extending South of Granada into Almería Alquequenje al-Kakánj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kākanj which comes from Persian) A plant that is used as a diuretic. Its leaves are oval and pointy at the ends. It has a greenish white flower. It has a strange fruit that grows in a membrane. The fruit is used as a diuretic.


Alquería (same as Alcaría) al-Qariyyah/al-Qaryah (‫)القرية‬ A village or farmhouse. It can be a work house or agricultural ranch, typical of the southern Spanish Levant. Alquermes al-Qármaz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, alQirmiz, which is originally from Persian, Kirm e Azi, meaning a suckling pig or grain, seed, bean, etc) A homemade alcoholic drink to which is added certain dyes made from vegetables or animals. Also, a medical concoction made from various vegetable ingredients and/or animal ingredients as well as honey and sugar. The consistency of said medicine can be liquid, paste, gelatinous, or solid. Alquerque al-Qariq or al-Qírq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qirq) A board game similar to checkers. It is called Quirkat in English. It is thought to be the precursor of checkers. Also, more popularly, this is the game that is known in English as Tic-Tac-Toe Alquetifa al-QaTífa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaTīfah) A fine or luxurious rug or table cloth or tapestry. Alquez al-QísT (Andalusian Arabic, from Classical Arabic, QisT, which comes from Syriac, QesTā or QisTā) The weight and measure of wine within 12 buckets or cans. Alquezar al-QiSár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QiSar [‫ ]قصر‬meaning shortness of something) The making of ditches or pathways within rivers in order to use them for irrigation. Alquibla al-Qíbla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qiblah [‫)]قبلة‬ Muslim direction of prayer – the place in the mosque where Muslim direct themselves during prayer. Also, the name of a place in Murcia, Spain. Alquicel (same as Alquicer) al-Kisá or al-Kisí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kisā') Moorish clothing in the form of an overcoat made of wool and usually white. Alquicer al-Kisá or al-Kisí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kisā') Moorish clothing in the form of an overcoat made of wool and usually white. Alquilar al-Kirá (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kirá) To hire, to rent, the price to rent or use something, the contract to rent or hire something. Another word with a very closely related meaning is Alquiler. Alquiler al-Ijār (‫ )اﻻيجار‬or al-Karaa’ to rent Alquímia al-Kimiyā’ (Arabic [‫ ]الكيمياء‬meaning that which comes from Kem – Egypt) alchemy, chemistry, science Alquinal al-Qiná‘ (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qina‘) A veil that women used for adornment. A piece of jewelry made with fabric used to cover the head.


Alquitara (same as Alcatara) al-QaTTára (Andalusian Arabic from the Arabic root, Q-T-R, meaning to distill. A variation of Alcatara with some influence from the word, Alquitrán.) An instrument used in distillation or to separate other substances using heat, typically other more volatile substances. It is made of a receptacle for liquid connected by a coiled tube to another receptacle where the distilled product ends up. Alquitira al-KiTra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, KaTīrā') A tree that grows about two meters high. It grows in Persia and Asia Minor. It has white flowers. There is a whitish substance that naturally flows from it that is used in the pharmaceutical industry. It is of a rubbery consistency. This same substance is also referred to as Alquitira. Alquitrán al-QiTrán or al-QaTrán (‫)القطران‬ Tar; a substance that is obtained from the distillation of resinous woods, carbons, petroleum, and other mineral and vegetal ingredients. It is a liquid, viscous, of dark color and strong odor. It has specific industrial applications. Its composition can also be of fish, grease, animal fat, resin and oil. It is very flammable and was used as an incendiary weapon. Alquivir al-Kabir (Arabic [‫ ]الكبير‬meaning the big one, the great, etc) A primitive tubular, conical opening made to introduce air into the forging ovens. Also, certain motors and engines have these openings in order to let air enter. Alrota Aldrota (Mozarabic and Andalusian Arabic, HaTróTa) The residue that is left behind from the coarse and thick linen or silk after its been woven. Alsodux as-Sūdūks (‫ )السودوكس‬or az-Zudūn A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Altabaca at-Tabbáqa or at-Tubbáqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tub[b]āq) A medicinal plant common to Spain that is used as an astringent. It is the same plant also known as the Olivarda. Altamía Haltamíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Haltam, meaning a ceramic jar) type of ceramic cup Altarraga (same as Altavaca & Atabaca) at-Tabaqa or at-Tubaqa (From Andalusian Arabic) A medicinal plant commonly found in Spain used as an astringent.

Altavaca at-Tabaqa or at-Tubaqa (From Andalusian Arabic) A medicinal plant commonly found in Spain used as an astringent. Altramuz at-Tarmús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Turmus, which originally comes from Greek) A type of leguminous plant. It is very good feed for livestock. It has white flowers and its grains are attached. People


also eat this plant after its bitter taste has been removed with salty water. The fruit of this plant is also called Altramuz. It belongs to the genus Lupinus. Alubia al-Lúbya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Lúbiyá, which comes from Persian, Lubeyá) Generally any bean. It is specifically a plant from the Papilionacea family of the genus Phaseolus. Also, the seeds of this plant. Kidney beans. Aludel Lutél (Mozarabic from Latin, Lūtus, meaning clay jar) A type of pan used in Almadén Spain to condense the vapors produced by the calcination of mercury when it is in a special oven used for this purpose. Aluquete al-Waqída (Andalusian Arabic meaning fuse) A small sheet or stick made of gold, silver or other material used to clean the teeth or ears. Also, a tightly coiled piece of straw covered with sulfur and which is lit with a flame. Alvarado It may come from the Arabic word/name al-Barāda or alBarādu (‫)ال برادع‬. It could be related to the root, Barid, has to do with something cold – there is a Barada (‫ )ب ردى‬river in Damascus, Syria whose source is Lake Barada. In this sense, the name would be an Arabic toponym. The name may also possibly be from Albarazado which is a derivative of Albarazo which comes from al-Barásh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barash). It may also come from al-Barrada (which is originally from Andalusian Arabic but ultimately from Latin, parata) A district or jurisdiction within the municipality of Badajoz in Extremadura, Spain. There is also a calle Alvarado or Alvarado Street in the district of Tetuán in Madrid. The name also has an alternative spelling of Albarado which could suggest it comes from al-Barāda’ (‫)ﺍﻠﺒﺮﺍﺪﻉ‬. Alveja ??? A vegetable in the Papilionaceae or Fabaceae or Leguminosae family. Alverjana ??? A vegetable in the Papilionaceae or Fabaceae or Leguminosae family. Ama (or Amo) Umm (Classical Arabic [‫ ]ع ّم‬meaning mother) Housewife, housekeeper, landlady, owner, master, ‘lady of the house’, etc. Amaluc Nukhā’ (Classical Arabic [‫ ]النخاع‬meaning medulla) The nape or the back of the neck. Originally, it was used to mean the hips, the hip bone or legs in general. Amán Amān (Arabic [‫ ]ألمن‬meaning security) Among the Muslims, a precinct or office that ensures criminals are handed over or certain districts pay tribute and other such things. Ámbar 'Ánbar (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫' ]العنبر‬Anbar) Petrified resin; amber. Ámel ‘Amel (Moroccan Arabic for governor) Among Arabs, the chief or representative of a district. Amén Amin (‫)آمين‬ “so be it” Amín al-Amín (from Arabic, [‫ ]اﻻمين‬meaning ’the trustworthy’) In Morocco, a representative in charge of administering or making payments on behalf of the government. Amir (same as Emir) Amír (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Amīr, ‫)أمير‬ Prince, leader, commander, and/or general among the Arabs.


Amirate Imaarah [‫ ]إمارة‬plural: Imaraat {‫]إماراﺕ‬ The quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc). Amirí ‘Amirī (Arabic, ‫)اميري‬ This is a title of any of the descendants of Almanzor ben Abiámir. After the fall of the caliphate in Cordoba, small taifa kingdoms were established in the Spanish Levant during the first half of the XI century. Amohinarse Muhín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mahín meaning offended) To sulk or feel sullen. Añacal an-Naqqál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Naqqāl, which literally means one that transports) The person in charge of taking wheat to the grinder. Also, the wooden plank that one places bread into an oven (similar to that used in pizzerias). Anacalo/a an-Naqqál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Naqqāl, which literally means one that transports) A servant that worked the ovens who used to go to particular houses for bread that needed to be leavened. Añacea an-Nazáha (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nuzhah) Party, diversion, get-together, etc. Añacear an-Nazáha (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nuzhah) To make a party or partake of a celebration, to have fun, to get-together, etc. Anacora Anacara (From Portuguese for oriental military drum from Arabic, Naqqārah) trumpet, clarinet, bugle Anafaga an-Nafáqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nafaqah, meaning cost) Costs; expenses; costs related to a process; the cost of an effort (work, fatigue, etc). Anafalla (same as Anafaya) an-Nafáya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nufāyah, meaning residue. It has an influence from the Portuguese word Anafaia meaning silk thread) Cloth that was made of cotton or silk. Anafaya an-Nafáya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nufāyah, meaning residue. It has an influence from the Portuguese word Anafaia meaning silk thread) Cloth that was made of cotton or silk. Anafe an-Náfikh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nāfikh, blower) Portable oven Añafea an-Nafáya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nufāyah meaning residue) rough, heavy paper that has not been whitened Anafil an-Naffir (‫نفير‬‎) trumpet Añafil an-Naffir (‫نفير‬‎) trumpet Anafra al-Furn (Arabic [‫ ]الفرن‬meaning oven) or an-Náfikh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nāfikh, blower) A small store or portable oven. Anafre al-Furn (Arabic [‫ ]الفرن‬meaning oven) or an-Náfikh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nāfikh, blower) A small stove or portable oven. Añagaza (same as Ñagaza) an-Naqqáza (Andalusian Arabic meaning decoy. This is from Classical Arabic, Naqqāz, meaning restless bird) A ruse or lure so as to attract something or someone using a trick. A decoy, lure or trap for catching birds. Generally, any bird that is commonly hunted.


Anaquel an-Naqal (‫النقل‬, transport) and Manáqil (Andalusian Arabic - This is the plural Manqálah which is from Classical Arabic, Minqalah meaning a support) Generally, a shelf. It can also mean a shelf placed inside an armoire or in a place where items are placed for sale. Añascar Adnasaqár (A late Latin/Romance verb that came from the Andalusian Arabic word, an-Nasáq which came from the Classical Arabic, Nasaq, which means order and sequence) To join or pick up or gather little by little things that are small and of little value. Also, to knot up, to muddle, to confuse. Añazme an-Názm (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nazm, dirt or crust found on the collar) A type of gold or silver bangle used by women to adorn their arms, wrists or ankles. It could be made of other metals as well. Ánbar 'Anbar (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, 'Anbar) Petrified resin; amber. Ancorca al-Qruqo (Mozarabic from Latin Crocus and Arabic alQirq) The color ‘ochre’ (yellow-browns) and also the mineral ochre that is used for paint. Andalucía al-Andalus (Arabic [‫ ]األندلس‬meaning land of the Vandals) Andalusia, Arabic name of Muslim Spain; modern Spain has retained this name for its southern province – it is now the most populated region of Spain. A word related to this is Andalusí which means Andalusian. Other similar words are Andaluz and Andaluza also meaning Andalusian. Andaraje Possibly from Andarash (‫)أندرش‬ The wheel of the watermill. Andarax Andarash (‫)أندرش‬ Known as Láujar de Andarax, this is a municipality of Almería province in Andalusia, Spain. It is also the name of the main river in Almeria in Southern Spain. It is called Rio Andarax (Andarax River). Andorga ??? womb Andorra HaDDúra or HaDúra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, HuDúrrah meaning charlatan) There is a country by this name and it is also used as a surname. Also, it is colloquially used to mean a woman that likes to be in the streets. Andorrera HaDDúra or HaDúra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, HuDúrrah meaning charlatan) It is colloquially used to mean a woman that likes to be out in the streets. Andrajo HaTrásh (Andalusian Arabic for fool) Old, broken or dirty jewelry. Pieces, shreds, rags, bits, tattered, broken, old or dirty cloth. Also, a term of disrespect, a despicable or worthless person or thing. A related word is Andrajosa/o meaning something that is ragged or tattered. Andujar Andujar (‫أندوجر‬, possibly comes from Anduhar) A town of southern Spain in the province of Jaén. It is most often used as a surname. Andurrial HaDDúra or HaDúra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, HuDúrrah meaning charlatan) A spot or place that is far from known haunts. A place where one is lost. Anea an-Náyifa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic,


Nā'ifah, meaning the one that comes out) A plant that grows in marshy areas. Its leaves are used to make seats on chairs and ropes. Anejir an-Nashíd (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nashīd) A saying or refrain that made into verse and sung. Anequín an-Naqiyyín (Andalusian Arabic meaning cleaned) The word is used as a anequín or de anequín. It means that manner in which a person is contracted to shear the coat of certain animals such as sheep. It is usually per head of animal and not on a day’s basis (as many people were paid daily in medieval times). Anfión Afyún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Afyūn, which comes from Aramaic, Afiyūn, which originally comes from Greek) Opium or any substance that stupefies. Añil an-Nilah/an-Nilee (Andalusian Arabic [‫ ]نيلي‬from Classical Arabic, Nílaj, from Persian, Nil, which ultimately comes from Sankskrit, Níla) Indigo; also a shrub in the family Papilionacea. A dark or violet blue, indigo. Anima Kitāb an-Nafs (‫)كتاب النفس‬ animus, soul Anoria (same as Noria) Na‘úra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nā‘ūrah. It has influences from the following words, Acequia and Acenia) A watermill; a machine that is made of two large wheels that takes out water from ponds, ditches, channels, etc. A oval-shaped pond from which water is taken with this machine. Añover ??? To let land lie fallow in order to regain nutrients for crops to grow. Antequera [Madina] Antikira (‫)األنتكيرة‬ A city and municipality in the province of Málaga, part of Andalusia in Spain. It is known as "the heart of Andalusia" (el corazón de Andalucía), because of its central location between Málaga, Granada, Córdoba, and Seville. Antimonio Antimun, Ithmid (‫)اﻻنتيمون‬ antimony Anúbada (same as Anúteba) an-Núdba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nudbah, meaning a call or lamentation) In the old days, a personal service or assistance to repair basements and walls of castles to make them in a state of defense. A wage or tribute that was paid for a personal service that involved this chore. A crowd of people that were occupied in this job or chore. Call to war or war cry or a lament. Anúteba an-Núdba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nudbah, meaning a call or lamentation) In the old days, a personal service or assistance to repair basements and walls of castles to make them in a state of defense. A wage or tribute that was paid for a personal service that involved this chore. A crowd of people that were occupied in this job or chore. Call to war or war cry or a lament. Aorta AwarTa (‫)اﻻورﻁي‬ aorta Árabe ‘Arabí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Arabī, ‫)عربي‬ Anything pertaining to Arabia: language, religion, way of life, calendar, etc. It can be used specifically for Classical Arabic as well as a person or thing from the region of Arabia. Also, there are terms related to this such as año árabe (literally Arabic year) which is taken to mean the lunar calendar. Also, the term teja árabe meaning Arabic tile is used for tiles that are used on a roof that are conical shaped.


‘Arabí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Arabī, ‫)عربي‬ Anything pertaining to Arabia: language, religion, way of life, calendar, etc. Arabía ‘Arabíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ْ ‘Arabiyyah, ‫)ال َع َربيّة‬ The Arabic language. Other words related to this one are Arábiga/o (meaning Arabic and Arabian), Arabí (meaning anything pertaining to Arabia such as language, religion, etc), Arabesco (meaning arabesque – an architectural style) and Árabe (meaning the Arabic language as well as Arabian). Arabí

Arambel al-Hánbal (Andalusian Arabic meaning tapestries that hang from a stand or platform. This comes from Classical Arabic, Hanbal, meaning a secondhand fur-lined coat) Any piece of cloth that hangs from a dress. Also, any hanging piece of cloth, tied or untied, that serves to decorate or adorn or to cover. Also, wall hangings or cloths that hang from the wall for decorative purposes. Arancel ar-Rasúm (‫ )الرسوم‬and al-Inzál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Inzál) Tariff, customs duty; can also be considered a norm or a law. Aranda ??? A hut, shack, or shelter that is made in order to make shade from the sun. Arandel ??? A hut, shack, or shelter that is made in order to make shade from the sun. Arar ‘Ar‘ar (Classical Arabic) A plant that originates in Africa in the family Abietacea. It was introduced into Spain and then the rest of Europe. It flowers in February. A powder is extracted from it which is used to make writing paper. Its wood which is reputed to be incorruptible was used widely used in medieval times in Spain. Also, to plow. Arbellón Balla‘ón (From Mozarabic which comes from Classical Arabic, Ballā‘ah) A conduit or canal where water can escape from ponds, barnyards, pens, courtyards, patios, yards, stalls, etc. Arbollón Balla‘ón (From Mozarabic which comes from Classical Arabic, Ballā‘ah) A conduit or canal where water can escape from ponds, barnyards, pens, courtyards, patios, yards, stalls, etc. Arcacil al-Qabsil or al-Qabsíl[a] (From Andalusian Arabic which originates from the Mozarabic word, Kapicéla. This was a diminutive of the Latin word, Capitia from whence the Spanish word for head, Cabeza, comes from. The plant is named as such because of its shape) An artichoke or wild artichoke. Arcaduce al-Qadús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qādūs, which comes from Greek for can or bucket) A pipe or tube where water travels. It can be a short tube or pipe especially one that forms in conjunction with others


the inner pipes from a place. A pipe where a gush of water or other liquid comes out through, especially from a fountain. A gush of water or other liquid. A bucket. Arcaduz (same as Alcaduz) al-Qadús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qādūs, which comes from Greek for can or bucket) A pipe or tube where water travels. It can be a short tube or pipe especially one that forms in conjunction with others the inner pipes from a place. A pipe where a gush of water or other liquid comes out through, especially from a fountain. A gush of water or other liquid. Arcazón ??? Wicker – it is made primarily from the following shrubs: Salix Viminalis, Salix Fragilis, and Salix Purpurea. Árchez ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Archí Harç (Turkish meaning costs which comes from Classical Arabic, Kharj) A Turkish sargeant major among the Algerian Janissaries that is in charge of the economic administration of the battalion. Archidona Arshidunah (‫)أرشذونة‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga, part of the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern Spain. Archiperre (same as Alchiperre) ??? A piece of junk or an unusable utensil. Also, a utensil or tool that can be used for anything. something small and of little use. Arcos (de la Frontera) Arkush (‫)أركش‬ A town in the province of Cádiz in southern Spain. Ardales ArD Allah (Arabic [‫ ]أرض هللا‬meaning land of God) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Argadillo Allaqatél (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Allāqah, accessory for hanging) The framework or structure to wind or coil thread so as to make it unwind easily. Argamandel Khírqat Mandíl (Andalusian Arabic for cloth rag) A piece or scrap of cloth. Argamula al-Halúma (A permutation of Andalusian Arabic) A type of plant native to Spain. Argán (same as Erguén) Argan (from Berber) A spiny tree that does not grow much. It has greenish-yellow flowers. Its wood is very hard and durable and is employed as ebony. From its seeds are extracted an oil. This plant originates in Morocco and grows in Andalusia, Spain. Argel Arjál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Arjal) This is generally said of a horse. This is description of a horse with a white front right foot. It is understood that because of this trait, the horse is thought to be bad or brings bad luck to the person who rides it. It is also said of an ill-tempered horse. This is also said about a person or a thing that does not inspire sympathy or does not have talent. Generally, though, it is said about a horse that is stubborn and/or is thought to bring bad luck. It could be related to the next entry. Argel al-Jazā’ir (Classical Arabic [‫ ]الجزائر‬meaning the islands) Algiers Argelia al-Jazā’ir (Classical Arabic [‫ ]الجزائر‬meaning the islands) Spanish name for Algeria. The islands that the name “al-Jazā’ir” is


referring to are the four islands which lay off the city's coast. They became part of the mainland in 1525 CE. The name al-Jazā’ir is itself a shortened form of the city's older name “Jazā’ir bani Mazghanna,” or the islands of (the tribe of) Bani Mazghanna." A related word is Argelino/a meaning Algerian. Argelita FarghalīT (‫)فرغليط‬ Argelita is a municipality of Alto Mijares in Castellón in Valencia, Spain. Argolla al-Ghull A large iron ring for animals, wedding ring, large ring, large earring hoops or a clamp that holds the condemned and imprisoned. Argüellar al-Qílla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qillah, meaning shortage) Deterioration due to ill health or lack of food or malnutrition Arguello al-Qílla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qillah, meaning shortage) The action or effect of deteriorating or deterioration. because of lack of health or food or malnutrition. Arije al-‘Arísh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Arīsh) A type of red-colored grape. Also, a type of black-colored grape. A type of grape common to Andalusia that has thin skin. Arimez al-‘Imád (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Imād, quadrangular column) A type of ornament that enhances a building because of its adornment or because it reinforces the structure. Arjona Arjunah (‫)أرجونة‬ Arjona is the name of a region in the Andalusian province of Jaen. Arjorán Arjuwān (Andalusian Arabic from Persian, Arjawān, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Argawān, which literally means purple) A tree that grows about six meters Its flowers are crimson. It is a plant grown for adornment in gardens and its very commong in Spain. Armengol Armaqand (‫)أرم ق ند‬ A Spanish surname. The most famous person by this name was Armengol I, count of Urgel. Together with troops of Ramon Burrel I, he was involved in the civil wars at the start of the 11th century C.E (the 5th Islamic century A.H.). He participated in the siege and battle of Cordova in 400 A.H / 1010 C.E. and was killed in the battle. Armuña de Almanzora ??? al-Mansur A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Arnadí GharnaTí (‫غرناطي‬, Andalusian Arabic for Granadine) A sweet confection made in the oven with pumpkin and sweet potato and filled with pine nuts, almonds and other nuts. Arnedo ArniiT (‫)أرنيط‬ Arnedo is the third largest city in La Rioja, near Calahorra in Spain. Arocho ??? A type of small, ferocious wild boar. Arrabá ar-RáHba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RaHbah, esplanade) The typical adornment of doors and windows in the Mozarabic style. Arrabal (same as Arrabalde & Rabal) ar-RabáD (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RabaD) A poor area; an area that is annexed by another; the farthest point of an area. A neighborhood outside of the influence of the area where it belongs. A


place at the extreme end of a population. Also, suburb. Words related to this are Arrabalero/a meaning a person from such a place. Arrabalde ar-RabáD (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RabaD) A poor area; an area that is annexed by another; the farthest point of an area. A neighborhood outside of the influence of the area where it belongs. A place at the extreme end of a population. Also, suburb. Arrabel (same as Rabel) Rabáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Rabāb) A medieval stringed musical instrument general played by rural people in Spain. It was similar to the lute. It had three strings and made high-pitched notes. In English, it is called a Rebec.

Arracada ‘Arraqqáda (Andalusian Arabic meaning one that constantly sleeps.) An earring with an adornment that hangs. Arráez (same as Arraz & Arrayaz) ar-Ráyis (‫رئيس‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ra'īs, meaning head, chief, boss, etc.) Arab or Moorish chief or leader. Moorish or Arab captain of a boat. A chief or boss of all that occurs when tuna fishing. Also, the boss of any specific task. Arrapo HaTrásh (Andalusian Arabic for fool) Old, broken or dirty jewelry. Pieces, shreds, rags, bits, tattered, broken, old or dirty cloth. Arrayán ar-RayHán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ArRayHān) A tree of about two or three meters. It has a pleasant smell. It has small white flowers with a bluish black berry. Arrayaz ar-Ráyis (‫رئيس‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ra'īs, meaning head, chief, boss, etc.) Arab or Moorish chief or leader. Moorish or Arab captain of a boat. A chief or boss of all that occurs when tuna fishing. Also, the boss of any specific task. Arraz ar-Ráyis (‫رئيس‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ra'īs, meaning head, chief, boss, etc.) Arab or Moorish chief or leader. Moorish or Arab captain of a boat. A chief or boss of all that occurs when tuna fishing. Also, the boss of any specific task. Arrebato (same as Rebato) RibáT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RibāT, meaning a religious and military camp where Muslims can dedicate themselves to piety) To call or announce an alarm to one or more towns usually done with the aide of a bell, a special drum, fire or other signal. It was used as a mean to warn the other town or of the people and defenses within the town of an impending attack. Also, the commotion or alarm caused because of a sudden and frightful


event. Also, a sudden and unexpected attack done to an enemy. Also, something sudden, improvised or inadvertent. Arrecife ar-RaSíf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RaSīf, meaning something made of rocks) A reef or coral reef. Also, a road or path and also, a stone-paved road. A person that is firm or committed in their path. Arrejaco ar-Rashsháqa (Andalusian Arabic from the Classical Arabic root, {r-sh-q}, meaning to shoot) Grappling iron with three twisted points that is used in some regions for fishing. To fish with this instrument. Also, a type of swift (bird) that inhabits Spain seasonally.

Arrejaque/Arrejacar ar-Rashsháqa (Andalusian Arabic from the Classical Arabic root, {r-sh-q}, meaning to shoot) Grappling iron with three twisted points that is used in some regions for fishing. To fish with this instrument. Also, a type of swift (bird) that inhabits Spain seasonally. Arrelde ar-RíTl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RaTl or RiTl. It is originally from Greek, λίτρα) A weight or measure of 4 pounds. Also, a scale used primarily to weigh meat. Arrequife ar-Rikíb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Rikāb, meaning a spur or stirrup) The handles of the instrument called the almarrá which separates sediment from cotton. Arrequive Rabīk[ah] (Andalusian Arabic meaning a heavy plate of dates, butter, and curds. It possibly comes from the Portuguese word, Requife) Adornments that were sewn onto the borders of dresses. To adorn or dress up: It can be used as in the sentence “Juana iba con todos sus arrequives” meaning Juana was going with all of her adornments. It can also mean circumstances or something prerequisite. Arriata ar-RiyáD (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RiyāD, which is the plural of RawD, meaning garden or orchard). A narrow area used for adorning plants. It is usually close or nearby walls in yards or gardens. A path or walkway. Also, to lower something or oneself, haul down. Arriate ar-RiyáD (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RiyāD, which is the plural of RawD, meaning garden or orchard). A narrow area used for adorning plants. It is usually close or nearby walls in yards or gardens. A path or walkway. Also, to lower something or oneself, haul down. Arriate ar-RiyáD (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RiyāD, which is the plural of RawD, meaning garden or orchard). A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Arriaz ar-Riyás (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ri'ās, meaning to clench or to make a fist) The tip of a sword, the hilt of a sword.


Arricés (same as Arricesa & Arricises) ar-Rizáz (Andalusian Arabic which is the plural of Rázza. This is from the Classical Arabic, Razzah) The buckle of a saddle that connect the stirrups to the saddle. Arricesa ar-Rizáz (Andalusian Arabic which is the plural of Rázza. This is from the Classical Arabic, Razzah) The buckle of a saddle that connect the stirrups to the saddle. Arricises ar-Rizáz (Andalusian Arabic which is the plural of Rázza. This is from the Classical Arabic, Razzah) The buckle of a saddle that connect the stirrups to the saddle. Arriero Harr Muleteer, person that works with beasts of burden Arrife ??? Arid land that is not productive. Arroba ar-Rub’ah (‫ربع‬, a quarter) A weight/measure equivalent to 11,502 kgs (originally 11½ kilos). Also, it is a fourth (¼ )of the Quintal measure. In Aragon in Spain, it is a weight/measure of 12.5 kgs. It also signifies the “@” symbol Arrobda ar-Rutbah (From Classical Arabic) A tax that was paid for the passage of livestock to grazing lands. Also, a person’s shift or turn working as sentry, guard, or lookout. Arrocabe ar-Rukkáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic Rukkāb: mount, beast of burden) An architectural ornament consisting of a horizontal sculptured band between the architrave and the cornice. Arrope ar-Rúbb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Rubb) Boiled fruit juice or grape juice where it obtained the consistency of syrup and other fruits or pumpkin was added. Also, a medicinal syrup made from honey containing medicinal substances and vegetables. Also, a type of stew made of pumpkin, fruits and vegetables. Lastly, the word also means a dessert or candy made from the pulp of various fruits, heated up and slowly stirred until it reached the consistency of a jelly. Arroz ar-Ruz (‫)الروز‬ rice Arrozal ar-Ruz (‫)الروز‬ rice field Arrumaco ??? It can mean a show of affection with gestures and facial expressions. Also, it is more commonly used to mean an adornment that is bizarre, eccentric, outlandish or in bad taste. A disguise or a mask. It is thought to come from a vulgar expression in Andalusian Arabic that as an exclamation of surprise when something unusual happened – it meant “your mother’s vulva!” The word has morphed to mean a feigned friendly face that someone puts on around someone that is disliked in order to keep the peace. Arrumiaco ??? It can mean a show of affection with gestures and facial expressions. Also, it is more commonly used to mean an adornment that is bizarre, eccentric, outlandish or in bad taste. A disguise or a mask. It is thought to come from a vulgar expression in Andalusian Arabic that as an exclamation of surprise when something unusual happened – it meant “your mother’s vulva!” The word has morphed to mean a feigned friendly face that someone puts on around someone that is disliked in order to keep the peace. Arsenal (same as Atarazana & Dársena) Adár aSSán’a (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dār aS-Sinā’ah, meaning house of industry) The place where hemp cloth or linen fabric or rough, unrefined cloth is made. Also, arsenal


Artarfe ??? Spurs or the spikes on spurs. Also, an wide spike placed on spurs so that they do not penetrate horses when riding. Also, an incentive. Arverjana ??? A vegetable in the Papilionaceae or Fabaceae or Leguminosae family. Áscar/Áscari ‘Esker & ‘Eskri (from Moroccan Arabic which comes from Classical Arabic ‘Askar, meaning troop and ‘Askarī, meaning soldier) A national army and/or force, made from various military corps united under one body and under one mandate. Arzollo ??? The wild almond tree and fruit. Asequí az-Zakí (from Andalusian Arabic which originally comes from Classical Arabic [‫ ]زكاة‬Zakāt. Same as azaque, the word originally comes from Aramaic Zkū[tā] and is related to the Hebrew word Tzākāh, meaning purity.) A type of tax that was paid in Murcia, Spain for certain lesser livestock such as sheep and goats once the owner had 40 or more head of livestock. It also means a tribute that Muslims are obliged to pay taken from their savings. Asesino/a Hashaashīn (‫الحشيشين‬, hashish user; bad person) Assassin; can also be used metaphorically for a very despised person. There are some related words such as Asesinar meaning to assassinate and Asesinato meaning assassination and murder. Astorga Asturqah (‫)أسترقة‬ Astorga is a small city located in the province of León in Spain. Astracán Astrakhan (Arabic pronunciation of the Russian city in the Caspian) Lamb or goat skin prepared in the manner or style of the city of Astrakhan. The leather is usually produced from a newborn lamb or unborn lamb whose skin is very soft and the fur is curly. This leather is highly prized especially in the fur industry. Also, the imitation of this leather/fur. Atabaca at-Tabaqa or at-Tubaqa (From Andalusian Arabic) A medicinal plant commonly found in Spain used as an astringent. Atabal at-Tabál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic: Tabl) A small drum that was used in public festivals. Atabe at-Táqb (From Andalusian Arabic meaning perforation from Classical Arabic Taqb) Small openings that plummers leave in pipes that are attached to walls to give them air or to see if they can go to a certain level. Atabeo ??? The action of making a machine work especially if it does not function or is having trouble functioning. Atabilar (same as Tabilar) ??? To break up clumps or lumps. Atacar Tákka (From Andalusian Arabic which comes from Classical Arabic Tikkah, and means a type of string used to hang or hold jewelry together.) To tie, hold, buckle, broach, fasten something to the body or clothing that requires it, such as a fancy pin or belt. Atacir Tasyīr (From Classical Arabic meaning the course that stars and heavenly bodies take.) The division of the twelve astrological and astronomical houses in space. Also, the instrument used see these houses and stars. Atafarra Ath-Thafár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Thafar) A piece of leather or hemp in the form of a band or belt that is attached to


a saddle to prevent it from sliding forward. Ataharre Ath-Thafár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Thafar) A piece of leather or hemp in the form of a band or belt that is attached to a saddle to prevent it from sliding forward. Atafea at-Ta’fíHa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic Ta’fīHah) To stuff yourself with food Atahona (same as Tahona) aT-TaHúna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, aTTāHūn[ah], mill) Flour mill where the wheel is pulled by a horse. Mill or place where bread is made. Atahorma Tafúrma (From Andalusian Arabic) A diurnal bird of prey from Africa. It has an ash or gray color with the chest being spotted with a reddish gray. The tail is white and its feet yellow. It eats small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles including snakes. It is a migratory bird that winters in Spain. Atahúlla ??? An agrarian land measurement. Ataifor At-Tayfúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tayfūr) A small, round table used by the Muslims in Spain. Ataire ad-Dáy[i]ra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dā'irah [‫]دائرة‬, meaning circle) Moldings in window and door frames. Atajate at-Tashahhud (Arabic [‫ ]تشهد‬for the part of the Muslim prayer when the believer is sitting) A village and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. It is the smallest village in Málaga. Atalaque aT-Talāq (Classical Arabic [‫ ]الطالق‬meaning divorce) ??? Atalaya aT-Taláya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Talā’i or Tatallā’a) A tower or watchtower generally built in a high place in order to see the land or sea and inform others of what is happening. By extension, a position or special status that gives one the insight into certain truths. The man that keeps watch in the watchtower. Atalvina (same as Talvina) at-Talbína (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Talbīnah) A bland porridge that is made with almond milk. Atambor (same as Tambor) Tabbūl (Andalusian Arabic from Tabál) A drum or percussion instrument made of metal or wood where a piece of leather skin is stretched over it. It is played with drum sticks. Also, the person that plays this instrument. Atanor at-Tannúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tannūr meaning oven. This word comes from Aramaic, Tannūrā, which is from Akkadian, Tinūru[m]) Generally, a pipe – a pipe that conveys water from one place to another. Pipes made of clay. Also, it means an oven. Atanquía at-Tanqíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tanqiyah, meaning cleaning) Shaving cream normally made of quicklime, oil and other ingredients. Ataquizar at-Takbísa (From Andalusian Arabic) To place the vestige of a plant taken from another within the soil in an “L” shape in the hope that it will take root and become a new plant. Ataracea (same as Taracea) Tarsí' (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, TarSī‘, crust) Designs made into the floor with fine woods of varying colors. A


work of art made of chips of wood of varying sizes in their natural colors. Also, a work of art made in like manner but with tinted woods instead. Similarly, a work of art made of conchshell, nacre (mother of pearl), and other materials. Atarazana (same as Arsenal) ãdár as-Sán‘a (Andalusian Arabic from Dár asSiná‘a which is from Classical Arabic, Dār as-Sinā‘ah, meaning house of industry) The place where hemp cloth or linen fabric or rough, unrefined cloth is made. Atarfe (same as Taraje & Taray) at-Tárfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tarfāh) A bush that grows near the edges of rivers. It has small, white flowers. Its fruit is dry and it has black seeds. The fruit of this bush is also called this name. Atarjea at-Tarhiyah or at-Tashyí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tashyī, meaning companionship) A small drain or irrigation channel from a house. Also, a small box made of bricks that cover the pipes for their defense. Atarraga at-Tarráqa (Andalusian Arabic from MaTráqa which comes from Classical Arabic, MiTraqah, meaning hammer. It derives from Táraq, meaning to hit) hammer Atarragar at-Tarráqa (Andalusian Arabic from MaTráqa which comes from Classical Arabic, MiTraqah, meaning hammer. It derives from Táraq, meaning to hit) To hammer into shape. Atarraya at-TarráHa (Andalusian Arabic from the Classical Arabic root, {T-r-H}, to fling) A round fishing net. Atlas ATlas [‫]األطلس‬ Atlas Ataúd Taaboot (‫)تابوﺕ‬ coffin Ataujía at-Tawshíyya Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tawshiyah) Adornments made of silver or gold to cover the holes or open spaces within chains. Ataujiada at-Tawshiyah damascene broach Ataurique at-Tawríq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tawrīq, meaning to grow vines) Islamic ornamentation that typically takes on a quality of vegetation.

Atienza Anisha (‫)أنيشة‬ Atienza is a town in the county of Guadalajara. It is located in the community of Castilla-La Mancha in Spain. Atifle Atífil (Andalusian Arabic from aTáfil which is from Classical Arabic, aTafī, rocks on which a stew pot may be placed) A clay utensil made in the shape of a triangle where pot makers place pieces of clay or other materials so that they don’t become attached when they are done.


Atijara at-Tijára (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tijārah. This comes from the Aramaic, Taggārā, which originates in the Akkadian, Tamkārum, meaning merchant) Merchandise and business. The price to transport a merchandise. A prize or reward. Atíncar at-Tinkār (From Andalusian Arabic for borax) Borax; white salt composed of boric acid and water. It is commonly found as a formation on the beaches and the waters of various lakes in China, Tibet, Sri Lanka and other places. It can also be prepared artificially. It is used in medicines and in some industries. Atoba At-Túb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tūb or Tūbah [‫]الطوبة‬, which comes from the Coptic, Tôbe and which ultimately comes from Ancient Egyptian, dbt) Adobe; a mass of clay mixed with small bits. It is molded into the shape of bricks and dried by the air. It is used for the construction of walls. Atocha At-Táwsha (From Mozarabic and Andalusian Arabic. This comes from Latin, Taucia, meaning plant) The Esparto plant. Also, the leaves of this plant which are used to make ropes, paper, and other things. Atoque at-Táwq (Andalusian Arabic meaning a lapel or flap) The wooden border found on staircases. Atracar [a]traqqà (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Taraqqà, meaning to ascend) To get close to by proximity. When boats or ships get close to other ships or to the land. To assault someone with intent to rob them. Also, it means to have one’s fill of food. Atramuz at-Tarmús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Turmus, which originally comes from Greek) A type of leguminous plant. It is very good feed for livestock. It has white flowers and its grains are attached. People also eat this plant after its bitter taste has been removed with salty water. The fruit of this plant is also called Altramuz. It belongs to the genus Lupinus. Atríaca/Atriaca at-Tiryáq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tiryāq, which comes from Latin, Theriăca, and ultimately from Greek, θηριακή, which is derived from θηρίον, meaning animal or wild animal) A medicine made from poisonous animals. A remedy made in medieval times and composed of many ingredients but mainly of opium. It was used on poisonous animal bites. Generally, a remedy of an evil or something bad that was prevented with cautiousness or prevented by using the same bad thing. Atún at-Tuna (‫)التونا‬ tuna Atutía at-Tutíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tūtiyā['], and ultimately from Sanskrit, Tuttha) Zinc oxide; zinc oxide that is impure, especially with metallic salts that are found in gray-colored crust that adheres to chimneys where people work with zinc or where brass is made. Auge Awj (Andalusian Arabic meaning peak from Classical Arabic meaning height [‫]أونوج‬. This comes from the Persian word, Owg.) To surge; rise; peak; at the peak of something. A period or moment of high intensity or high creativity, the nexus of something, the supreme height or elevation of a thing. Aulaga al-Yiláqa (From Andalusian Arabic originally from alAwláqa which is from Classical Arabic Awlaqah.) This is a plant native to Spain that grows about a meter high. It is spiny with soft leaves that end with spikes and yellow


flowers. Livestock like to eat the dried leaves. The plant is generally used to feed livestock by flattening and mashing it. Known in English as the Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum or Genista juncea) or the Weaver's Broom, it is a perennial, leguminous shrub native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, southwest Asia and northwest Africa, where it is found in sunny sites, usually on dry, sandy soils Aval ??? A written communiqué in which a representative speaks for another usually in political matters. Also, a signature placed on a document meant to show the responsibility of that person for something that was obtained by credit. Avería 'Awáriyyah (Spanish got it from Catalán which got it from Andalusian Arabic, ‘Awāriyyah, which means broken down shops and damaged merchandise. This would have come from Classical Arabic, ‘Awār, meaning defect and vice.) Some type of damage that merchandise may have. Any damage that may prevent something like a vehicle, instrument, apparatus, etc. from functioning. A related word is Averiar which means to break. Another is Averiado/a which means out of order. Avierarse means to break down. Ávila (also Ávila de los Caballeros) Abila (‫)آبلة‬ Ávila is the capital of a province with the same name. It is now part of southern Castile and León in Spain Axarea ash-Shari’a (Classical Arabic [‫ ]الشريعة‬literally meaning path, street, etc. but also used for the wide body of Islamic relgious law and jurisprudence) In Spanish it means a Muslim sermon. Axarquía ash-Sharqiyya (Arabic [‫ ]الشرقية‬meaning the east; eastern area or region) The eastern region of the Málaga province in Spain. the east; eastern area, region Ayatolá Ayat Allah (Arabic [‫ ]اية هللا‬meaning sign of God) Shia leader, Ayatollah. Azabache az-Zabáj (From Andalusian Arabic which is originally from Classical Arabic, Sabaj.) It is a variety of lignite. It is hard and compact. It is a black stone formed thousands of years ago. It is generally used in pendants and chains and also to make statues. It has been thought of as a talisman and charms have been made from it. It is called “Camino de Santiago” (St.James’ Road) and is thought of as the pilgrim’s protector. It is primarily found in Asia Minor (Turkey). It is also called Lapis Gagates. Most current amulets take the form of a clentched fist and it is generally placed on infants and small children

Azabara as-Sabbára (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Sibr.) Aloe or aloe vera. It has longe, spiny leaves that can be torn off to extract the juicy resin. It is bitter and commonly used in various medicinal aides.


Azacán/a as-Saqqá (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Saqqā'.) Those people who work in humble and thankless professions such as men that sell or transport water. Another word for peon. Azacaya as-Siqáya (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Siqāyah.) Pipe or water conduit; a large water wheel; a public fountain. Azache az-Zásh (From Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic, originally from Classical Arabic, Sazz.) Fabric or silk of an inferior quality; the fabric woven from the silk of the cacoon of a silkworm; a fabric woven from silk that has some thicker strands in some areas than others; a name given to a person that has a docile and soft temperament; something made out of silk without mixing any other fabrics; something made out of silk mixing it with certain textiles; thread made out of fine fibres that are used for sewing or weaving. Azafata as-SafáT (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic SaffaT, meaning pan or tray.) It used to mean the royal hostess or waitress. It has come to mean air hostess or stewardess. Azafate as-SafáT (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic SaffaT, meaning pan or tray.) Tray or pan or fount with low corners. They can be made of gold, silver, tin, glass or other materials. Also, it can mean a basket. Azafrán az-Za‘afran (‫)الزعفران‬ Saffron; plants in the family Iridaceae. Also any medicines or condiments made from this plant. Azagaya Az-Zaghayah (Andalusian Arabic) A light spear or small lance. Azahar az-Zahár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zahr [‫ ]زهرة‬meaning flower) The white flower or blossom of the orange or lemon tree. Azahare az-Zahr (flower) [‫]زهرة‬ orange & lemon blossoms Azalá (same as Zalá) as-Salá (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, as-Salāt [‫ ]صلوة‬meaning the obligatory Muslim prayers) In Spanish it means Muslim prayers. Azamboa az-Zanbú‘(From Andalusian Arabic) Fruit of the azamboero tree – it is a wrinkly, citrus fruit; grapefruit. Azamboero az-Zanbú‘(From Andalusian Arabic) A tree that has a wrinkly, citrus fruit Azándar as-Sándal (Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Sandal, which means sandalwood or the wood from sandalwood. The word originally coms from Sanskrit, Shandana.) sandalwood Azanoria (same as Zanahoria) Sfinaria (North African/Tunisian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Isfariniyah) or Safunnárya (Andalusian Arabic) carrot; wild carrot Azaque az-Zakí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]زكاة‬ Zakāt, which is the obligatory alms that Muslims pay) In Spanish it has come to mean a tribute that Muslims are obliged to pay taken from their savings. It also means a tax that was paid on smaller livestock such as sheep and goats. Azaquefa as-Saqífa (Andalusian Arabic for portal. Originally from Classical Arabic Saqīfah, meaning covered by a portal.)


A place or building covered by columns that are constructed in front of temples or other holy buildings. Also, a gallery with arches and/or columns along a wall or large open area. Azar az-Zahr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zahr meaning flower) Chance, per chance, at random, mishap, misfortune, gambling (as in “juegos de azar” which literally means games of chance), during 'games of chance' (especially cards or dice) the throw that makes a person lose. In general, any hazard, thing of luck, chance, or thing that happens at random Azarbe as-Sárb (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, sarab.) A causeway where excess water travels through and stops. Azarbeta as-Sárb (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Sarab.) A causeway where water runs; a pipe. Azarcón az-Zarqún (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Zarqūn, which is derived from Persian, Zargun, meaning golden colored) A brightly colored orange; powdered lead oxide that is reddish orange – it is used for antioxidant paint. Azarja as-Sárja (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Aramaic Sārag, meaning to braid or weave) An instrument that is used to take raw silk. It is made of four large needles united into two pointers in the middle. Azarnefe az-ZarníH (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, ZarnīH, which is derived from Pahlavi Persian, Zarr Nēk, meaning beautiful gold). A mineral composed of arsenic and sulfur. It is bright yellow with a fibrous texture. It is very shine but it is also poisonous. It is used for paint, as a dye, and for tinting. Azarote (same as Azaro) ‘Anzarūt (From Andalusian Arabic) An almost transparent gum that flows from a bush originating in Arabia. Azaro (same as Azarote) ‘Anzarūt (From Andalusian Arabic) An almost transparent gum that flows from a bush originating in Arabia. Azimut as- Sumūt (‫سمت‬, plural of Samt) Azimuth; it is an astrological concept – an angle that with the meridian forms a vertical circle that passes from one point of the sky or from the earth. Aznalfarache HaSn al-Faraj (‫) حصن الفرﺝ‬ A city in the province of Seville, Spain. Its complete name is San Juan de Aznalfarache. Aznar Athnir (‫)أث ن ير‬ A common Spanish surname; one of the most famous Aznars was Queen Toda Aznar (10th century C.E.) of Pamplona (‫ي ر نثأ‬ (‫ب نت طوطة‬. She asked for help from the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman al-Nasir ‫دبع‬ .nos gnuoy reh fo yrotirret eht niager ot ‫ال رحمن ال نا صر‬ Azófar as-Súfr (From Andalusian Arabic but originally from Classical Arabic, Sufr) Brass; also an alloy made of copper and zinc. It has a pale yellow color and can be made to shine brightly. Azofra/Azofrar as-SúHra (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, SaHr) Personal compulsory service done by law for neighboring towns for works and utility services for the common good. Also, the monies, foods, or spices given by social security, social welfare and other state entities given to certain beneficiaries in times of need or emergencies. This can also be a thing or service that someone receives or should receive from another person by virtue of a contract or


some legal obligation. Lastly, it can also be service or work that is done by a machine, motor, instrument, vehicle, etc. In this sense, it can also mean repetitive, useless work that frustrates. Azofra (same as Sufra & Zafra) as-SúHra (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, SaHr) Belts that hold certain parts or are crucial to the performance of a machine. In later usage, belts from a car. Azogue as-Súq (‫السوق‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sūq – originally from Aramaic, Sūqā, which ultimately came from Akkadian Sūqu[m], meaning street.) Market; plaza or other place where public commerce and trade can be done. Azogue az-Záwq (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Zāwq or Zā'ūq which in turn comes from Pahlavi Persian, Zīwag) Mercury; also ships that carried mercury from Spain to the New World. Colloquially, a nervous or flighty person. Azohia ??? (Arabic meaning the retreat, the escapee or the escaped) La Azohia is a neighborhood or hamlet in the autonomous community of Murcia in Spain. Azolvar as-Súlb (From Andalusian Arabic meaning hard.) To close, block, obstruct, or impede a water conduit or pipe with something. Azor as-Súr (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Sūr) wall Azoraba (same as Jirafa, Azorafa & Azarrafa) az-Zuráfa (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Zarāfah or Zurāfah.) giraffe Azorafa az-Zuráfa (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Zarāfah or Zurāfah.) giraffe Azorrafa az-Zuráfa (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Zarāfah or Zurāfah.) giraffe Azote as-SáwT (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, SawT) An instrument used to punish delinquents with. It was made with straps sometimes which ended with spikes at the end of the straps. The word also took the connotation of any instrument or stick used to punish or whip someone. It also means the blows received by such an instrument and because of this it has come to also mean spanking or punishing in general. This was the name of the punishment for certain crimes and criminals. It can also mean any affliction, punishment, or calamity. The person that causes such punishment or affliction can also be called an “azote.” Azotea as-SaTiHa (‫ )السطح‬or as-SuTáyHa (An Andalusian Arabic diminutive of SáT-H which comes from the Classical Arabic, SaT-H, meaning terrace) The roof, balcony or terrace of a building. Also, colloquially the human head. Azoya ¿?? (Arabic meaning the retreat, the escapee or the escaped) A name used as a surname, it is an alternate way of writing Azohia. La Azohia is a neighborhood or hamlet in the autonomous community of Murcia in Spain. Azúcar as-Sukkar (‫)السكر‬ sugar Azucarí as-Sukkarí (‫السكري‬, sugary, sweet) Sugary; sweet, having the taste of sugar; said of certain fruits. There are some related words such as Azucarado meaning sweet or sweetened and Azucarero/a meaning sugar bowl or container.


Azucena as-Sussána (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Sūsanah, which derives from Pahlavi Persian, Sōsan.) White lilies; flowered perennials that have a sweet smell. They come in various colors and are grown in gardens as adornments. The flower of this plant. Colloquially, any very lightskinned person or person thought to be pure. Azuche az-Zújj (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, Zujj, meaning point of a lance.) Part of the piece of iron placed in the ground to hold a building or structure steady. The land where such a building is located is also called such. Colloquially, the beginning or root of something is known as such. Azud as-Súdd (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sudd.) A waterwheel or similar device that was used in irrigation. Azufaifa/Azufaifo az-Zufáyzafa (This Andalusian Arabic word originates with the Aramaic word Zūzfā. It ultimately comes from Greek.) Fruit of the azufaifo tree. The tree grows about a centimeter long. The fruit has medicinal uses. Azul al-Lazaward (Thought to be an alteration of the Andalusian Arabic word and which comes from the Classical Arabic word, Lāzaward. This word in turn originates with the Persian word, Lazavard or Lažvard and ultimately from Sanskrit, Rājāvarta, which oddly enough means ‘curls or braids of the king’.) blue Azulaque (same as Zulaque) as-Suláqa (Andalusian Arabic that ultimately comes from Greek.) A paste made of some peculiar substances such as carbon and hydrogen as well as lye and other plants, herbs, calcium oxide, oil and bits and pieces of metals that fly or melt off of metal working or from blacksmiths’ work or ground glass. The concoction is then used as a paste to seal off pipes or conduits of water or other hydrolic work. Azulejería az-Zulayj ornamental tile Azulejo az-Zulayj, az-Zillij burnished pebble Azulla Salāt (Arabic [‫ ]صالة‬for the canonical Islamic prayers) Muslim sermons held outside of the mosque. Azúmbar as-Súnbar or as-Súnbal (Andalusian Arabic which comes from Classical Arabic, Sunbul, which literally means spikes.) A perennial plant with heart-shaped leaves, white flowers, and a star-shaped fruit. Azumbre as-Súmn or ath-Thumn (Andalusian Arabic which comes from Classical Arabic, Thum[u]n, meaning an eighth (⅛) part.) A measure for liquids. Its equivalent was about 2 liters. Azuqueca al-Zuqayqa (Arabic meaning small or narrow crossing, street, lane alleyway or side street) or as-Suq (Arabic for a commercial center or quarter in a city – it can generally mean the market) A flowering plant in the family Thymelaeaceae. Its bark can be used in cauterizations. There is also a place called Azuqueca de Henares that is found in the municipality of Guadalajara in the autonomous región of Castile-La Mancha in Spain. Azur al-Lazaward (Thought to be an alteration of the Andalusian Arabic word and which comes from the Classical Arabic word, Lāzaward. This word in turn originates with the Persian word, Lazavard or Lažvard and ultimately from Sanskrit, Rājāvarta, which oddly enough means ‘curls or braids of the king’.) Said of a magnificent or undescribeable color. In paintings, it is usually represented by a dark, indigo blue.


Babismo Bāb (Arabic [‫ ]باب‬meaning door) Babism; the Islamic heresies of Bahaism, Azalism and Babism. Babucha Babuj or Shabshab (Arabic [‫ ]شبشب‬for slipper) slippers Bacares Baqarí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Baqarī, having to do with cattle, bovine) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Since the Moorish era, the raising of cattle in this area has been of utmost importance which would give us the raison d’etre for the name. Badajoz BaTlayoos (‫)بطليوس‬ City and province of Extremadura. The name probably derives from an Arabic pronunciation of the original name of the region, Pax Augusta, meaning Augustine Peace. Badal BáD’a (Andalusian Arabic meaning the calf muscle. It comes from Classical Arabic, BaD’ah, meaning a piece of something) Beef, especially the meat that is sold in wholesale markets. It it the cut of beef from the back and the ribs going as far as the neck. Badán Badán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Badan) The torso of an animal. Badana BaTána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BiTána meaning a lining or cover) Fine leather or tanned leather made from sheepskin. This type of leather is sewn inside brimmed hats so that the sweat from the brow does not stain the hat. Colloquially, it is used to mean a lazy person. Badea BattíHa (From Andalusian Arabic for a bad quality melon. Originally from Classical Arabic, BattíHah) A bad quality watermelon or melon. A bland or dull cucumber. A dull person or substance. Badén BaTín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BaTin meaning sunk in) A depression or ditch that forms from the passage of rain water. Also, depressions in a road. Badial ¿?? Used mostly as a surname. Baez (surname) Bayās (‫)بياس‬ A Spanish-Basque surname meaning son of the Basque Country. Baeza Bayāsa (‫)بياسة‬ A town in Andalusia, Spain, in the province of Jaén. Bagarino BaHrí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BaHrí meaning anything marine or from the sea) A free person who is salaried and whose job it is to row; a rower. Bagre Baghir or Baghar or possibly from BaHrí (see above definition) A type of freshwater fish that has no scales; a catfish. Its sides are spotted and it has a large head. Its meat is yellowish, very savory and with few bones. Possibly related to this, in many Latin American countries, this word is used to mean a very ugly lady. Baharí BaHrí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BaHrī meaning anything marine or from the sea) Falcon Bahaísmo Bahā’ (‫بهاء‬, Arabic for splendor, glory) An Islamic heretical sect.


Baída ??? A type of dome that is divided into four parts. Also, the word means helmet. Bajá Basha (Arabic from Turkish Pasha, ‫)باشا‬ Turkish high ranking officer Baladí Baladí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Baladī meaning from the country) From the ground or from the country. Also, of little importance. Balaj/Balaje Balakhsh (Andalusian Arabic meaning to speak low or to reduce the sound of the voice. Balakhshí is the derivative meaning the name of the inhabitants of Badakhshan – a region in Central Asia). Purple rubies are named as such because they come from this region. Balate Balát (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Balát meaning a stone paved road, originally from Greek) A small piece of narrow land. The margins or borders of this land. Balda BáTil or BáTila (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BāTilah, meaning useless, in vain, without value, etc.) Something with little value. Also, with a possible relation to the above meaning, it means a bobby pin, hair clip, latch, door handle, or door knocker. Baldaquín/o Baldac (A corruption of the name Baghdād [‫ ]بغداد‬from whence the silk came from to make these) A canopy for a bed, throne, pulpit or altar. A type of canopy made with silk. Baldar BáTil or BáTila (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BāTilah, meaning useless, in vain, without value, etc.) Said of a disease or accident that impedes the use of limbs. Usually, the disease is thought to be rheumatism. Balde BáTil (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BāTil, meaning vane, useless, worthless) Used as de balde or en balde. Something false, useless, in vain or worthless. Baldío/a BáTil or BáTila (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BāTilah, meaning useless, in vain, without value, etc.) A useless, vain, lazy person. A person that has no motivation. Also, said of a piece of land that is not tilled or is uncultivated. Baldosa BalāTah (‫)بالﻁة‬ paving tile Bancal Manqála (Andalusian Arabic) Land that is on an incline, a flat piece of land that is made either naturally or artificially and is used for some type of cultivation. Also, a rectangular land that is used to plant olives, legumes, or fruit trees. Also, sand that accumulates at the shore of a beach. Also, a base or support. Banyarriquer Ben Shariq (Arabic – various meanings such as ‘associate’ ‘partner’ ‘shining’ ‘radiance’ ‘bright’ and ‘sunrise’) An insect of the scientific name Cerambyx cerdo. It is a type of scarab and attacks trees. It is also known in Spain as the gran capricornio or the great Capricorn because of its long antennae. Same as the Algavaro. Baraca Bārāka (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barakah [‫]البركة‬, meaning blessing or divine grace) In Morocco, a special gift or quality attributed to those adept in Sufism, a Sharif (a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad) or other Muslim leader. Also, generally blessings or spiritually blessed.


Baraka Bārāka (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barakah [‫]البركة‬, meaning blessing or divine grace) In Morocco, a special gift or attribute attributed to those adept in Sufism, a Sharif (a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad) or other Muslim leader. Also, generally blessings or spiritually blessed. Barbacana Bab al-Baqqára (Andalusian Arabic) A wall that surrounds the plaza where some churches are built. Barbastro Barb Shatr (‫)بربشتر‬ A Spanish city in the Somontano county of Huesca in Aragon, Spain. Barcelona Barshaluna (‫)برشلونة‬ The capital and most populous city of Catalonia and the second largest city in Spain. Barcino/a ??? Said of animals such as dogs, cows, and bulls – a description of their color which is usually white, spotted or reddish. In Mexico, it is used to describe a plant which is striped or spotted. Barda Barda (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barda’ah) A type of armor that was used to protect cavalry horses during war. Barniz Barniz (Name of an Egyptian city. It comes from the Latin name Veronix) The mixing of one or various resinous substances within a liquid that becomes volatile or has another reaction once oxygen touches it. With this substance, various products are made such as paints, lacquered wood and other things with the intention of preserving them from the damaging effects of air, weathering or other affects. These substances are also used for said things to acquire luster. Barraca ??? A house, hut, stand or living space made crudely with light materials such as wood or palms. Also, a building that houses things such as leather, wool, wood, grains or other things destined for the market. Also, provisional materials used in the construction of sideshows, parades, festivals, etc. Barragán Barrakán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barkānī, meaning a type of black Indian cloth. This comes from Persian, Pargār or Pargāl) A cloth made of wool that is waterproof. Also, a type of men’s coat made with this woolen cloth. Barrio Bárri (Andalusian Arabic meaning outside or exterior from Classical Arabic, Barrā or Barrī meaning outside and savage) A neighborhood or surrounding area, a town, district, etc. A group of houses or a hamlet that is dependent on another population even though they are separated from them. Basilie Baslik (Arabic meaning brave) ??? Basco (also Vasco) al-Bashkans (‫)ال ب ش ك نس‬ The Basques are an ethnic and linguistic group in the northeast of Spain/southern France. Ibn Garcia (see below) was a Basque. Also, there was a Basque princess named Aurora. She was also known by her Arabic name Subh al-Bashkanseyya (‫) ص بح ال ب ش ك ن س ية‬. She died in the Islamic year of 390 A.H. She was the favorite concubine of the Umayyad Caliph, alHakam, and the mother of the weak Hisham al-Mu'ayyad. Bata ¿?? A type of robe used upon waking and for being in the home. A type of comfortable clothing that women use for their daily chores around the house. A laboratory, clinical, office or barber’s smock. Batán BaTán (Andalusian Arabic) A hydraulic machine moved by a wheel or axle; the building where this machine operates.


Batata BaTaTa (Arabic [‫ ]البطاطا‬for potato) Sweet potato, yam, or potato. Batea BaTíHa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BaTíHah meaning a flat or level place) A plate or tray. The pan or tray where minerals are washed in search of valuable minerals. A place where the land is flat. Baurac (same as Bórax) Bawraq (Classical Arabic from Persian Bure) White salt composed of boric acid, caustic soda, and water found on some of the beaches in China, Tibet, Sri Lanka and in the forests or Bolivia. It can also be man-made and is employed medicinally and for certain industries. Bayal ??? A lever made of two pieces of wood, one straight and one curved united by a piece of iron. It is part of a contraption used in bakeries to move heated rocks from one side to another. Also, a type of linen. Bayárcal Bāyārkāl (‫)باياركال‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Bayarque Bāyārīk (‫)باياريك‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Baza BasaTa (‫)بسطة‬ A town and municipality in Granada, Spain. Bazar Bázár (Arabic from Persian, Bázár) In the East, a public place designated for commerce and business. A shop where various items of various industries are sold commonly at a fixed price. Bédar Bīdar (‫)بيدر‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Beduino/a Badawi (‫)بدوي‬ Bedouin; a nomadic Arab. Beires Bīyairis (‫)بيايرس‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Beja Bāja or Bedja (‫)باجة‬ A city and municipality of Portugal. It is also a town in Tunisia, North Africa. It is the capital of the Béja Governorate. Bejarrano Afuqay (‫)أف وق اي‬ A Spanish surname. The most famous Bejarrano was Ahmad ibn Qasim al-Hajari. An ambassador and translator of Morisco origin who lived in the 1600s. Belez BalHíss (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, AbalHiss meaning something that has sound) A vase or container used to keep liquids or other things. Bellota Ballúta (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ballúta) Acorn, fruit or seed of the oak tree. Ben Bán (From Classical Arabic) A type of tree that grows in tropical climates belonging to the family Moringacea. It has an oil that does not become rancid and is used in perfumes.


Benadalid Bani Dalil (Arabic for son of the [military] leader) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Benadid Bani Dalíl (Arabic for son of the [military] leader) Commonly used as a surname, this is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga, which is part of the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern Spain. Benahadux Bani ‘Abdus (Arabic [‫ ]بني عبدوس‬meaning sons of the servant… -- the name is incomplete, however. It may have had a longer name during Moorish times) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Benahavís Bani Abī (Arabic for sons of my father) or Bani Habish (Arabic for sons of the Ethiopian, named after an Ethiopian that became a Qadi [Islamic judge] of the area) or Bani al-Havi (Arabic or Mozarabic for sons of Havi, a local who reigned from the Montemayor Castle) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Benalauría Banu-l-Hawriyya (Arabic for the sons of al-Hawriyya – one of the many Berber tribes that came to the region: Hawwara, Maggila, Saddina, and Nafza) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Benalmádena Bani al-Madina (‫ بني المدينة‬, son of the city/town) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Benamahoma Bani Muhammad (Arabic [‫ ]بني محمد‬for sons of Muhammad) A district in Grazalema in Cádiz in Andalusia, Spain. Benamargosa Bani ??? (Arabic but the name has been lost to history per www.benamargosa.es) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Benamaurel Bani ??? A city located in the province of Granada, Spain. Benamocarra Bani ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Benamor Bin Umar; Ibn Umar (Arabic for Son of Omar) A minor river that flows into the Segura River. Benanahoma Bani ??? This is possible an alternative or corrupted version of the name Benamahoma (see above). No information is currently available. Benanata Bani ??? Possibly a town or neighborhood in contemporary Spain. No information is currently available. It could have been a name lost to history due to renaming of a district, city, town, etc. Also, lots of Spanish cities have usurped surrounding towns. Benaoján Bani ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Benarrabá Banu Rabbah (Arabic for the sons of Rabbah from the Berber tribe by that name) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Benavente Bani ??? A municipality in the north of the province of Zamora, in the autonomous community Castile and Leon of Spain. It is also


the name of a municipality in Portugal in the district of Santarém. It is also used as a surname. Benavides (surname) Bani ??? Benavides de Órbigo is a municipality in the province of León in Spain. Benavites Bani ??? A municipality in Valencia, Spain. Benceno Lubán Jáwí (Arabic for incense from Java) An aromatic, flammable and transparent chemical compound liquid used primarily in laboratories and industrially. Benejí ??? A neighborhood in Berja in the Almería province of Spain. Benevides Bani ??? Apparently an alternative way of writing Benavides, it is used mostly as a surname nowadays. There is a high probability that this was a place name but was absorbed by growing city or town. Benevites Bani ??? Marques de Benevites is a neighborhood in the province and municipality of Ávila in Castile-León, Spain. Beniajar Bani an-Najār (‫)بني النجار‬ sons of the carpenter Benicalap Bani Khalaf (‫)بني خلﻒ‬ The name of a neighborhood in the city of Valencia in Spain. It is located in the northeast of the city. Benicalapech Bani Khalaf (‫)بني خلﻒ‬ The name of a neighborhood in the city of Valencia in Spain. It is located in the northeast of the city. The name is the Valencian version of Benicalap. Benicalaf Bani Khalaf (‫)بني خلﻒ‬ A town or village that disappeared after the Christian conquest of Muslim Spain. It was located in Valencia in Spain. Benicasim Bani Qasim (Arabic meaning the sons of Qasim) A municipality embracing a port town and beach resort located in the province of Castello, on the Costa del Azahar in Spain. Benidorm Bani ??? A coastal town and municipality located in Valencia, in the province of Alicante, Spain. Beniferri Bani ??? Beniferri was a town in Valencia. It is currently a neighborhood in the city of Valencia as it has been completely absorbed by the city and district of Valencia in Spain. Benijofar Bani Ja’afar (Arabic [‫ ]بني جعفر‬for sons of Jafar) A town in Costa Blanca (White Coast) in the province of Alicante in Spain. Benimaclet Bani ??? Benimaclet was a town in Valencia. Currently, it is a neighborhood in the city of Valencia in Spain. It was completely absorbed by the city of Valencia. Up until recently, it was a municipality. Benimámet Bani Mumīt (Arabic [‫ ]بني ال مم يت‬meaning sons of Mumit) or Bani Muhammad (Arabic [‫ ]بني محمد‬for sons of Muhammad) A district located in the northwest of Valencia in Spain. It was a town in Valencia but in modern times has become a district to the city of Valencia. Benimar Bani ??? A town in Costa Blanca (White Coast) between Benijofar and Rojales in the province of Alicante in Spain.


Benimerín Bani Merīn (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ب نو‬ ‫ ] مري ن‬meaning sons of the merino sheep) A tribe of North African Berbers that originally bred the merino sheep. Benitagla Bani ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Benizalón Bani Salām (Arabic for sons of peace) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Benjuí Lubán Jáwí (Arabic for incense from Java) An aromatic balsam that is obtain by an incision into the bark of a tree native to Malacca and the islands of Malaysia. Benjumea Bani Jumu’a (Arabic for sons of Friday – Friday being special for the congregational prayers) Mostly used as a surname, Benjumea is also used as a title of nobility. Benjumeda Bani ??? Used as a surname, Benjumeda is also the name of a street or neighborhood in Cádiz, Spain. Bentarique Bani Tarīq (‫بني ﻁريق‬, Arabic for the sons of Tarīq) or Bin Tarīq or Ibn Tarīq (Arabic for son of Tarīq) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Berberí Berber (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barbar, ‫)ري هال برب‬ Berber; the inhabitants of northern Africa from the Egyptian deserts in the east to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean in the west and into the Sahara Desert. Also, the Hamitic language that the Berbers speak. Berbería Berber (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barbar, ‫)ال برب ري ه‬ From a place where Berbers reside; North Africa. Berberís (Am)barbarīs (From Arabic) A tree that is common in Spain. Its wood is yellowish and its fruit is edible. It belongs to the family Berberidacea. It is commonly used in the art and trade of ebony-making. Bereber (or Beréber) Berber (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barbar, ‫)ال برب ري ه‬ Berber; the inhabitants of northern Africa from the Egyptian deserts in the east to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean in the west and into the Sahara Desert. Also, the Hamitic language that the Berbers speak. Beréber Berber (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Barbar, ‫)ال برب ري ه‬ Berber; the inhabitants of northern Africa from the Egyptian deserts in the east to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean in the west and into the Sahara Desert. Also, the Hamitic language that the Berbers speak. Berenjena Badhinjána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bādhinjān [‫]الباذنجان‬, which is from Persian Bātingān) The eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae and genus Solanum. It bears a fruit of the same name, commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. It is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to India and Sri Lanka. Berja Bershat or Berchat (Andalusian Arabic) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Bermudo Barmand (‫)ب رم ند‬ The name of a king of Asturias. Beso Búss (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ب اس‬Bās) A kiss; another word related to this is besar which is the Spanish verb meaning to


kiss. Betelgeuse Bayt al-Jawzā or Yad al-Jawz (Arabic [‫]ال جوزاء ي د‬ meaning house [or hand] of the central one) The name of a star. It is the second brightest in the constellation of Orion. Bezar Bezáhr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Badi Zahr, which comes from Persian, Pad Zahr meaning defense against poison) Stones or particles found inside the digestive tracts of certain mammals such as antelopes and goats to which curative properties were attributed. Bezoar Bezáhr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Badi Zahr, which comes from Persian, Pad Zahr meaning defense against poison) Stones or particles found inside the digestive tracts of certain mammals such as antelopes and goats to which curative properties were attributed. Biar Biyāra (‫)بيارة‬ A Valencian town in the province of Alicante, Spain. Birzali (surname) Berber meaning ‘worthy one’ The Berber people of the Banu Birzal. Boabdil Abu Abdullah (From Moroccan Arabic, Bu Abdillah ‫)أبو عبد هللا‬ Abu 'abd-Allah Muhammad XII was the twenty-second and last official king of Nasrid dynasty of Granada in Iberia (Spain). He was also called el chico (the little), Boabdil and el zogoybi (the unfortunate). He was the son of Abu-l-Hasan ‘Ali, king of the taifa (emirate) of Granada. Boabdil was proclaimed king in 1482 in place of his father, who was driven from the land. Bobastro Bab Shatr (‫ببشتر‬, Arabic for door or doorway to ???) A castle built on the Mesas de Villaverde in the Sierra de la Pizarra mountain range near Ronda in the northern part of the province of Málaga. Bocací Boghasí (Arabic from Turkish) A thick, colored cloth made of thread. Bodocal (or Bodoque) Búnduq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bunduq, which is originally from Greek) Said of a grapevine or vineyard that produces a variety of grape that has splotches and is common in Andalusia. Bodojen ??? Warrior monks or mystics. Bodoque Búnduq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Bunduq, which is originally from Greek) Said of a grapevine or vineyard that produces a variety of grape that has splotches and is common in Andalusia. Bófeta Baftah (Arabic from Persian, Báfte meaning cotton sewing) A type of cotton cloth that is stiff. Bolaique ??? Large or widened head of nails that were used on doors. Boldregas ??? An unkempt, grubby, grimy person or thing. Boltaña Barntaa’iiyya (‫)بربتانية‬ A municipality located in the province of Huesca in Aragon, Spain. Bórax Bawraq (Classical Arabic from Persian, Bure) White salt composed of boric acid and water. It is found beaches and waters of various lakes of China, Tibet, Sri Lanka and other places. It can also be prepared artificially. It is used in medicine and other industries.


Borní Burní (Arabic possibly a shortened form for Hibernia, the ancient name of Ireland) A grey-colored bird of prey. It has a yellowish-colored head, chest and feet. They live and nest near water. Boronía (same as Alboronía) Buraníyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Būrāniyya meaning from Búrán, wife of Caliph al-Ma'mún) A stew made of chopped vegetable Botor BuTúr (Classical Arabic for a pus-filled growth on the skin) A small pus-filled tumor. Braga Afraagha (‫)أفراغة‬ A city and municipality in northwestern Portugal. It is the capital of the district of Braga, the oldest archdiocese and one of the major cities of the country. Bujía Béjaïa (Arabic [‫ ]ب جاي ة‬for the name of the capital in Béjaïa province in northern Algeria. It is the largest city in Kabylia) Spark plug – the piece that sparks electricity and helps burn gaseous fuel within internal combustion motors. Also, candlewax from the fat of the sperm whale. Also, the candelabra within which this candle is placed. Also, the unit with which to measure artificial light. Bulbul Bulbul (From Classical Arabic, ‫)بلبل‬ An insectivorous bird native to Spain of the family of Passeriforms; a nightingale

Burche Búrj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Burj [‫]البرج‬, meaning tower. It probably comes from Greek) A fortified building or wall. Burgos Burgash (‫)برغش‬ Used as a surname, Burgos is also a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of Castile and León. It is bordered by the provinces of Palencia, Cantabria, Vizcaya, Álava, La Rioja, Soria, Segovia, and Valladolid. Its capital has the same name of Burgos. Buz Búss (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ب اس‬Bās) The mouth's lips. A reverential kiss. Buzaque Abú Zaqq (Andalusian Arabic meaning he of the wine skin) A person that is intoxicated or drunk.

Cabila Qabila (tribe) A tribe of Berbers or Bedouins. Cable Habl (‫ )حبل‬or Kābl (‫)كابل‬ A thick rope. Also, a wire made up of smaller wires twisted in spirals. Also, a type of thick chain used on boats whereby each link has a small eyes in order to prevent anything from getting


tangled within it. Colloquially, it is used to mean that a person has momentarily lost his senses. Cabra Qabra (‫)قبرة‬ The young of a goat, a kid. Also, it is the name of a municipality in the province of Córdoba in Andalucía in Spain. It is also the name of the former ruling family of that area. There is also a Cabra de Mora which is a municipality located in the province of Teruel in Aragon, Spain. It is also the name of a famous battle, the Battle of Cabra. It took place in 1079 in Spain. It resulted in a victory for El Cid (Rodrigo Díaz) who routed the combined armies of Emir Abd Allah of Granada and his ally, the Castilian Count García Ordóñez. Cabtrana Ibn al-QabaTrana or Ibn al-QabTurna (‫إب ن ال ق بطرن ة‬, ‫)إب ن ال ق بطورن ة‬ There were three brothers known by that name. They were all katibs or writers in courts, as well as authors and poets. Cáceres QaSirish (‫)قصرش‬ Generally used as a surname, it is also the name of a province in western Spain in the northern part of the of Extremadura. Its capital is the city of Cáceres. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca, Toledo, Badajoz and Ávila. It is also bordered by Portugal. Cachemira Kashmir (Arabic from the local languages of Kashmir [country in the Himalayas] such as Balti, Poonchi, Shina, etc) Cashmere wool from the Cashmere goat. Cachemir Kashmir (Arabic from the local languages of Kashmir [country in the Himalayas] such as Balti, Poonchi, Shina, etc) Cashmere wool from the Cashmere goat. Cachera ??? Clothing made of tough, coarse wool that has long hairs. Cadí QāDī (Classical Arabic, ‫)القاضي‬ Muslim civil judge or generally a civil judge among the Muslims, Turks or Moors. A related Spanish word is Alcalde. Cadira Qádra (Andalusian Arabic meaning pot which comes from Classical Arabic, Qidrah) A small pot. Cadiz (surname & place name) Qadis (‫)قاﺩس‬ Name of a city in Andalusia in southern Spain. Café Qahwa (‫)قهوﻩ‬ coffee Cáfila Qáfilah (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic Qāfilah) A multitude or crowd of people, animals or things, especially if they are moving or are in some type of movement or are going one after another. Cafiz (same as Cahíz) Qafíz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic. It is originally from the Greek which is from Pahlavi Persian, Kabíz) A system of measurement used for sand and stones used as building material. In Madrid, it is equivalent to 690 kilograms. A related word is Cahizada which is a portion of land where grains can be planted. Cafre Cáfer[e] (From Portuguese which borrowed it from Classical Arabic, Kafir [‫]كﺄفر‬, meaning one who chooses to deny the truth) A person that is barbaric or cruel; something that is from the country or rural; something that is course and unrefined. Caftán QafTán (From Arabic or possibly from Turkish, Kaftan, which ultimately comes from Persian Khaftán, ‫)خ ف تان‬ Among the Muslims, a type


of clothing that covers the body from the neck down to the legs above the knees. It does not have a collar and is open in the front with short sleeves. It is used by men and women. Cahiz Qafíz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic. It is originally from the Greek which is from Pahlavi Persian, Kabíz) A system of measurement used for sand and stones used as building material. In Madrid, it is equivalent to 690 kilograms. A related word is Cahizada which is a portion of land where grains can be planted. Cáid Qāyd (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]قائد‬, Qā’id, meaning warden, commander) In the ancient kingdom of Algeria and in other Islamic countries, a type of judge or governor. Caimacán Qáim Maqám (From Arabic for lieutenant) Lieutenant or assistant of the grand vizier. In Colombia and Venezuela, it is generally used for anyone in authority. Cala Qala’at (Arabic [‫ ]القلعة‬meaning castle) Entrance to the sea, creek, cove, etc. It can also mean a sample of something. Colloquially, it is used in Spain to mean a local currency called a peseta. Calafate/Calafatear QalafaT (From Andalusian Arabic) Carpenter that works on the docks, near or by the shore. Carpenter that works on boats, especially sealing the holes or gaps within the wood so that no water can get in. Calahorra Qala’at al-Hajar (‫) قلعة الحجر‬ A city located on a hill at an altitude of 358 metres at the confluence of the Ebro and Cidacos rivers. The name means Hagar's Castle. It is located near La Rioja, Spain near the border with Navarre. This came to be a building where the local inhabitants could obtain bread during famines. Calamita QaramīT (Arabic from Greek, καλαμίτης. It meant something related to sugarcane because in medieval times, navigators would place this on a piece of sugarcane in a receptacle filled with water which would indicate the northerly direction) a magnet Cálamo Qalam (‫ قلم‬comes from the Greek word, κάλαμος) pen Calamocha Qalamusa or Qala’at Musa (Arabic meaning Musa’s [Moses’] fort) A municipality in the province of Teruel in Aragon, Spain. Calatañazor Qal’at an-Nasur (‫ )قلعة النسر‬A municipality located in the province of Soria in Castile-León, Spain. The meaning of the word is fort of eagles. Calatayud Qala’at Ayyūb (‫)قلعة ايوب‬ A city in Aragón Spain; it means Ayyub's (Job’s) Fort. Calatrava Qala’at RabāH (‫ رب اح ق ل عة‬, Rabah’s Fortress. Rabah was a Moorish nobleman who controlled this area in the 8th century.) The name was originally Calatrava la Vieja or the Old Calatrava. The Christian military brotherhood Order of Calatrava takes its name from this site. It now belongs to Castile-La Mancha in Spain but was part of Toledo in earlier times. There is also a Calatrava la Nueva or New Calatrava. It is a medieval castle and convent near Almagro in Ciudad Real in Spain. Calcena Qalshaana (‫)قلشانة‬ A municipality located in the province of Zaragoza in Aragon, Spain.


Calcetin Kalsaat (Arabic [‫ ]ك ل سات‬meaning socks) Stockings and/or socks. Calí Qalawi (‫)القلوي‬ alkali Cálibo (same as Calibre & Gálibo) Qálib (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qálab, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Kálbod, which ultimately came from Greek) Size, importance, class, type, etc. The interior diameter of hollow objects such as firearms, tubes and pipes. Calibre Qálib (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qálab, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Kálbod, which ultimately came from Greek) Size, importance, class, type, etc. The interior diameter of hollow objects such as firearms, tubes and pipes. Califa Khalifah (‫)خليفة‬ caliph Calilo/a Qalíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]قليل‬ meaning little) A stupid person or a fool. Calle Qahal A path in between two properties, gardens, trees or buildings. It can also mean ‘the street’ or outside. In this sense, it can also mean freedom as in the sentence, “Recién salió a la calle pero volvió a delinquir” (meaning having recently gotten his freedom, he began committing crimes again). Cámara Qamara (Arabic for dark room) Usually used for the word camera nowadays but it also has several other meanings. The living room or largest place of a house. The meeting of people trying to resolve a matter. Each colegislative part of a representative government. In royal palaces, the place where gentlemen, ambassadors, government helpers, etc. were permitted entrance. Cambuj Kanbúsh (Andalusian Arabic from late Latin, Caputium) A mask or something that is placed on the face. Camisa QamīS (‫)قميص‬ shirt Camocán Camotas (By way of Arabic which originally comes from Persian, Kamkhā) A type of course, colorful clothing (brocade) made of silk used in Spain and in the Middle East. A type of silk intertwined with gold or silver with designs. Campeador al-QambayTur (‫)ال قم ب يطور‬ Generally, this refers to Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as ‘el Cid’ (as-Sayyid) and el Campeador (the champion). Canal Qanawat or Qanā (Arabic [‫ ]القناة‬for canal) A causeway or space excavated in the ground for water or other things to run or move through. Canana ¿?? A belt that is made to carry catridges. Cancana ¿?? Said of a person who is simple or foolish. Cáncana ??? A species of dark-colored spider that is thick with short legs. Cancanilla ¿?? The diminutive of Cancana, it means a trap, deception, lie, swindle or fraud. Cáncano ¿?? Colloquially used to mean lice. Cande (same as Candi) Qand (Arabic from Persian, Kand, which ultimately comes from Sanskrit, Khanda, meaning sugar powder) The English word Candy also comes from this word. The meaning of this word is sugar obtained through slow evaporation.


The crystals are generally big and the color can vary from transparent and white to yellowish and brownish depending on substances that may color it. Candil Qandíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qindīl) An oil lamp. Also, the highest points of the horns of a deer. Also, the tails of unequal lengths from smocks and overcoats that women wore in orden times. Cañete al-Qannit A municipality in the Cuenca province in Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Canfor Kafúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kāfūr [‫]كافور‬, from Pahlavi Persian, Kāpūr, from Sanskrit, Karpūrā) A solid, crystalized, white substance that has a characteristic strong, penetrating smell. It is obtained from the Alcanforero (in English, camphor laurel, Cinnamomum camphora) tree. It is generally used in medicine as a cardiac stimulant. It is known in English as camphor. It was formerly used to make smokeless gunpowder and celluloid. It was also used for sweets. Canjáyar Qansayar A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. The first mention of this area was mentioned by the Arab geographer, al-Idrisi. Canay ¿?? A lancer; a person who throws or fights with a lance. Canon Qánún (‫)القانون‬ A law or precept. A list of things or a catalog. A model of human perfection or characteristic perfection. A decision or law established by the Catholic Church at a council regarding some dogma or discipline. The catalog of books held to be sacred by the Catholic Church or other religious group.A book used by bishops. Cantoria Hisn Qanturiyya or Hisn Qatturiyya A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Caparra al-Kabar (‫ )الكبر‬and al-Kappárra (Andalusian Arabic from Mozarabic which comes from Latin, Capparis, which comes from Greek) Caper, caper fruit or caper bush. The button of the flower of this plant is used as a condiment and hors d'oeurves. Also, it means a tick, especially the type that hang onto horses and cattle. By extension, it means an impertinent and irrelevant person, especially in his/her conversation. Caraba Qarába (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qarābah, meaning close relatives) A festive occasion or reunion, especially among country folk. Cárabe Qáhraba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kahrabā, which is from Pahlavi Persian, Kāhrubāy, meaning straw thief) Amber; fossilized resin. Cárabo Qarāb (owl); Kalb (dog) [‫]كلب‬ Ground beetles or carabids are insects in the beetle family Carabidae. Also, a type of small, sail boat used with paddles used by the Moors. This word also means crab. Caracoa (Possibly from Arabic but originally from Malaysian) A type of rowboat or boat that uses oars used in the Philippines. Carajo Karāhiyāt (Arabic for reprehensibility) A strong word verging on profanity. It is means penis. It is used to express disgust, rejection, surprise, etc. It also denotes anger and rejection. In terms of rejection, it is a disdainful rejection. Colloquially, it is sometimes used to denote intenseness or bigness


such as in the sentence, un frío del carajo (one heck of a cold temperatura). It can also be used similarly as English phrase ‘go to hell’ (irse al carajo or vete al carajo) – in this sense, it probably means to have a bad end. It can also be a synonym for ‘nothing’ as in the sentence, no tiene ni un carajo (he doesn’t have a dime). In some Spanish-speaking countries, such as Costa Rica, Honduras, and Venezuela, it can be used as a substitute for a person’s name when one does not want to mention them by name, especially if speaking bad about them. Caramba Karāhiyāt (Arabic for reprehensibility) Euphemism for Carajo. It basically is a way of saying “good grief!” if one is surprised or “damn it!” if one is angry. Caramida QaramiT (Arabic from Greek, καλαμίτης, meaning a type of cane. It was the name given to magnets in medieval times because navigators would place it atop of a piece of cane in a receptacle full of water where it would indicate where the direction of North was) A magnet. Caramuzal Karamusal (Possibly from Arabic but originally from Turkish) A Turkish merchant ship with a very elevated stern. Caravana Caravana (From French but originally from Persian [‫ک اروان‬, Kārvān. It is quite possible that the word came to Spain with the Moors) A group or committee of people that would travel together in vehicles or beasts of burden. They may journey together the whole way or may relieve one another along the way. Another definition is that of herbivorous animals that sometimes journey from one place to another in long lines. Also, a long lineo f vehicles that because of difficulties on the road, kept pace slowly, sometimes stopping very frequently. Caravasar Caravansará (From Portuguese but originally from Persian [‫]ك اروان سرا‬, Kārvāsarā. There is also a Turkish word related this where it may have influenced the Spanish word, Kervansaray. It is very likely that this word came to Spain via the Moors) An inn or place of dwelling where people and animals in a caravan could sleep, rest, eat, etc. Also, the destination of the caravan. Caray Karāhiyāt (Arabic for reprehensibility) Euphemism for Carajo. It is basically a way of exclaiming “Oh God!” or “Good Heavens!” when expressing surprise. Carboneras ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Carcaj Jaljāl (From Arabic) A quiver or a small cylindrical box made of wood or tin and sometimes leather skins. It has a small belt or rope by which a hunter carries it on his left shoulder. It is used to transport arrows but also used by hunters to transport ferrets during the hunt. Also, a hunter’s or shepherd’s pouch or leather bag. Carcajada/Carcajear (An Arabic onomatopeia of loud, impulsive laughing) Loud, impetuous laughter. A word related to this is Carcajear meaning to laugh out loud and impetuously. It also means to make fun of something or someone. Carcax Jaljāl (From Arabic, it means the same as Ajorca) A type of large ring made of gold, silver, or other metal, used by women to adorn their wrists, arms, or ankles. Also, a quiver or a small cylindrical box made of wood or tin and sometimes leather skins. It has a small belt or rope by which a hunter carries it on


his left shoulder. It is used to transport arrows but also used by hunters to transport ferrets during the hunt. Also, a hunter’s or shepherd’s pouch or leather bag. Carlos (also Carlo) Qarla (‫)ق ارل ة‬ The name of several Spanish kings. Carmen (same as Carme) Karma (Arabic [‫ ]كرمه‬meaning vine) A fifth of something but particularly a fifth of a garden or small piece of land. Carme Karma (Arabic [‫ ]كرمه‬meaning vine) A fifth of something but particularly a fifth of a garden or small piece of land. Carmesí Qarmazí or Qirmizi (‫ قرمزي‬, Andalusian Arabic meaning reddish colored) The color of crimson. Anything that is reddish. Reddish colored silk. A reddish colored substance that the Quermes insect produces. A reddish powder made from the Quermes insect. Carmín Quermes or Carmesí (Both Spanish words that derive from Arabic words) A substance that is bright red. The color red. Red lipstick. Carmona (surname) Qarmoona (‫)قرمونة‬ A town of south-western Spain in the province of Seville. Carraca Harrak (From Andalusian Arabic) An old, slow boat. An old, deteriorated artifact. A transport ship that could weigh as much as 2000 tons invented by the Italians. Carrafa Carrofa (Catalan from Arabic, al-Harrúba) Fruit from the algarrobo tree (a tree in the papilionaceae family). Carratraca ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Carrazón Qaras’un (Arabic meaning balance scales) The arms of a scale. Also, a large steelyard or portable hanging balance. Cartagena QarTājina (‫)قرﻁاجنة‬, QarTājannatul Halfā (‫)قرطاجنة الحلفاء‬ A city in the Murcia region of Spain. It is the original city to bear the name. It is also used as a surname. Cartajima al-Z’jaima (An Arabic/Berber mix. It means the place on high or the place above. In older times it was written as Xaritalxime which means that it could possibly have other roots) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. The history of the area relates that the citizens of Cartajima were pious Muslims and suffered greatly even into the 16th century due to the practice of Islam (even though they superficially converted to Catholicism). Cártama/o Carthamus (A term used in Latin treatises of a scientific nature. It was a word that came from the Arabic, QurTum or QirTim) A plant that grows yearly. It grows half a meter tall and has heavy branches, spiny leaves and yellow colored flowers. The flowers are used to tint or dye. The seeds produce oil that can be used to cook or eat. The seeds are also good for feeding fowls. Cártama Carthamus (A term used in Latin treatises of a scientific nature. It was a word that came from the Arabic, QurTum or QirTim) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Casabermeja ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Casarabonela Qasr al-Bunayra A town and


municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Casares Qasr (Arabic [‫ ]قصر‬meaning castle) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Casba (same as Kasba or Casbah) QaSabah (Arabic meaning small city) Old neighborhoods in North African cities. Casida QaSīdah (Classical Arabic) A poetic composition in Arabic or Persian on varied topics. They have an undetermined number of verses. Casimira Kashmir (Arabic from the local languages of Kashmir [country in the Himalayas] such as Balti, Poonchi, Shina, etc) Cashmere wool from the Cashmere goat. Casio (same as Cassius) Banu Qasi (‫)ق سي وب ن‬ A family of Aragonese descent, whose ancestor is the Visigothic count, Cassius. See Ibn Fartun (Fortun). During the Arab conquest of the Iberian peninsula, Cassius nominally accepted Islam in order to keep his land and wealth. Banu Qasi meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") was a Basque Muladi (Visigoths or Hispano-Romans converted to Islam) dynasty that ruled the entire Ebro valley in the 9th and 10th centuries. Castellano (surname) Qashtāla (‫)قشتالة‬ Castilian and by extension a person from Spain. Catalonia (surname) Katālūna (‫ )كتالونة‬or QaTalūniyya (‫ )قطلونية‬Currently, it is an an autonomous community within the Kingdom of Spain. The capital city is Barcelona. Catalonia is divided into four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Catifa (same as Alcatifa) al-QaTífa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QaTīfah) A fine or luxurious rug or table cloth. Cazo ¿?? A kitchen receptacle made of metal or porcelain which is generally more wide at the opening than at its base. It can be cylindrical with an arm and generally with a small pitcher’s beak for liquid to easily be removed or poured. Generally liquid food ítems are held in it. Also, the food item such as juice held in it is known as such. Cazurro ??? A reserved person, of few words, possibly malicious. A person that is not too bright or one that is slow to understand things. Words, expressions or acts that are lewd or bad. Cazuz Qassús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qissūs, which originally came from Greek) A type of evergreen vine. Cebiche (same as Escabeche) as-Sukkabáj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sikbāj) A type of food dish made from raw fish or other sea food, sliced into small pieces and seasoned with lemon, garlic, onion, and salt. Cebratana (same as Cerbatana) ZarbaTána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SabaTānah) A pipe or blowpipe where arrows or projectiles are introduced in order to blow them out. A medieval piece of artillery that did not have much caliber. Cebtí Sabtí (From Andalusian Arabic) The name given to the people of Sabta in Ceuta in North Africa Ceca Sakka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sikkah) The place where money is coined or made. In Argentina it is used to mean the


reverse side of a coin (as in heads or tail – cara o ceca). There is also a refrain, de la ceca a la Meca (from the coin to Mecca), figuratively meaning from one place to another. Cedoaria Zedoarium (Late Latin from Classical Arabic, Jadear, which came from Persian, Zadvār) A medicinal root from a plant in the East Indies relative to ginger. Cegatero SiqáT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SiqāT, meaning a hindrance) A person that haggles or bargains for a desired price. Also, a person that buys foods wholesale and sells them retail. Cegrí Zakrī or Zikrī (Andalusian Arabic) A person or individula that belonged to a family of nobility during the Muslim reign of Granada. The family was famous for its rivalry with the Abencerrajes. Also, it comes from the Turkish, Çagri meaning a strong, silk cloth that had designs on it that was used to make dresses. Celemí/Celemín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]الثامنة‬, Thāmanīyyah, meaning from an octave or an eighth of something) A measure or weight of grains, seed or similar thing. The distance or measure of a land needed to plant a certain portion of wheat also called Celemín. A measure/weight, measurement of capacity for aggregates such as sand and gravel for mortar Celeminero Tamaní (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]الثامنة‬, Thāmanīyyah, meaning from an octave or an eighth of something) Those whose job it was in an inn or tavern to keep a tab on what travelers took for their livestock. Cenacho Sannáj or Sannág (Andalusian Arabic) A basket made of hemp or palm leaves with one or two handles that is used to carry meat, fish, fruit, vegetables or other similar thing. Cendolilla ¿?? A disobedient or restless girl with no judgment. Cenefa (same as Acenefa) Sanif, Sanifa (‫[ )صنفة‬from Aramaic Senafa and Hebrew Tznefa] Embroidered edge, ornamental border of a dress; edging, trimmings; fabrics, wood or stuccoes use for decorative aims. Ceneque ¿?? A bread roll or piece of bread. Also, used figuratively to mean a fool or a brutish person. Cení Síni (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sīnī, which came from Pahlavi Persian) A type of fine brass. Cenia as-Sánya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sāniyyah, meaning elevator) A simple gadget by which water is lifted. In Morocco, an orchard or garden that is watered with this contraption. Cenit (same as Cénit) Sanit or Azimuth (Mozarabic) Zenith; the highest point of achievement of something or someone. Also, astronomically, the vertical intersection of a celestial body overhead of an observer. Cephalie Kifal Cequí Sikkí (A nickname from Andalusian Arabic for the Ceca) Medieval golden coin used in various European nations as well as in North Africa. It was given this name by the Arabs. Cequia as-Saqiyah (the irrigator) [‫]الساقية‬ An irrigation ditch, canal, drainage channel, etc.


Cerbatana ZarbaTána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SabaTānah) A pipe or blowpipe where arrows or projectiles are introduced in order to blow them out. A medieval piece of artillery that did not have much caliber. Céro Sífr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sifr [‫]صفر‬, meaning empty) Zero or cipher. The number that expresses nothingness. Cetís Sabtí (A nickname in Andalusian Arabic given to the people of Sabta in Ceuta in North Africa) A medieval Portuguese coinage that was in use in the Spanish province of Galicia. It was worth a sixth of a Maravedian silver coin. Ceutí Sabtí (From Andalusian Arabic) The name given to the people of Sabta in Ceuta in North Africa Chafariz (same as Zafariche) Sahrij (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sihrīj, which comes from Pahlavi Persian) A spring, brook, or waterfall. A recipient where grapes are stepped on in order to obtain grape juice. The place where olives are pressed in order to obtain olive oil. Also, the place where apples are crushed in order to obtain apple cider. Chafarote (same as Zafariche) Sahrij (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sihrīj, which comes from Pahlavi Persian) A spring, brook, or waterfall. A recipient where grapes are stepped on in order to obtain grape juice. The place where olives are pressed in order to obtain olive oil. Also, the place where apples are crushed in order to obtain apple cider. Chaguado (same as Jaguarzo) ShaqwáS (Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic) A common shrub that is very abundant in central Spain. It belongs to the family Cistaceae.

Chal Shāl (Persian [‫ ] شال‬meaning shawl) A shawl or prayer shawl. Chaleco Yelek (Turkish) A vest. Chanca Chanca (From late Latin, Zanca, which is originally from Persian, Zanga, meaning leg) Old shoes whereby the soles are used up and flat because of their constant use. Also, slippers that are used in the house. A related word that is still in use is Chancleta which also has the meaning of slippers used in the house. Chancla Chanca (From late Latin, Zanca, which is originally from Persian, Zanga, meaning leg) Old shoes whereby the soles are used up and flat because of their constant use. Also, slippers that are used in the house. A related word that is still in use is Chancleta which also has the meaning of slippers used in the house. Chanfaina es un guiso con patatas fritas y un "majaillo" con vinagre, orégano, comino y otras especias, todo ello se acompaña con pimientos, chorizos, morcillas, carne de cerdo y/o asaduras. Charaíz Sahrij (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sihrīj,


which comes from Pahlavi Persian) A spring, brook, or waterfall. A recipient where grapes are stepped on in order to obtain grape juice. The place where olives are pressed in order to obtain olive oil. Also, the place where apples are crushed in order to obtain apple cider. Charía Shari’a (Classical Arabic [‫ ]الشريعة‬literally meaning path, street, etc. but also used for the wide body of Islamic relgious law and jurisprudence) The legal framework within which the public and private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence and for Muslims living outside the realm of Islam. Charrán Sharral (Andalusian Arabic meaning seller of scad fish) A rogue, rascal or thief. It was said in olden days of people that sold fish. Chercos Shīrkūs (‫)شيركوس‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Cheroké Sharkiy (those who are easternmost) Cherokee Cherva Hirwa’ A plant that originates in Africa of the Spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. Chifla Shifra (Arabic meaning knife) A broad, almost rectangular knife made of steel. Chii Shi’a (partisans) [‫]شيعي‬ Shi’ite Chiísmo Shi’a (partisans) [‫]الشيعه‬ Shia Islam Chiita Shi’a (partisans) [‫]شيعي‬ Shi’ite Chilaba Jellaba (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jilbāb) The common tunic that Muslims wear. They are sometimes hooded. Chinchilla Jinjaalah (‫)جنجالة‬ A town in La Mancha, Spain. Chiquero Shirkáyr (From Mozarabic and Andalusian Arabic) The compartments or stables where bulls (and often cattle in general) are held before they are let loose to run, especially in such events such as the running of the bulls. Chirivel ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Chirivía Jiriwiya or Karawiyya (Andalusian Arabic from Aramaic, Karawyā, which comes from Greek, καρώ) parsnip Chisme ¿?? argument, dispute, gossip Chivo al-Jubb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jubb) Container where oil is collected or transported in Chocho Shúsh or Shósh (Mozarabic possibly from Latin, Salsas, meaning salty) A type of leguminous plant. It is very good feed for livestock. It has white flowers and its grains are attached. People also eat this plant after its bitter taste has been removed with salty water. The fruit of this plant is also called Altramuz. It belongs to the genus Lupinus. This word is also vulgarly used to mean a vulva. Choz Zucho (Mozarabic from Andalusian Arabic, Zújj, which comes from Classical Arabic, Zujj) Something that happens suddenly or unexpectedly. Novelty or strangeness. Chupa Jubbah Jacket; short jacket that hugs the waist; a dress that was worn that covered the torso. Chuzo Zucho (A corruption of the Andalusian Arabic Zújj which is originally from Classical Arabic, Zujj, meaning point of a lance.) A stick, lance,


pole, or staff that is armed for offensive or defensive actions. Also, it means a piece of pointed ice. Various Latin American countries have differing meanings for the word but they all notably have to do with weapons. Cianí Zyān (Andalusian Arabic from the proper name Abu Zayān, king of Tremecen or Tlemsen in Algeria) A golden coinage used by the Moors in North Africa. Cibica Sabíka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sabīkah, meaning bar) An iron bar that is inlaid on the wooden bars on carriages and coaches. Cica ¿?? A money bag or money sack. Cicalar Siqál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Siqāl, meaning an instrument to help polish or shine) To clean, polish, or smooth down a weapon. To polish, brush, adorn, dress up, or liven up someone or something. To clean or polish or adorn; to make oneself look good by combing, shaving etc. Cicatear SiqáT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SiqāT, meaning to let a horse graze) To give importance to small and insignificant things. Other related words are Cicatero meaning a person that gives importance to small things or is offended by small and insignificant things. Also, a mean, stingy, miserable person that skimps on what he/she owes. Cicatería means the action of skimping or shirking ones’ responsibilities or debts. Cicatero SiqáT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SiqāT, meaning to let a horse graze) A person that gives importance to small things or is offended by small and insignificant things. Also, a mean, stingy, miserable person that skimps on what he/she owes. Ciclán Siqláb (Andalusian Arabic from Latin, Slavus, meaning slave) Said of a man who only has one testicle. Also, a yearling lamb or goat whose testicles do not descend. Ciclar Siqál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Siqāl, meaning an instrument to help polish or shine) To polish or shine precious stones. Ciclatón SiqlaTún (Andalusian Arabic from Latin, Sigillatum, meaning a marked cloth or cloth that has a seal on it) A type of fancy dress used in the Middle Ages. It was similar to a tunic, sometimes hooded. Silk cloth stitched with gold with which they made said dress. Cid Sidi (North African/Andalusian Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, Sayyid [‫ ]سيد‬or as-Sayyid [‫ ]ال س يد‬meaning literally Sir, noble and Mr.) Used as a Spanish surname. The best known ‘Cid’ was El Cid Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, also called el Campeador or the Champion in Spanish history. It also means a strongman, man of valor or brave man. Cieza Siyāsa (‫)سياسة‬ Cieza is a town and municipality in Spain, in the autonomous community of Murcia. It is also the name of a municipality located in the autonomous community of Cantabria, Spain. Cifaque Sifāq In the higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity. The peritoneum both supports the abdominal organs and serves as a conduit for their blood and lymph vessels and nerves.


Cifra Sifr (‫)صفر‬ zero, numeral, cipher Címbara Zabbára (Andalusian Arabic meaning a tool used to prune) A cutting instrument or tool with short, thick, and wide blades used to prune or cut blackberry bushes and/or other types of bushes. Cimboga az-Zanbu’ (Andalusian Arabic) Fruit of the Azamboero tree, which is a type of citrus.in the Rutaceae family. Cimitarra Shamshir (Persian, from Pahlavi Persian, shafshēr) scimitar Cirate as-SirāT (Classical Arabic [‫ ]صراﻁ‬meaning path or way) A line of soil used to separate different plots of land; path between two lines of trees; a boulevard; a path or way. Circón az-Zarqún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zarqūn, which comes from Persian, Zargun, meaning golden-colored) A type of crystal commonly called zircon; a silicate of zircon, more or less transparent, white or yellowish. It is commonly found in India and used as a precious stone. It is also called hyacinth. It could be whitish or reddish-yellowish.

Citano/a Fulán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fulān) A way of saying “so and so.” A euphemism for a person’s identity by ignoring their name especially if the person does not want to utter the name. An imaginary or indetermined person. Also, a euphemism for a beloved person. Also, a euphemism for a prostitute. Citara as-Sitārah (‫)ستارة‬ A thin wall (normally on a bridge); a wall to prevent falls. Civeto/a al-Kifat (‫)الكيفت‬ civet cat Coba al-Qúbba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qubbah, from Persian, Gumbad, meaning a dome – usually referring to the dome covering the ancient fire temples of Persia) In Morocco, a small building or edifice where the tomb of a holy person is housed. Also, a dome or a building that has a dome. Also, a place such as a kitchen or hospital that is used by the sultan. Cóbdar Abdar or Abdul (Arabic meaning ‘servant of’ – the name probably had a suffix or another word next to it) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Cofa Quffah (Andalusian Arabic meaning basket) A small container hung from a tree or pole where a candle or candles were placed in olden times. Also, to light fires from there during combat. Cohol al-Kohl (Arabic, ‫)الكحل‬ antimony powder Coima ¿?? Concubine – also, with possibly a related meaning, a bribe or bribery. Also, the stipend or salary that a person, usually a man, got paid for the upkeep of gambling houses or places where people played illicit games.


Coimbra Qalamriyya (‫)قلمرية‬ A city and a municipality in Portugal. Also, a former capital of the country during the first dynasty period. Coime ¿?? The person that has the duty of upkeep of a gambling house or place where illicit games are played. This person is also like a loan shark, lending money to gamblers with interest. Colcótar QulquTár (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QulquTār, which comes from Syriac, KalqaTārin, and which ultimately comes from Greek, χαλκάνθη) The color red that is employed in painting which was formed by pulverizing into dust or powder the oxide rust of iron Coligeta al-Kulliyat colliget Colon Qulun (‫)القولون‬ colon Comares Qumārish (‫)قمارش‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Constantina QusTanTeena (‫)قسطنطينة‬ Constantina is a Spanish municipality located in the province of Seville, in Andalusia, Spain. Cora Kūrah (Arabic from Greek, χώρα, meaning territory) In Islamic Spain, territorial divisions – borders. Also, another word for district. Corán Qur’ān (‫)قرآن‬ Quran, Koran

Corbacho Kurbāj (Arabic from Turkish, Kirbaç) A whip or dried bull’s penis made into a whip with which the overseer would punish slaves. Cordoba (surname & place name) Qurtuba (‫)قرﻁبة‬ A city in the autonomous region of Andalusia. It is also province of southern Spain. It is known as Cordova in English. It was the capital of the Caliphate of Cordoba which extended to most of Spain. Coria Qūrīyya (‫)قورية‬ Coria is a municipality located in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain. Cork Qurq (Arabic meaning both cork and oak) cork Corma Qúrma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qurmah, originally from Greek, κόρμος, meaning piece of wood) A type of tether made of two pieces of wood. It was usually attached to the foot of a prisoner to impede his movements or to an animal. Córnea Qurnia or al-Qarniyya (Classical Arabic meaning the horn) Cornea Cotonía QuTniyya (Arabic for cotton cloth) A white cloth made of cotton that has designs or other such intricate marks on it. Also, in Venezuela, it is used to mean coarse, tough cloth made of hemp. Cotton (algodón) QuTn (‫)القطن‬ cotton


Cubeba Kubābah (Classical Arabic from Persian, Kubābe [ye sini] meaning Chinese pepper) A plant originating in Java of the family Piperaceae. It has soft, bright, oval leaves and it has a pepper type of fruit. Generally, the fruit is also known by this name too. Cuenca Qawinqa (‫ )قونقة‬or Kunka (the name of a now ruined Moorish castle) A city of Castilla-La Mancha in central Spain. It is also the name of the capital of the province of Cuenca, one of the largest provinces in Spain. There is also a Cuenca de Campos which is a municipality in Valladolid, Spain. This is also used as a surname. It means a territory surrounded by hilltops or mountains. In the Dominican Republic, it is used to mean bankrupt. Cuevas del Almanzora al-Mansur (A Spanish and Arabic hybrid meaning Caves of al-Mansur) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Cúfico/a Kūfī (Classical Arabic meaning people from Kufa, a city in Iraq) The Kufic Arabic writing. See the writing on the Iraqi flag below.

Cúrcuma Kurkum (Classical Arabic from Pahlavi Persian, Kurkum, meaning saffron) A plant that originates in India whose roots look like ginger and has a similar smell but which is bitter. A resinous and yellowish substance that is extracted from this root; saffron. Its resin takes on a blood red color but is used to dye things yellow. Curdo Kurdī (Arabic meaning Kurdish) A person or thing belonging to or from Kurdistan. Cuscuta KushuTā (Classical Arabic from Aramaic, KāshūTa) A parasitic plant that prefers to cling to alfalfa or hemp or other plants that need lots of water. It was used in medieval times as a remedy for hydrops Cútar Kawthar (Arabic [‫ ]كككك‬for the name of a river in Heaven) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Cuscús (same as Alcuzcuz) Kuskús (‫سكسك‬‎) Typical North African food made of semolina wheat and sauce. It is served with vegetables and meat. It can also be prepared other ways depending on location. Cuzcuz Kuskús (‫)ك س كس‬ Typical North African food made of semolina wheat and sauce. It is served with vegetables and meat. It can also be prepared other ways depending on location.

Dadey ¿?? Dado A’dad (‫ عدﺩ‬numbers) dice Daga Dáqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dāqah, which comes from Persian, Dāqe) Usually, it is thought of as dagger but also means the lines of bricks placed in stoves for them to be hardened.


D-hir (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dahīr) In Morocco, an open letter with the orders of the Sultan. In the Spanish protected zone/colony in Morocco, the order or decree of the Caliph as carried out by the high commissioner. Daifa Dáyfa (Andalusian Arabic meaning Mrs. from Classical Arabic meaning female guest) Generally used as another word for concubine. This is probably related to its other meaning as female guest to whom much kindness and care is given. Dalías Dalyat (‫)دالية‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Damasco Dimashq (‫)ﺩمشق‬ Damascus Dania ad-Dani or Dunya (Arabic [‫ ] لا ُْْد‬word meaning the temporal world and its earthly concerns and possessions as opposed to the spiritual realm or the hereafter) An evergreen woody vine commonly used for bonsai cultivation. It is known as the paper flower or the lesser bougainvillea. Its scientific name is Bougainvillea glabra. Dula ??? A herd or flock of animals. Dante LamT (Andalusian Arabic possibly from Berber) A kind of mammal similar to a deer. It is a ruminant (cud-chewing) animal. It is as heavy as a horse with a short neck, large head and dark hair. It could be the domestic or tame form of the Asian water buffalo. Darga Dara’a (‫)الدرع‬ (leather) shield Daroca Daruqa (‫ )ﺩروقة‬or Qalat-Darawqa A city and municipality in the province of Zaragoza in Aragon, Spain. Dársena ad-Dar as-Sán’a (Andalusian Arabic which originally was Dar as-Siná’a which came from Classical Arabic, Dār as-Sinā’ah, meaning house or place of industry) The place where hemp cloth or linen fabric or rough, unrefined cloth is made. Also, it means arsenal. In navigable waters, a place artificially made where cargo can be easily carried or discharged from boats or ships. Dayán Dayyan Used as a surname and given name. Daza (same as Adaza) Duqsah panic grass, corn, sorghum Denia Daniyyah (‫ﺩانية‬, Arabic meaning low or near. The name could possibly be derived from the word Dunya, [‫ ] لا ُْْد‬meaning this world in general and things that are a part of this world — basically its earthly concerns and possessions — as opposed to more spiritual matters) Denia served as the capital of a taifa kingdom during Moorish rule in Spain. The Moors built a fortress there. They extended their rule to part of the Valencian coast and to Ibiza. It is now part of the province of Alicant in Spain. Derviche Darwish (Originally from French, Derviche, which comes from Turkish, Derviç, which comes from Persian, Darvish [‫ ]دروي ش‬and Arabic, Darwish meaning poor, ascetic, wandering mystic) Dervish; Sufi mystic; mystic; a type of Islamic monk. Descafílar (same as Escafilar) Qaffál (Andalusian Arabic meaning to close) To take off the uneven parts of bricks so that they are evenly adjusted when used. To clean old mortar or cement off of bricks for reuse. Dahír


Destartalado ??? Decomposed, disproportionate, without order, etc. Dey Dey (Turkish for maternal uncle; also a title that the viceroy of Algeria received) Title of the chief authority of Algeria. Diaphram Dayaferghma membrane that separates upper organs from the lower organs in the torso Dínar Dinār (‫)الدينار‬ A dinar or form of money used in the Middle East. Dinero Dinār (‫)الدينار‬ money Dirhem Dirham (‫)ﺩرهم‬ A dirham or form of money used in the Middle East. Diván Diwan (Classical Arabic from Pahlavi Persian, Dewan meaning archive) A collection of poetry by one or more poets, especially in one of the eastern languages such as Arabic, Persian or Turkish. Among the Turks, the advice regarding the state of affairs of the land, justice and law. Also, the place where this advice or law was formulated. Dolame ??? A hidden or frequent pain or illness that horses get. Dragomán Turjumān (From Arabic for interpreter) Foreign language interpreter. Droga HaTruka (Andalusian Arabic literally meaning charlatanry) Mineral, vegetable or animal substances that are employed in medicine, the fine arts or in any industry. A medical substance or preparation that has a stimulating, depressing, narcotic or hallucinogenic effect. Druso Durūz (Arabic plural for Durzī. It is derived from the name Muhammad Ismail bin ad-Darazī) Druze, follower of a heterodox religion derived from Islam whose inhabitants mostly dwell in Lebanon and Syria. Duero Du’ira (‫)ﺩويرة‬ The name of a river in Spain. Dula/Dular Dúla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Dawlah, meaning turn) Time, turn, era, season, etc. A piece of land that after its time receives water from a ditch or channel. Also, a particular place where livestock go to graze.

Earth 'ArD (‫)األرض‬ earth Ebro (river) Ibrah (‫)أبرة‬ Name of river in Spain. Edrisí Idrisi (‫ دري سإ‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Idrīsī, meaning from Idris) The descendants of Idrīs ben Abdallah, th founder of a North African empire in the 8 century, are referred to as such. Ejarbe ash-Shárb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shirb, meaning watery) The increase that river waters gain after heavy rains. Elche Alsh (‫ )ألش‬or ‘ílj (Andalusian Arabic meaning renegade or captive from Classical Arabic, ‘ilj, meaning barbarian) A city located in the Alicante province which is a part of the Valencia, Spain. In tune with the second etymology, this word means a renegade in general, an apostate or convert from Christianity (hence a renegade), and in general a Moor.


El Ejido ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Elemí Élémi (Classical Arabic, Allāmī) A solid, yellowish resin that is used as an ingredient in certain ointments and varnishes. It has a fennel-like smell and it generally comes from tropical trees in the Burseraceae family. Elíxir (same as Elíxir) al-Aksir or al-Iksīr (‫اكسير‬, Classical Arabic from Greek) This is the same as the Philosopher’s Stone. It is also used for some marvelous or wondrous medicine. Also, a substance that is integral for the body. Also, it is used for some type of medicine or remedy that is concocted, mixed with or dissolved in alcohol. Elvira Ilbira (‫ )إلبيرة‬The name of an ancient city in Spain, now called Granada. Embarazar ¿?? To become pregnant (a woman) or (for something) to be impeded or slowed down. A related word is Embarazo or pregnancy. Embelecar Balá or Balí (Andalusian Arabic meaning calamity or a bad love) To deceive or mislead with artificial or false appearances. A related word is Embeleco meaning deception or lie. It can also mean a futile or bothersome thing or person. Embelesado/a Baliq To become stunned, confused, ecstatic, abstract, fascinated, captivated by something. Emir Amír (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Amīr – ‫)أمير‬ Prince, leader, commander, and/or general among the Arabs. Encaramar Karáma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Karāmah, meaning honor) To lift or carry someone or something to a hard to reach place; to climb; to elevate in honor. Enchufar (same as Enchuflar) Júf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jawf, meaning stomach, internal cavity, womb) To plug in/plug; to connect, to connect two pieces together, to offer a job or a post through personal connections. Enchuflar/Enchufle Júf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jawf, meaning stomach, internal cavity, womb) To plug in/plug; to connect, to connect two pieces together, to offer a job or a post through personal connections. Engarzar Ghárza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharzah, meaning a group of nails nailed into something or a group of nails ready to be used) To join or bond one thing with another to form a chain; to hook; to hook something onto another thing. To curl the hair. Enix ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Enjalma (same as Jalma) ish-Shalma (Mozarabic and Andalusian Arabic from Latin and ultimately from Greek) The part of a leather belt placed on beasts of burden, like a saddle, so that they can carry cargo. Enjarje ish-Sharj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sharj, which is the placement of bricks) In construction, each one of the rectangular adornments that form a frieze on a wall. Enjeco ish-Sháh (‫شاه‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shāh, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Shāh, meaning king but also used to mean the voice in which one says “checkmate” when playing chess) Doubt, difficulty, red tape, harm, damage, disturbance, etc.


Énova Yānuba (‫)يانبة‬ Also known as L'Ènova in the Valencian language, it is a municipality in the Valencian community of Spain. Epidermis Aghadidus outer skin Erguén Argan (from Berber) A spiny tree that does not grow much. It has greenish-yellow flowers. Its wood is very hard and durable and is employed as ebony. From its seeds are extracted an oil. This plant originates in Morocco and grows in Andalusia, Spain. Ermengol Armaqand (‫)أرم ق ند‬ A Spanish surname. The most famous person by this name was Armengol I, count of Urgel. Together with troops of Ramon Burrel I, he was involved in the civil wars at the start of the 11th century C.E (the 5th Islamic century A.H.). He participated in the siege and battle of Cordova in 400 A.H / 1010 C.E. and was killed in the battle. Erre que erre (from Herre que herre) Hírr úmmak (Andalusian Arabic – a vulgar expression that Moorish ‘teamsters’ (see Harruqueros above) would use meaning ‘your mother’s vulva’) A phrase that means stubbornly or obstinately. Escabeche as-Sakbāj or as-Sukkabáj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sikbāj, from Persian, Sekbā) A pickle or other food preserved within a salsa or pickling juice. Also, the pickling juice or salsa itself is known as Escabeche. It is made from vinegar or wine, laurel leaves, fried oil and other ingredients. It is used to pickle fish and other foods as well. Escafilar (same as Descafilar) Qaffál (Andalusian Arabic meaning to close) To take off the uneven parts of bricks so that they are evenly adjusted when used. To clean old mortar or cement off of bricks for reuse. Escaque ish-Sháh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shāh, which comes from Pahlavi Persian, Shāh, meaning king) The game of chess. Also, each one of the black or white squares on a chess or checker board. A related word is Escaquear which means to divide into even units. It is sometimes said of a military division which is dispersed in irregular units. It is also used colloquially meaning to avoid chores or doing a task. Escazarí Kassár (Andalusian Arabic [‫ ]كسر‬possibly meaning to break) Something small or reduced in size. Espinaca Isfanaakh or Isbanaakh (‫ )السبانخ‬spinach Estepona al-Ishtibunna A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Estragón al-Tarkhūn (Arabic from Syriac, Tarkhon, from Greek, δράκων, meaning dragon) Tarragon or dragon's-wort. A plant whose scientific name is Artemisia dracunculus. It is generally used as a spice as it has an aromatic property reminiscent of anise.


Estufa Tabákh (‫) ﻁباخ‬ stove Evora Yabra (‫)يابرة‬ A city and a municipality in Portugal. Exarico ish-Sharík (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sharīk, meaning associate) Moorish serf or slave that cultivated land. Also, a Moorish commoner or renter that paid rent proportional to his harvest. Exea Issi’a (Andalusian Arabic meaning guide) A guide or explorer.

Faca FárHa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Farkhah, meaning steel from a lance) A curved knife. A large, pointed knife that has a leather handle. A knife that is used to slaughter pigs. Factura Fātura (‫)فاتورة‬ bill, receipt, invoice Falagar (same as Halagar) Halaq To pacify; to ingratiate; to tell someone something that will satisfy them or make them happy. Falca Falqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Filqah, meaning a broken piece) A defected piece of wood that because of its defect cannot be completely straightened. A piece of wood that is used as a wedge. Faldrido ¿?? Experimented; something has been experimentally done. Faldriquera HaTrikáyra (Mozarabic meaning a place where to put trinkets and knick knacks) A pocket that women wore attached around their waist underneath their dresses; a pocket where jewelry was placed or hidden; in general, a pocket. Falleba Hallába (Andalusian Arabic derived from Classical Arabic, MalHab, meaning sickle, claw or talon) A door bolt or door latch that is used to secure doors and windows. Faltriquera HaTrikáyra (Mozarabic meaning a place where to put trinkets and knick knacks) A pocket that women wore attached around their waist underneath their dresses; a pocket where jewelry was placed or hidden; in general, a pocket. Falúa Falūka A type of long and narrow boat that was relatively fast. It was used in rivers and ports. Faluca Falūka A type of long and narrow boat that was relatively fast. It was used in rivers and ports. Faneca Faníqa (Andalusian Arabic meaning a measurement used for sand and stone that are used for building material. It comes from Classical Arabic, Faníqah, meaning sacks that are used to carry dirt) A system of measurement used for sand and stones used as building material. The equivalent varies across the regions of Spain. Fanega (same as Faneca, Hanega, & Janega) Faníqa (Andalusian Arabic meaning a measurement used for sand and stone that are used for building material. It comes from Classical Arabic, Faníqah, meaning sacks that are used to carry dirt) A system of measurement used for sand and stones used as building material. The equivalent varies across the regions of Spain.


Fanfarrón Farfar or Farfal (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Farfara, meaning to break or tear) Someone that brags and boasts about something he/she is not or does not have, especially bravery. Also said of things that have a nice appearance. Faquir Faqīr (From Classical Arabic meaning poor. It has come to mean a wandering mystic) Muslim mystic or holy man. Also said of an Indian ascetic that practices difficult exercises and mortifications. Also said of a circus acrobat or entertainer that does difficult stunts and mortifications. Faraján FarHān (Arabic [‫ ]ف رحان‬meaning happy and delight ) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalusia in southern Spain. Faranga (see Haragán) Khará kán (Andalusian Arabic meaning excrement – generally said to disqualify someone) A lazy person; one who has an aversion to work or working. Farda (from Alfarda) al-FárDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FarDah or FarīDah [‫ ]ال فري ضة‬imposition, duty, quota, an obligation, policy, etc) Used in Argentina and Murcia, Spain, it is a tax for the use of water. Also, a tax that Muslims and Jews paid within the Christian kingdoms of Spain. Fardacho HirDún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, HirDawn) A lizard or saurian reptile generally of the lacerta type.

Fardel al-FárDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FarDah or FarīDah [‫ ]ال فري ضة‬imposition, duty, quota, an obligation, policy, etc) A bag or sack that poor people, especially country folk, use to take their belongings to market with. Also, a hunter’s pouch or leather sack. Colloquially, it is used to speak of a scruffy, untidy person. Fardo al-FárDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FarDah or FarīDah [‫ ]ال فري ضة‬imposition, duty, quota, an obligation, policy, etc) A portion of clothing or other thing that is tied up into bundles tightly so as to transport this from one place to another. Farfán Farfar or Farfal (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Farfara, meaning to break or tear) In Morocco, each individual from certain Spanish families that lived in Morocco in the 8th century, conserved their Christian faith, and whose descendants emigrated to Castile in 1390. They could have as well been descendants of the followers of Arius who followed a heterodox form of Christianity. Also, Christian servants, knights or scouts in the service of North African Muslims. Fárfara Falghalála The inner lining or membrane of birds’ eggs.


Farnaca Hárnaq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hirniq) A young or baby hare. Farota Harruj (Andalusian Arabic from the Classical Arabic root, Haraja, meaning to become angry) A woman that does not use judgement; an insolent or cheeky woman; a shameless woman. Farrapo HaTrásh (Andalusian Arabic for fool) Old, broken or dirty jewelry. Pieces, shreds, rags, bits, tattered, broken, old or dirty cloth. Farruco Farruj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Farrūj, meaning a young rooster or chicken) Insolence or arrogance. It used to be said of Asturian and Galician immigrants to other parts of Spain. Also, a type of popular Andalusian music and dance. It can also mean unafraid, undaunted, and fearless. Fatima FāTima (‫فاﻁمي‬, The name of the Prophet Muhammad’s daughter) A common first name in Spanish. Fatimí al-FāTimiyyun (‫)الفاﻁميون‬ Fatimid dynasty of Egypt Felús Flus (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fulūs [plural of Fals], which came from Aramaic, Pūlsā, and which ultimately came from Greek which meant a coin worth a quarter of an ounce of gold) It means money, especially a copper currency or coin that has little value, especially if its from Morocco. Fernando (also Ferdinand) Faranda & Fardiland (‫)ف رن دة ف ردل ند‬ The name of several Spanish kings. Fenecí ??? A stirrup or footrest. Ferro Ibn Firra or Ibn Ferro (‫)إب ن ف يره‬ This is the name of the grandfather of the blind scholar, al-Shatibi, and meant "iron" in Old Spanish (from which comes the word hierro). This is unusual, since al-Shatibi is of Arab descent (‫)ينيعرلا‬. Feseta Fás or Fís (Andalusian Arabic) A small hoe or similar agricultural instrument. Fetua Fatwā (‫)ﻓﺗوﻯ‬ The religious edict or decision that a mufti gives on a legal topic. Fez Fes (From Turkish) The iconic red, cone-shaped hat with tassle that Muslims wear especially Moors and up until 1925 the Turks. Fideo Fidawsh (Mozarabic and Andalusian Arabic) Generally meant to mean noodles, it is also used colloquially for a thin person. Filelí Filalí (Andalusian Arabic from Moroccan Arabic, Filali, meaning the people of Tafilalt, a city and region of Morocco) A type of lightweight cloth made of wool and silk that is from North Africa. In Andalusia, it is used as a term to describe a thin, weak person. Fililí Filalí (Andalusian Arabic from Moroccan Arabic, Filali, meaning the people of Tafilalt, a city and region of Morocco) A type of lightweight cloth made of wool and silk that is from North Africa. Probably related to the former definition, it is used in Andalusia to describe a thin, weak person. Fiñana al-Finiami (The name comes from silk kerchiefs (handkerchiefs or headscarves that were in demand from this area) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Flamenco Fallah Manqu (“running farmers”) type of dance/music


Foceifiza Fusayfisā (Arabic but it originates with Aramaic, Pesipasa, which is originally from Greek for small stones) A type of mosaic where with small pieces of colored glass, especially golden-colored, Muslim artists would make representations of trees, cities, flowers, and other drawings. Fodolí FuDulí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FuDūlī) A nosey-body; a person that talks too much; a person that gets involved in problems where they are not wanted; a person that gives advice, intervenes, etc., especially if its not wanted. Fonda Funduq (Arabic [‫ ]فندق‬meaning hotel An inn or hotel, especially in olden times where food was served to travellers. Fondac Funduq (Arabic [‫ ]فندق‬meaning hotel An inn or hotel, especially in olden times where food was served to travellers. Fondolí FuDulí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, FuDūlī) A nosey-body; a person that talks too much; a person that gets involved in problems where they are not wanted; a person that gives advice, intervenes, etc., especially if its not wanted. Fondón Fundūn (‫)ﻓوندون‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Fortun/a Ibn Fortun from Ibn Fartun (‫)إب ن ف رت ون‬ Fortun and Fortuna are Spanish names. Two famous people by that name that are known are Muhammad ibn Lubb (Lope) ibn Musa ibn Fartun ibn Qasi (d. 285 A.H.) and his son Lubb (Lope) (d. 294 A.H.). They established an independant state in Toledo, Tudela and Zaragoza. When the eldest was killed during his siege of al-Tujaibi in Zaragoza, his head was sent to the Umayyad Caliph in Cordova. His son declared allegiance to the Caliph and continued to rule in their name. They were also known as the Banu Qasi. Foz al-Háwz (Andalusian arabic from Classical Arabic, Hawz) A neighborhood that belongs to one district that might be subject to another district or borough. Terms of payment or a tax from a district or a tax that a district depends on. Also, a group of different towns that depend on a main town or city and are subject to its laws. In general, it can simply mean a district or town. Frigiliana Farajāla (‫)فرجالة‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Frontera al-Farantīra (‫)الفرنتيرة‬ The territory between Christians and Muslims in Moorish Spain Fruela Farwela or Ferwela (‫)ف روي لة‬ The name of a king of Asturias. Fulano/a Fulán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fulān, meaning whomever) A way of saying “so and so.” A euphemism for a person’s identity by ignoring their name especially if the person does not want to utter the name. An imaginary or indetermined person. Also, a euphemism for a beloved person. Also, a euphemism for a prostitute. Fustal Fust Coarse cloth material or coarse cloth made of cotton and having fur on one of its sides. Fustán Fust Coarse cloth material or coarse cloth made of cotton and having fur on one of its sides.


Fuste Fustuq (Arabic but originates in Greek) Wood or the solid piece in a tree. Also, a lance or stick that connects to the iron part of the arrowhead. In general, it could just be any stick. Also, the frame of a saddle. It could also be a wooden saddle. It is also used to mean the fundamentals of something immaterial such as a speech, poem, etc. Fustete Fustuq (Arabic but originates in Greek) A type of tree that is cultivated because of its aromatic smell and because of its flowers. Its wood and bark is used to stain leathers into a yellowish color. Gabán Qabá man’s tunic with long sleeves Gabela Qabála (Andalusian Arabic) A tribute, tax or contribution paid to the state. Also, a public place, arena, or plaza where townspeople could congregate in order to make public celebrations or to see some public spectacle or entertainment. Gacel/a Ghazíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghazāl) Same as gazelle – name of a species of antilope that live in the semi-arid zones and savannahs of Africa and the Near East. They are celebrated for their swiftness and agility. The males and females have horns. Gádor Jādur (‫)جادور‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Gafetí GhāfalīT A type of perennial plant of the Rosaceae family. It is used medicinally as an astringent. Its flowers are used to cure leather. Galacho ¿?? A pathway that is naturally made in the earth by running water. Galanga Halanján or Hūlanjān (Arabic from Persian Shulangān which originates in Sanskrit, Kulanjana) An exotic plant of the Zingiberaceae family of which ginger belongs. The plant is aromatic but bitter and spicy. Galbán Julbána or Jilbána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Julūbān) Laziness or having little energy or will to do something. Galbana Julbána or Jilbána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Julūbān) A type of small pea. This word is primarily used in Salamanca, Spain. It also means laziness or having little energy or will to do something. Gálibo Qálib (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qālab or Qālib, which originates with the Greek word meaning width) A pattern, standard or model used to draw, trace or base an outline of something. The ideal shape or maximum dimensions that a vehicle carrying some type of cargo can have in order to pass through a tunnel. Also, an arch where a trains are parked that serve as a measurement for the maximum dimensions that a train can have in order to pass through tunnels.

Galicia Jaliqiyya (‫)جليقية‬ Spanish place name – it was a kingdom in northern Spain on two different occasions. Its territory occupied parts of Lusitania, now Portugal. Galima Ghaníma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghanīmah) Small and frequent theft or pilfering. Galván Qalb (Arabic [‫ ]قلب‬meaning heart) Used as a surname.


Gamburrino ¿?? An imaginary bird or animal. Gambusino ¿?? An imaginary bird or animal. It has come to mean prospecting for gold or a person that looks for gold such as during the goldrush. Gamenno Jahannam (Classical Arabic [‫ ]جه نم‬meaning hell) The Muslim belief in hell. Gañán Ghannám (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghannām) A strong, coarse, rough man. A farm boy or farm hand. Gándara ¿?? Low lying land, land that is full of weeds and undergrowth, land that has not been used or tilled. Gandul/a Ghandur idle, loafing ْ Garabato Arabiyya (Arabic [ْ‫ ]ح ََ َمعُل‬meaning the Arabic language) Doodles, scribbles, scrawl, sloppy handwriting, etc. Also, a swearword. Garama Gharáma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharāmah) In Morocco, a tax that tribes had to pay. It was a collective compensation that tribes would have to pay for theft committed in their territory. Also, gifts or presents given to a family at a grand event full of pomp. Garbino Gharbí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharbī, meaning western) Southwest winds. Garcia (surname) Gharsiyya (‫غرسيه‬, meaning farmer, agricultural) A very common Spanish surname, it was the name of several Spanish kings. One well-known Garcia was Abu Aamer Ahmad ibn Garcia ‫(إب و عامر أحمد ب ن ةيسرغ‬d. 477 A.H.). He was of Basque origin. Captured as a child, he grew up as a Muslim, and speaking Arabic, he became well learned and skillful in literature and poetry. He lived in Denia under the care of Mujahid al-Amiri. He showed strong contempt for Arabs, and wrote a booklet on that, to which many of his contemporaries rebutted. Because of that, he was categorized as a Shu'ubi ‫ يبوعش‬or a person belonging to a movement to equalize the Muslim ethnicities in the face of Arab domination. Gardacho (same as Fardacho) HirDún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, HirDawn) A lizard or saurian reptile generally of the lacerta type. Garfa Gharfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharfah meaning a fistful or an amount that you can take with a hand) Talons or claws; the finger or toe nails of predator animals, particularly if they are curved, thick and strong. Gárgol Gharghal (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharqala, meaning unfertilized) Unfertilized, generally said of an egg.. Garra Gharfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharfah meaning a fistful or an amount that you can take with a hand) Talons or claws; the finger or toe nails of predator animals, particularly if they are curved, thick and strong. Garrafa Gheraf (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharafa) A carafe or bottle. Garrama Gharáma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Gharāmah) A certain tax that Muslims paid their authorities. It also means robbery, pillaging, pilfering, petty theft, fraud, to swindle, cheat, trick, etc. It could also mean a temporary tax or an extraordinary tax. Garrido Ghari elegant Garroba al-Kharrúba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kharrūbah (‫ )الخروب‬or Kharnūbah, which is from Persian, Khar Lup, meaning donkey


mandibles) A broad bean. This plant in general, its seed; food from this plant, etc. It is used for forage for livestock and for human consumption. It is sweet, light brown on the outside and yellow inside with hard seeds. The seeds can be fed to beasts of burden. It is known in English as the Carob. Garrucha ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. ّ ‫ ]ق‬meaning cat) Gato QiTT (Arabic [‫ط‬ cat Gaucín ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Gaznache ??? The throat or area of the trachea. Gazpacho Ghazbash (Andalusian Arabic from Greek for alms box. The allusion here is the diverse objects placed in the alms box, such as coins, stale bread and other objects meant for the poor) A type of cold soup that is normally made with pieces of bread, oil, vinegar, salt, onions, garlic, and other additives. Also, a type of salad made with crushed vegetables. Genalguacil ??? Wazir A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Generalife Jannat al-Arif (Arabic meaning garden of Arif or the Architect’s garden) The summer palace and country estate of the NaSrid sultans of Granada. Genil Shanīl (‫)شنيل‬ The Genil River is the main tributary of the river Guadalquivir in Andalucía, Spain. The Romans named it Singilis but the modern name derives from the Moorish rendering of the Roman name: Shanil, Sinyil, Sannil, and Sinnil. Genio Jinn (Classical Arabic [‫ ]جن‬meaning genie. In Islamic belief, jinn are beings made of smokeless fire, have a free will and form communities similar to people, and are invisible to human beings) genie Gérgal Ghirghal (‫)غيرغال‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Gerona Jirona (‫)جرندة‬ A province of eastern Spain, in the northern part of Catalonia. It is spelled Girona in Catalan. Gibraltar Jabal Tariq (‫[ )جبل ﻁارق‬Tariq's Mountain – named after Tariq ibn Ziyad] Currently a British Colony in Southern Spain. Gilí Jilí (Andalusian Arabic meaning innocent and candid from Classical Arabic, Jil, meaning fresh) An adjective that means stupid, silly, dimwit, dummy, dumb, fool, idiot, slow, etc. Gima Jāmi’ (Classical Arabic [‫ ]جامع‬meaning mosque) Mosque or place where Muslims pray. Gomer Ghumári (Andalusian Arabic from Arabic, Ghumārah) Said of an individual belonging to the Berber tribe of Gomara. Anything relative or having to do with this tribe. Godo al-QuT (,‫ ال قوط‬Arabized form of the word Goth) The Goths and Visigoths are the names of the Western arm of Germanic tribes that took over parts of the fallen Roman Empire. The other tribe being the Ostrogoths. Granada GharnaTah (‫غرناﻁة‬, Arabic meaning pomegranate) The city and the capital of the province of Granada in the autonomous region of


Andalucía in Spain. Granadí GharnáTi or IghranáTi Person or thing from Granada; Granadine. Grisgrís Hírz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hirz, meaning amulet) An amulet or document held as an amulet by the Moors. Guadalajara (place name) Wadi al-Hijarah (‫[ )واﺩي الحجارة‬Stony River or Valley of the Stones] A city and province of Castilla La Mancha in Spain. Guadalaviar Wadi al-Abyad (‫)واﺩي األبيض‬ White River Guadalbacar Wadi al-Baqar (‫)واﺩي البقر‬ River of the Cow Guadalbanar Wadi al-Fanār (‫)واﺩي الفنار‬ Lighthouse River Guadalcázar Wadi al-QaSr (‫)واﺩي القصر‬ River of the Castle Guadalertin Wadi at-Teen (‫)واﺩي الطين‬ River of Figs Guadalertin Wadi at-Tin (‫)واﺩي التين‬ River of Mud Guadalete Wadi ??? (Originally meant “river of forgetfulness” in Arabic) A small stream located in the Spanish province of Cádiz. Guadalhorra Wadi al-Ghar (‫)واﺩي الغار‬ River of the Cave Guadalimar Wadi al-AHmar (‫)واﺩي األحمر‬ Red River Guadalquiton Wadi al-QiTT (‫)واﺩي القط‬ Cat’s River Guadalquivir Wadi al-Kabir (‫)واﺩي الكبير‬ Great River or Great Valley Guadalupe (surname) Wadi al-Lupum (‫)واﺩي الذئب‬ River of the Wolf Guadalviar Wadi al-AbyaD (‫)واﺩي األبيض‬ White River Guadamací (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghadāmisī, name of a municipality in Libya. The capital of the municipality is Ghadames.) A type of cured and colored leather. It is adorned with designs and drawings. Guadamacil (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghadāmisī, name of a municipality in Libya. The capital of the municipality is Ghadames.) A type of cured and colored leather. It is adorned with designs and drawings. Guadamecil (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghadāmisī, name of a municipality in Libya. The capital of the municipality is Ghadames.) A type of cured and colored leather. It is adorned with designs and drawings. Guadamecim (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghadāmisī, name of a municipality in Libya. The capital of the municipality is Ghadames.) A type of cured and colored leather. It is adorned with designs and drawings. Guadiana Wadi Ana (‫)واﺩي‬ Anna or Hanna River Guadix Wadi Ashi (‫) واﺩي آش‬ Spanish place name for a city of southern Spain, in the province of Granada. Guájara Wá’ra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ardun wa’rah, a cavity in the earth) A path full of dense vegetation that is difficult to walk through. The denseness of the forest. Guájete WāHid (Arabic for one); also WáHida bi-WáHida (Andalusian Arabic meaning one by one) A colloquial term for “this for that.” ¡Guala! Wa Allah (‫)و هللا‬ By God Guarismo Khwarizmi (from the name of the famous mathematician, geographer, astronomer and astrologer “Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi,” ‫محمد بن‬ ‫)موسى الخوارزمي‬ algorithm, digit, figure; calculation method


Guaro ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Guarroman Wadi ar-Rumān (‫)واﺩي الرمان‬ Pomegranate River Guasa/o ??? A joke, a mockery, to make fun of, to evade, to outwit, loud noise, a loud conversation, a frivolous conversation, to speak jokingly, something dull, tasteless, boring, tiresome, insipid, etc., something done without passion, vivacity, intensity, or strength. Guata ??? Thick puffs or rolls of cotton that are used as stuffing for pillows, etc.

Guermes (same as Kermes & Quermes) Qármaz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qirmiz, which is originally from Persian, Kirm e Azi) Antimony; red coloring dye made from sulfur and oxide that is used in respiratory diseases. Also, a type of flying insect. Guifa Jífa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jīfah, meaning carrion) The remains animals in a slaughterhouse. Guilla Ghílla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghalla) An abundant harvest. Also, abundance and satisfaction. Guisante BishsháuT (Mozarabic word influenced by the Spanish word, guisar, meaning to cook or to stew) A vegetable in the Papilionaceae or Fabaceae or Leguminosae family. Also, its seeds are referred as such. Guitarra Qitār, Qitarah, and Ghītār [‫]الغيتار‬ guitar Gumía Kumiyya (Moroccan Arabic meaning literally ‘of the sleeve’ because they could be hidden within them) A white, curved dagger that Moors used. Gurapas Ghuráb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ghurāb, literally meaning a crow but signifying the galley) Punishments of the galley. Guzmán (surname) Uthmān (‫عثمان‬, In Arabic it means "the chosen one from among a tribe of brave and noble people." Also, "honest," "caring," "sincere," "genuine," and "attractive.") Name that has come to be a surname. Habiz Habīs (Classical Arabic meaning awe in a spiritual lifestyle) The donation of real estate or property under certain conditions given to mosques and other religious institutions by Muslims. Same as the Waqf or religious endowment which may devote a plot of land or building for religious or charitable purposes. Habús Hubūs (Arabic meaning goods or benefits received from the deceased usually due to pious actions on the part of the deceased) The


donation of real estate or property under certain conditions given to mosques and other religious institutions by Muslims. Same as the Waqf or religious endowment which may devote a plot of land or building for religious or charitable purposes. Hachís Hashīsh (Classical Arabic [‫ ]ح ش يش‬meaning grass) Hashish Hacino Hazín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]حزين‬ Hazīn, meaning sad) Sad, sadness, miserly, mean, stingy, miserable, etc. Hadrolla HaTara (Arabic root meaning to speak vulgarly or say vulgar jokes) In Spanish, it means a lie (untruth), to lie, a trap, a deception, a swindle, a trick, a ploy, a fraud – it especially jeans a trick to defraud someone of their money in a sale, barter, or interchange. Hadruba (same as Joroba) Hadúbba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]حدب‬Hadab or Hadabah) A hump or something notably rounded. Hafíz HáfiZ (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]حاف ظ‬ HāfiZ [‫]حاف ظ‬, meaning guardian, especially guardian of the Quran through its memorization) Guardian, watcher, curator, etc. ¡Hala! ¿?? Used to encourage someone to hurry. Also, used to denote surprise. It is also used to call someone. Halagar Jalaqa or Halaq To pacify; to ingratiate; to tell someone something that will satisfy them or make them happy. To flatter or say things to someone that pleases them. Hálara Fárfara and Falghalála (Andalusian Arabic) The inner lining or membrane of birds’ eggs. Hamudí Hammūdī (From the Arabic root H-m-d or Hamd meaning praise) Name given to the descendants of Ali ben Hamud, who after the fall of the caliphate in Cordova, established taifa kingdoms in Malaga and Algeciras in the first half of the 11th century. Hanega (see Fanega) Faníqa (Andalusian Arabic meaning a type of land measurement from Classical Arabic, Fanīqa, meaning a sack to transport earth or dirt) A measure or weight; a measurement of capacity for aggregates such as sand and gravel for mortar. The measurement varied among the diverse regions of Spain. The portion of legumes, rice, seeds, grains or other similar thing that could fit into that measurement. Hara ??? A neighborhood, parish or district. Haragán (see Faranga) Khará kán (Andalusian Arabic meaning excrement – generally said to disqualify someone) A lazy person; one who has an aversion to work or working. Harambel (same as Arambel) al-Hánbal (Andalusian Arabic meaning tapestries that hang from a stand or platform. This comes from Classical Arabic, Hanbal, meaning a second-hand fur-lined coat) Any piece of cloth that hangs from a dress. Also, any hanging piece of cloth, tied or untied, that serves to decorate or adorn or to cover. Harapo HaTrásh (Andalusian Arabic for fool) Old, broken or dirty jewelry. Pieces, shreds, rags, bits, tattered, broken, old or dirty cloth. Harbar Kharáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الخراب‬Kharāb, meaning to be ruined) To do something in a hurry and


without care. Also, to sigh, pant or gasp because of some type of physical effort such as work or exercise. Harén Harīm (Arabic [‫ ]حريم‬from the root Haram or Harām meaning sacred and forbidden) Harem; the department or part of the home where the women live/d. Harma ??? A perennial plant in the Rutaceae family. This family of plants is commonly known as the Rue or Citrus family. Its fruit has lots of small, black seeds that are kidney shaped. The smell of the fruit is strong and disagreeable. It is used in medicine. Harón Harún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hārūn [‫ ]هارون‬which means Aaron) A lazy, idle person. A person that resists working. Harrapo HaTrásh (Andalusian Arabic for fool) Old, broken or dirty jewelry. Pieces, shreds, rags, bits, tattered, broken, old or dirty cloth. Harruquero Hírr úmmak (Andalusian Arabic – a vulgar expression that Moorish ‘teamsters’ would use meaning ‘your mother’s vulva’) A person that works with pack animals and/or beasts of burden. Hasaní Hasanī (Proper names of various sultans and sovereigns of Morocco) Name of the Moroccan monetary unit. Mostly, it refers to the coins that a certain Moroccan Sultan Hasan minted. ّ ‫)ح‬ Hasta Hatta (‫ط‬ until Hasta luego Ila al-liqaa' till next time (see you soon) Hataca FaTTáqa (Andalusian Arabic) A large spoon or large wooden spoon. Also, a cylindrical stick that serves to extend a mass of something. Hazana as-Sanii’ or (more likely) Hasána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hasanah, meaning good action) The domestic tasks and chores that women routinely do at home and which is considered the domain of women. Hazaña as-Sanii’ or (more likely) Hasána (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hasanah, meaning good action) A good deed, exploit, or action, especially if its heroic. He (as in ‘he aquí’) Há (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hā) An interjection used to call someone. Also used quite commonly with pronouns to show something or someone as in ‘he aquí,’ ‘he allí,’ or ‘he ahí.’ Hégira Hijra (Arabic [‫ ]هجرة‬for the Islamic calendar) Islamic calendar dates dating from the Prophet Muhammad’s emigration from Mecca to Medina. Hembra Imra’a (Arabic [‫ ]امرأة‬meaning woman) female/woman Hene ¿?? The word or sound that is used to call domesticated pigs to eat. Henrique Ibn al-Riq, Ibn Rannak, Ibn Rannaq (‫ ال ري ق‬,‫إب ن رن ك إب ن‬ ‫)إب ن رن ق‬ The name of a king of Portugal. Other variants include Henriquez, Enrique, etc. The orthography of the name in Arabic is very interesting. It was probably first written as ‫ قيرنإ‬or ‫( كيرنإ‬Inriq or Inrik) which is very close to the original. Scribes probably made spelling errors, and rendered it ‫ نبإ قير‬or ‫ إب ن قير‬as two words, interpreting it as "Son of Riq". The errors continued and the ‫( ي‬Y sound) letter had the


two dots below it removed, and replaced by one dot above, making it ‫( ن‬N sound). Finally, the al- prefix for "the" was added, and we have Ibn Rannak. Hernando Haranda (,‫)هران دة هرن دة‬ An alternate form of Fernando. Herre que herre Hírr úmmak (Andalusian Arabic – a vulgar expression that Moorish ‘teamsters’ (see Harruqueros above) would use meaning ‘your mother’s vulva’) A phrase that means stubbornly or obstinately. Hidalgo Hidalgo (Spanish literally meaning son of something, wealth, property [Hijo de algo] from Old Spanish Fijo d'algo which is a translation from Arabic, Ibn Shay) nobleman Hobacho/a Háwba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hawbah, meaning fear) An adjective describing a fat, lethargic person. Holgazán Kaslán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Kaslān or Kasūl [‫ ]كسول‬meaning lazy) An adjective describing a person as idle, inactive, vagrant, errant, wandering, etc. Hóndiga Funduq (Arabic [‫ ]فندق‬meaning inn, hotel) A grain exchange. Hoque Háqq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Haqq) A gift given to the middleman between business partners. Horro/a Húrr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hurr, free) This is an adjective used for a person – about someone who was a slave and has reached freedom or liberty. Someone free, exempt, and having no ties. Also said of a mare, donkey or sheep that are not pregnant. Hucha ??? A clay money bank where coins can be stored. It can also be made of metal or wood with a slit where the money can be placed through. Also, it is meant as the very money that is saved or put away. Huchear ??? To cheer on, applaud, to boo, make noises, shout in approval. Huécija The origins of the name have been lost to time. However, during the Moorish period, this place was called various related names which indicate that it does have an Arabic origin: Guacimora, Güecixa y Güécija. A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Huélamo Walma A municipality in the Cuenca province in Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Huércal de Almería ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Huércal-Overa ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Huesca Washqa (‫وشقة‬, Arabized Latin for Osca) A city in Aragon, Spain. Huesca is the capital of the Spanish province of the same name. Huete Wabda A municipality in the Cuenca province in Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Hurí Hūr, Hūri, Hūriyyah (Persian from Classical Arabic, Hūriyyah [‫ ]حوري ة‬or Hūr [al-‘Ayn] meaning those that have beautiful eyes because of the contrast within them) The beautiful women created as companions in the Hereafter.


Ibiza (surname) Yābisa (‫)يابسة‬ An island located in the Mediterranean Sea about 80 km off the coast of Spain. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands belonging to Spain. Igualeja al-Walay (Arabic meaning the bend or the twist) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Illar ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Imam Imām (‫)إمام‬ Prayer leader, mosque leader, etc. Imán Imām (‫)إمام‬ Prayer leader, mosque leader, etc. Imela Imālah (Classical Arabic meaning inflection or change of the tone of the voice) A phenomena that occurred and occurs within dialects of ancient and modern Arabic. It is consistent with the A sound of European languages. It can be pronounced as Ah, Eh, EE, etc. It was common in the Arabic spoken in Islamic Spain. Islam Islām (‫)اسالم‬ Islam Islám Islām (‫)اسالم‬ Islam Ismael Ismā’īl (‫)إسماعيل‬ Ishmael Ismaelita Ismā’īlī (‫)إسماعيلي‬ Ishmaelite Israel Isrā’īl (‫س َرائِيل‬ Israel ْ ِ ‫)إ‬ Israelita Isrā’īlī (‫)إسرائيلئ‬ Israelite Istán ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Iznate Hisn Awt A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Jabalí Khanzīr Jabali (Arabic [‫ ]خنزير الجبل‬meaning mountain pig) wild boar Jabalcón (same as Jabalón & Jabarcón) Jamalún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jamlūn, which came from Aramaic, Gamlōn, meaning beam, joist, girder, etc.) A wooden beam or girder that supports other beams. Jabaleon (now known as Jabalcón) Jabal ¿ An extinct volcano near the city of Baza in Granada, Spain. Jabalón Jamalún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jamlūn, which came from Aramaic, Gamlōn, meaning beam, hoist, girder, etc.) A wooden beam or girder that supports other beams. Jabarcón Jamalún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jamlūn, which came from Aramaic, Gamlōn, meaning beam, joist, girder, etc.) A wooden beam or girder that supports other beams. Jabeca Shábka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shabakah, meaning net) A distillation oven used in medieval times in Almaden, Spain. They were employed with pots filled with mercury and ashes.


Jábega Shábka (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shabakah, meaning net) A type of large net thrown from land. Jábega Shabbák (Andalusian Arabic for a skiff or small boat used to fish with nets) A boat similar to the Jabeque (see below) but smaller that is particularly used for fishing. Jabeque Shabbák (Andalusian Arabic for a skiff or small boat used to fish with nets) A row or paddle boat used on the coast that also uses sails. Jabí Sha’bi type of apple Jabón Sabūn (‫)الصابون‬ soap Jácara (comes from Jaque) Shāh (Arabic from Persian, Shāh, meaning king) Happy people gathered together at night wandering about shouting and singing. A type of dance and music. Also, a type of store that storytellers would recount about mischief making. Jácena Jásr (Andalusian Arabic for wooden bridge) A wooden beam or girder that supports other beams and/or other parts of a building. Jacerino/a Jazāyrī or Jazāyirī (Arabic for Algerian or from Algeria) Hard or difficult to penetrate, as in iron – chain mail. Jadraque ShaDrat Among the Muslim Moors, the honor and respect that was commonly given to sultans and people of nobility. Also, a person that was in charge of the Muslims that were forcibly converted to Christianity after the fall of Islamic Spain. Jaén Jayyān (‫[ )جيان‬crossroads of caravans] Also used as a surname, this is a Spanish place name. It is a city and province of Andalucía (Andalusia) in Spain. Also, it is a type of grape/grapevine. Jaez Jazz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jahaz or Jihaz) Ribbons or bands that are tied or braided into horses’ manes for adornment. Also, the quality or property of something Jaguarzo ShaqwáS (Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic) A common shrub that is very abundant in central Spain. It belongs to the family Cistaceae. Jaharí Sha’arí (Andalusian Arabic for a type of fig) A species of fig that is grown in Andalucía. Jahariz Sahrij (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sihrīj, which comes from Pahlavi Persian) A spring, brook, or waterfall. A recipient where grapes are stepped on in order to obtain grape juice. The place where olives are pressed in order to obtain olive oil. Also, the place where apples are crushed in order to obtain apple cider. Jaharral Jayyár (Andalusian Arabic for lime; quicklime) To cover with mortar or plaster a bricklaying cast or die. Also, a place where there are many loose rocks. Jaharrar (same as Jarrar) Hawarh or Jayyár (Andalusian Arabic for lime; quicklime) To cover with mortar or plaster a bricklaying cast or die. Also, to whiten or whitewash something. Jaharro Hawarh or Jayyár (Andalusian Arabic for lime; quicklime) To plaster Jaima Hayma Shops belonging to nomads in North Africa.


Jaime Khayma (‫)خاي مة‬ A common Spanish name meaning James. It was the name of several Spanish kings. Jaique Hayk (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ha’ik, meaning taylor or person that sews) A type of Moorish clothing worn by Arab women. It serves as a dress during the day and for covering during the night. Jalma ish-Shalma (Mozarabic and Andalusian Arabic from Latin and ultimately from Greek) The part of a leather belt placed on beasts of burden, like a saddle, so that they can carry cargo. Jaloque Shaláwq (Andalusian Arabic for marine winds, from Latin Salum, meaning agitation from the sea, originally rom Greek, meaning agitation,

quake)

Southeast winds.

Jametería ¿?? A demonstration of kindness and affection, usually with exaggerated actions. Jámila (same meaning as Alpechín) Hamilla (A diminutive of the Andalusian Arabic, Hamí, meaning smelly mud, from Classical Arabic, Hama) The dark, smelly liquid that comes from olives when they are crushed and mixed with steaming water. Janega Faníqa (Andalusian Arabic meaning a measurement used for sand and stone that are used for building material. It comes from Classical Arabic, Faníqah, meaning sacks that are used to carry dirt) A system of measurement used for sand and stones used as building material. The equivalent varies across the regions of Spain. Japuta ShabbúTa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ShabbūT, which comes from Aramaic, ShabbūTā) A marine fish of the family Acanthopterygii that is grayish. It has a small head, round mouth and is armed with long fine teeth similar to a comb. It lives in the Mediterranean and is highly prized for food.

Shāh (Arabic from Persian, Shāh, meaning king) In chess, it is the word “checkmate.” An attack, threat or action that bothers or perturbs someone or that impedes that persons from performing his/her aim/s. An event or occurence during a game of chess when a player, depending on his move, threatens the king of the other player and by extension, the queen of the other player. Jaque Sháqq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shiqq, meaning the half of something already divided in half; a quarter) A type of smooth or straight hairstyle that women wore in medieval times. Jaque Sheikh (Arabic [‫شيخ‬‎] literally meaning old man) Sheik, leader, of an Arab tribe or territory. Jaquel Shāh (Arabic from Persian, Shāh, meaning king) The game of chess. Also, the little boxes on the chessboard that are alternately colored black and white (or other colors). Jaqueca Shaqīqah (‫)الشقيقه‬ migraine headache Jaque


Jáquima Shakíma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shakīmah) A head piece from which a string is attached and by which a lead ox or other beast of burden is lead or tied. In Mexico, this is a synonym for drunkeness. Jara Shá’ra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sha’rā, meaning land filled with vegetation) An evergreen plant in the family Cistaceae. It is very common in the forests of Spain. Jarabe Sharáb or Shariba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sharāb, meaning a drink or beverage) A syrup; a medicine in syrup or liquified form; a beverage that is excessively sweet; a drink that is made with melted sugar until it the liquid is of a thick consistency – to this is added juice or medicinal ingredients. Jaraíz Sahrij (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sihrīj, which comes from Pahlavi Persian) A spring, brook, or waterfall. A recipient where grapes are stepped on in order to obtain grape juice. The place where olives are pressed in order to obtain olive oil. Also, the place where apples are crushed in order to obtain apple cider. The receptacle where grapes are crushed in order to obtain the juice. Also, the place where apples were crushed in order to obtain their juice which was fermented into an alcoholic drink. Jarcha Kharja (final) & Jarya (exit) The jarcha is the final refrain of a series of a muwashshah, which is a poetic lyrical genre of Al-Andalus. It was originally written in Arabic or Hebrew script. Many have been found in Mozarabic. They are written with five stanzas, each consisting of four to six lines. The final two lines of each stanza act as a refrain or saying which is known as a kharja or jarcha. Jarcia Sarsiyya A cord that holds the mast on a ship; a set of cords of a ship Jareta SharíTa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SharīTah, meaning ribbon) A hem that is made into clothing by tying a ribbon, rubber band, or lace in order to make a pleat into the cloth. Also, a hem that is made into clothing by sewing it into place for adornment. Jaría Shari’a (Classical Arabic [‫ ]الشريعة‬literally meaning path, street, etc. but also used for the wide body of Islamic relgious law and jurisprudence) The legal framework within which the public and private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence and for Muslims living outside the realm of Islam. Jaricar Sharík (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sharif, meaning a partner or member) To steer all the water of property owners into a single canal from which each property owner can benefit by watering his crops during a time alotted. Jarifo/a Sharíf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sharīf, meaning noble) Showy, adorned, something for show, etc. Jaro Shá’ra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sha’rā, meaning land filled with vegetation) Usually a description said of an animal, especially pigs and boars, when the animal has reddish hair. Jarque Sharqī (Arabic meaning eastern or easternmost) The time to irrigate or for irrigation. Jarquía Sharqíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic,


Sharqiyyah, meaning eastern, oriental, or from the east) A territory or district situated east of a great or large city and by which it is dependent upon. Jarra Járra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jarrah) A vessel made of clay, porcelain, china, glass, etc. with a wide neck and opening and one or two handles. The liquid inside of such a vessel is also known as such. Jarrar Hawarh or Jayyár (Andalusian Arabic for lime; quicklime) To cover with mortar or plaster a bricklaying cast or die. Also, to whiten or whitewash something. Jarro Járra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jarrah) A vessel made of clay, porcelain, metal, glass, etc. much in the same style as a Jarra (see above) with a wide neck and opening but with one handle. Jasmín Yásmín (‫)الياسمين‬ jasmine flower Jatib Kh-Tib (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫]خط يب‬ KhaTīb meaning preacher – the one that recites the sermon for the Friday KhuTbah) In Morocco, the person in charge of delivering the Friday khutba or sermon. Jativa Shaatiba (‫)شاﻁبة‬ A town of eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, on the right bank of the Albaida river. Jayán Hayyan husky, strong man Jazarán Jazāyrī or Jazāyirī (Arabic for Algerian or from Algeria) Something that is difficult to penetrate, such as iron. Also, chain mail. Jazarino/a Jazāyrī or Jazāyirī (Arabic for Algerian or from Algeria) Something that naturally comes from Algeria or something that naturally comes from Algiers. Jazmín Yásmín (‫)الياسمين‬ jasmine flower Jebe Shább (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Shabb) Alum; an astringent made of hydrated aluminum potassium sulfate. Jeliz Jallís (Andalusian Arabic from the Classical Arabic root, Jalasa, meaning to sit) An official of the medieval Islamic kingdom of Granada, who with the finance of 1000 ducats, was authorized by a council to receive, guard, and sell goods at low cost or wholesale or auction off silk in order to accrue that wealth for the good of the city. Jemesía Shamsíyya (Andalusian Arabic for window) or Shamisíyya (Andalusian Arabic for lattice; both words come from the Classical Arabic word, Shams, meaning sun) Lattice design made of wood, rocks, bricks, etc. for ventilation or for light. Jeque Sheikh (Arabic [‫شيخ‬‎] literally meaning old man) Sheik, old man, leader, etc. Jerbo Yarbū’ (‫)اليربوع‬ Jerboa; a North African rodent about the size of a rat. Its hind legs are very long and its front legs very short. It crawls on all fours but it jumps very quickly on its hind legs as well. Its tail is twice the size of its body and ends in a tuft of hair. Jerez (also Jerez de la Frontera) Sharish (‫)شريش‬ Used as a surname, Jerez is also a municipality in the province of Cádiz within Andalucía in southwestern Spain. There are two other cities with the name Jerez – Jerez de los Caballeros in the Badajoz province and Jerez del Marquesado in the Granada province. Usually when people speak of Jerez, Jerez de la Frontera is meant. The word frontera


(border) in the name refers to the border between Moorish and Christian regions within Spain. Jerga ¿?? A thick, coarse cloth. Also, a bed made with hay, grasses or other similar material. Jergón Zarqūn (Arabic from Persian, Zargun, meaning goldencolored) A greenish colored zircon gem that is used frequently in jewelry. It is also known as hyacinth. Jerife Sharíf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sharīf, meaning noble) Descendents of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and son-in-law Ali. An individual of the currently dynasty of Morocco. The senior sheikh or chief of the city of Mecca before the conquest of the city by Bin Saud. Jeta KhaTm (Arabic [‫ ]الخطم‬meaning nose, snout or beak) Generally taken to mean the mouth, nose, or snout of someone or animal. It is colloquially used to mean a face. It can be taken to mean specifically the scout of a pig or pig-like animal since their nose is distinctive. Also, any mouth or lips that are larger than normal or exaggerated. Jeta (same as Seta) FiTar (‫)فطر‬ Any species of fungus, edible or not, that has a trunk or stem on which the top part is sustained. Jibia Jibia or Hibār (‫)حبار‬ An edible cephalopod mollusk. It has an oval body with two flippers on each side. It also has 10 tentacles. Also, the shell of this animal is referred to as the Sepia. Also, a reddish colored material that is obtained from this animal. By extension, any reddish colored ingredient used for paints. In English it is known as a cuttlefish. Jibión Jibia or Hibār (‫)حبار‬ The chalky substance from the shell of the cuttlefish that has various industrial uses such as to make molds. Jifa Jífa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jīfah, meaning carrion) Generally any animal parts that are not eaten or unused especially those from quartered cattle in a slaughterhouse. Jimera de Líbar Inz al-Maraz (Arabic meaning women’s castle) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Jineta Zanáti (Andalusian Arabic for the people of the Zanata [Zenata], a major subdivision of medieval Berbers in the Middle Maghrib [Maghreb]. They were known for raising horses and for their horse riding abilities.) A small cat-like mammal, similar to a civet. In Andalusia, thieves and vandals were euphemistically called by this name. Also, this word is means the art of horse riding. It is also woman that rides horses.


Jinete Zanata (name of a Berber tribe) or Zanáti (Andalusian Arabic for the people of the Zanata [Zenata], a major subdivision of medieval Berbers in the Middle Maghrib [Maghreb]. They were known for raising horses and for their horse riding abilities.) A man that is skilled in riding horses. A man that rides horses. A horseman or rider. A purebred horse. Lastly, in medieval times, a soldier that rode horses and fought with a lance, sword and shield. Jirafa Zaráfa or Zuráfa (Arabic [‫ ]الزرافة‬meaning an assemblage of animals) giraffe Jirel Jilál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jilāl, meaning rough, course, uncouth) A long, ornamented covering, made of silk or wool for a horse. Jofaina Jufáyna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jufaynah, which is a diminutive of Jafnah) A washbasin or bowl where water is kept in order to wash ones hands or face. Jofor Jufúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jufūr, which is a plural of Jafr. This is the name of a membrane that comes from a camel which is used for divination.) Among the Moors, divination or a prediction in general. Jorfe Júrf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jurf, meaning a steep artificial slope in front of a fortification.) A wall that sustains dirt or earth usually made of rocks and boulders. Joroba Hadúbba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hadabah) Something that is notably convex, rounded or bulging forward. Also, a hump or something humped or noticeably rounded. Jorro Júrr (Andalusian Arabic from Járr which comes from Classical Arabic, Jarra, meaning to drag) Generally, to tow or to drag. In Andalusia, it is a person that drags wood as it is being transported. This word has a derivative red de jorro, meaning dragging net – it is a net used to drag along the bottom of the sea capturing all aquatic or marine life. Josa Hushshah unfenced garden Jota Shota and Sháwta (From Mozarabic meaning to jump and dance) The regional dance and music of Aragon in Spain. It is also used in other places in Spain. Also, a couplet sung to this type of music, general of four verses. Juba Júbba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jubbah) A type of men’s jacket. A type of clothing that covered the shoulders and went down to the waist. It was tied and adjusted at the waist to the body. Moorish clothing that was also used by Arabized Christians. It was one piece tied at the waist. It had buttons and long sleeves. It was long and went down to the knees. Jubón Júbba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Jubbah) A type of men’s jacket. A type of clothing that covered the shoulders and went down to the waist. It was tied and adjusted at the waist to the body. Moorish clothing that was also used by Arabized Christians. It was one piece tied at the waist. It had buttons and long sleeves. It was long and went down to the knees. Jubrique Shubriq A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain.


Julian Yūlyān (‫ي ول يان‬, ‫)ي ل يان‬ The ruler of Byzantine Cueta in North Africa during the Arab conquest. He assisted the Arab armies cross into Iberia. Jurdía ??? A type of net used in fishing. Jurel Shuril (Andalusian Arabic from Latin Saurus which comes from a Greek word meaning lizard) Scad or horse mackerel; a marine fish in the family Acanthopterygii. Júzcar ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain.

Kasba (same as Casba) Casbah (From French but originally from Arabic, QaSabah, meaning small city) Old neighborhoods in North African cities. Kermes (same as Guermes & Quermes) Qármaz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qirmiz, which is originally from Persian, Kirm e Azi) Antimony; red coloring dye made from sulfur and oxide that is used in respiratory diseases. Also, a type of flying insect. Kohol/Kohl al-KoHl (Arabic, ‫)الكحل‬ antimony powder

Laca Lak (Arabic originally from Persian & Sanskrit) the resinous substance from the Lacquer Tree Lacre Lak (Arabic originally from Persian & Sanskrit) the resinous substance from the Lacquer Tree La Mancha al-Mansha [land without water] The wide and arid steppes covering much of Toledo, Ciudad Real, Cuenca and Albacete provinces. Lapislázuli Lāzaward (Arabic [‫ ]الالزورد‬from Sanskrit: rāja-āvárta, meaning royal gem) A deep bluish/purple mineral stone.

Laredo Lārida (‫)ﻻرﺩة‬ Used as a surname, Laredo is the name for a town in the northern province of Cantabria, Spain. It is the first place to have been named such. Laroya ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. La Sagra as-Sahra (Arabic [‫ ]صحراء‬meaning the desert) An arid region between Toledo and Madrid. Latón LāTūn (Arabic but originally from Turkish, Altn, meaning gold.) Brass, an alloy made of copper and zinc with a pale yellow color. It can be made to appear very bright. Also, it is used to mean gold.


Laúd al-'Ud (‫ العوﺩ‬,Arabic meaning wood) A medieval musical instrument; lute. Láujar de Andarax Najjār (Arabic [‫ ]النجار‬meaning carpenter. The name is a Spanish-Arabic hybrid meaning carpenter of Andarax) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Lebeche Labash Southeasterly wind on the Mediterranean coast of Spain Lebení Labani (Arabic meaning dairy) A Moorish beverage prepared from soured milk. Leila Layla (night, ‫)ليلة‬ Lelilí “Ya Leilí” (this night of mine) & “La ilaha illa Allah” (There is nothing worthy of worship except God) Shouts and noises made by Moors when going into combat, protesting or when celebrating parties. Lenni-Lanape La-ani la-nabi León (surname) Li’oon (‫)ليون‬ The capital of León province in the autonomous community of Castile and León in northwest Spain. Líjar ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Lima Limah lime Limón Laymún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الليمون‬Laymūn, from Persian, Limu, [possibly from Chinese, Limung] from Sanskrit, Nimbū) lemon Lisbon/Lisboa Ishbuna (‫)األشبونة‬ The capital of Portugal. Llaga ash-Shuqaq blister, ulcer Loco/a Láwqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Lawqā’ meaning fool or stupid) A person that has lost reason; a crazy person; a person that is imprudent or that lacks judgment. Also said of a device or thing that acts uncontrollably. It can mean a prostitute or a woman that has informal relations with men. Also, it can mean a homosexual. Loja Lūsha (‫)لوشة‬ A town in southern Spain, situated at the western limit of the province of Granada. Lopez (or Lopes or Lope) Lubb or Libiy (Arabic for Libyan) A common Spanish surname. Lorca Loorqa (‫)لورقة‬ A city in southeast Spain, in the autonomous community of Murcia. Lorza Al-Húzza (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hujzah) Folds that become adornments for certain articles of jewelry; also folding the jewelry in such a way that they can be stretched out later when necessary. Losange ??? A rhombus that is placed on one of its sides. Losanje ??? A rhombus that is placed on one of its sides. Los Pedroches al-Baloot FaHas (‫)البلوﻁ فحص‬ Plain of oaks/acorns Lubrín ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Lucainena de las Torres Lukaynina A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Lúcar Lukar (‫لوكار‬ A municipality of the


Almería province in Spain. Lucena Lisāna (‫)ليسانة‬ A town in southern Spain, in the province of Córdoba in Andalucía. Luquete al-Waqída (Andalusian Arabic meaning match which is from Classical Arabic, Waqīd, meaning something combustible like fuel) A piece of orange, lemon or lime that is placed on a vine in order that its fruit take on its taste. Also, a type of large match made of sulfur. Possibly Mikhail (‫ م يخائ يل‬/ ‫ )لُكدم‬meaning Michael A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Mashar Abu Yahya (Arabic meaning Abu Yahya’s court) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Macsura MaqSurah (Classical Arabic [‫ ] صورةمق‬meaning closed off space or zone) A place set apart in a mosque reserved for the ruler or imam during Friday prayers or a place in a mosque that holds the tomb of a highly esteemed person. Madraza Madrása (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Madrasah, with influence from Spanish, madre, meaning mother) An Islamic high school. Also, colloquially, a very complacent mother that spoils, pampers and generally fusses too much over her children’s welfare. Madrid al-MajriT (‫[)المجريط‬breeze; source of water] Capital of Spain Magacén (same as Almacén) Makhzán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Makhzan) A building where merchandise of any type is stored. An establishment where merchandise is sold wholesale. Maglaca Makhláqa (Andalusian Arabic meaning a lock, clasp or fastener) Floodgates or lockgates. This word is still used in Granada, Spain. Maharón/a MaHrúm (Andalusian Arabic for a miser from Classical Arabic, MaHrūm) An unfortunate, ill-fated, or unlucky person. Maharrana MuHarrám (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MuHarram [‫] محرم‬, Arabic name for the first Islamic month) In Andalusia, it means fresh pork fat. Seeing as the word has the significance of sacred or prohibited within it, it may have been intentionally twisted during the Muslim/Christian rivalries as an affront to Islam. Likewise, it could have been erroneously given a similar meaning to marrano which means pig, swine, and filthy in Spanish – a derogatory term used for Jews during the inquisition and reconquista. Mahometano MuHammad (‫)محمد‬ The inaccurate word that Christians called Muslims – “Mohammedan” in English – as it was assumed that because Christians worshipped Jesus that Muslims would naturally worship their Prophet. A related word is Mahometanismo or Mohammedanism which is what Islam was called. Maimón Maymūn (Classical Arabic meaning a person that causes happiness) A word with varied meanings: Monkey; a small and ugly person; a man that lives luxuriously; a way to refer kindly to children; in some Latin American countries it is taken to vulgarly refer to a woman’s vagina. Maimón Ra’s Maymūn (Arabic meaning ‘the head of Maymun’ Macael (Miguel) Macharaviaya


which was a common name or nickname applied to slaves) In Andalusia, a type of soup made with bread and oil. Maimona Ra’s Maymūn (Arabic meaning ‘the head of Maymun’ which was a common name or nickname applied to slaves) A moveable table that potters use. Majalulo ??? an adult camel that can be used as a beast of burden Majareta MaHrúm (Andalusian Arabic for a miser from Classical Arabic, MaHrūm) Someone crazy; a nut or a loon. Majzén Makhzan (Moroccan Arabic meaning central government) In medieval Morocco, the supreme authority or government. Malaga Malaqah (‫)مالقة‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Malecón ??? A dike or breakwater. A path that runs by the edge of a river, sea or ocean. Mallorca (surname & place name) Mayūrqa (‫)ميورقة‬ The Spanish and Catalan name for Majorca. It is the largest island belonging to Spain. It is located in the Mediterranean Sea and is part of the Balearic Islands archipelago. Malo Malu’un bad (sp.) curse (ar.) Maluc Nukhā’ (Classical Arabic [‫ ]النخاع‬meaning medulla) The nape or the back of the neck. Originally, it was used to mean the hips, the hip bone or legs in general. Mamarracho Muharráj or Muharríj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Muharrij [‫ ]مهرج‬meaning buffoon, clown, jester) A person or thing that is defective, ridiculous or extravagant. An imperfect thing. A man that is informal and not deserving of respect; a buffoon. Mameluco Mamlūk (Arabic for slave) A soldier belonging to a priviledged militia in Egypt. Also, colloquially a foolish or stupid man. Also, a jumpsuit or type of uniform that connects the pants to the top shirt. Mamola MaHmúla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaHmūlah, meaning something that suffers greatly because it is forced todo so) To strike or hit someone under the chin. A gesture of putting the hand under the chin in order to show kindness, affection but it can also be taken to mock and make fun of – this is done with children usually. In general, it can mean to mock or make fun of. Also, it can mean to give false caresses. Mamona MaHmúla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaHmūlah, meaning something that suffers greatly because it is forced todo so) To strike or hit someone under the chin. A gesture of putting the hand under the chin in order to show kindness, affection but it can also be taken to mock and make fun of – this is done with children usually. In general, it can mean to mock or make fun of. Also, it can mean to give false caresses. Mandeísmo Mandá’iyya (‫)مندائية‬ A minority religion of Iraq. They were known as ‘St. John’s Christians’ by the Crusaders because they especially revere St. John. They are not Christians, however.


Mandil Mindil apron (sp.), veil (ar.) Manilva ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Mantel Mindil tablecloth (sp), veil (ar.) Maquila Makíla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Makīlah, meaning something measured) A portion of grains, flour, or oil that belongs to the mill for grinding or milling or is given in payment as such. A type of measurement of 5 arrobas (also an Moorish measurement). Also, another measurement of ½ of a celemín (another Moorish measurement). Marabú MarbūT [‫ ] َلمعَم‬or MurābiT [‫( ] للمحعُم‬An Arabic word meaning an Islamic religious leader and teacher from North and West Africa. The marabout is often a scholar of the Quran or a religious teacher. Others may be wandering holy men who survive on alms) A long-legged wading bird similar to a stork to which it is related. Its head and neck have no feathers. Its feathers are greenish black and ashy gray. It has a thick, yellow bill. It lives in Africa and is considered sacred generally because it eats all types of noxious things such as reptiles, insects, and carrion. Also, any adornments made with the feather of this bird. In English, it’s a marabou stork.

Maraña ¿?? A place or portion of land that has lots of weed and undergrowth or that has a cliff or crags and that as such is ill-suited for agriculture. Also, an inferior quality of silo due to its stitching, material, or other factor. Also, a lie (untruth) invented in order to disrupt or sabotage a business plan. Also, a complex or tangled situation that is hard to avoid. Also, a trap within a game or gamble that sets up another for loss. Maravedí MurabiTí (Andalusian Arabic meaning related to the Almoravids. It comes from the term, Mitqál MurabiTí. It comes from the Arabic root RibaT meaning fortress) A currency that was used in Spain. It had different values at different times. It was named such because it was first minted within the Almoravid dynasty. A tribute paid during the time of King James the Conqueror. A coinage worth 16 gold carats that King Alphonse the Wise valued at 6 silver coins. Also, anything of or from the Almoravid era. Marbella Marbilla (‫)مربيلة‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Marcasita MarqashiTā (Arabic from Aramaic, MarqshiTā) A shiny colored mineral that resembles the yellow of gold. An iron sulfite; pyrite. Marchamo Mársham (Andalusian Arabic meaning an iron used to mark something from Aramaic, Rsham, meaning to record) A sign or mark that are placed on bundles, bales, sacks, etc of things crossing customs as proof


that they were released or are recognized ítems. Also, markings that are placed on specific products, especially cold meats and sausages. Márfega Márfaqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical

Arabic, Mirfaqah) leaves, hay or feathers.

Rough, unrefined cloth; bed or mattress made of

Marfil aZm al-Fil (Arabic [‫ ]عظم الفيل‬for elephant bone) Ivory; ivory tusks; generally, anything made of ivory. Also, when the color white (on anything) begins to fade and turn yellowish or off-white. Marfuz/a MarfúZ (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MarfūZ, literally meaning rejected) Repudiated, rejected, dejected, discarded, refused, etc. Also, someone that is fallacious, treacherous, deceptive or deceitful. Margomar Marqúm (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Marqūm, meaning bordered) To embroider a piece of cloth or leather. Marjadraque ¿?? In Islamic law (sharia), repayment or refund for a damage that was done. Also, a group of actions or measures taken to better or lighten a dire economic situation. Marjal Márja (Andalusian Arabic for an agrarian measurement) A measurement used in Spain in agriculture. Marlota MallúTa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MallūTah) Moorish clothing that resembles a smock but that adjusts to the body. Marojo ??? A type of plant; an evergreen shrub that bears red berries. Also, a term used for leaves or stems that are removed from plants because they are of no use. Maroma Mabrúm(a) (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mabrūmah, meaning twisted) A rope or string made of hemp or other natural or synthetic fibers. Also, a trick or stunt, a clown’s antics, a somersault or a tumble. Márraga Márfaqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical

Arabic, Mirfaqah) leaves, hay or feathers.

Rough, unrefined cloth; bed or mattress made of

Marrano/a MuHarram (‫مح ّرم‬, Arabic meaning ritually forbidden) A derogatory word meaning filthy, swine, and pork. Marras Márra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Marrah, meaning one time) Said of anything that is “known all too well.” It is also a term for the last year (the year before this one) or any time in the past. It is used in the term ‘de marras.’ Marroquí Marrakesh (Arabic meaning Morocco) Moroccan or anything from Morocco Marroquin/a Marrakesh (Arabic meaning Morocco) Moroccan or anything from Morocco. Marsala Marsa Allah (Arabic for Port of God or God’s Port) The name given by Arabs to a seaport city located in the province of Trapani on the island of Sicily in Italy. Martínez Mardanish (‫)مردن يش‬ A very common Spanish surname. It is a town in the province Avila in the community of Castile-


Leon in Spain. Masamuda MaSmūda Individual from the Berber Masmuda tribe, from which originate the Almohades, a movement which ruled Spain and North Africa in the XII century. Masacre Majzara (Arabic from the root Jazara meaning to slaughter or butcher) Massacre Máscara Maskharah (Arabic for an object that makes you laugh) A mask – a disguise that a person puts on his/her face in the form of another human being, an animal or something purely imaginative in order to do something such as an act, a ritual, or to make people laugh. Matafalúa (same as Matalahúva and Matalahúga) Habbat Hulúwwa (Andalusian Arabic meaning sweet grain from Classical Arabic, Habbat IHalāwah meaning grain of sweetness or sweet tasting grain) Anise or anise seed Matalahúga Habbat Hulúwwa (Andalusian Arabic meaning sweet grain from Classical Arabic, Habbat IHalāwah meaning grain of sweetness or sweet tasting grain) Anise or anise seed Matalahúva Habbat Hulúwwa (Andalusian Arabic meaning sweet grain from Classical Arabic, Habbatul-Halāwah meaning grain of sweetness or sweet tasting grain) Anise or anise seed Matamoros or Matamoras MaTmúra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaTmūrah, meaning silo) This word also gave us Mazmorra and maybe related to it. Mazmorra means a dungeon or underground prison. However, Matamoros may have influence from the obvious Spanish words meaning Moor-killer (mata moro). Several places have been named Matamoros and its derivatives such as Matamoras and Matamorisca. It has also been taken as a surname. Matar Mawt (Classical Arabic [‫ ]موت‬meaning death) A verb meaning to take a life, to kill, to extinguish or turn off (lights or a fire), to cause unease, to inconvenience, to annoy, to wound a beast, to slaughter a beast, to soften up plaster or a cast by wetting it, to dilute the brightness of metal, to assault or fight, to make a great effort at obtaining something, to zealously work without resting, etc. Matarife Muqrif (Arabic meaning dirty or filthy; possibly influenced by the Spanish word matar [to kill] which would make this a Mozarabic word) An official or person that works in a slaughterhouse and that kills and quarters cows. Also, it has an implied meaning of dirtiness or filthiness. Matraca MaTráqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MiTraqah, meaning hammer) A large wooden wheel set on large logs or boards in the shape of a cross whereby are hung mallets. Once the wheel starts moving, they produce loud, deafening, and unpleasant noise. This contraption was used in some convents instead of bells during Holy Week to remind faithful Catholics of time when they should worship. Matral ??? A clay waterwheel or similar device that was used in irrigation. Matraz ??? Glass jars that are generally cylindrical and are used in laboratories. Mattress Matrah mattress


Matula Maftúl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Maftūl, meaning something that is twisted) Something that is twisted such as the wick of a candle. Mauraca The origin is Andalusian but lost to history. It could be related to the word Moor (Moro) which comes from Mūr (Arabic [‫ ]مور‬from Greek, Maurisi, and Latin, Mauri, which are derived from the small Numidian (North African) kingdom of Maure of the 3rd century BCE in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and part of northern Morocco. The name came to be applied to people of the entire region) The meaning is a snack usually taken in the field or while camping. It could also be a food that was roasted or grilled or barbecued outside and not within the confines of a house. Mayorca (surname & place name) Mayūrqa (‫)ميورقة‬ The largest island of Spain. It is located in the Mediterranean Sea and is part of the Balearic Islands. It is known in English as Majorca and in both Spanish and Catalan as Mallorca. Mazapán PichmáT (Andalusian Arabic from Greek, παξαμδιον, meaning small cake. It is also somewhat influenced by the Spanish words masa and pan [dough & bread] making it a Mozarabic word) A paste made of crushed almonds and pulverized sugar. This is then made into various figures large and small. Mazarí MaSrí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MiSrī, meaning Egyptian or person or thing from Egypt) Generally said of bricks or tile made artistically. Mazarrón MaSárr (Andalusian Arabic meaning bag or sack) This is the name derived from the old name Almazarrón. It is a neighborhood in Costa Cálida, Spain. The name means red ochre. It is a Word that is generally said of someone who defrauds the treasury by not paying the toll on toll roads or other fees exacted during travel. Also, this is another word for corruption or penalties that are wrongfully enacted to an innocent person. Mazmodina MaSmudí (Andalusian Arabic from Standard Arabic, MaSmūdī, meaning someone belonging to the MaSmūdah [Berber] tribe) Gold coin currency minted by the Almohads that were used within the Christian kingdoms of Spain. Mazmorra MaTmúra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaTmūrah, meaning silo) A dungeon or underground prison. Mazorca Masurqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Masura meaning a tube used as a sewing bobbin) Corn cob; roll of wool or cotton; spindle. Meca Makkah (Arabic [‫ ]مكة‬name for the Holy City of Mecca) A place which is attractive because a particular activity is done there or is has is best done there. Mecano Makkah (Arabic [‫ ]مكة‬name for the Holy City of Mecca) A person or thing that belongs to or of the city of Mecca. Mechinal Mjínr (Mozarabic from both Andalusian Arabic and Latin [machinalis] meaning of the machine or of scaffolding) A small square hole that is made or left open in a wall of a building. Inside of the hole would be placed horizontal logs in order to build scaffolds when the building needs repairs. Colloquially, it is used for a very small bedroom.


Medina (surname) Madína (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Madīnah [‫]مدينة‬, meaning city or town) An ancient town or neighborhood in a Muslim or Arab city. Medinaceli Madinat as-Salim (Classical Arabic [‫]مدينة سالم‬ meaning City of Salim or City of Peace) A municipality and town in the province of Soria, Spain. During the Middle Ages, Medinaceli was a town that lay between the lands of the Christians and Muslims situated at the confluence of the river Jalón. Medina Sidonia Madinat Shadoona (‫)شذونة‬ A city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in Andalusia in southern Spain. Medina Sidonia means the City of Sidon. Mehala M-Hala (Moroccan Arabic meaning a troop that has set up camp) In Morocco, the name that was given to the regular infantry. Meherrin MuHarram (‫ محرم‬, Arabic name for the first Islamic month) The Meherrin are Iroquoian-descended Native Americans who reside in rural northeastern North Carolina. Mejala (same as Mehala) M-Hala (Moroccan Arabic meaning a troop that has set up camp) In Morocco, the name that was given to the regular infantry. Mejunje (same as Menjune) Mamzúj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mamzūj, meaning mixed) A cosmetic or medicine made through mixing various ingredients. Melmez al-Máys (Andalusian Arabic from Classical

Arabic, Mays) A type of tree. It has smooth but spotted bark. Its fruit is called almeza. The wood of this tree is also known as Almez. Mengano/a Man kán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Man kān, meaning whoever) Used in Spanish in the same way fulano or zutano (so and so). However, it is always used after using fulano in a sentence. It can be used before or after using zutano in a sentence for a real or imagined person. Menjunje Mamzúj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mamzūj, meaning mixed) A cosmetic or medicine made through mixing various ingredients. Mequetrefe QaTrás (Andalusian Arabic for one who walks proudly) A man that is nosey and a busybody who is also noisy or loud and is of little worth. Also, an insignificant person. Mercal (same as Metical) Mithqál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mithqāl) A copper coin used in Spain during the 13th century. Also, the old coinage of Morocco. Mérida Mārida (‫)مارﺩة‬ Capital of Extremadura in Spain. The name was the Arabic pronunciation of Emerita Augusta. Merino Merīn or Marīniyūn (Arabic [‫ ]مري ن يون‬name for a Zenata Berber tribe ) A type of sheep that was bred in Spain of North African origin. It has a thick snout with wrinkles upon its nose. It is completely covered in fine wool that is short and curly.


Mértola Martula (‫)مرتلة‬ A municipality in southeastern Portugal next to Spain’s border. Mesa Ma'idah (Classical Arabic [‫ ]مائدة‬meaning dining table) In general, any table or a dining table. Mesenterio Masarike (Scientific Arabic from Greek, μεσεντέριον) The peritoneum responsible for connecting the jejunum and ileum, parts of the small intestine, to the back wall of the abdomen. Mesentery Masarike (Scientific Arabic from Greek, μεσεντέριον) The peritoneum responsible for connecting the jejunum and ileum, parts of the small intestine, to the back wall of the abdomen. Mesquita Masgid (North African Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, Masjid [‫]مسجد‬, meaning place of prostration) A mosque or building where Muslims practice their religious ceremonies. Metical Mithqál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mithqāl) A copper coin used in Spain during the 13th century. Also, the old coinage of Morocco. Mezquino Miskín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‫[ مسكين‬Miskīn] meaning poor & miserly, from Aramaic, Miskēn[ā], from Akkadian, Mushkēnu[m], meaning palace subject) A person that excessively skimps when it comes to spending money. A lack of nobility. A person that is small or diminutive. A person that is wretched, needy, unhappy, unfortunate, unlucky, or poor. Also, in medieval times, a Spanish Christian serf that was tied to working the land. Mezquita Masgid (North African Arabic dialect from Classical Arabic, Masjid [‫]مسجد‬, meaning place of prostration) A mosque or building where Muslims practice their religious ceremonies. Mía Mía (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mi’ah [‫]مئات‬, meaning [100] a hundred) A military term, formerly designating a regular native unit composed of 100 men in the Spanish protectorate of northern Morocco; by analogy, any colonial army. Micanopy Makka-nabi The senior Seminole chieftain who led the tribe during the Second Seminole War. Michino ??? Another word for cat. Micho ??? Another word for cat. Mihrab al-MiHráb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MiHrāb [‫]ألمحراب‬.) Within mosques, the niche that indicates the direction of prayer for the Muslims.


Mijas Tamisa A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Minorca Minūrqa (‫)منورقة‬ One of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea that belongs to Spain. In Catalan, it is called Menorca. It is called such because it is smaller than the other nearby island, Majorca. Once conquered by the Christian forces, virtually all the Muslims on the island were sold as slaves in the slave markets of Ibiza, Valencia, and Barcelona. Only one hundred Muslims were allowed to remain. Miramamolín Amír al-Muminín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Amīr al-Mu’minīn [‫]ال مؤم ن ين أم ير‬, which literally means prince of the faithful – it is a title given to the caliph) In Spain, this was almost exclusively the term used for the Almohad caliphs. Miso ??? Another word for cat. Mizar Mi’zar (Arabic [‫ ]م يزر‬meaning waistband or girdle) The name of a star in the constellation Ursa Major and is the second star from the end of the Big Dipper’s handle. Mizo ??? Another word for cat. Moamar ??? A beam, girder or joist of a coffered ceiling that run parallel to another and by which can be used as passage way or place to walk. Moaxaja Muwash-shah (‫ حٌشوم‬Arabic meaning girdled) A medieval poem written in Arabic or Hebrew but that finishes in a verse that is Mozarabic that could have been sung or said. It is also a musical genre whereby the Muwash-shah poems are used as lyrics. Mocárabe al-Muqárbas (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic meaning constructed like a tomb with stalactites. It comes from Greek, κρηπίς, meaning base) Artwork that is formed with a geometric combination of prisms. Its interior is cut in a concave way. It is used for adorment in domes, rooftops, etc. Moclinejo Mohinete; Modinete; Molinete; Molinillo (It very likely is a corruption of the Arabic word [ ‫ ] دي نة‬Madīna, meaning city) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Mogataz MughaTTás (Andalusian Arabic from Arabic MughaTTas meaning baptized or literally immersed in water) An indigenous Moroccan soldier in the service of Spain usually from the medieval era. The word usually used is moro mogataz. Mogate MugháTTa (Andalusian Arabic meaning covered from the Classical Arabic root gh-T-w which means to cover) To cover something – this word is particularly used for potters that cover their vases in a varnish or polish or paint. Mogeda MufíDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MufīDah, meaning boundless or bursting with enthusiasm) Woodlands or forest whose vegetation is small or short or has stopped growing. Mohamet MuHammad (Classical Arabic name [‫ ]محمد‬meaning praiseworthy or the praised one) Name of the Prophet of Islam.


Moharra MuHárraf (Andalusian Arabic meaning something that has been moved over) The part of a lance where the knife and staff meet and are connected. Moharracho Muharráj or Muharríj (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Muharrij [‫ ]جمهر‬meaning buffoon, clown, jester) A person of no value or merit. Something done badly. A clown or jester; a person that dresses up in a ridiculous manner and does things to make others laugh and entertain them. Mohatra MuHáTara (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MuHāTarah, meaning the act of risk or risking oneself) Fraud, trickery, usury, etc. Also, a false or simulated sale with the intent of preventing another from buying something at a lower price. Also, it can be a loan or price that is exhorbitant. There is also a term that uses this word, caballero de mohatra, which means a man pretending to be a gentleman when he is not. Moheda MufíDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MufīDah, meaning boundless or bursting with enthusiasm) Very tall woodlands with lots of tangled vegetation, weeds and undergrowth. Mohedal MufíDa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MufīDah, meaning boundless or bursting with enthusiasm) Very tall woodlands with lots of tangled vegetation, weeds and undergrowth. Mohidin Abenarabe Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi An Arab mystic and philosopher who lived in Seville, Spain from when he was 8 years old until he was 35 years old. His full name is Abū 'Abdullāh Muḥammad ibn 'Alī ibn Muḥammad ibn al-`Arabī al-Hāṭimī al-Ṭā'ī. Mohíno/a Muhín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mahín meaning offended) Sad, melancholy, depressed, etc. A related word is Amohinar which means to cause sadness, melancholy, etc. Mojácar Under the Greeks, the settlement was called Murgis-Akra. The Romans Latinized the name and made Moxacar. The Moors Arabized it to Muxacra but it finally morphed into the current name of Mojácar. A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Mojama Mushámma‘ (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mushamma‘, made from wax or clay) Dried, salted tuna meat. The drying process could include being dried by smoking, leaving it in the sun or outside. Mojí MuHshí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MaHshū, meaning filling or stuffing) A type of pan or metallic receptacle used in the kitchen. Also, a round, common vase made of clay and is used for cooking. A food made legumes and meat inside of the aforementioned vase. Mojigato MugháTTa (Andalusian Arabic meaning covered from the Classical Arabic root gh-T-w which means to cover) A person that pretends or exaggerates humility, fear, or cowardliness in order to obtain a desired goal. Also, a person that is excessively devout or pious that makes an achievement of all the actions he/she does. Mollina ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain.


Momia Mūmiyyā (Classical Arabic from Persian, Mum, meaning wax) A mummy; a cadaver that either naturally or by artificial preparation is dried with the advent of time without decaying or putrefying. Mona/o Maymūn (Classical Arabic meaning a person that causes happiness. The word has been classically changed in Spanish on purpose) A word with varied meanings: Monkey; a person that makes faces or face gestures; a small and ugly person; a man that lives luxuriously; a way to refer kindly to children, especially when they are thought of as beautiful, cute or funny; in similar fashion, a way to refer to something small and delicate that is beautiful; in some Latin American countries it is taken to vulgarly refer to a woman’s vagina; also said of a person with blond hair or simply golden, blonde hair. Monda Munda A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Moneda Munadin (Arabic meaning auction, sale) A regularly minted coin or currency made of gold, silver, copper or other metal with distinctive writings and seals on them from the prevailing authoritiy giving legitimacy to the authority’s rule. By extension, paper money or bills that form legal tender. By extension, any instrument or thing that is accepted as a medium of value that can be used to pay people wages. Monfí Munfí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Manfī, meaning banished, exiled or outlaw) A Moor that was part of a squad of highway robbers in Andalusia after the reconquest of Spain. Monsoon Mawsam (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mawsim, meaning season especially the most advantageous time to sail because of favorable winds) The periodic seasonal winds that last several months. They bring heavy rainfall which affects India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The winds have their origins in certain seas, particularly from the Indian Ocean. They begin in one direction for some months and then in the opposite direction during other months. Montánchez Mūntānt Sheesh(‫)مونتانتشيث‬ A town in Spain. It lies in the province of Caceres in Extremadura. Because of its elevation, this town has earned the nickname "the balcony of Extremadura." Montejaque Monte-Xaquez (Mozarabic [Spanish-Arabic mixed] meaning lost mountain. Also, it could come from Monte Sheikh meaning Sheik’s mountain) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Monteleón Muntli’oon (‫)منتلون‬ Name of a palace in Madrid, Spain. Also, a locale in the Canary Islands. Monzón Mawsam (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Mawsim, meaning season especially the most advantageous time to sail because of favorable winds) The periodic seasonal winds that last several months. They bring heavy rainfall which affects India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The winds have their origins in certain seas, particularly from the Indian Ocean. They begin in one direction for some months and then in the opposite direction during other months. Morabio Murabbí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Murabbā, meaning a medicinal syrup) Dark, tinted or red wine.


Morabito MurabiTun or MarbūT [‫ ] َلمعَم‬or MurābiT [‫] للمحعُم‬ (Classical Arabic meaning a person or member of a community living on the outskirts, frontiers or borders of another land) Muslims that profess or live like hermits and monks. A type of hermitage situated in a depopulated area where such a Muslim would live. Moraga Mawráq (Andalusian Arabic and Mozarabic meaning to roast in order to fill or stuff) In Andalucía Spain, this means the act of roasting with sticks outside dried fruits, sardines, and other fish. Also, it means to slaughter a pig. Morapio Murabbí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Murabbā, meaning a medicinal syrup) Dark, tinted or red wine. Morcercel ??? A type of seat or saddle. Moreno Mūr (Arabic [‫ ]مور‬from Greek, Maurisi, and Latin, Mauri, which are derived from the small Numidian (North African) kingdom of Maure of the 3rd century BCE in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and part of northern Morocco. The name came to be applied to people of the entire region) Generally anything Moorish; a Moor; that which is originally from Africa. Also, anything that comes from the borderland of Africa that is closest to Spain. Also, anyone that professes Islam. Also, the Muslims of Spain, especially those that inhabited the Iberian peninsula from the 12th century to the 15th century. Also, anything having to do with Islamic Spain. Also, the Muslims that live in Malaysia and Mindanao (the Muslim part of the Phillippines). Also, this describes the color of a horse that has a black mane with a white star or spot on its forehead and with one or two white socks. Also, this word is used to describe pure wine – wine that has not been adulterated with water (which is then said to be baptized). Also, this is said of a person, especially a child, that has not been baptized. In Latin America, the word is used to describe a mulatto or a person of mixed race heritage, usually European and African that has dark skin, straight black hair and European features. Morisco Mūr (Arabic [‫ ]مور‬from Greek, Maurisi, and Latin, Mauri, which are derived from the small Numidian (North African) kingdom of Maure of the 3rd century BCE in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and part of northern Morocco. The name came to be applied to people of the entire region) Generally anything Moorish or Moor-like. It literally means little Moor. A Moor by race or that which is originally from Africa. Also, anything that comes from the borderland of Africa that is closest to Spain. Also, anyone that professes Islam. Also, the Muslims of Spain, especially those that inhabited the Iberian peninsula from the 12th century to the 15th century. Also, anything having to do with Islamic Spain. Also, the Muslims that live in Malaysia and Mindanao (the Muslim part of the Phillippines). Also, this describes the color of a horse that has a black mane with a white star or spot on its forehead and with one or two white socks. Also, this word is used to describe pure wine – wine that has not been adulterated with water (which is then said to be baptized). Also, this is said of a person, especially a child, that has not been baptized. In Latin America, the word is used to describe a mulatto or a person of mixed race heritage, usually European and African that has dark skin, straight black hair and European features. Moro Mūr (Arabic [‫ ]مور‬from Greek, Maurisi, and Latin, Mauri, which are derived from the small Numidian (North African) kingdom of Maure of


the 3rd century BCE in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and part of northern Morocco. The name came to be applied to people of the entire region) Generally anything Moorish; a Moor; that which is originally from Africa. Also, anything that comes from the borderland of Africa that is closest to Spain. Also, anyone that professes Islam. Also, the Muslims of Spain, especially those that inhabited the Iberian peninsula from the 12th century to the 15th century. Also, anything having to do with Islamic Spain. Also, the Muslims that live in Malaysia and Mindanao (the Muslim part of the Phillippines). Also, this describes the color of a horse that has a black mane with a white star or spot on its forehead and with one or two white socks. Also, this word is used to describe pure wine – wine that has not been adulterated with water (which is then said to be baptized). Also, this is said of a person, especially a child, that has not been baptized. In Latin America, the word is used to describe a mulatto or a person of mixed race heritage, usually European and African that has dark skin, straight black hair and European features. Moro A local dish in the Dominican Republic. It is a mix of rice and beans made together accompanied by some meat. It is the Spanish word for Moor. It is more widely known as the "moros y cristianos" but it is a variant of this dish. It is made in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Eastern Cuba (where the dish is also known as congrí), Haití (where it is called riz et pois) and Louisiana, USA (where it is known as the typical rice and beans). It is preferably made with red beans. It is possible to make it with other grains such as green peas, in which case it is called ‘moro de guandules’ With black beans it is called ‘moro de habichuelitas negras’ and other such names depending on the ingredients. They can even be made with corn, wheat or sorghum. In 1861, the Dominican Republic reverted back to a Spanish colony due to economic and political reasons. It was the only Latin American country to do so. After the Restoration (the civil war that reinstated Dominican independence) in 1865, the people used to say that “the Christians (Spaniards) have left and the Moors (Dominicans) have stayed.” For this reason, this dish is simply called “moro” and not "moros y cristianos." This change in name also permitted the diversification of the dish with various ingredients. Moro de paz A Moroccan that serves as an intermediary with Spain and its territories in Morocco or North Africa. Also, a person that has peaceful tendencies or a peaceful disposition. A person that one does not have to fear. It literally means “Moor of peace.” Moro de rey Literally, the King’s Moor, this word means a soldier on horseback for the regular army from Morocco. Moro Mogataz MughaTTás (Andalusian Arabic from Arabic MughaTTas meaning baptized or literally immersed in water) An indigenous Moroccan soldier in the service of Spain usually from the medieval era. The word usually used is moro mogataz. It can also mean a Moroccan soldier that serves Spain in its North African territories. Moros y Cristianos This is a classic Cuban dish which has spread throughout Latin America and the United States. The name meaning “Moors and Christians” harks back to the Moorish Spain. This traditional recipe combines black beans, bell peppers, onions, traditional Cuban seasonings, and premium grade long grain rice. The dish is accompanied by some meat, chicken or fish. Also, a public feast and holiday in certain towns in Spain whereby passersby dress up as medieval Arabs and Christians and


fighting make-believe battles is also known by this name. Morón Muroor (‫)مورور‬ A Spanish town in the Seville province in Andalusia. Moruna Mūr (Arabic [‫ ]مور‬from Greek, Maurisi, and Latin, Mauri, which are derived from the small Numidian (North African) kingdom of Maure of the 3rd century BCE in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and part of northern Morocco. The name came to be applied to people of the entire region) Generally anything Moorish; a Moor; that which is originally from Africa. Also, anything that comes from the borderland of Africa that is closest to Spain. Also, anyone that professes Islam. Also, the Muslims of Spain, especially those that inhabited the Iberian peninsula from the 12th century to the 15th century. Also, anything having to do with Islamic Spain. Also, the Muslims that live in Malaysia and Mindanao (the Muslim part of the Phillippines). Also, this describes the color of a horse that has a black mane with a white star or spot on its forehead and with one or two white socks. Also, this word is used to describe pure wine – wine that has not been adulterated with water (which is then said to be baptized). Also, this is said of a person, especially a child, that has not been baptized. In Latin America, the word is used to describe a mulatto or a person of mixed race heritage, usually European and African that has dark skin, straight black hair and European features. Mostaguera ??? Tile decorations in a main square of a town or in the lobby of a building. Motacén (same as Almotacén) MuHtasáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, MuHtasib, which literally means the one that wins much before God because of his sleeplessness for the community) The person officially in charge of weights and measures. The office where this operation was made. In Morocco, the official in charge of overseeing the markets and making sure merchants knew the prices of merchandise. Motril MuTreel (‫)مطريل‬ A town and municipality on the Mediterranean coast of Spain in the province of Granada. Mozárabe Musta'rabí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Musta’rab [‫]م س ت عرب‬, meaning Arabized) A would-be Arab, one who copies or lives an Arab lifestyle; Arabized Christian. Said of a Hispanic individual who lived in Islamic Spain during the medieval period and kept his/her Christian faith. Also said to describe these Arabized Christians who later moved to the Christian kingdoms to the north and brought with them Islamic cultural elements. Also, the now extinct language spoken by medieval Christians and Muslims that had a Latin base but was heavily influenced by Arabic. Also, the Christian rite that was preserved in this language. Mudéjar Mudajjarun or Mudájjan (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic Mudajjan [‫]مدجن‬. It means tamed or domesticated but it also means “those permitted to remain” – this word could possibly also come from Muta'akhkhirun or “those who stayed behind.” This was a derogatory term for Muslims living under Christian rule) In Spanish, it was said of a Muslim that was allowed to stay living among the conquerors in exchange for a tribute or poll tax. Also, the architectural style that flourished in Spain from the 13th century to the 16th century, characterized by Christian elements and Arab ornamentation.


Muftí Muftí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]مفتي‬from Aramaic, Apti, from Akkadian, Patu Uznam) A Muslim judge with public authority who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law or Sharia and whose decisions are considered law. Mujalata M-khālTa (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic, MūkhālāTa, meaning mixed treaty) In Morocco and medieval Spain, an agricultural association between a group of Muslims, Jews and Christians or simply an agricultural association. Mulá Mawlā (Classical Arabic [‫ ]مول ی‬for Mullah or Muslim religious leader. It literally means protector, patron, vicar, master, guardian, supporter, etc., denoting a person with authority) In Spanish it means interpreter of Islam and Islamic law. Muladí Muwallad ((Arabic meaning "a person of mixed ancestry." Muwallad literally means, "being born, begotten, produced, engendered, brought up, raised, or born and raised among the Arabs [but not of pure Arab blood]. It comes from the Arabic root word W-L-D. Walad means, "son, boy, descendant, offspring, scion, child, young animal, or young one." As the Islamic empire spread, muwallad usually referred to the offspring of Arab men and foreign, non-Arab women. The term muwalladin is used in Arabic even today to describe the children between Arab fathers and foreign mothers) An ethnic group that lived in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain & Portugal) in Medieval times. Muwallad has the basic meaning of a person who is of mixed background or ancestry. It is especially used in the context of a descendant of an Arab and a non-Arab. It could also mean a non-Arab who grew up among Arabs and was educated within the Arab-Islamic culture. In a broader sense, the muwalladun signifies non-Arab Muslims or the descendants of people who converted to Islam. In the 10th century, mass conversions took place in Al-Andalus. So much so that by that century’s end, the muladíes, as they came to be known, comprised the majority of the population of Islamic Spain. Through intermarriage with Berbers and Arabs and to some degree a cultural Arabization of the muladíes, the distinctions between the different Muslim groups became increasingly blurred in the 11th and 12th centuries. As time went on, they merged into a more homogeneous group of Andalusi Arabs and/or Moors. Mulato Muwallad (Arabic meaning "a person of mixed ancestry." Muwallad literally means, "being born, begotten, produced, engendered, brought up, raised, or born and raised among the Arabs [but not of pure Arab blood]. It comes from the Arabic root word W-L-D. Walad means, "son, boy, descendant, offspring, scion, child, young animal, or young one." As the Islamic empire spread, muwallad usually referred to the offspring of Arab men and foreign, non-Arab women. The term muwalladin is used in Arabic even today to describe the children between Arab fathers and foreign mothers. Muladí, a word related to mulato was a term which was applied to European Spanish Christians who had embraced Islam during the Islamic era of Spain). This word is generally used to describe a person of mixed ancestry, especially of a person that has one parent that is European and one that is African. Mulhacén Muley Hacén (Spanish from Arabic, Mawla Hasan, [‫ ]مول ی نحس‬meaning Guardian or Vicar Hasan) Highest mountain in Spain. Named after the 15th century Sultan of Granada, Abu al-Hasan Ali Muley Hacén.


Mulquía Milkiyya (Classical Arabic meaning the right to own property) In Morocco, documents authorized by two witnesses that bear testimony to the legal possession of a piece of land. This document automatically becomes the property’s title when 10 years or more has passed. Murcia MiSriyah (Classical Arabic [‫ ]مصري‬meaning Egyptian woman or simply Egyptian) The capital city of the region of Murcia, located at the river Segura in south-eastern Spain. Musica Mūsīqa (Classical Arabic [‫ ]موسيقى‬meaning music) music Musk Musk, Mísk (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Misk [‫]مسك‬, from Pahlavi Persian, Mushk) Musk oil perfume. Also, the substance that makes the musk perfume namely a greasy substance with an intense smell that is secreted by mammals and birds. Muslime Muslim (Classical Arabic, Muslim [‫]مسلم‬, meaning one who submits) Muslim; a synonym for Muslim. A variant on the more common word, Musulmán. Musulmán Musalman (From Persian Musulman and Musalman which comes from the Classical Arabic, Muslim [‫]مسلم‬, meaning one who submits) Muslim; a synonym for Muslim. It is the Spanish word for Muslim. In English it is archaic and no longer used. In addition to the Persian, the Persian dialect of Dari also uses this term. It is also found in Kurdish, Pashto, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Turkish, Azeri, Maltese, Russian, Ukranian and Bosnian.

Nabí Nabí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nabī [‫]ن بي‬, meaning prophet) Prophet, especially prophet as used by Muslims. Nácar Nacra or Nacre (From Catalan which originates with Andalusian Arabic, Náqra, meaning small drum or tambourine. It comes from the Classical Arabic root, {n-q-r}, meaning to hit something and make noise or sound repeatedly) Nacre; Mother of Pearl; the material of the inside of the conchshell of mollusks which is made of carbonated calcium and an organic substance. These have iridescent reflections when in the light. Another related word is Anacarado/a meaning something is pearly or pearl-like.

Nácara Náqra (Andalusian Arabic meaning a drum from the Arabic root n-q-r which has the meaning of hitting or striking something that makes a repeated noise) A type of drum or kettledrum used on horse during medieval times. Nadir NaDīr (Classical Arabic [‫ ]ن ظ ير‬meaning authority) The point on the celestial sphere, opposite the zenith directly below the observer Nádir (or Nadir) NaDīr (From Classical Arabic, ‫ن ظ ير‬, meaning equivalent or counterpart) The astronomical term for the point directly below the observer, or more precisely, the point with an inclination of −90°. Nafa Náfa’a (From Andalusian Arabic) Only used in the expressions agua nafa or agua de nafa, it is water obtained through the distillation of the leaves of the orange tree.


Ñagaza an-Naqqáza (Andalusian Arabic meaning decoy. This is from Classical Arabic, Naqqāz, meaning restless bird) A ruse or lure so as to attract something or someone using a trick. A decoy, lure or trap for catching birds. Generally, any bird that is commonly hunted. Nagüela Nawwála (Andalusian Arabic meaning cabin) A poor person’s house or a house made of straw or other insecure material. Naife Náyif (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nā’if, meaning excellent or outstanding) A diamond of superior quality. Naipe Naíp (Catalan from Arabic, Ma’íb) Deck of playing cards; the symbols on a deck of playing cards; the suit of playing cards.

Nájera Nājira (‫)ناجرة‬ A small city located in the Rioja Alta district of La Rioja, Spain on the river Najerilla. Naranja Naranja (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nāranj, from Persian, Nārang, from Sanskrit, Nāranga) Orange – the citrus fruit. Another word related to this is Anaranjado/a meaning orange-colored. Narguile Narguilé (French from Turkish, Nargile, which comes from Arabic, an-Naarjilah [‫]النارجيلة‬, from Persian, Nārgil, which comes from Sanskrit, Narikela or Narikera, which means coconut) A water pipe used mainly in Asia composed of a large, flexible tube and a large receptacle where perfumed water is placed. Natrón NaTrūn (Arabic from Greek ντρον, and ultimately from Coptic n-T-r) White, translucent salt that can crystallize. It can be found in nature or made artificially. The carbonate soda within it is used in making soap, glass, and tints. Nazarí Nazar (Spanish from Andalusian Arabic, NaSrī, which is derived from NaSr) The descendants of Yusuf ibn NaSr, founder of the dynasty that ruled Granada from the XIII to XV centuries. Also, anything having to do with that dynasty. Navarro/a Nabāra (‫)نبارة‬ An autonomous region in northern Spain. It is mixed area where Spanish and Basque are spoken. The Spanish call it Navarra and the Basque Nafarroa. Navarro is generally taken as a surname. Neblina Nablah drizzle Nenúfar Naylúfar (Arabic from Pahlavi Persian, Nilopal, which comes from Sanskrit, Nilautpala meaning blue lotus) An aquatic plant of the family Ninfeacea. A water lily. Nerja Narisha (Andalusian Arabic meaning abundant


springs) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalusia in southern Spain. Nesga Násqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nasqah, meaning composition) Pieces of cloth cut into triangular shapes and attached to dresses or clothing. Niebla Labla (‫)لبلة‬ A town and municipality in the province of Huelva in Spain. Niebla Nablah fog, mist Nieve Nablah snow Níjar Najār (Arabic [‫ ]نجار‬for carpenter) A municipality in the province of Almería in Andalusia, Spain. Noca Náqra (Andalusian Arabic meaning a drum from the Arabic root n-q-r which has the meaning of hitting or striking something that makes a Marine crustacean that has a hard shell. It is lives on the coasts of Spain and is edible. Ñocla Náqra (Andalusian Arabic meaning a drum from the Arabic root n-q-r which has the meaning of hitting or striking something that makes a Marine crustacean that has a hard shell. It is lives on the coasts of Spain and is edible.

Noria Na‘úra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Nā‘ūrah. It has influences from the following words, Acequia and Acenia) A watermill; a machine that is made of two large wheels that takes out water from ponds, ditches, channels, etc. A oval-shaped pond from which water is taken with this machine. An irrigation wheel. Nuca Nukhā’ (Classical Arabic [‫ ]النخاع‬meaning medulla) The nape or the back of the neck.

Odalisca Odalik (Turkish possibly by way of Arabic) Concubine; Turkish concubine; a female slave dedicated to serving the harem. Ojalá Wa sha’Allah or Insha’Allah (‫)إن شاء هللا‬ God-willing or maybe (same as the phrases Dios quiera or Si Dios quiere). Ojaranzo ??? A bush whose scientific name is Rhododendron ponticum. It is called the Common Rhododendron in English and rododendro, ojaranzo or revientamulas in Spanish. It is typically used as an ornamental plant withing gardens. It is found naturally in southern Spain, Portugal and Turkey. Ojén ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain.


Ocaña Awkaniya A town and municipality of central Spain in the province of Toledo. Ohanes Awhānis (‫)أوهانس‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. ¡Olé! Wa’Allah (Classical Arabic [‫ ]و هللا‬meaning by God) The most famous expression of approval, support, applause, and encouragement, it has almost become a Spanish chant which literally means ‘By God’. Olíbano Lubān (From the Latin Olibanum but ultimately from Arabic, Lubān, ‫)لبان‬ Aromatic incenses that are derived from either of the following tree species, Boswellia thurifera or Boswellia sacra. More popularly known as frankincense. Olula de Castro ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Olula del Río ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Omeya Bani Umayya (‫)بني أمية‬ The Ummayyad dynasty of Muslim rulers in early Islamic history – this dynasty established a branch in early Islamic Spain. Also, the descendants of the Ummayyad. Also, anything related to or having to do with the Ummayyad. Oque (same as Hoque) Háqq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Hāqq, meaning reward) A gift that is given to a person who intervened or helped out in a sale. Ordoño Ardon, Ordon, Urdun (‫)أردون‬ A common Spanish surname, it was the name of several Spanish kings. Oreto AriiT (‫)أريط‬ A village in Ciudad Real in Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Orí ??? Hide and seek; the voice of the children that hide saying its time to look for them. Oria ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Also, a river in the Basque region in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. It's one of several rivers flowing into the Bay of Biscay in the Atlantic basin and the main river of the province Gipuzkoa. Orihuela ‫( أريولة‬Uryūlâ); ‫( أوريولة‬Ūryūlâ) A city and municipality in the province of Alicante, Spain. The Valencian pronunciation is Oriola. Orihuela was the Andalusian Arabic pronunciation for the Roman name, Aurariola. Oriola Uryūlâ (Arabic, ‫ ) أريولة‬and Ūryūlâ (Arabic, ‫) أوريولة‬ A city in the province of Alicante, Spain. Also, a parish in the municipality of Portel, Portugal Orozuz (same as Alcazuz) ‘Irq assús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Irq assūs) A plant common to Spain. It is found near rivers. Its juice is sweet and is used as an emolient. Orzaga ??? A coastal plant that grows in Spain. It belongs to the family Chenopodioideae. Otomano/a ‘Uthmānīyya (Classical Arabic [‫ ]عثمانيه‬used to describe a Turkish dynasty) Ottoman; anything natural or related to Turkey; anything belonging to Turkey.


Ox Ushsh (From Andalusian Arabic) noise used to frighten away domestic birds and game.

A

Paella Paella (Valencian – the national dish of Spain and the regional specialty of Valencia; it was originally a dish made of the leftover food from Muslim leaders’ palace where they used to mix fish, meat, chicken and rice and give it to poor people). The national dish of Spain, it is also a common dish of many Latin American countries. The dish is the characteristic dish of the region of Valencia in Spain. This dish is made of various sea foods and meats mixed with rice and legumes. Padilla ‘Abdullah (Classical Arabic [‫ ]عبدهللا‬meaning servant of God) A common surname in Spanish, it is also the name (Padilla de Abajo) of a small village and municipality located in the province of Burgos in Spain. There is also a municipality named Padilla de Arriba located in the province of Burgos in Castile-León, Spain. Padules Abdullah (Classical Arabic [‫ ]عبدهللا‬meaning servant of God) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Palermo Balarm (Arabic from Greek, Panormus) A historic city in souther Italy and the capital of the autonomous region of Sicily and the province of Palermo. The word has come to be the surname of some people of Hispanic descent because Sicily was ruled by the kingdom of Aragon (later united with Spain as a whole) and later, in 1479 the kingdom of Spain annexed Sicily until 1713. Pamplona Banbaloona (‫)بنبلونة‬ The capital city of Navarre, Spain. It was also capital of the former kingdom of Navarre. Pancreas Bankrās or al-Bankriyās (Arabic [‫ ]البنكرياس‬by way of Greek, πάγκρεας [pan kreas] meaning all flesh) An organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. Pantalon BanTalūn (Classical Arabic [‫ ]ب نط لون‬meaning pants) pants, trousers, pantaloons Paraíso Firdaws (Arabic [‫ ]فرﺩوس‬from Middle Persian) It means heaven or paradise both figuratively and religiously. Parauta Hisn Autha A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. One of its most famous residents was Umar ibn Hafsun who led a rebellion in the early days of the Spanish-Moorish state. Partaloa ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Pascual (or Pasqual) Bashkwal (‫)ب ش كوال‬ A common Spanish surname. Sometimes used as first name. One of the most famous ‘Pascual’ was Ibn Pascual or Ibn Bashkwal, a historian and hadith narrator. Patata BaTāTā (Arabic [‫ ]البطاطا‬for potato) Potato, yam, or sweet potato. Pato PáTT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BaTTa [‫ ]بطه‬or BaTT which comes from Persian, Bat) In general, a duck – any bird that is mostly suited to living in water whose beak is more wide at its point than


at its base. Its gait is difficult because of its short tarsus. Colloquially, because of the above bird has a difficult time waddling on land, it has also come to mean an effeminate man or homosexual. Also, a person that suffers rude comments and mockery. Also, a dull or boring person. Pechina Bijā’ina (‫)بجانة‬ A municipality of the Almeria province in Andalusia, Spain. Pedro BuTra, Budra, or BiTar (‫ب طرة‬, ‫ب درة‬, ‫) ب يطر‬ A common Spanish first name, it means Peter. It was the name of several Spanish kings. Pelayo Bilāyu (‫)ب الي‬ A common Spanish surname and the name of a Spanish king. Peñíscola Bin Shikula (Arabic [‫ ] بنشكلة‬meaning son of Shikula) The present Castilian pronunciation of Pensicola. A municipality of Valencia located on the Costa del Azahar along the eastern Mediterranean coast of Spain in the province of Castelló. Pensicola Bin Shikula (Arabic [‫ ] بنشكلة‬meaning son of Shikula) A municipality of Valencia located on the Costa del Azahar along the eastern Mediterranean coast of Spain in the province of Castelló. Perengano Pérez + Mengano A way of saying “so and so.” A euphemism for a person’s identity by ignoring their name especially if the person does not want to utter the name. An imaginary or indetermined person. Periana ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Peritoneum Baratin In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity. Picha ??? A vulgar way of saying a man’s penis. Pico Almanzor Abu Aamir Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Aamir, Al-Hajib Al-Mansur [‫ ] أبو عامر محمد بن عبد هللا بن أبي عامر الحاجب المنصور‬or simply Almanzor in Spanish Mountain in the Gredos Mountain range of central Spain. It is named after "Almanzor" or Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, the defacto ruler of Al-Andalus in the late 10th and early 11th centuries. Pija/o ??? A vulgar way of saying a man’s penis. Also, something insignificant. Pijama Bijāmā (Arabic [‫ ]بيجاما‬from Persian, Pājāme) Clothing made for sleep, usually made of cotton. They consist of pants and a shirt. Pistache al-Fústaq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الفستق‬Fustuq, from Pahlavi Persian, Pistag, but originates in Greek, πιστάκη) Pistachio fruit and/or the pistachio tree. Pistachero al-Fústaq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الفستق‬Fustuq, from Pahlavi Persian, Pistag, but originates in Greek, πιστάκη) The pistachio tree. Pistachio al-Fústaq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الفستق‬Fustuq, from Pahlavi Persian, Pistag, but originates in Greek, πιστάκη) Pistachio fruit and/or the pistachio tree. It is native to Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran and Afghanistan.


Pistacho

al-Fústaq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic

[‫ ]الفستق‬Fustuq, from Pahlavi Persian, Pistag, but originates in Greek, πιστάκη) Pistachio fruit and/or the pistachio tree. Pizarra Bushara or Bishara (Arabic [‫ ]بشرى‬for good news or glad tidings) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Also, it means blackboard or board where one can easily write and erase. Also, a type of rock made of a fine grain that is a bluish-black and opaque. Pujerra Bushara or Bishara (Arabic [‫ ]بشرى‬for good news or glad tidings) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Pulpí ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Purchena Hisn Burshāna (‫)برشانة‬ A small Andalusian town situated in the country of Almería.

Quermes Qármaz (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Qirmiz, which is originally from Persian, Kirm e Azi) A reddish mixture from oxide and sulfur from antimony. It was used medically for respiratory diseases. Also, an insect in the order of Hemiptera – a ladybug or Coccinella. Quilate QiráT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QīrāT, meaning the weight of four grains) A silver coinage used by the Spanish Muslim Murabitun. Also, and more commonly, it means a carat of a pearl or precious stone – the equivalent of which is 1/140th of an ounce or 205 milligrams. Also, a carat of gold which is divided into 24 parts. Quilma Qirbah (From Arabic but originally from Greek) A sack for carrying raw or thick cloth. Química al-Kimiyā (Arabic [‫ ]الكيمياء‬meaning that which comes from Kem (Egypt); the science of Egypt) Having to do with or related to chemistry or chemicals. Also, the composition of chemical agents. Also, a person (scientist) with special knowledge of chemistry or chemical properties. Also, the science that studies the structures, properties and transformations of material items with regards to their atomic composition. Quina Qinnah (From Classical Arabic) A resin that is more or less solid and of a grayish-yellowish color and with an aromatic odor that is obtained from a plant in the Apiaceae or Umbelliferae family. The plant normally grows in Syria. The family of plants includes cumin, parsley, carrot, coriander (also known as cilantro), dill, caraway, fennel, parsnip, celery among many others. It was used in ancient times as incense and is an ingredient in some medicines. Quintal QinTár (Andalusian Arabic from Syriac, QanTīrā, from Latin, Centenarium) The weight of 100 pounds. Also, within the metric system, 100 kilograms. Quiosco Kushk (Arabic [‫ ]كشك‬from Persian Koshk from Pahlavi Persian, Kōshk, meaning pavilion or a special wing or hall within a building) A kiosk – a small building that is constructed on the street or other public


place in order to sell newspapers, flowers, etc. Also, a pavilion with a park or garden, generally open on all sides, that serves to hold concerts or other public event. Quirate (same as Quilate) QiráT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, QīrāT, meaning the weight of four grains) A silver coinage used by the Spanish Muslim Murabitun. Quivira Kabira (‫ كبير ة‬, Standard Arabic meaning great or large) The legendary cities of Quivira and Cibola were two of seven fantastic cities of gold. They were mythical cities said to have been built by seven bishops that fled when the Moors conquered Mérida, Spain. These seven bishops supposedly fled not only to save their lives but to prevent the Moors from discovering sacred relics. Legend has it that the cities founded by the seven bishops grew rich from precious stones and gold. The myth fueled expeditions by conquistadors to find these cities in the New World.

Rabadán Rább ad-Dán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RabbuD-Da’n, meaning shepherd or literally owner or lord of sheep) The head shepherd that is in charge of safe keeping all livestock and that gives orders to other shepherds, especially young ones. Rabal (same as Arrabal) RabaD (From Classical Arabic) The outskirts of a city or the outer suburbs. A poor section of town or of the city. A part of town or of a city that has been annexed by another. Also, a suburb. Rabatín RābiTa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RibāT, meaning a religious and military camp where Muslims can dedicate themselves to piety) A Christian living under Islamic rule in Valencia. Rabel Rabáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Rabāb) A medieval stringed musical instrument general played by rural people in Spain. It was similar to the lute. It had three strings and made high-pitched notes. In English, it is called a Rebec Rabazuz Rúbb as-Sús (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ‘Aruqus-Sūs [‫]عرق السوس‬, meaning licorice syrup) An extract from the juice of the licorice plant or from the licorice root. Rabel Rabáb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Rabāb) A medieval stringed musical instrument general played by rural people in Spain. It was similar to the lute. It had three strings and made high-pitched notes. In English, it is called a Rebec. Rábida RābiTa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RibāT, meaning a religious and military camp where Muslims can dedicate themselves to piety) In Morocco, it means a convent or hermitage. An Islamic military and religious fortress built on the borders of the Christian kingdoms. Rafal RaHál (Andalusian Arabic meaning a small village or hamlet from Classical Arabic, RaHl, meaning the point or zone of a campsite) A farm, property, estate, house, ranch or land in the country or countryside. Rafe Ráff (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Raff) The border or the extreme ends of something. Also, the parts of a house that divert rain waters away.


Rafeca ¿?? A poll tax or tribute. Rágol Rajul (‫ رجل‬Standard/Classical Arabic meaning man – the North African dialect would have rendered it similar to the Spanish name, Ragul) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Ragua Rághwa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Raghwah, meaning foam or froth) The best part of sugarcane. Rahez RakhíS (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RakhīS [‫]رخيص‬, meaning cheap or inexpensive) Something or someone that is low, vile, despicable, contemptible, insignificant, or worthless. Something that is done effortlessly, easily or without much work. Ramadán RamaDán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical th Arabic, RamaDān [‫]رمضان‬, the 9 month of the Islamic calendar) The 9th month of fasting in the Islamic lunar calendar. Rambla Rámla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ramlah, meaning sandy ground) A natural riverbed that is made when large amounts of rain water falls. Also, the ground where rain waters run when there is a large rainfall. Ramiro Rothmir (‫)رذم ير‬ A common Spanish first name, it is usually given in English as Rothmir. It was the name of a king of Asturias. Ranzal ??? A type of medieval cloth made of thread. Rasmia ??? The tenacity, determination, or perseverance to undertake or continue a venture or a task. Rauda RáwDa (Andalusian Arabic meaning mausoleum from Classical Arabic [‫ ]رو ضة‬RawDah, meaning garden) An Islamic cemetery. Rauta Rábta (Andalusian Arabic meaning a bedroll, knapsack or gear from Classical Arabic, Rabtah, meaning the action of tying something once) The itinerary for a trip or voyage. The path or direction that is taken for a purpose. In general, a path or road. Razia Ghāzyah (From Algerian Arabic) An incursion into enemy territory with the sole objective of obtaining booty and plunder. In general, a raid. Real Rahl (camping) Military encampment; plot where a fair is organized; a small plot or garden Real Riyál (‫)لاير‬ Various forms of money from medieval times. Real de ardite was a medieval coinage used in Cataluña whose value was two Sueldos (another medieval coinage). Real de a cincuenta was a silver coinage that was worth 50 Reales de plata doble. Real de a cuatro was a silver coinage that was worth half of the Real de a ocho. Real de a dos was a silver coinage that was worth half of the Real de a cuatro. Real de a ocho was a silver coinage that was worth 8 Reales de plata. Real de plata was a silver coinage that had various values according to different times and places. The most current value was that of two Reales de vellón or 68 Maravedís. The Real de plata doble, also known as the Real de plata vieja, was valued at 16 Cuartos. The Real de vellón was valued at 34 Maravedís. Colloquially, it is used to say that a person or thing is worth very little or worthless (as in the sentences


no vale un real’ or ‘no vale ni un real’). Reala Rahála (Andalusian Arabic meaning domestic clothing from Classical Arabic, RiHālah, meaning camel leather) A large flock of sheep that have various owners but which are grazed by one shepherd. Also, a pack of hunting dogs of roughly between 14 and 24. Realgar (same as Rejalgar) Reheg (or Ráhj) al-Ghar (“powder of the cave”) A very poisonous substance made from arsenic and sulfur. It was red and resinous. Rebato RibáT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RibāT, meaning a religious and military camp where Muslims can dedicate themselves to piety) To call or announce an alarm to one or more towns usually done with the aide of a bell, a special drum, fire or other signal. It was used as a mean to warn the other town or of the people and defenses within the town of an impending attack. Also, the commotion or alarm caused because of a sudden and frightful event. Also, a sudden and unexpected attack done to an enemy. Also, something sudden, improvised or inadvertent. Rebite RabíT (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RabīT meaning a good individual) The act of clinching a nail. Also, after making a nail go through something, the act of bending the nail on the opposite side or making another head on the other side so as to make the nail hold for a longer time. Recamar Raqama or Ráqm (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Raqm, meaning to embroider) To embroider or to add luster by embroidering. Recife ar-RaSíf (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RaSīf, meaning something made of rocks) A reef or coral reef. Also, a road or path and also, a stone-paved road. A person that is firm or committed in their path. Recua Rákbah (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Rakbah, meaning to ride or something ridden) A herd of pack animals that are used to take things from one place to another. Also, a multitude of things that follow one another such as a bicycle chain’s links or ants. Redoma RuTúma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RaTūm, meaning narrowness of the vulva) A flask or vase that is wide at the bottom but that is very narrow towards the opening.

Refez RakhíS (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, RakhīS [‫]رخيص‬, meaning cheap or inexpensive) Something that is


cheap, worthless or of little value. Something that is done effortlessly, easily or without much work. Regaifa Raghífa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Raghīf, meaning a piece of bread or a large loaf of bread that weighs more than 2 lbs) A cake; a type of cake made with eggs. Also, a circular rock used in mills that has a canal in the middle where olive oil runs. Rehala Rahála (Andalusian Arabic meaning domestic clothing from Classical Arabic, RiHālah, meaning camel leather) A large flock of sheep that have various owners but which are grazed by one shepherd. Also, a pack of hunting dogs of roughly between 14 and 24. Rehalí RaHHāliyyīn (Arabic from the word RaHHālīn, meaning nomads) A name that certain workers of the land or carvers within Arab tribes were called in Morocco. Rehén Rahīn (Arabic [‫ ]رهين‬meaning hostage) or Rihán (Andalusian Arabic – plural of Ráhn from Classical Arabic, Rihān) A person that was held by someone in order to guarantee that a third party would carry out predetermined conditions; a hostage. Rejalgar Reheg (or Ráhj) al-Ghar (“powder of the cave”) A very poisonous substance made from arsenic and sulfur. It was red and resinous. Requive Rabīk[ah] (Andalusian Arabic meaning a heavy plate of dates, butter, and curds. It possibly comes from the Portuguese word, Requife) Adornments that were sewn onto the borders of dresses. To adorn or dress up: It can be used as in the sentence “Juana iba con todos sus arrequives” meaning Juana was going with all of her adornments. It can also mean circumstances or something prerequisite. Res ??? beef Resma Rízma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Rizmah, meaning package) A pile of 20 stacks of paper which would equal about 100 of today’s notebooks. Retama Ratáma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ratamah) A plant in the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae that is common in Spain. It is used as a fuel for ovens that bake bread. It is also used to make brooms. Riesgo Rizq (Classical Arabic meaning providence or what providence will give you) A risk; the nearness of danger; an eventuality in an insurance policy; to submit one’s fortune to luck; being exposed to the possibility of loss. Rincón Rukan (Andalusi Arabic derived from Classical Arabic Rukn) A corner; the angle that forms from two walls that meet; a hiding place, a hidden place, a small place or a recess; the residue of something that remains in a place where no one can see it. Rioja (not to be confused with La Rioja) ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Robda Rutbah (From Classical Arabic) A tax that was paid for the passage of livestock to grazing lands.


Robda RubT (From Classical Arabic) A group of horseman or riders that maintained vigilance outside of the castle or royal headquarters in order to warn the military or army of impending danger. Robo (same as Arroba) ar-Rub’ah (Arabic [(‫ ]ربع‬meaning a quarter or a fourth of something) A weight/measure equivalent to 11,502 kgs (originally 11½ kilos). In Aragon in Spain, it is a weight/measure of 12.5 kgs. Roc Rukh-kh (Arabic from Persian Rokh) A mythical bird with extraordinary super powers and proportions. It was supposed to have been so large and strong as to have been able to carry off and eat elephants. The story seems to have come into western thought through the Arabs. The Arabs heard of the legendary tales from the Persians who heard it from the Indians. The story may have its origins in the Indian epics of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana or in the folk memory of the extinct elephant bird (scientific name Aepyornis Mullerornis). Rocho Rukh-kh (Arabic from Persian Rokh) A mythical bird with extraordinary super powers and proportions. It was supposed to have been so large and strong as to have been able to carry off and eat elephants. The story seems to have come into western thought through the Arabs. The Arabs heard of the legendary tales from the Persians who heard it from the Indians. The story may have its origins in the Indian epics of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana or in the folk memory of the extinct elephant bird (scientific name Aepyornis Mullerornis). Rodrigo Lethriq (‫ل ذري ق‬, the Arabized form of Roderic) The Visigothic usurper of the throne at the time of Arab conquest. Romí Rumī (Classical Arabic [‫ ]رومی‬meaning Roman and by extension, western) Among the Moors or Muslims of Spain, any Christian or person that professed Christianity. Romín Rumī (Classical Arabic [‫ ]رومی‬meaning Roman and by extension, western) Among the Moors or Muslims of Spain, any Christian or person that professed Christianity. Ronda Runda (‫)رندة‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Ronzal Rasan (Classical Arabic from Pahlavi Persian, Rasan, meaning a rope or string) A rope or line that is tied to a horse’s neck or head in order to hold it or to lead it by walking. Roque (surname) Rúkh-kh (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Rukh-kh, from Persian, Rokh-kh, from Pahlavi Persian, Rah, meaning a war chariot) A two wheeled chariot from which warriors would throw lances, arrows or fight with sticks or poles. Also, a chess tower. Rubia Rūbiyyah (Arabic [‫ الربع‬or ‫ ]الرابعة‬meaning a fourth or a quarter of something. Most likely it has nothing to do with the following other languages but the similarities are striking enough to list them – the Arabic is possibly derived from the Persian, Rupiye, from Hindi Rupīyā, which is ultimately from Sanskrit, Rupya, meaning silver) An Arab minted gold coinage that was the fourth (¼ ) value of a cianí. Ruc Rukh-kh (Arabic from Persian Rokh) A mythical bird with extraordinary super powers and proportions. It was supposed to have been so large and strong as to have been able to carry off and eat elephants. The


story seems to have come into western thought through the Arabs. The Arabs heard of the legendary tales from the Persians who heard it from the Indians. The story may have its origins in the Indian epics of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana or in the folk memory of the extinct elephant bird (scientific name Aepyornis Mullerornis).

Rueda (de Jalón) RawiTa (‫)روﻁة‬ A municipality located in the province of Zaragoza in Aragon, Spain. There is also a village and municipality by the name of Rueda in the province of Valladolid in Castile-Leon, Spain. Rumí Rumī (Classical Arabic [‫ ]رومی‬meaning Roman and by extension, western) Among the Moors or Muslims of Spain, any Christian or person that professed Christianity. Sábado as-Sabt (Classical Arabic, ‫)السبت‬ Saturday Sábalo Shabil A fish related to the sardine that inhabits the Atlantic ocean; shad. Saboga Shabil A fish related to the sardine that inhabits the Atlantic ocean; shad. Saeta ??? A lance that is easily thrown. It is made of a thin pole with one of its ends sharpened. To the other end are attached small feathers so as to keep it guided in the direction it is thrown. Also, the hands of a watch or clock. Also, on a compass, the guiding arrow or hand that points to the magnetized direction. Saetía ??? An opening or window where the Saeta lances were thrown from. Also, a type of merchant ship used by the Christian Spaniards in medieval times. Safari Safari (From Swahili Safiri meaning ‘to travel’ which comes from Classical Arabic, Safara [‫ ]سفر‬meaning to travel) Safari Saffron az-Za‘afrān (‫)الزعفران‬ Saffron; plants in the family Iridaceae. Also any medicines or condiments made from this plant. Sagrajas az-Zalāqa (‫الزﻻقة‬, Arabic for slippery ground) The name of a famous battle that took place in Spain on October 23, 1086 between the Christian forces of the kingdom of Castile and Moorish Almoravid forces. The battle is said to be named slippery ground because of all the bloodshed that occurred on that day which made the combatants slip while fighting. Sahara SaHrawi or SaHrá al-Kubra (The great desert, ‫)الصحراء الكبرى‬ The Sahara Desert.


Saharaui SaHrāwī (Derived from the Arabic [‫] صحراوي‬, AhluS-SaHrā’ul-Kubrā [‫]الصحراء الكبرى‬, meaning people of the great [Sahara] desert) Anything having to do with or related to the Sahara desert. Anything having to do with or related to the Spanish territory of the Western Sahara. Anything natural to the Sahara desert. The people of the Sahara desert. Sajelar Sahhál (Andalusian Arabic meaning to purge from Classical Arabic, Sahhala, meaning to facilitate) In pottery, the act of cleaning china or porcelain – removing foreign substances from the clay. Sala Salā (Arabic [‫ ]صالة‬meaning ritual worship – since the living room or largest room in the home, it is usually reserved for such) Living room; the main room in a house; in a building, a room with grand dimensions; a building or area reserved for cultural events. Salamanca Shalamanqa (‫)شلمنقة‬ A city in western Spain; it is the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the region of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). Salamanca Talamanka (‫)ﻁلمنكة‬ A city in western Spain; it is the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the region of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). Salares ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Salema Halláma (From Andalusian Arabic) or Salāma An edible fish whose scientific name is Sarpa salpa. They form schools that move in coordinated fashion. The species is hermaphroditic. The young are exclusively carnivorous but mature individuals are among the few fish that are herbivorous eating algae.

Salobreña Shaloobiniyya (‫)شلوبينية‬ A town on the Costa Tropical in Granada, Spain. Saltés ShalTeesh (‫)شلطيش‬ A small island located in the Odiel and Rio Tinto rivers in Huelva in Andalusia, Spain. Sampaguita Sampaga (???) A bush in the same genus as the Jasmine plant. It is native to Arabia and is cultivated in tropical countries. Sancho Shanja (‫) شان جة‬ The name of several kings from Navarre (Navarro) and Castile. Sanchuelo Shanjul (‫)ول ش نج‬ The name means "son of Sancho" or “Little Sancho.” It was the nickname of Abdul Rahman. His father was alMansur ibn Abi Aamer (‫ )ال م ن صور ب ن أب ي عامر‬and his mother was a princess, daughter of Sancho, king of Navarra. She called him Sanchuelo, meaning"little Sancho," because he looked like her father. Historians tell us that he was very proud and full of vanity, as well as indulgent in all sorts of hedonism. He forced Hisham al-Mu'ayyad, the Umayyad


Caliph to give the Caliphate to him, causing al-Andalus to disintegrate in civil war. He was captured and executed. His body was put on display on the gates of Cordova in 400 A.H./1010 C.E. Santa Fe de Mondújar ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Sandía Sandíyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sindiyyah [‫] س ندي ة‬, meaning from the Sind in Pakistan which is where this plant originates) A plant in the family Cucurbitaceae that is very much cultivated in Spain. The fruit of this plant which is namely watermelon. Santarem Shantareen (‫)شنترين‬ A district located in central Portugal. It is a city and municipality. Santaver Shantabiriyya (‫)شنتبرية‬ A town in Toledo, Spain. Saría Shari’a (Classical Arabic [‫ ]الشريعة‬literally meaning path, street, etc. but also used for the wide body of Islamic relgious law and jurisprudence) The legal framework within which the public and private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence and for Muslims living outside the realm of Islam. Sarilla ash-ShaTríyya or ash-ShiTríyya (Andalusian Arabic from Latin Satureia) A plant very populated with branches and narrow leaves, of dark color. It is cultivated for adornment in the gardens. Sarraceno/a Sharqayyin, Sharqiyyin (Arabic [‫ ] شرقيين‬meaning easterners) Saracen; Muslim; Turk (generally a name given to any Muslim in Medieval times). Sarracín Sharqayyin, Sharqiyyin (Arabic [‫ ] شرقيين‬meaning easterners) Saracen; Muslim; Turk (generally a name given to any Muslim in Medieval times). Sarracino/a Sharqayyin, Sharqiyyin (Arabic [‫ ] شرقيين‬meaning easterners) Saracen; Muslim; Turk (generally a name given to any Muslim in Medieval times). Sátrapa Shahrab (Persian [‫ ] شهرب‬meaning governors of the provinces of ancient Media and the Persian empires) In modern usage, it means people who abuse power or authority. It can refer as well to those living in luxurious and ostentatious conditions or to individuals who act astutely and even disloyally. Sayalonga ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Segovia (surname) Shiqūbiyya (‫)شقوبية‬ A city in Spain; it is the capital of the province of Segovia in Castile-Leon. Segunda (surname) Shiqunda (‫)شقندة‬ Spanish place name Segura (surname) Shaqūra (‫)شقورة‬ A medium-sized river in southeastern Spain. It starts at Santiago Pontones in the province of Jaén. The Segura river is usually in a state of semi-permanent drought, however, it does occasionally flood as the consequence of the torrential rains which typically take place once every 6-9 years approximately, which always occurs in Autumn. Sephenous Safan


Sebestén Sabastān (Arabic from Persian Sag Pestān, meaning dog’s teat) A tree known as Cordia in English of the family Boraginaceae. The tree produces a yellowish fruit that has a sweet, juicy pulp. Marinating the fruit produces a mucilage that is used in medicine as a cough syrup and as an emollient to soften and soothe the skin from dryness and scaling or inflammation. Secácul Shaqāqul (Arabic from Persian Shaqāqol) An Oriental plant similar to the parsnip plant. It has a very aromatic root. Sedella Shadaliyya (written in medieval times as Xadalia) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Sen Sanā (From Classical Arabic) An Oriental bush of the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Its leaves are used as a laxative. Sena Sanā (From Classical Arabic) An Oriental bush of the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Its leaves are used as a laxative. Senés ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Sepia Jibia An edible cephalopod mollusk. It has an oval body with two flippers on each side. It also has 10 tentacles. Also, the shell of this animal is referred to as the Sepia. Also, a reddish colored material that is obtained from this animal. By extension, any reddish colored ingredient used for paints. In English it is known as a cuttlefish.

Serafín Ashrafī (Derived from the name of the Egyptian sultan, Al-Ashraf Barsbāy) A golden coinage with the equivalent value of the cequí minted by the Egyptian sultan, Al-Ashraf Barsbāy in the 15th century. Serón ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Sésamo as-Simsim (Arabic [‫ ]السمسم‬originally from Aramaic, Shūmshemā, from Babylonian, Shawash-shammu, from Assyrian, Shamashshammū or shaman shammī meaning plant oil) Sesame; sesame seeds Seta (same as Jeta) FiTar (‫)فطر‬ Any species of fungus, edible or not, that has a trunk or stem on which the top part is sustained. Sevilla Ishbiliyya (‫)أشبيلية‬ City and province in Andalusia. It is the Arabic pronunciation of Hispania, which was the name of Spain proper under the administration of the Romans. Also pronounced Sequiliyya, it is the capital of Andalusia and of the province of Seville. It is situated on the plain of the Guadalquivir River.


Sherbet Shurb, Sharab, Shurbah (Arabic [‫ ]شوربة‬meaning a gulp or a drink) A drink or beverage Sherry Sharish (‫)شريش‬ The region of Jerez is the capital sherry wine-making. The word sherry is a corruption of the Arabic word Sharish which was the name of the region during the Moorish era. Sidonia (known as Medina Sidonia) Madinat Shadoona (‫)شذونة‬ A city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in Andalusia in southern Spain. Medina Sidonia means the City of Sidon. Simancas Shaa’it Mā’ikash (‫)شانت مانكش‬, Shant Mānkash ( ‫شنت‬ ‫)مانكش‬, Shant Mankash (‫)شنت منكش‬ A town and municipality of central Spain. Simancas is located in the province of Valladolid, which is part of the community of Castile-Leon. Siroco Shaláwq (Andalusian Arabic meaning wind from the marina, originally from Latin Salum meaning an agitation from the sea, which ultimately comes from the Greek σάλος, meaning agitation, quake, tremor, trembling, shaking, or movement) The southeast winds. Siróp Shurb, Sharab, Shurbah (Arabic [‫ ]شوربة‬meaning a gulp or a drink) syrup Sirope Shurb, Sharab, Shurbah (Arabic [‫ ]شوربة‬meaning a gulp or a drink) syrup Silla Kursī [‫ ]ال كر سى‬or Kursiyya (Arabic meaning chair, throne, and footstool) chair Silves Shilb (Arabic, ‫)شلب‬ A town and municipality in the Algarve of southern Portugal. At one time, Silves became so prosperous as to be known as the Baghdad of the West. Simancas Arabic, Shaa’it Maa’ikash (‫ )شانت مانكش‬and Latin, Septimanca A town and municipality of central Spain, located in the province of Valladolid, and part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. Sofá Suffah (Classical Arabic meaning low couches, pad, or cushion) A comfortable, padded seat where two or more people can sit. It has arms and a back support. Sofí Sufí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ṣūfī. It seems to be a confusion of the terms Sufi and Safavid from the Persian dynasty, Safawayān, ‫); ص فوي ان‬ The name given in Spanish for the Safavid dynasty that established Shia Islam in Persia as the main religion. They ruled from 1501 to 1722. Sofí Sufí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ṣūfī [ُ‫]ِّلَو‬ from the Arabic word, ta ṣ awwuf [‫] فّ لَت‬ Muslim mystic or adherent of ‫ل‬ Sufism. Sófora Sufayrā (Arabic meaning yellowish color because of the yellow color of the flowers) A tree in the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae that has a thick trunk. Its fruit has small, shiny, black seeds. It is cultivated in gardens throughout Europe but its origins are in Asia. Soldán Sultān (Classical Arabic [‫ ]سلطان‬meaning strength, authority and rulership) This word is the same as Sultán in Spanish but it is more common to use this word for the Muslim governors, authorities, and sovereigns of Egypt and Persia.


Solimán Sulaymán (Mozarabic from Arabic Sulaymān [‫ ]سليمان‬meaning Solomon and scientific Latin, Sublimatum) A cosmetic prepared with mercury as one of its ingredients. Also, a very poisonous substance used in medicine as a disinfectant. Soltaní SulTān (Classical Arabic [‫ ]سلطان‬meaning strength, authority and rulership) The coinage made of fine gold that was used by the Turkish empire with varied values according to time and place. Somontín ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Sopa Shurbah (Arabic [‫ ]شوربة‬meaning a gulp or a drink) A soup or stew. Sorbas Shurbah (Arabic [‫ ]شوربة‬meaning a gulp or a drink) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Sorbete Shurbah (Arabic [‫ ]شوربة‬meaning a gulp or a drink) A drink based on fruit juice and sugar. Also a drink with the ingredients of water, milk and sugared egg yolks along with other substances that make it palatable or agreeable. Sorbeto Shurbah (Arabic [‫ ]شوربة‬meaning a gulp or a drink) A drinking straw. Sufí Sufí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, ṣūfī [ّ‫ ]ِلَوُ ل‬from the Arabic word, taṣawwuf [‫] فّ لَت‬ Muslim mystic or adherent of Sufism. Suflí ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Sufra Záfra (From Andalusian Arabic which originally comes from Classical Arabic, Zāfirah, meaning support) or as-SúHra (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, SaHr) A large belt that hold stagecoaches together. They are held together by the instrument that holds the horses. Belts that hold certain parts or are crucial to the performance of a machine. In later usage, belts from a car. Sulla Súlla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sullah or Sillah, which comes from the Syriac, Sellā, meaning lentil) A plant that is common in Spain and used in gardens of the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Sultán SulTān (Classical Arabic [‫ ]سلطان‬meaning strength, authority and rulership) King or emperor of the Turks. Also, any Muslim prince, governor or authority. Suní Sunní (Classical Arabic from Ahl as-Sunnah wa’lJamā‘ah meaning ‘the people of the example or teaching [of Prophet Muhammad] and the community [‫ ] جماعةوال ال س نة أهل‬or Ahl as-Sunnah [‫ ]ال س نة أهل‬for short) The largest denomination of Muslims; Sunni Muslim. Sunita Sunní (Classical Arabic from Ahl as-Sunnah wa’lJamā‘ah meaning ‘the people of the example or teaching [of Prophet Muhammad] and the community [‫ ] وال جماعة ال س نة أهل‬or Ahl as-Sunnah [‫ ]ال س نة أهل‬for short) The largest denomination of Muslims; Sunni Muslim. Sura as-Súra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sūrah [‫]الصورة‬ The division or chapters of the Koran


Surata Sūrah [‫]الصورة‬

as-Súra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, The division or chapters of the Koran

Taba Ka’ba (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ka’bah) The talus bone or astragalus is a bone in the tarsus of the foot. Colloquially, it means a person’s leg. It also means to be in a hurry. It also means to be hectic or full of activity. Tabal at-Tabál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tabl or [‫ ]طبلة‬Tablah) A small drum that was used in public festivals. Also, a barrel where herring, sardines, anchovies, or other fish food were conserved. Tabaque Tabáq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ط بق‬Tabaq, meaning plate) A wicker basket. Tabea ¿?? Pork sausage. Tabefe TabíH (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, TabīH, meaning a stew) The white, oily mass that is the by product of milk when one lets it curdle and set as one makes a type of pastry. Also, the curdles that remain after making cheese. Tabica TaTbíqa (Andalusian Arabic meaning to cover or coat with something from Classical Arabic, TaTbīqah, meaning the action of covering something once) A wooden bar or board with which one covers a hole. Tabilar ??? To break up clumps or lumps. Tabique Tashbib or Tashbík (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tashbīk, meaning the action of separating something through railings or a gate) Thin walls that serve to separate parts of the house. A flat and thin division that separates a hole. Taca Táqa (Andalusian Arabic meaning window from Classical Arabic, Tāq, from Persian, Tāq) A small cupboard or small closet or small cabinet. Tacarona Tākarunā (‫)تاكرنا‬ Known as the ‘City of the Castle,’ it was a region settled by Berbers who later fomented a rebellion. Taciar az-Ziyār instrument used to keep farmanimals still by squeezing their ear or snout Tafilete Tāfilālt (Moroccan Arabic for a town in southeast Morocco) A polished and lustrous leather. Tafurea Tafuríyya (From Andalusian Arabic) A type of naval vessel or boat that was very flat or even. It was used to transport horses. Tagarino/a Tagharí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Taghrī, meaning from the border or from the frontier land) This was the term for Moors that were born or raised in the areas of Christian control. Generally, they were multilingual and adept at the so-called Christian language/s. They were hardly noticeable nor were people able to easily differentiate them from Christians. Tagarnina Taqarnína (Andalusian Arabic from Berber, Taqarnina, from Mozarabic, Karlína, from Latin, Cardus) A plant in the family family Asteraceae or Compositae whose leaves are edible.


Tagarote (A word of Berber origins lost to history) A glutton or person that eats excessively. Also, an opportunistic person or a person that seeks benefit without scruples. Also, a scribe or notary. Also, type of falcon or hawk. Taha Tá’a (Andalusian Arabic meaning district from Classical Arabic, Tā’ah, meaning obedience) or Taha (Classical Arabic [‫ –]طه‬the 20th chapter of the Quran) A district, borough, region or county. Tahal ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Tahalí Tahlíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tahlīl, which is another word for the Shahādah or testimony or witnessing of faith in Islam) A canvas or leather belt or strip that was used to hold secure a sword. A piece of leather cord that was tied to the waist where a sword, machete, or knife could be safely held. Also, a small leather box where soldiers carried small relics and prayers. Tahelí Tahlíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tahlīl, which is another word for the Shahādah or testimony or witnessing of faith in Islam) A canvas or leather belt or strip that was used to hold secure a sword. A piece of leather cord that was tied to the waist where a sword, machete, or knife could be safely held. Also, a small leather box where soldiers carried small relics and prayers. Taheño Mata Hínna (Andalusian Arabic for one tinted with henna) Said of a person or of hair that is red or reddish; a red-head; a man with red hair and/or beard. This is probably the case because of the Muslim practice of people dying their hair and beard with henna. Tahona aTTaHúna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, aTTāHūn[ah], mill) Flour mill where the wheel is pulled by a horse. Mill or place where bread is made. Tahúlla at-Tahulla An agrarian land measurement. Tahúr Takfūr (Arabic from Armenian, Tagevor, which is the title given to kings. It has a negative connotation because the Armenians, being Christians, refused to help European Christians during the Crusades. This word could also come from Takfīr [‫ ]ت ك ف ير‬which is the practice of declaring a group or individual unbelievers, especially of people previously considered Muslim) A gambler or a person addicted to gambling. Taibeque Tashbib or Tashbík (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tashbīk, meaning the action of separating something through railings or a gate) Thin walls that serve to separate parts of the house. A flat and thin division that separates a hole. Taifa Tā'ifa ( ْ‫) مدئا‬ In the history of the Iberian peninsula, it was an independent Muslim-ruled principality or an emirate of which a number formed after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Also, it means a party or faction. Tajea at-Tarhiyah or at-Tashyí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tashyī, meaning companionship) A small drain or irrigation channel from a house. Also, a small box made of bricks that cover the pipes for their defense. Tajo (river) at-Tāja (‫)التاجة‬ Known as the Tagus river in English, the Tajo is the longest river in the Iberian peninsula.


Talante Tál’a (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ط ل عة‬Tal’ah, meaning aspect) The way or method of doing something. A personal disposition. The state or quality of something. Will, desire, or personal taste. Talavera Talabīra (‫)ﻁلبيرة‬ Known as Talavera de la Reina, it is a city and municipality in the western part of the province of Toledo which is part of Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Talco Tálq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]الطلق‬Talq, from Persian, Talk) Talc or talcum powder. Talega Ta’líqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ta’līqah, the action of hanging something once) A short and wide sack or bag made of canvas or cloth that made to hold things or take things from place to place. Also, whatever is held in this talega is known as such. Also, the quantity of 1000 pesos in silver. Also, a sack made of cloth that women placed on their hair in order to keep it in place. Talisman Tilasm (Arabic [‫ ] ط ال سم‬from Persian, Telesmāt, ultimately from Greek, τέλεσμα [telesma] meaning religious rite) An object, sometimes with writing or picture, that is attributed magical powers. Talvina at-Talbína (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Talbīnah) A bland porridge that is made with almond milk. Támara Támra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ت مر‬Tamr or Tamrah, meaning dates) Dates in a bunch or cluster. Also, palm tree from the Canary Islands. Also, land covered by palm trees. Tamarindo Tamr (or Tamar) hindī (Arabic [‫ ] ه ندي ت مر‬meaning date of India) Tamarind fruit or tamarind tree (scientific name Tamarindus indica) of the family Fabaceae. Tambor Tanbur or Tabbūl (Andalusian Arabic from Tabál) A drum or percussion instrument made of metal or wood where a piece of leather skin is stretched over it. It is played with drum sticks. Also, the person that plays this instrument. Generally it means a drum. Tambora Tanbur or Tabbūl (Andalusian Arabic from Tabál) A drum or percussion instrument made of metal or wood where a piece of leather skin is stretched over it. It is played with drum sticks. Also, the person that plays this instrument. Generally it means a drum. Tara TáraH or TárH (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, TarH, meaning the action of taking, subtracting, or parting something) The total weight of the contents of a thing such as a vehicle, box, vase, etc, that is then reduced upon inspection. Also, the weight of something that is determined on a scale or to calibrate the scale according to such item. A defect or splotch that lessens the value of something or someone. A physical or mental defect that is important and that is hereditary. Tarabilla Taráb (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tarab) A small block that is used to close doors and windows. Colloquially, it is used to mean a person that talks too much, talks very fast and with no order. Also, a string of words said in this fashion. Taracea TarSí' (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, TarSī‘, crust) Designs made into the floor with fine woods of varying colors. A


work of art made of chips of wood of varying sizes in their natural colors. Also, a work of art made in like manner but with tinted woods instead. Similarly, a work of art made of conchshell, nacre (mother of pearl), and other materials. Generally, inlaid work. Taraje Taráfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tarfāh) A shrub in the Tamaricaceae family. Also, the fruit of this tree. Tarasí Tarzī (Arabic from Persian Darzi) Tailor Taray Taráfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tarfāh) A shrub in the Tamaricaceae family. Also, the fruit of this tree. Tarazona Tarasūna (‫)ﻁرسونة‬ A municipality in the province of Zaragoza, in the community of Aragon, Spain. Tarbea Tarbí (Andalusian Arabic for a square piece from Classical Arabic, Tarbī, meaning the action of making something into a square shape) A large hall, room or living room. Tarea TaríHah (Andalusian Arabic from the Classical Arabic root, T-r-H, meaning to throw or toss) A task, chore, or work. A task that is to be done in a limited time. Tareco Taráyik (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tarā’ik, meaning abandoned things) Instrument or utensil. Also, a toy or thing that a child entertains itself with. The pieces of chess. Diversion or entertainment. Tarida Tarída (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tarīdah) A type of boat or naval vessel used in the Mediterranean since 12th century for transporting horses and military armaments. Tarifa Tarif (Arabic [‫ – ]ﻁريﻒ‬it was originally Jazeera Tarif [‫ ]جزيرة ﻁريﻒ‬or the island of Tarif, named after the first Muslim to land in Spain. He was a Berber by the name of Tarif ibn Malik.) A town in southern Spain. It also means tariff. Also, it is a table where quotas, prices, and taxes are written. Also, prices that the authorities wield for services under their jurisdiction. Tarima Taríma (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tārimah, from Persian, Tāram, meaning a pavillion or stand made of wood) An area or zone made with wood or pavement that is higher than its surroundings. Tarquín Tarkím (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tarkīm, meaning to pile up, gather, crowd, or accumulate) Mud, silt or clay that accumulates where rivers or lakes form on streets or other areas when the rain inundate them. Tarragona Tarakūna (‫)ﻁراكونة‬ A Spanish city located in the south of Catalonia by the Mediterranean Sea. Tarraya (same as Atarraya) at-TarráHa (Andalusian Arabic

from the Classical Arabic root, T-r-H, to fling)

A round fishing net.

Tártaro Tātār (From Turkish and Persian) Tatars; people of Tatarstan (a republic within the Russian Federation); a Turkic people. Tavares Tabari (Arabic, ‫ال ط بري‬, meaning ‘from Tabaristan’— an Iranian province corresponding to parts of modern Mazandaran. Many famous Islamic scholars are known by this name) Originally a toponym, it is used as a surname mainly by people of Portuguese & Brazilian descent. Taveras Talabīra (‫)ﻁلبيرة‬ A common surname used particularly in the Dominican Republic.


Taza Tássa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]طاس‬Tāss or Tast, which is from Persian, Tasht, meaning bowl) A cup or small container made of clay, china, porcelain, or metal and with a small arm with which to hold it. It is employed, generally, for drinking liquids. Also, the quantity of liquid that fits in a cup as in the phrase, una taza de caldo.

Tazmía Tasmiyya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tasmiyyah, meaning denomination) The distribution of tithes. The agricultural calculation that is used principally with sugarcane. Also, a portion of grain that farmers would take to a shared storage with other farmers. Also, a notebook where the amount of grain collected is written down. Teba Tābā (Arabic, ‫ )طاب ا‬or Ustibba A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Tejeda Tashahhud (Classical Arabic [‫ ]ت شهد‬meaning the portion of the obligatory Muslim prayer where the person kneels and recites a specific prayer) Seen most often as a surname, it is also a municipality in the central portion of the island of Gran Canaria in the Las Palmas province of the Canary Islands belonging to Spain. Tellis Tallís (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tallīs, which is from Syriac, Tallīsā) A horse’s armor; also the carapace (shell) of certain animals such as crabs. Teodomir Tudmir (‫)ت دم ير‬ Given in English as Theodomir, it is the name of the Visigothic nobleman during the Arab conquest of the Iberian peninsula. Tereniabín Taranjabīn (Arabic from Persian, Tar Angabin or Tar Angobin, meaning fresh honey) A thick, whitish, substance that resembles honey. It is sweet and flows from a shrub native to Persian and Arabia. It is used medicinally as a laxative. Terque ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Tertil TarTíl (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, TarTīl, meaning the action of weighing something) A tax that was paid in Granada of eight maravedís for each pound of silk from the Islamic era until the 19th century. Teruel Tiru’īl or Tirwāl (‫)تيروال‬ A city in Aragon, Spain, and the capital of the Teruel province. Tíbar Tíbr or Tíbar (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Tibr, meaning gold) Generally meaning from pure gold. It is used in the term oro de tíbar meaning pure gold without any discoloration or defects.


Tíjola

Hisn Taghila or Wadi Taghila; Tishula; Tashula A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Tochibí Tujībī (Arabic for the descendants of Tujīb) Said of the descendants of Mundir bin Yahya (the Tujībī). During the fall of the Caliphate in Cordoba, he and his descendants formed Taifa (emirate) kingdoms in Zaragoza in the first half of the 11th century. Toledo TulīTa (‫ )ﻁليطة‬and TulayTula (‫)ط ل يط لة‬ A city and municipality of central Spain. It is the capital of the province of Toledo and of Castile-La Mancha. Under the Caliphate of Cordoba, Toledo enjoyed a golden age generally known as La Convivencia or the co-existence (of Jews, Christians and Muslims). The name is also used as a surname. Tolosa Tuloosha (‫)ﻁلوشة‬ A town and municipality in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa, Spain. Also, one of ten parishes in Nisa, Portugal. Tolox Tulus or Turrush (Arabic, ‫)طرش‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Tomín Thúmn [ad-Dárham] (Andalusian Arabic [‫ ]الثامنة‬meaning an eight of an Adarme [Dirham]) A third of an Adarme or an eighth of a Castellano – this is divided into 12 grains and is the equivalent of approximately 596 milligrams. Also, the name of a silver coin in use in parts of the Americas during the colonial period. Also, the name of a tax that Peruvian Indians paid in order to sustain hospitals. Toro (Taurus) Thawrun (Arabic [‫ ]الثور‬for bull) A bull or male of cattle or bovine type of animal. Toronja Turúnja (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Turunjah, from Persian Toranj) grapefruit Toronjil Turunján (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Turunjān, from Persian, Torongān) A kind of medicinal herb common in Spain used as a tonic for problems in the stomach and its anti-spasm properties. It belongs in the family Lamiaceae or Labiatae. Torrox Turrush (Arabic, ‫)طرش‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Tortosa TurToosha (‫)ﻁرﻁوشة‬ The capital of the comarca (district or county) of Baix Ebre, in the province of Tarragona in Catalonia, Spain. Totalán ??? A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in southern Spain. Trafalgar Taraf al-Gharb or Tarf al-Gharb (Arabic [‫]ﻁرف الغرب‬ meaning cape of the ave or cape of west or cape of laurels) Cabo Trafalgar as it is known is Spanish is a headland in the province of Cádiz in south-west Spain.It lies on the Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the Strait of Gibraltar. Trafalmejas Traf an-Nas or Tárf an-Najis (Andalusian Arabic meaning something extremely filthy) Said of a person that is emptyheaded and noisy. Also said of a person that is restless or seems crazy.


Tragacete Tagzalt (Berber, a diminutive of Agzal meaning a lance) A small, light lance that is thrown. Trochanter Traqantr (Arabic originally from Greek) Any of a number of bony protuberances by which muscles are attached to the upper part of the thigh bone. Truchimán/a Turjumán (Andalusi Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ترجمان‬Turjumān, meaning translator or interpreter. This comes from Rabbinic Aramaic, Tūrgmān, and Syriac, Targmānā, which originally came from Akkadian) A translator or interpreter of languages. Also, a wise and astute person. Trujamán/a Turjumán (Andalusi Arabic from Classical Arabic [‫ ]ترجمان‬Turjumān, meaning translator or interpreter. This comes from Rabbinic Aramaic, Tūrgmān, and Syriac, Targmānā, which originally came from Akkadian) A translator or interpreter of languages. Also, a middleman that counsels or intervenes in something, especially the buying, selling, bartering or interchange of something. Trujillo (surname) Tirujilla (‫)ترجلة‬ A town located in Extremadura, Spain. Tú Anta, anti, antu (‫)انت‬ you Tudela TuTayla (‫)تطيلة‬ A small city and municipality in the northern autonomous community of Navarre, Spain. It is the second city of Navarre. Some famous people of yore that were from the city were the poet AtTuTili, the 12th century traveller Benjamin of Tudela and the 13th century writer William of Tudela. Tuera Turah or Tuwarah (Mozarabic from Arabic and Latin, Phthora) The Cucurbitaceae family of plants that produces plants such as cucumbers, squashes, pumpkins, melons and watermelons. Also, the name of a fruit or plant called colocynth in English and coloquíntida in Spanish. It’s scientific name is Citrullus colocynthis. It is also the name of the fruit which is employed as a very strong laxative. Ubidah (‫ )أبذة‬or Medinat-Ubbadat-Al-Arab A town in the province of Jaén in Spain’s community of Andalusia. Uclés Uqliish (‫)أقليش‬ A municipality located in the province of Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Uleila del Campo al-Layl (Arabic [‫ ]ل ي لى‬for the night) A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Uléma Ulamā (Arabic [‫ ]علماء‬meaning learned) Someone learned in Islamic law; doctor of Islamic law. Urrácal Urrākāl (‫)أوراكال‬ A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Usted Ustadh (Arabic for teacher or scholar) The formal term for ‘you’ as opposed to the informal or personal ‘tú’ that is used in close company or by peers. (It is used formally, denoting respect). Úbeda


Vaca

Baqar, Baqarah (Arabic [‫ ] بقرة‬for cow)

A cow, the female of cattle. Vacarí Baqarí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Baqarī, having to do with cattle, bovine) Said of a badge or shield – ‘it has vacarí leather.’ Valencia (surname) Balansiyya (‫)بلنسية‬ The capital of the Spanish community of Valencia and its province. It is the third largest city in Spain. Valí Vali (Turkish from Classical Arabic, Wālī) In some Islamic nations, the governor of a province or district or certain places within it. Valija (Origins lost to history) Purse or wallet where diplomatic correspondence is transported. Also, this very correspondence is known as such. Also, a leather sack with lock and key that is used to transport mail. Valladolid (surname) Balad al-Walid (‫بلد الوليد‬, Arabic for town of Walid) A city and a municipality in north-central Spain, upon the Pisuerga River. It is the capital of the province of Valladolid and of Castile-Leon. Valle de Abdalajís Abdul-Aziz (Arabic meaning servant of the Almighty; ‫)ال عزي ز ع بد‬ A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in Southern Spain. The name of the town means valley of Abdul-Aziz. Vasco al-Bashkans (‫)ال ب ش ك نس‬ The Basques are an ethnic and linguistic group in the northeast of Spain/southern France. Ibn Garcia (see below) was a Basque. Also, there was a Basque princess named Aurora. She was also known by her Arabic name Subh al-Bashkanseyya (‫) ص بح ال ب ش ك ن س ية‬. She died in the Islamic year of 390 A.H. She was the favorite concubine of the Umayyad Caliph, alHakam, and the mother of the weak Hisham al-Mu'ayyad. Vega (surname) Buq’ah field Velefique ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Vélez de Benaudalla Bālis Wadi Beni Abdallah (Arabic meaning Valley of the sons of Abdallah or Valley of the son of God’s servant) A municipality of the province of Granada in Andalusia, Spain. Vélez-Blanco Bālis A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Vélez-Rubio Bālis A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Velmez Malbás (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Malbas [‫ ]ملبس‬meaning clothing) In medieval times, clothing that was worn under the armor. Ventura (surname) Ben Tura (Arabic and Berber [Amazigh] mixed word meaning son of the empty) A common surname and place name. Vera (surname) Beera (‫)بيرة‬ A municipality of the Almeria province in Andalusia, Spain. Villanueva de Algaidas (In Arabic, Algaidas means either lush and thick forests or green or happy forests) A town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalucía in Southern Spain. Visigodo al-Qut (,‫ ال قوط‬Arabized form of the word Goth and


Visigoth) The Goths and Visigoths are the names of the Western arm of Germanic tribes that took over parts of the fallen Roman Empire. The other tribe being the Ostrogoths. Visir Wazīr (Arabic [‫ ]وزير‬for minister) Minister, vizier, etc. A minister of a Muslim sovereign. Witiza GhayTasha (‫)غ يط شة‬ The name of a Visigothic count at the time of the Arab conquest of the Iberian peninsula. Yemen al-Yaman (‫)اليَ َمن‬ South Arabian country Yadira Jazirat (Arabic [‫ ]ي رةجز‬for island) An uncommon female first name. Yanira Jazirat (Arabic [‫ ]جزي رة‬for island) An uncommon female first name.

Zabacequia SáHb as-Sáqya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arbaic, SaHibus-Saqiyyah, meaning chief of the canals) The man in charge of keeping canals and ditches clean and maintained. Zabalmedina SáHb al-Madína (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SāHibul-Madīnah, meaning chief of the city) In the middle ages, a magistrate with jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases in a city. Zabarcera SaHb az-Zád (Andalusian Arabic for the one who has supplies; greens) A woman who sells fruits and other foods. Zabazala SaHib as-Salá or SáHb as-Salá (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SāHibus-Salāh, meaning chief or leader of prayer) The imam or the one in charge of leading the Islamic prayer in public. Zabazoque SaHib as-Súq or SáHb as-Súq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SāHibus-Sūq, meaning chief or leader of the market) The inspector of weights & measures. Zábila Sabíra (Andalusi Arabic from Classical Arabic Sibar, Sabbāra, Sabbīra, or Sabaira, meaning aloe) aloe vera Zabra Záwraq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zawraq) A type of ship that was used in medieval times and upto the beginning of modern times. Also, a frigate ship. Zacatín SaqqaTín (Andalusian Arabic and the plural of SaqqáT from Classical Arabic, SaqqāT meaning seller of clothes) In some villages, a square or street where clothes are sold. Zafa SáHfa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SaHfah, meaning a type of bowl that could be used to wash clothes or wash ones feet) A washbasin or bowl where water is kept in order to wash ones hands or face. Zafar AzáH (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, AzaHa, meaning to take away) To free, to untie, to ignore, to unknit, to let


loose, to escape or to hide in order to prevent capture or some other risk, to excuse oneself, to dislocate a bone, etc. Zafarí (also Higo Zafarí) Safarí (Andalusian Arabic which derives from the name Safr bin Ubayd al-Kilā’ī – the person that introduced this type of fig to Spain, alAndalus) pomegranate, sweet fig Zafariche Sahrij (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sihrīj, which comes from Pahlavi Persian) A spring, brook, or waterfall. A recipient where grapes are stepped on in order to obtain grape juice. The place where olives are pressed in order to obtain olive oil. Also, the place where apples are crushed in order to obtain apple cider. Zafío/a Jáfí or FallaH Sáfi (Andalusian Arabic for mere laborer) A crude, rude, or vulgar person. A person with coarse or unrefined manners or with a lack thereof. A person incapable of doing something. Zafra Sáfra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Safrah, meaning the journey that temporary or seasonal workers do) The sugarcane crop. The formation of sugar from sugarcane and sugar beets. Also, the time it takes for sugar to be made from sugarcane and beets. Zafra Sáfra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Safrā, meaning yellow or the color of brass) A wide, metal bowl that is not very deep whereby oil sellers strain the oil in order to get rid of any small particles. Also, a metal bowl where one places oil. Zafra Záfra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zāfirah, meaning a prop or support) or as-SúHra (From Andalusian Arabic originally from Classical Arabic, SaHr) A large belt that hold stagecoaches together. They are held together by the instrument that holds the horses. Belts that hold certain parts or are crucial to the performance of a machine. In later usage, belts from a car. Zafrán az-Za‘afrān (‫)الزعفران‬ Saffron; plants in the family Iridaceae. Also any medicines or condiments made from this plant. Zaga Sáqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sāqah, meaning rearguard) The rear or back of something. Also, cargo that is placed on the backside of a vehicle. Also, the last troops to march and the last player/s in a team sport to be called. A related word is Zaguero which means one that stood behind. Zagal/a Zagháll (Andalusian Arabic meaning youth and brave from Classical Arabic, Zughlūl, meaning boy) An animated youngster, especially the shepherd in training that helped to care for livestock; a young shepherd; a boy that is an adolescent or simply a boy. Zagaya Zaghayah (Andalusian Arabic) A light spear or small lance. Zagua Sawdā (Arabic meaning a type of plant found near the edges of beaches in the family Salicornia and Salsola – sometimes called tumbleweed, saltwort, or Russian thistle) A type of bush that grows in Europe and North Africa of the family Chenopodioideae. Zaguán Istawán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, UsTuwān/ah) A door or space that is covered that serves as a door within a house and that opens directly to the street. Zagüía Zawya (Moroccan Arabic from Classical Arabic,


Zāwiyyah, which literally means corner) In Morocco and other places, a type of hermitage where the tomb of an Islamic saint or holy person is found. Zahara Zahra flower Zahareño Sakhra or Sakhrí (Andalusian Arabic which derives from the word Sákhr which is from Classical Arabic, Sakhr, meaning a rock or crag) Generally said of a bird or animal that is fierce, wild, or intractable – an animal that with much difficulty is tamed or that cannot be tamed. Zaharrón Sakhrūn (Andalusian Arabic) A person of no value or merit. Something done badly. A clown or jester; a person that dresses up in a ridiculous manner and does things to make others laugh and entertain them. Zahén Zayyán or Zayyání (Andalusian Arabic for ‘people of Abū Zayān’ who was king of Tlemcen [‫ ]فْرمدت‬in Northwestern Algeria. Tlemcen comes from Berber Tala Imsan [ in Tifinagh] which means "the dry spring". The name is also sometimes spelled Tlemsen, Tlemsan, Tilimsen or in Spanish Tremecén and Tlemecén) A gold coinage minted by the Spanish Moors. At first it was valued at two ducats, then 445 maravedís during the reign of king Ferdinand. Zahína Sakhína (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sakhīnah) sorghum or corn Zahón Zagón (Mozarabic from Andalusian Arabic, Sáq, which is from Classical Arabic, Sāq, meaning leg) A type of apron, most often made of leather, that is tied to the waist. It has pant legs that are open on the back. They are principally used by hunters, cowboys, and country folk to protect their clothing. Zahora SaHúr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SuHūr [‫] سحور‬, the food taken before sunrise during the Ramadan fast) A large meal, feast, or a snack time where there is a lot of noise and commotion; a party. Zahorí Zuharí (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zuharī, geomancer; person that practices geomancy, from az-Zuharah, the Arabic name for Venus) A person that is attributed the gift of finding out occult things, especially underground springs. Also, a sharp or perceptive person that can easily determine what other people are thinking or feeling. Zaida Sayeda, Zayda (‫)زي دة س يدة‬ Occasionally used as a female first name. Zaino SáHim (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SāHim, meaning black or dark colored) Said of an animal especially a horse or mare – a horse of a dark chestnut brown color without any markings. Zaino Zahím (Andalusian Arabic meaning indigestion and disagreeable from Classical Arabic, Zahim, meaning greasy) Something false, an insecure pact or agreement; a traitor. Zalá as-Salaat (‫)صلوة‬ The Muslim way of worship. Zalama Salaam (‫ )سالم‬or Salaam Aleikum (‫)ع ل ي كم ال س الم‬ A show of kindness. Related words are Zalamero/a which means the one who shows kindness and Zalamería which is the demonstration of kindness, especially if its excessive.


Zalamalé Salaam Aleikum (‫ال س الم ع ل ي كم‬, Classical Arabic for peace be upon you; the usual manner of greeting between Muslims) A demonstration of kindness. Zalamería Salaam (‫)سالم‬ A show of kindness, especially and extreme or excessive show of kindness. Zálamo (Origins lost to history) muzzle Zalea (Zalear) Salíkha (Andalusian Arabic from the Classical Arabic root, S-L-Kh, meaning to develop) A piece of fabric or tanned skin that is placed on the bed base or spring mattress or other object to avoid that the object get damaged or ruined from humidity or cold. Zalema Salaam (‫ )سالم‬or Salaam Aleikum (‫)ك مع لي ال س الم‬ Greetings, reverence or humble courtesies that show submission. Zulla Súlla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sullah or Sillah, which comes from the Syriac, Sellā, meaning lentil) A plant that is common in Spain and used in gardens of the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Zalmedina SáHb al-Madína (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SāHibul-Madīnah, meaning chief of the city) In the middle ages, a magistrate with jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases in a city. Zalona Zanúna (Andalusian Arabic) A large clay vase with a large opening that may have one or two arms. Zamacuco Samakūk (Classical Arabic meaning a malicious fool) A brutish, clumsy, or foolish person. Also, by way of the preceding actions, drunkenness. Also, a person who feigns clumsiness in order to do what he/she pleases or to get their own way for their own interests. Zamaque Simaq or Summáq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Summāq, which comes from Aramaic, Summāq, which means red by way of the color of the seed) Sumac or sumach. Any one of approximately 250 species of plants in the genus Rhus, in the family Anacardiaceae.The dried berries of some species are ground to produce a tangy purple spice often used in juice. Zamboa az-Zanbú‘(From Andalusian Arabic) grapefruit Zambra Zámra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zamr) A noisy Moorish party with dancing, lots of commotion and hubbub. Noisy festivities held by Gypsies from Sacromonte in Granada, Spain. Zambra Zabra (Arabic possibly influenced by Zambra) A type of boat that the Moors used in medieval times. Zambullo az-Zabbúj Wild olive tree or wood from such a tree. Zamí ??? Zamora Samura (‫ )سمورة‬or as-Samur A city in CastileLeon, Spain. It is also the capital of the province of Zamora. It lies on a rocky hill in the northwest, near the border with Portugal and is crossed by the Duero river. Zanahoria Sfinaria (North African/Tunisian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Isfariniyah) or Safunnárya (Andalusian Arabic) carrot Zanja (Origins have been lost to history) Another word for Acequia (also of Arabic origin), it means irrigation ditch. Zapato Sibbaat (Arabic) & Zabata (Turkish) Shoe; leather shoe.


Zaque

Zaqq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Ziqq) A wineskin; leather bag for extracting water from a well; drunken person. Zaqueca Shaqīqah (‫)الشقيقه‬ migraine headache Zaqui ??? Zaquizamí Sáqf Shami or Sáqf Fassamí (Andalusian Arabic meaning fragile ceiling but literally meaning ceiling in the sky) An attic or loft or booth or small room that is unkempt. It could also be a store room or extra room or guestroom in a house. Zaragatona ZaraqaTúna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BazraqaTūnah, from Aramaic, Zra’qaTTūnā, meaning kitten’s seed) A plant whose scientific name is Plantago psyllium. The family name of related plants is Plantaginaceae. Zaragoza (surname & place name) SaraqusTa (Originally from Latin, it is the Arabic pronunciation of Caesarea Augusta [‫) ]سرقسطة‬ The capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the community and former kingdom of Aragon in Spain. Zaragüelles Sirwil or Saráwil (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sarāwīl, from Aramaic, Sarbalā) Wide pants with pleats or creases that are part of the region clothing worn by the people of Valencia. Also, colloquially, pants that are too wide, long, or just poorly made. Zaranda Sarand (Andalusian Arabic from Persian, Sarand meaning strainer or filter) A rectangular filter, sifter or strainer that has a net on one end. It is employed in mills to separate seeds or other small particles and substances from the juices or oils produced there. Zarandillo Sarand (Andalusian Arabic from Persian, Sarand meaning strainer or filter) A small filter, strainer or sifter. Zaratán SaraTán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SaraTān, literally meaning crab) breast cancer Zarco/a Zárqa (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zarqā, meaning blue) Said of something blue such as the sky or water but more commonly of a person with blue eyes – with light blue eyes. Zargatona ZaraqaTúna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, BazraqaTūnah, from Aramaic, Zra’qaTTūnā, meaning kitten’s seed) A plant whose scientific name is Plantago psyllium. The family name of related plants is Plantaginaceae. Zarracatín Saqit or Sarráq Attín (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, SāriquT-Tīn, meaning a date robber) A person that buys merchandise or things for a cheap price in order to sell them at a more expensive price; a profiteer. Zarzahán Zardakhán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zardakhānah, from Persian Zar Zokhān, meaning golden smoke) A piece of fine silk with colored stripes. Zatara KhaTTára (Andalusian Arabic for runway or footbridge) The wooden frame or outline of a boat before its completed.

Zegrí ??? An individual that belonged to a specific Muslim family during the Islamic emirate of Granada. Zéjel

Zajál (Andalusian Arabic meaning song in dialect from


Classical Arabic, Zajal, meaning lots of noise and commotion) A type of poetry that is said in Spanish but that has its origins in Arabic. It can have any number of verses but usually the 4th verse rhymes with one of the other verses. Zeneque ¿?? A bread roll or piece of bread. Zenith Sanit or Azimuth Zenith; the highest point of achievement of something or someone. Also, astronomically, the vertical intersection of a celestial body overhead of an observer. Zero Sífr (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sifr [‫]صفر‬, meaning empty) Zero or cipher. The number that expresses nothingness. Zircon az-Zarqún (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zarqūn, which comes from Persian, Zargun, meaning golden-colored) A type of crystal commonly called zircon; a silicate of zircon, more or less transparent, white or yellowish. It is commonly found in India and used as a precious stone. It is also called hyacinth. It could be whitish or reddish-yellowish. Zoco as-Súq (‫السوق‬, Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sūq – originally from Aramaic, Sūqā, which ultimately came from Akkadian Sūqu[m], meaning street.) Market; plaza or other place where public commerce and trade can be done. Zofra Súfra (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sufrah) A type of Moorish rug or decorative table cloth. Zoquete ??? A piece of oddly shaped wood or a short and thick piece of wood that was leftover from a construction. Zorzal Zurzál (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zurzūr) A type of thrush or blackbird that migrates to Spain during the winter.

Zubia Shu’bah or Zúbya (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zubyah) A small channel or a place where water is able to run its course. Zújar (also Baños de Zújar) Sujur (Arabic meaning impregnable rock or fortified rock) A municipality in Granada, Spain. Baños de Zujar is a pool of water heated by volcanic geo-thermal underground sources at the foot of Mount Javaleon. Zulaque Suláqa (Andalusian Arabic that ultimately comes from Greek.) A paste made of some peculiar substances such as carbon and hydrogen as well as lye and other plants, herbs, calcium oxide, oil and bits and pieces of metals that fly or


melt off of metal working or from blacksmiths’ work or ground glass. The concoction is then used as a paste to seal off pipes or conduits of water or other hydrolic work. Zulla Súlla (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sullah or Sillah, from Syriac, Sellā, meaning lentil or moss) A plant belonging to the Fabaceae or Leguminosae family. They are cultivated particularly for their beauty. Zumaque Simaq or Summáq (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Summāq, which comes from Aramaic, Summāq, which means red by way of the color of the seed) Sumac or sumach. Any one of approximately 250 species of plants in the genus Rhus, in the family Anacardiaceae.The dried berries of some species are ground to produce a tangy purple spice often used in juice.

Zumo

Zúm (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Zūm,

which comes from the Greek, ζωμός) Basically fruit juice but can generally mean any liquid that comes from herbs, flowers, fruits or similar things through crushing or squeezing them. Zuna Súnna (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, [‫] س نة‬ Sunnah, meaning well-trodden path) Code of conduct that Muslims live by which are based on the ways and manners of the Prophet Muhammad. It has come to mean ill-mannered, bad manners, a vice, bad habits, etc. Zurgena ??? A municipality of the Almería province in Spain. Zurrapa (Origins lost to history) Scraps, sediments or small hairs that are found in liquids and that eventually settle to the bottom. Zurriaga/o Surriyáqa (Andalusian Arabic) A leather whip with which people are punished and flogged. Zutano Fulán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Fulān) A way of saying “so and so.” A euphemism for a person’s identity by ignoring their name especially if the person does not want to utter the name. An imaginary or indetermined person. Also, a euphemism for a beloved person. Also, a euphemism for a prostitute. Zute as-Súdd (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Sudd.) A waterwheel or similar device that was used in irrigation.


Concepts and Arabisms Spanish has numerous words of non-Arabic origin, which carry an Arabic meaning. These few examples will give an idea of how these words are used. Aceros, means both energy and strength, is a translation of the Arabic hiddah (meaning sharpness and force). Poridad means both purity and friendship from the Arabic word khalasa (to be pure) and the Spanish word/concept, vergüenza, which means both shame and honor has the same meaning as the Arabic car. There are also a number of expressions, refrains, proverbs and common sayings in Spanish have been translated or adapted from their Arabic equivalent. Examples would be si Dios quiere or bendita sea la madre que te pario. Other sayings come from the strife that local Muslims and Christians endured within Spain during the Moorish era. Adelante

This means ‘come in’ and comes from the Arabic, ItfaDDal.

Ademán aD-Díman or aD- Damán (Andalusian Arabic from Classical Arabic, Damán [‫ ]الضمان‬which literally means legal guarantees that were made through exaggerated movements, gestures and expressions) Gesticulation which expresses the will to do something – particularly exaggerated gestures. The change of meaning is due to the exaggerated promises and gesticulations which were offered in a plea. Movements, gestures, or expressions that illustrated a point or emotion. A más moros, más ganancia This literally means “The more Moors, the more gain.” During the wars between the Moors and the Christians, a refrain meaning despite the risks and difficulties, the glory lies in the triumph of the Christians. Bendita sea la madre que te parió This literally means “blessed be the mother who gave birth to you!” It is similar to the English expression, “a face only a mother could love.” Como moro sin señor This literally means “like a Moor without an owner.” A refrain meaning a union or get together of people where there is great disorder and confusion. Dios te ayude ya’tik.

This means “God help you” and it comes from the Arabic, Allah

El huesped y la pesca a tres días apestan This is a refrain that literally means “the guest and fish smell after 3 days.” It comes from a famous Hadith [translated below] stating similarly that 3 days for a guest is enough time before running afoul. 29: Volume: 8, Book Number: 73, Hadith Number: 156 Narrated Abu Shuraih Al-Ka'bi:


Allah's Apostle said, Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, should serve his guest generously. The guest's reward is: To provide him with a superior type of food for a night and a day and a guest is to be entertained with food for three days, and whatever is offered beyond that, is regarded as something given in charity. And it is not lawful for a guest to stay with his host for such a long period so as to put him in a critical position."

Es de Dios Allah.

This means “Its from God” and it comes from the Arabic, ‘Aysh

Esta es su casa This is an expression of invitation, “this is your house” from the Arabic, Hadha Baytukum. Flamenco music This comes from the Arabic, Fallah Manjah meaning “saved farmer” or Fallah Manqu meaning “running farmer.” Haber moros en la costa This literally means “there are Moors in the coast.” It is a refrain that has the meaning of recommending caution. Haber moros y cristianos This literally means “there are Moors and Christians.” This is a refrain meaning that there is great discord, fighting, arguments, adversity, etc. Hasta luego al-liqaa'.

Literally meaning “until next time” and comes from the Arabic, Ila

Mal de ojo (evil eye) commonly known in Arabic as al-‘Ayn (‫ )العين‬which literally means ‘the eye’ or ‘Ayn Hasad (‫ )ع ين ح سد‬meaning the eye of envy. It is one of the oldest and most persistent beliefs among human cultures. It is particularly strong in the Middle East, Southern Europe and Asia, although it exists in many other cultures as well.

Mi casa es su casa (and other variants, such as ‘Ha tomado posesión de tu casa,’ meaning “you’ve taken possession of your house” which emphasizes the courtesy of extending someones home to others. It comes from al-Bayt Baytak. Moros van, moros vienen This literally means “Moors go, Moors come.” It is a refrain meaning that there is little left for a person to become completely drunken. No hay mal de que bien no venga

This literally means “there is no evil whereby there


good isn’t inherent.” It comes from the Islamic belief based in the Quran, Holy Quran, Suratul-Baqarah (Chapter of the Cow) [2:216] Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not. Holy Quran, Suratun-Nisā (Chapter of the Women) [4:19] O ye who believe! Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should ye treat them with harshness, that ye may Take away part of the dower ye have given them,-except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good.

Ñ The use of the “ñ” is unique to the Spanish language. It is a sort of shorthand for the double ‘n’ used in Spanish which had a unique sound (sounding like ‘ny’ or ‘ni’ in English – Sonia). The letter itself seems to be a hybridization of two Arabic symbols or concepts. The tilde (~) which itself comes from the Arabic symbol called a maddah (‫ )مدة‬and serves to elongate the alif sound in Arabic. The ñ also seems to be influenced by the Arabic symbol of shaddah (‫ ) شدة‬also called tashdīd (‫ )ت شدي د‬which serves to double the sound of a consonant. Ojalá Literally, this means God-willing. It comes from the Arabic words, washa’Allah, which means “by God’s will” or lawšā Allāh, which is used to express a wish or desire one cannot fulfill. It is a variant of the more common, insha’Allah [ ‫ان شاء‬ ‫]هللا‬. ¡Olé! The most famous hoopla that is yelled enthusiastically (especially in bullfighting rings) in approval. It comes from the Arabic words, Wa Allah, meaning “by God.” Que Dios te guarde A way of saying good-bye that literally means, “may God keep you safe.” It comes from the Arabic, ma’a salaama, which means the same. Si Dios quiere A common way of saying maybe, it literally means God-willing. It comes from the Arabic words, Insha’Allah [‫]ان شاء هللا‬ Vaya con Dios A way of saying good-bye. It literally means “go with God.” It comes from the Arabic, Allah ma’ak. Vaya por Dios A way of saying good-bye meaning “go with God.” It comes from the Arabic words, Hadha iradat Allah. Zegríes y Abencerrajes An expression which means "partisans of opposite interests." The Abencerrajes (in Arabic Aban as-Sarráj) was an Arab family of the Kingdom of Granada, rivals of the Zegríes in the 15th century.

Besides words and concepts, Iberian culture would inherit much from the Arab-Islamic culture. Even the Spanish gazpacho soup is inherited from the Moorish soup khubz mushrib (soaked bread). Another cultural throwback is the choosing of inauspicious names to ward off evil spirits and the evil eye.


In Egypt, for example, you can find some rural families naming their children strange and sometimes offensive names. They do this to prevent harm from coming to them. This is especially true for a family that has had all of its male children die in childhood, or some other misfortune like that. One can find names such as El Shahhat ‫( ال شحات‬the beggar) or Shehata ‫( شحات ة‬begging) being used. This is not unlike some of the names found among Spanish-speakers such as Dolores meaning pain or the use of ancient Latin and Greek names that have long died out in some other European countries, such as Porfirio or Eusebio. Other cultural throwbacks are the use of kerchiefs (pañuelos) and long dresses by many women in Latin America, at least up until very recently. Some country women still endeavor to dress modestly and cover themselves which is very similar to the concept of hijab or dressing up modestly in Islam.

Weights and Measures: Almud al-Mudd Arrelde al-Ratl Arroba al-Rub cah Azumbres al-Thumn Cantara Qantarah Celemi Thumni Fanega Faniqah Quintal Qintar

Names of Stars Achernar or Achenar Acrab Phurked Altair & Atair Aldebaran Daneb Deneb Kaitos Denebola Fomalhaut Aega Muphrid Ras Alhague Al Agemim Alderamin

Akhir an-Nahr [‫( ]ال نهر آخر‬river’s end) ‘Aqrab [‫(]ال ع قرب‬scorpion) Farqad (calf) an-NaSr at-Tair [‫( ]ال طائ ر ال ن سر‬the flying eagle) ad-Dabarān [‫( ]ال دب ران‬the follower) Dhanab ad-Dujajah (chicken’s tail) Deneb Qaytus (whale’s tail) Dhanab al-Asad [‫( ]اال سد ذن ب‬lion’s tail) Famm al-Hawt or Fum al-Hawt [‫( ]ال حوت ف م‬mouth of the whale) NaSr al-Waqi (eagle ???) Mufrid ar-RāmiH [‫( ]ال رامح م فرد‬the [single] one of the lancer) Ra’s al-Hayyah [‫( ]ي ةال ح رأس‬head of the serpent-charmer) Al Agimim [‫( ]االغ م يم‬the sheep fold) ad-Dirā‘ al-Yamīn [‫( ]ال يم ين ال ذراع‬the right arm)

Anatomical terms Mesentry

Masarike


Peritoneum

Baratene

The Prophet (pbuh) said, "There are two blessings which many people lose: (They are) health and free time for doing good." Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 8.421 Narrated by Ibn Abbas

Profile for Taino Library

Dictionary of Spanish Words from the Moorish Era  

by Juan Alvarado

Dictionary of Spanish Words from the Moorish Era  

by Juan Alvarado

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