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THE UFO HANDBOOK

A guide to investigating, evaluating and reporting UFO sightings

ALAN HENDRY


The UFO Handbook

CONTENTS 02/03 INTRODUCTION 04 STUDYING REPORTS 05/06/07 ALLEGATIONS 08 NOCTURNAL LIGHT/ NL 09 DAYLIGHT DISC/ DD 10 RADAR VISUAL/ RV 11 CLOSE ENCOUTERS OF THE FIRST KIND / CE1 12 CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE SECOND KIND/ CE2 13 CLOSE ENCOUTERS OF THE THIRD KIND / CE3 14/15 UFOLOGISTS 16/17 UFO TYPE CHART 18/19 ASSOCIATED ENTITIES 20/21 CONCLUSION 22/23 INTERNATIONAL UFO REPORTER


The UFO Handbook

Introduction In seeking information about UFOs in the existing books and magazines, I’ve always found myself caught between two extremes; I’m repelled by UFO proponents who immidiately jump to extra ordinary conclusions and yet I am also suspicious of “experts” who dismiss as ridiculous all UFO sightings. In this regard I am probably typical of most people who will read this book... to people who have elected not to commit themselves to the UFO subject because television, newspapers, books and magazines have clearly failed to provide enough substantial information for them to arrive at a valid conclusion. Have these sources reported the facts objectively, or have they coloured them to suit the author’s biases - pro or con? The only way the average person will ever get a straight answer about UFOs is by investigating the subject himself.


The UFO Handbook

We only get to study reports of UFOs - Not the UFOs themselves. This is one of the greatest obstacles to the study of UFOs. Imagine that you are headed up a center for automobile studies and that little was known about automobiles. Your only source on information was people’s excited descriptions of them as they drove by, occasionally leaving tread marks on the ground... and that was all. Still, even these reports would be infinately more coherent than the huge variety of descriptions that are present in the UFO literature; life would be much easier if they were’nt so diverse. In searching for identities for UFOs, there is a large gulf between description and explanation. There are usually three places where errors of interpretation can enter when written accounts of sightings are considered: a) the original observation (ignorance of the nature of some otherwise known stimulus; difficult viewing conditions such as darkness, distance and atmospheric distortions; or faulty “causality” conclusions by the witness, such as a dimming light equal to a receeding object); b) verbal relaying of memory to investigator (Are false details being filled in? is the investigator “leading” the witness in some way?);c) Written account by the witness (is he leaving out important information? Is he biasing the outcome?). In short,

we must never overlook the compound nature of the UFO reports: “real” details (perceptually available) vs. “reported” details. They can be blended completely, partially, or not at all - and there is no easy way to determine the influence on the final product. Also, a written or spoken description can serve as an effective buffer between the original object and a true understanding of its nature. We are denied the full sensory stimuli to which the original witness was entitled. Try this example, what is your reaction to the following account? An oblong metallic object was seen hovering silently in the distance for two minutes, reflecting sunlight as it held motionless, defying gravity. Then suddenly it picked up speed, executed a sharp turn, and rushed off toward the north. A UFO sighting is observed, recalled for an investigator, a secondhand description is published - and the errors compound themselves.


The UFO Handbook

Allegations We would be dishonest with ourselves if we considered the reports as anything but allegations; this is unfortunate, but neccessary, if we are to treat UFOlogy as a science. Still there are certainly a lot of them; various collections of UFO reports from around the world show that the tens of thousands of sightings have made their way to various reporting agencies. The Center for UFO Studies has a computerised bibliography of over sixty- thousand seperate events. I only quote these figures, however, to give a feel for the number of reports that have been made throughout the years. When the center made a case evaluation of the reports present in the air force files, only 5 per cent of them were worth of the title “UFO�. Almost all the rest were IFOs.


The UFO Handbook


The UFO Handbook


The UFO Handbook

All the same, the cases that remain display a broad variety of characteristics. Various schemes to reduce this data have been attempted in the past; a six-category system developed by Dr. Hynek has come to be the most popular one and so it will be employed here as a way of classifying UFO types. It seperates all sightings on the basis of proximity, using 500ft as a cut off point; then it performs additional divisions on the basis viewing conditions or special features. Lets survey the scope of reported UFO activity in terms of this system.

NOCTURNAL LIGHT/NL DEFINITION: Any anomolous lights seen in the distant night sky whose descriptions rule out the possibilities of aircraft lights, stars, meteors and the like. This catagory has the largest share of UFO sightings and the lowest “strangeness� events; they yield little information because of the poor viewing conditions of darkness and distance. COMMON FEATURES: unusual numbers and formations, perculiar size or shape, perculiar features (variations in light or colour, odd trails, halos.), Unusual manouvering ability (sudden direction changes, rapid starting and stopping.)

EXAMPLE: Two stars revolved around eachother, separated by one-and-one-half-moon diameters; the orbit was counterclockwise once every two seconds. The revolving abruptly stopped, and the lights remained briefly motionless. They started moving away from eachother; the southbound light halted, but the northbound light continued, faster than aircraft, yet slower than a meteor. Seen at 9:45 PM, May 14, 1970, in Bangor, Maine, for two to three minutes by two witnesses. Reported by an MIT graduate student to the National Center for Atmospheric research.


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DAYLIGHT DISC/DD DEFINITION Discoidal objects seen in the distant daytime sky. “Discoidal” is a broad term here - Dr Hynek permits Cigars, spheres, eggs, ovals, and point sources as well as “flying saucers”. Only a small fraction of all reported activity occurs during the daylight hours; yet, depending on the critical standards imposed, and the data smaple examined, there can be as many genuine DD sightings as NLs. COMMON FEATURES Variety of geometric shapes, many of which are suggestive of a particular aspect of a disc (edge-on vs. face-on). Silver or white in colour predominantly. Extremely rapid accelleration. No sonic boom, general silence. Seemingly “purposeful” directed motion for example unusual manouvers and right angle turns. EXAMPLE: Domed disc, five to six times the suns diameter in the sky, silvery grey, no glare reflected from sun, which was behind the observer. The disc flew on a level, straight course, approximately on quarter mile away; it turned upward and accelerated rapidly in the last two to three seconds, revealing a dark central area underneath. Seen at 4:10PM, October 11, 1974, at Cloudcroft, New Mexico, by a professional astronomer. Reported to the American Astronomical Society’s UFO survey.


The UFO Handbook

RADAR VISUALS/RV DEFINITION - A UFO that is seen by a witness and on radar simultaneously, with good agreement between the accounts. Radar alone is too subject to false images from ground scatter, temperature inversions and other problems to be depended on alone. These cases imply instrumented “proof” of a UFO’s presence as well as a quantitive hancle on its flight characteristics. These are relatively rare occurances, mostly because of the practical limitations built into modern radar systems. The microfilms of the Air Force Blue Books reveal only twenty - nine such events; the UFO literature suggests many more. COMMON FEATURES Usually point source of light or vague shape, virtuall all occur at night, hovering and achieving extremely high speeds, reversal of motion and sharp turns, though usually not right angles.

EXAMPLE: Two control operators with the combines experience of twenty - three years watched a light travel at over 150mph over an extern runway and begin a sharp descent down to three - hundred feet. The tower operators tried unsuccessfully to communicate with the object by radio. Looking at it through binoculars, one operator described it as looking like “a car standing on end” with a light on the bottom. Slowing to 50 mph, the object veered over a brilliantly lit restriced area. These manouvers were also observed on radar as one operator was able to track its trajectory long after it was out of sight. The lieutennant colonel ho prepared the report said that the observers were esteemed and competant, and in his opinion they saw an object that defied identification. Seen at 10:45PM, November 4, 1957, at Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico. Reported to the Air forces Project Blue book.


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CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE FIRST KIND/CE1 DEFINITION: A UFO in close proximity (within 500 feet) to the witness. With the introduction of the so called close encounters we arrive at some of the most compelling reports, those sightings that are so close to the witness that the possibility of misperception is minimized. In these accounts the UFO is seen in the immidiate frame of referance of the observer, but it does not influence the environment in any way. COMMON FEATURES Variety of shapes, many ovals and discs. Sometimes domes and other appendages. Hovering, rapid acceleration with a very steep ascent / descent, silence even though near to the observer, rotation.

EXAMPLE: A school principle driving home noticed a glow approaching him over a cliff. As it rose over the top, it became clear that it was an object shaped like a world war 1 helmet which he estimated to be over 300 feet in diameter. It remained motionless almost directly overhead momentarily and then headed toward the local airport. The witness was very impressed with the intese white light it was emitting. Joining his friends in a following car, the group watched the UFO hover over power lines for about ten minutes. Witnesses at the airport on an incoming flight also reported the object. Seen at 9PM, on April, 1967, at Jefferson City, Misouri for ten to fifteen minutes


The UFO Handbook

CLOSE ENCOUNTER OF THE SECOND KIND / CE2

DEFINITION: A close encounter of the first kind that influences the environment in some fashion, usually by leaving physical evidence of its presence or creating electromagnetic interferance. Like radar visuals, this catagory is commonly regarded as holding more concrete “proof” of the presence of a UFO than mere testimony alone. One researcher has prepared a bibliography of 561 cases reported to have left physical traces behind. EFFECTS / PHYSICAL TRACES: Residues (powders, white filaments, oils, rarely artifacts) Radioactivity, melted metal and electromagnetic interferance. Unusual behavious by animals in affected zone.

EXAMPLE: Sheriff Weir Clem and Officer Fowler recieved a phone call from a Farmhand who asserted that he saw a two hundred foot-long elliptical UFO fly over his truck, causing the lights and the engine to go out. After the object left the area, the truck regained power. This was only the first on ten independant reports within a ten mile radius of the town , all reported in less than three hours. Seven on the accounts told of automotive failures that lasted until the UFO departed. By 1:30AM the Sheriff found the UFO across the road last reported “two hundred feet long”, “Oval shaped” and “like a brilliant red sunset”. Seen from 11PM, on November 2, 1957, at Levelland, Texas, by twelve witnesses for tow and a half hours. Reported to the Air Force’s Project Blue Book.


The UFO Handbook

CLOSE ENCOUNTER OF THE THIRD KIND/CE3 DEFINITION: A close encounter of the first or second kind, with occupants, or entities assosciated with it. This type of encounter most fires public interest and controversy. Over 1,200 aleged incidents of this type have been catalogued from all available sources by UFO researchers. Variety of shapes, all suggestive of some sort of physical craft. UFO either flies close enough to reveal occupants, lands and occupants leave the UFO or entities are indirectly assosciated with UFO. Virtuall all CE3’s happen at night and are seen by one or two witnesses.The primary group

of entities are usually 3-4 feet tall, often large heads and spindly bodies. The secondary group are reported to be 5-6 feet tall and show a largely normal humanoid appearance. Various other types ranging from giants to anthropomorphic machines have been reported. Behavior of entities towards humans is generally reported as evasive shyness but some cases of contact and even detainment of humans has been reported. Over 160 known cases of “abductions” are known, involving medical examinations and seeming “paranormal” experiences. EXAMPLE: A member of a back woods family returned to his home to decribe a UFO that he saw descend into the gully near the family’s farmhouse. Within an hour, the seven men, women and children were watching, and firing upon a number of small creatures with large round, bald heads, big eyes, spindly bodies and long arms. The bullets seemed inneffectual against them and the family rushed to the police department. All seven member of the family related the same details and have held adamantly to them. Seen the evening of August 21, 1955, in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, by seven witnesses, for four hours. Listed in the Air Force Project Blue files as “unidentified”.


The UFO Handbook

UFOLOGISTS Dear sirs: I’m twelve years old and have been investigating UFOs for three years...” - From a letter to the Center for UFO studies. The public conception of a UFOlogist generally lies somewhere between a chiropractor and a witch doctor. They are inadequately protrayed as trying to promote an exciting outer space shceme the basis of evidence which the public intuitively realizes has failed to be substantial. Yet how effective can UFOlogists and UFO groups hope to be in resolving the UFO dilemma? Since a UFO researcher is an expert on aerial anomalies, does that mean that he has to be fully aquainted with all relevant fields to know what is known? While this vision of an impossible renaissance man sounds prohbitive in theory, the situation is not that bleak in practice. As we have seen, the IFO sources tend to be restricted to a small number of items: 90 perent of all IFOs are NL “impostors” and 90 percent of these are restricted to four ommon objects - stars, ad planes, plane lights and meteors, in that order. That there are good private UFO researchers who are prepared to ferret IFO explanations and accept them is certain.

The author obtained a great deal of valuable information, for example, out of the writings of one UFO investigator, Mr. Raymond Fowler, and recieved excellent assistance from a number of field investigators around the country. Yet for a field that is composed of individuals who profess to be intrigued by aerial anomolies, there is widespread ignoranceabout even the most basic characterstics of sources like meteors, ad planes and balloons. This ignorance is likely to be a deliberate supression by each UFO researcher, for reasons that are reflected in the motives they demonstrate for their involvement with UFOs. Many researchers become intrigued with the sure and certain hope that they would be lead to a certain source of personal excitement. This emotional predisposition inevitably proves to be a poor framework for the objective handling of raw sighting reports. Another demonstration of motive lies in the degree of the pretensiousness adopted by many with regard to their work. A UFOlogist most of the time, is an amateur investigative journalist...Myself included. Thus, I wince when i see words like “scientific” and “research” freely affixed to any menial investigative effort in an anecdotal “witness oriented” where science has a hard time manifesting itsself in ways that arent purely sociological.


The UFO Handbook


The UFO Handbook

UFO TYPE CHART Chart published in hearings before the committee on science andastronautics of the U.S house of represenatitves in 1968. Each drawing represents an individual UFo case.


The UFO Handbook


The UFO Handbook

ASSOSCIATED ENTITIES Based on general accounts of eye witnesses in regard to entities associated with UFOs and CE3s.


The UFO Handbook

“You are likely to encounter a universal attempt to pidgeonhole UFOnauts into one of two primary groups: Dwarfs - Humanoid figures that range in height from 3 to 4 feet and frequently possess large heads and eyes, with long arms and spindly bodies.

Normals - Human beings of normal stature and proportions. Eyes are normally the most conspicuous feature. Nose, ears and mouth are often inconspicuous. Often seen in coverall suits. These two classes are usually supplemented with a comment that giant humanoids, robots and hairy anthropoids make up a smaller third group.


I N T E R N ATIONAL

UFO

R E P O R T E R

CASE# ___-____-_____ TYPE:____________________________________ EM PH.TR PHYS RAD PHOTO HUM REFERED BY _____________________________ __________________________________________

Send completed form to Allan Hendry c/o International UFO reporter 1609 Sherman Ave, suite 207 Evanston, IL 60201

WITNESS PHONE _______________________________ NAME________________________________ ADRESS______________________________ CITY_________________________________ STATE____________ZIP_________________

SEX: ( ) MALE ( ) FEMALE AGE:_________ OCCUPATION:_________________________ EDUCATION:__________________________ ANIMALS PRESENT? __________________ ANY REACTIONS?_____________________

LIST OTHER WITNESSES NAMES AND NUMBERS: ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________

YOUR ACTIVITY PRIOR TO THE SIGHTING? _____________________________________________________ WHAT GOT YOUR ATTENTION?__________________________________________________________________ DID YOU WATCH THE ONJECT CONTINUOUSLY? ( ) YES ( ) NO ( ) OTHERS DID VISUAL AIDS: ( ) NONE ( ) GLASSES ( ) BINOCULARS ( ) CAMERA:____________________________________________________________________________________ DID THE OPTICS IMPROVE YOUR OBSERVING?_________________________________________________ WHAT WERE YOUR REACTIONS?________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ WHAT AGENCIES DID YOU CALL? ( ) POLICE ( ) CENTER ( ) PRESS ( ) MILITARY ( ) SEEN ON RADAR?___________________________________________________________ HAVE YOU SEEN A UFO BEFORE? ( ) YES ( ) NO INTERSTED IN SUBJECT PRIOR TO SIGHTING? ( ) YES ( ) INDIFFERENT ( ) NO

ENVIRONMENT DATE: ____________ TIME:____________ ( ) AM ( ) PM ( ) EXACT ( ) EST.

TYPE OF AREA: ( ) URBAN ( ) SUBURBAN ( ) RURAL ( ) RESIDENTIAL ( ) INDUSTRIAL ( ) AGRICULTURAL STREET______________________________________________________________ COUNTY_____________________________________________________________ STATE_________________ ( ) INDOORS ( ) OUTDOORS

VIEW: ( ) OBSTRUCTED ( ) NON OBSTRUCTED WEATHER: ( ) CLEAR ( ) OVERCAST ( ) RAIN ( ) FOG/MIST WINDY? ____________ WIND DIRECTION?_______________________________________________________


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APPEARANCE NUMBER OF OBJECTS SEEN: ( ) ONE ( ) __ APPARENT SIZE SIMILAR TO: ( ) STAR ( ) PLANE ( ) MOON ACTUAL SIZE: ________________________ (optional) OUTLINE: ( ) SHARP, DISTINCT ( ) VAGUE, FUZZY ( ) TOO DARK ( ) N/A

SOUND: ( ) NONE ( ) __________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Sketch the UFOs Appearace here.

LUMINOSITY: ( ) UNCERTAIN ( ) SELF LUMINOUS ( ) REFLECED LIGHT ( ) FLASHING INTESITY: ( ) STAR ( ) AIRCRAFT ( ) INTENSE ( ) BLINDING ( ) CHANGING ( ) TRAIL? ( ) SURROUNDING HAZE? ( ) BEAMS? ( ) SPIKES? ( ) GLOW? COLOUR____________LENGTH/POSITION_____________________DURATION________________________ OTHER DETAILS _____________________________________________________________________________

MOTION DIRECTION_________ANGLE______________MANNOR_____________________________ TRAJECTORY: (In terms of angles and directions above the horizon) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ DURATION: _________HRS________MIN_________SEC SPEED: ( ) STATIONARY ( ) SLOW PLANE ( ) FASTER THAN PLANE ( ) EXTR. FAST


The UFO Handbook

CONCLUSION The reader of this book will realize by now that the study of UFOlogy is not a true science. We do possess provocative UFO reports that ensure our interest. We do have a guaranteed sociological phenomenon of no mean importance. We also have a profound emotional climate surroudning the whole UFO subject which is affecting our objectivity in everything from the ACCURRATE REPORTING OF SIGHTINGS TO THE FORMATION OF HYPOTHESIS about collected reports. In the absence of any probative tools or techniues to help us prove that at least some of the UFO alligations are accrate, protrayals of extraordinary events, no legitamate framework for studyinf phenomenon currently exists. After examining 1,300 UFO reports first hand, on a case by case basis, I am still no closer to the nature of the this complex beast than when I started. After I have weeded out the “easy” IFOs and 10 per cent of the reports remain as “unworthy” UFOs, I still cannot confidently draw the distinction between a “real” physical phenonmenon and a complex misperception, a “real” physical CE3 event and sophisticated fantasy, a “real” physical trace case and a false match of IFO and un- related artifact. This is true despite the fact that I have tried to exploit every device, system or tool to which I can gain access.

I do not endevour to argue that UFOs do not, in some form, exist, ineed; why shouldnt they? The 20th Century hardly understands everything that is seen in its complex skies. Personally, I want there to be animalistic UFOs that defy the laws of physics, for the simple reason, that it would usher a new scientific revolution. But with our current inability to fully draw the distinction between real UFOs and IFOs, fantasies or hoaxed, coupled with a heated emotional atmosphere, I can only assert that it is my ffeeling that some UFO reports represent truly remarkable events... and while science may be initiated by feelings, it cannot be based on them. Unless we develop drastically new ideas and methodologies for the study of baffling UFo cases and the uman context in which they occur, we will watch the next thirty years of UFO report gathering simply mirror the futility and frustration of the last thirty years.


The UFO Handbook



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