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Part A. EOI I: CASE FOR INNOVATION 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3

Introduction Architecture as a discourse Computational Design Parametric modelling

Part B. EOI 2: DESIGN APPROACH 2.0 Case study 1 2.1 Case study 2 2.2 Introduction to design approach 2.3 Precedents 2.4 Our argument 2.5 Proof of technique 2.6 Findings 2.7 Further Grasshopper 2.8 Introduction to joinery 2.9 Moving forward Part C. PROJECT PROPOSAL 3.0 Introuction to design phase 3.1 Final Form 3.2 Grasshopper 3.3 Construction 3.4 Models 3.5 Connection to Wyndham 3.6 Site 3.7 Learning objectives


1. 1




Hey there. i’m Bonnie Williams, a 3rd year Architecture student from the University of Melbourne. I have been interested in architecture and design for as long as i can remember and I’ve always been fascinated by the concept of manipulating space to create or change experiential qualities. I favor traditional design methods such as pencil and paper and therefore I have limited experience in 3D modeling. Nevertheless i am exciting to experiment with this technique and to engage in a new architectural dialogue. My first exposure to 3D modelling was in first year Virtual Environments in which i was required to use the panelling tools functions within Rhino to design and construct a lantern. Since then i have had a small amount of experience using SketchUp and other basic modeling programs.


1.2 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE As the architectural profession evolves the possibilities of design become ever increasingly more infinite. Things which once seemed impossible are seemingly simple now due to the evolution of software and technology. However as technological capabilities increase, the architectural community must also develop in order to keep up with this snowball of new information and ideas. As designers one of the biggest challenges faced is to become educated in the latest software programs before the next technological development is initiated. It is through an architectural


discourse that concepts can be circulated back and forth through architectural communities worldwide; educating, inspiring and chal lenging one another to push the boundaries and extended the limits of what is possible. It is most crucial in design professions to be aware of what is going on around us in both a local and global scale and to always question what our role is as shapers of our physical environment. Good design is no longer characterized by buildings of appealing aesthetics, functionality and sustainability but how a structure contributes socially, culturally, politically or innovatively is becoming more relevant. (1)



he National Film Archive, by Rojkind Arquitectos was a project aiming to refurbish a structure which was a cultural b for Mexico City. As moving picture has evolved, the design had to acknowledge this and achieved this through signing a space which promoted communication and common spaces and to remove cinema from the screen and to low them to become part of an entire experience for viewers. Rather than designing a space for the masses it envions a space where the movies reach you wherever you are. It encourages physical and visual connections between ople and media through the continual ground that connects to the roof of the NFA. his ensures the wealth of Mexico’s moving picture by making them accessible to the general public and the world. he system was designed using parametric models that were then imported into REVIT and analysed in two separate ructural design platforms. As discussed earlier, this design addresses social matters and in doing so is contributing the cultural productivity of civilization. (3)


Like all design practices, architecture is limited by the capacities of the respective science and technology of the time. Contemporary architecture is no longer characterised by a ‘style’ in the tradition sense of the word relating to its physical appearance, the current style is more of an active attempt to be experimental, innovative and revolutionary, taking advantage of current technologies. A debatable evolution in architecture is the change in aesthetics values from rectilinear forms to curvilinear organic shapes as a result of computer aided design techniques. While consumer goods, automotive, aerospace and ship building industries are among many practices which implemented digital design software long ago, it is only within the last decade or two that such computer aided design and manufacturing technologies have impacted on the design and construction industries. “These new smooth architectures are tied intrinsically to a broader cultural discourse…from toothbrushes, toasters, computers and cars…”

Forms that were until recently very difficult and expensive to design are now easily represented communicated and manufactured using similar principles and materials used in the consumer and engineering design world. However, more important than this physical transition is the change to the entire design process as a consequence of new technologies. Computational approaches to design influence the entire building industry but most importantly, the role of the architect. It is now less common for architects to design the shape of buildings, but instead a set of rules or equations by which multiple designs can be generated. Converse to traditional design approaches in which a single design solution was sought through established phases, computational approaches encourage an exploration of infinite possibilities and often the most creative forms result from unpredictable factors along the way. (4


e Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies at Nottingham University, designed by Mario Cucinella architects is China’s st zero-carbon university building. The façade is based on the design of Chinese paper lanterns folded into patterns using mputational design methods. It’s dynamic form offers an astounding amount of structure and stability which is indepennt of the internal structural frame. The double glass skin achieves its zero carbon status via the roof opening in which tural light shines through and establishes a ventilation system. The building and surrounding structures used state-ofe-art techniques for environmentally friendly construction practices. (5)


BASQUE HEALTH DEPARTMENT HEADQUARTERS Design by COLL-BARREU ARQUITECTOS, the new Basque health Department aims to bring together staff in a unified location in order to increase efficiency of services and to increase comfort for users and technicians. Visual directions from the inside to outside are generate from the folded façade which encourages urban vitality and interaction. Additionally the façade addresses fire, acoustic, heat gain, ventilation and insulation issues as well as utilising the “wrapping” system a modern construction method. This construction took four years to complete due to its complicated faced which has the appearance of being disconnected and unstable. Originally the facade was a response to the city’s restrictive building code which calls for stepped setbacks for multistorey buildings. (6)


1.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING Parametric modelling refers to a form of digital representation in relation to 3D architectural design. Designers use mathematical algorithms to set rules or constraints on parameters in order to manipulate form. One of the strongest arguments for parametric modelling is it’s ability to allow designers to not only design a structure, but also to design how it can change and adapt. Traditionally, making changes to designs could be difficult. Simply changing even one dimension could mean adjusting the entire project, an expensive and timely process. This in effect would place limitations on designers throughout the design process and increase pressure to reach a perfect singular outcome early. Parametric modelling however, allows designers to have the freedom to make “mistakes” and reach alternative outcomes.

“No longer must designers simply add and erase. They now add, erase, relate and repair”. A concern of architectural parametric modelling is that programs are not always capable of supporting architectural thinking and creativity. Parametric modelling aims to free architects from the constraints of CAD programs. But many modelling tools are prescriptive in their geometric functioning and therefore may limit the natural intuitive design process. Parametric modelling alters the traditional design process by “requiring the designer to take one step back from the direct activity of design and focus on the logic that binds the design together.” They must consider how to digitally construct their design using parameters and algorithms. (7)

FOREST SPIRITS “Forest Spirits” is a project created by HHD_FUN Architects, Beijing. Constructed in 2010, it is located in the woodland area of Beijing’s DiTan park and it is a collection of entities designed to be responsive and interactive with itself, its context and the viewer. The projects intention is to explore the idea of passive human impact on natural ecosystems. The “spirits” are interconnected via wireless technology and each entity reacts to its immediate environment and surrounding spirits. Swarm intelligence allows each entity to analyse and exchange data with its neighbours similar to decentralized and self-organizing systems in nature. The design of each spirit was based on bio-mimicry, mimicking the structure of the bamboo of the site, which alongside the translucent material allows for integration and camouflage. They have the ability to respond to external factors such as spectators which creates a digital visual playground. I have chosen this precedent because visually these designs are not very different from what we as students have completed in previous years at University. This highlights for me how projects can extend across the architectural discourse between all skill levels. This project also demonstrates how conceptual projects are becoming more realistic and possible due to advancements in technology. This incredible project, small as it is, opens the doors for future ideas and changes what will become possible in design. (2)


ENGAGE This installation designed by HHD_FUN challenges the traditional top-down design method due to it’s algorithmic design process in which the result is unexpected. The façade of the structure was designed using triangular fractal pattern within a recursive algorithm. Each entity was fractured again and again to create smaller triangles. This precedent is interesting because it addresses the concept of permanence. It is a temporary structure which encourages interaction from users and aims to question observation, perception of society and biology. Within the structure are projections of virtual architecture onto google maps which can be altered by spectators displacing their body weight on top of the motion sensors. Similar to “Forest Spirits” this project shows how it does not always have to be the biggest most visually dramatic buildings which are constructed but also those with strong conceptual and theoretical purposes as a result of or aided by parametric modelling. (8)


TENT This 150m2 structure by HHD_FUN architects in is a transformable temporary structure built for a Shanghai fashion show, among other events. It has an ability change its form depending on the purpose of its use as well as easily being deconstructed and transported. It’s design is based on the concept of origami triangles and consists of 6 interlocking components which resulted from the deformation of one triangular surface. The tent


itself is created from a steel structure with waterproof elastic translucent material which as well as being a low carbon footprint product, also makes it easy to move and re-install. This precedent is interesting in its addressing of material properties in association with parametric modelling. A building which is capable of quickly and economically adapting based on public demands demonstrates a highly innovative and intelligent contribution to modern architecture. (9)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Since beginning this part of the assignment my understanding of computational designing including parametric modelling has greatly improved. Through the readings, lectures and tutorials so far I have gained a basic understanding of how technological advancements are changing the architectural industry by allowing for the design and construction of concepts which were once only that, concepts. As technology changes as do the economic, social and aesthetic values of the architectural discourse. One thing I have greatly noticed is the change in the design process from a traditional linear process to a more open and

CONCLUSION In tackling the next stage of the assignment my approach will be different after what i have recently learnt. I am interested in the idea of permanance vs. temporary structures and will be exploring material properties within my group. I will be utilizing computation design methods such as parametric modelling and taking advantages of what this process has to offer while continueing to learn skills along the way. It will be significant to design this way as it allows for a more open ended design otucome. Something which in the future can be changed and manipulated, something which i have recently become interested in.


Part B. EOI 2:



CASE STUDY 1 Using grasshopper to manipulate the Voussoir cloud




My group consisted of Meg, Michelle and myself and we chose

disadvantageous compared to more homogeneous, impervious

the topic of material properties. This was appealing to me person-

and stable, industrially produced materials. While it is commonly

ally as I have always been drawn to particular buildings often

understood that any genuine design approach for timber con-

more so because of the materials used than the form, due to the

structions requires knowledge of its internal cellular structure,

experiential qualities created by materials. In particular I have

the awareness of its material makeup has been mostly employed

always been attracted to natural materials and their ability to

to counterbalance its complex material behavior by the related

lend to an interior space a sense of the outside environment, as

crafts, timber industry, engineers, and architects alike. The more

well as for softer aesthetic qualities and environmental reasons.

recent history of timber construction is littered with attempts of

The use of timber in particular is something which is become

compensating for the supposed deficiency of wood, ranging from

more prominent in modern architecture and design, eg. Melbourne

special construction techniques to the development of industrial

Central station, the new Highpoint shopping centre design,

wood products that seek to homogenize the material. Material

“Crackerjack” Carrum bowling club. For this reason we decided

architecture may revel in qualities – the subjective, unpredict-

to focus our project around the qualities of timber and exploring

able, porous and ephemeral – that are contrary to the solid,

its potential but in ways which haven’t so greatly been explored.

objective and respectable practice expected of a professional.

We wanted to challenge the general ideas of timber in terms of

Consequently, the architect, user, site and weather may be an

flexibility, movement and form. “In architecture and structural

author of architecture and an agent of ambiguity. Architecture is

engineering, the anisotropic and hygroscopic characteristics of

expected to be solid, stable and reassuring – physically, socially

wood resulting from its internal cellular structure are traditionally

and psychologically. “ - Archim Menges

seen as problematic and










After looking through these precedents which dealt with material performance we became interested in the inherent characteristics of timber. In traditional construction we have found, timber has been used in a very rigid still way something which we wanted to challenge. Therefore we were prompted to draw on ideas established through these precedents but to extend the investigation and manipulation even further. We focused our explorations on pushing the traditional boundaries of timbers flexibility and discovered we were able to create something which is quite fluid and organic. We were very focused on ensuring the form was a result of the properties of the timber, rather than designing something and hoping that we are able to build it from timber. Another focus of ours was to avoid adding any extra materials, particularly in terms of the joinery. We wanted the joinery to be part of the from as an extension of the material performance. Due to our chosen theme we decided it was important to experiment with our material prior to trying to develop a design in grasshopper This led to many experiments with plywood with tests focussing on the ability to bend, twist and stretch the piece.




Variables we experimented with: angles of the cuts length of cut width of cut distance between the cuts curve/straight cuts shape of the strips length/width of strip with or against the grain applying different amounts of tension to form

We discovered each prototype encouraged a different type of movement eg. Rolling, twisting, bending, stretching etc. Our final form will be a combination of the effects created by each trial. It was interesting to learn that the variables that had the most impact were the direction of the grain, the nature of the cut eg curved or straight and the length and width of cuts. As predicted, the more material that is removed, the more flexible the form becomes. This however was problematic as there was always a risk of removing too much material and causing weakness.


“The considerable difference in modulus of elasticity in relation to fiber direction is of particular interest, with the modulus of elasticity parallel to the main fiber direction (between 9000 to 16000 N/mm2 for different kinds of wood) generally being approximately fifteen times higher than perpendicular to the fibers (between 600 to 1000 N/mm2). In other words, wood has the interesting characteristic of variable stiffness in relation to grain orientation.� - Archim Menges

GRASSHOPPER The next stage for us was to to use the information we found in combination with grasshopper to begin designing our final form. We were focussed on trying to use the algorithmic techniques we learnt in case study 1, such as applying forces using kangaroo, to manipulate our forms in order to try and recreate the movement which we witness in playing with the trials in real life.

Additionally, we were intrested in how other people had used grasshopper to create loops, ribbons and spirals as this was the direction we were thinking of takking our model in. We took these examples and tried to use them in our own way to manipulate our grasshopper models.


JOINERY Something we have explored but which we would like to look into further is how we plan to join our stripes together. In figure 1 we trialled joining each strip by using small wooden links as part of the design which are cut from the plywood by the laser cutter. This, however resulted in a much less flexible form. We also tried joining seperate members by joining them together using the dimensions of the ply to our advanatge. We cut the incisions at a width of 2.7mm to mimic the width of the ply so they they slot together perfectly.

We found this to be quite strong in keeping them together and may further trial this technique. Additionally we have trialled weaving which was quite successful however we would need to design a more calculated system as to which parts are joined. We also discussed adding extra ornamental value to our form by allowing a pattern to form as a result of the joinery. We have also now discussed using a puzzle kind of connection to combine elements.



The criticism we received was in general regards to how our approach is advantageous over another approach or a more traditional approach, in that we didn’t present this strongly enough in our argument. After discussing this within our tutorial group we concluded our technique was advantagous for the following reasons: 1. Due to the nature of our design it would be easily constructed on site as it could be flat packed. This would decrease transport and labor costs. 2. Additionally, because we are avoiding any extra materials in our construction, this also minimizes costs as well as optimization of the material in that it uses it to its full potential without the need of added assisting materials. 3. Using modern computational design methods to create something which benefits the site by providing experiential qualities. 4. Contributing something new to the architectural discourse by exploring the testing the properties of timber and presenting our findings in sculptural way which is accessible to the public. The path which we are now trying to follow is to combine the more dramatic of the trials we discovered and to join them together in a kind of mesh/skin. This will run alongside the highway and in a way mimic the journey of the cars and the way they change speed, turn, move lanes and continually move forward by creating a form which ranges in size and pattern and which transforms, it’s arrangement, looping, swerving and bending. As we are interested in the properties of timber we would like to allow the form to move through stimulation from wind and weather. Additionally we would like to experiment with movement by constraining the form in particular way, for example pinning down certain sections to prevent movement in some areas, but allow other areas to move freely.


Part C.



INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN PHASE We decided that the people of Wyndham in order to feel connected to the gateway to their city should have some degree involvement in it. This would encourage a sense a sense of ownership of the project and make it their own. As Wyndham is Victoria’s fastest growing municipality, we wanted to reflect this in a sculpture that grows with the city, expanding as it does. Our design lead to a form which is innovative and adaptive, a “living” designs. Additionally it is affordable to fabricate, transport and construct and easily understood making it available to the entire Wyndham community. Our design incorporates within each timber spring the elements required to fullfill the requirements of the entire structure with no external elements required. Structure, form, joinery, asesthetics and functionality are built into the design of each singular member to create an overall form which has incredible flexibility, both in it’s structural movement and it’s physical arrangement. Each piece is connected to the one adjacent to it in a staggered fashion to create a potentially endless form. From this simplicity we can created something which is straightforward to fabricate, from the cutting of parts at the beginning to the final construction on-site. The lightweight and modular nature of the material makes transportation easier and therefore would lower the overall cost of construction.


Final Form

The overall design of our form was something that came from experiementation with paper in real life. While the design came from this experimentation and simplified design decisions we used grasshopper to further our design and assist us in the ornamentation and fabrication of our design. From the previous submission we had begun to think about the overall form of our sculpture, we were unsure what path it would take as what we had to work with were simple spring shapes with the idea of somehow linking them together to form a skin. We took into consideration how the sculpture would be viewed at a high speed and decided that it would be more relevant if it were viewable for more than a few seconds. For this reason we ran with the idea of creating something long, similar to the road kind of contradicting it in a way. The form follows that of the road and suggests a similar path of movement but challenged the flat and linear nature of the highway by twisting, bending and rolling. This lead us to experiment DESIGN STUDIO: AIR

GRASSHOPPER After completing many material prototypes we became aware of how the different cuts encouraged different kinds of movement. Our challenge from their was to use our grasshopper knowledge to help us design something based on our knowledge of the real reactions of the timber strips. The biggest challenge we faced was creating a spring in grasshopper which we were able to have a lot of control over. We found that by drawing a spring from scratch using the commands: line, endpoints, unit vector and move, we gained significant control over the entire strips as the points were located in key locations. From here we were able to use graphs in order to mainpulate the points and position them in alternate positions This allowed us to create variation in each strips width as well as variation along its length, altering the cuts to be made by the lazer cutter. We trialed the different ways the springs could be directed. In trialling the springs positioned along the width of the form rather than along the length, we decided that this was encouraging the wrong kind of movement, it was difficult to make the springs fit to the curves of the overall form and it was essentially contrary to our design idea from the start. Once we had gained an understanding of how we could control each spring, we were able to manipulate groups of springs in the same way in order to unify the variation across the width of the form. We chose to make the form 6 springs wide, as this was realistic based on the size of play available in real construction (up to 5100 x 1800mm) and the length can be infinite due to the brickwork pattern, meaning pieces overlap slighting with adjacent pieces so the end connections can continue. From here we drew the curves of our overall form using rhino and then used subcurves to position the collections of springs across the lofted curved surface. With each span of springs, we manipulated them to alternate from big cuts which were spaced far apart, to finer cuts which were closer together, this variation mimicked one of material tests in which we discovered springs with more cuts and finer cuts were much more flexibile. These springs were position in places which required more curvature as based upon the curve of the ribbon. Had we more time we would have liked to work out a way to use grasshopper in order to analyse the curvature of the ribbon and then adjust the springs accoringly. This would have given our project a stronger computaional advantage.

Finer cuts/more flexibility Medium cuts/moderate flexibilty Large cuts/limited flexibility



CONSTRUCTION To enable each strip to join to the next we devised a system of simple interlocking joints. At the end of each turn of the springs, a small shape is added which slots into the turn of the adjacent strip. Initially we had planned for the strips to then lie flat next to each other, but after experimenting with the joinery we discovered that depending on the relationship of the joints, the strips were able to be positioned differently. For example we found that altering which angle the joints were slotted into the adjacent strip resulted in a zigzag formation, something which we decided was more interesting than a flat skin as we had orginally intended. Although the rounded joints were more flexible due to the more organic angles within the springs, we decided the rectangular joints were more interesting as they still provided siginificant flex, despite being under more constraint. We found it was more surprising that they still reacted in this way, as a response from the characterisitcs of the material, rather than like the rounded joints which acted in a more predictable way due to their form.

Material optimisation


....CONSTRUCTION CONTINUED These diagrams demonstrates an important element in our construction plan. We have offset each spring slightly so that the next spring can easily be linked into the structure by simply locking the last notch of the each spring into the beginning of the adjacent piece. Along with the other notches being linked accordingly, this gives the structure strength without additional elements.


SCALE MODEL FABRICATION OF SCALE MODEL: Originally we had planned to construct our scale model from plywood in order to have an accurate surface appearance, however cost was a major limitation in this process as the aeroply which we required was far out of our budget as well as only being sold in small dimensions. For this reason our next best option was to construct it from card as it has enough strength to hold its form while also allowing flexibility. The first steo in fabrication was to bake our 3D model into rhino and flatten in. From here we could simply send this file to the fablab in order to be printed. As there were many people cued to have their files printed we decided to source a laser cutter else where and found an affordable location nearby with little waiting time. Once our files were printed we removed them from the paper shell from which it was cut and organised them into their correct location. The construction process was very simple all we had to do was to simply slot the joints of one strip into the cuts of the next one. As discussed easrlier, each stip was offset slightly by one or two notches so that it could be endlessely added onto in a brickwork pattern. While our model was supposed to hold it’s own form we discovered due to it’s length it needed some assistance from wire in ordrr to hold its form.



Unlike our scale model which had the intention of demonstrating the overall form, we built this detail model to give a better indication of the joinery As shown, the notches vary in size as the cuts vary, allowing them to fit perfectly into the adjacent strip. The bigger size of this model (1:20 vs. 1:50) gives a better indication of the variation created in grasshopper both along the strips and within each strips as well as demonstrating the zigzag shape created in section as a result of the joinery.


HOW OUR PROPOSAL IS RELEVANT TO WYNDHAM As our design developed, we became aware that one of the biggest ideas that drove our design was the theme of contradictions. As mentioned, the material performance of our timber is a key concept in that it contradicts conventional uses of timber. Secondly, the form itself in a way is a constradiction of the road, contrasting in shape, movement and solidity. Thirdly we wanted to contradict the perception of what a ‘sculpture’ normally can be. For example, sculpture often suggests something which is static, unmoving and permanent. Conversely our design allows movement, is flexible, and is adaptable to its environment, almost giving it a life of its own. We have designed an initial form but it is open to change and development by the people of Wyndham. Our design can be de-constructed to be made smaller or built upon to increase its size in both the length and width directions, changing its appearance dramatically, in a very simple manner. The springs are lightweight enough to be manouvered by a few people working together. The pieces are simply slotted into another attached piece to extend the form


Different groups of the community (such as schoolchildren) could submit ideas which would allow the design to evolve on a regular basis, perhaps adding one strip each month, encouraging ongoing interest in the sculpture. It would become a icon of Wyndham, symbolising growth and evolution of the city and always adapting to the present time. It would be something which the people can be proud of and call their own as they had direct involvement in the building of the Gateway. As stated in the bried: “art has become woven into the fabric of everyday life, a central thread connecting people and place”. This statement perfectly summaries our proposal, in that our structure connects the people of Wyndham through ongoing community involvement. People driving by the scultpure on a regular basis will notice this change and identify this growth of the structure to the growth of the Wyndham community.

SITE We have chosen our project to be located on site A, because being the longest site, it offers the most opportunity for development and extension in the future and in addition it offers the most exposure as both in bound and out bound traffic are exposed to it. As well as having links to the local community, our proposal also is linked to its specific site. Tumblewood is highly adaptable to its site topography in that it doesn’t necessarily require a flat surface to build upon. In this way it would appear as if it isnt site specific as it could be placed anywhere, but this is something we took into consideration because in the future it will be extended upon and therefore must be able to fit to any topography successfully. No excavation is required to construct our project. As the design is connected to the site at arbitrary points located near the ends of the structure, it leaves the middle area to be completely free, giving it the ability to be moved by the wind, this adding to the appeal of it as it would appear slightly different each time it is viewed. It’s


lightweight nature means that it doesn’t impose or sink onto the land, something significant due to its adaptability; we didn’t want it to leave permanent marks on the land every time it changes form. Our design also blends in well with the local aesthetics, as it is made from the natural material of timber. Surrounding the Western interchange location are sites which place a focus on the environment, such as the Werribee Open Range Zoo and the Melbourne Water Western Treatment Plant (one of the world’s most significant wetlands). By having this natural timber aesthetic, it gives the Gateway an image of unity with its surroundings. Furthermore, it addresses one of the points in the Wyndham Council project brief: “In recent years, Wyndham City has been addressing the issue of its image by undertaking significant works to upgrade the condition and aesthetics of its streetscapes, open spaces and parks.” This project achieves that by blending in aesthetically with the natural environment.

Feedback and learning outcomes Some feedback that we received was that it would have been more relevant to the ideas of the course if we had been able to use grasshopper to find rules as to where the variation should occur along the lengths. While this was our intial aim, we found ourselves unable to work out how to do this in the short time we had. Additionally, it would have been ideal to build our model from something more appropriate, something more similar to timber/plywood in order to give it more realistic accuracy. This brief gave me the chance to interrogate a brief and to pull apart the key ideas and key desires of the client. It put the design process in a more realistic context in that it was a real design brief based on a real location. Yet within the context of the course, it opened up the doors to the possibilities of how design processes dont necessarily have to be concluded via a traditional built form. As the course is very theoretical, it allows for more creativity, by making you think less about what’s physically possible and more about what is conceptually possibly. This form of design leads to more design possibilities with the assistance of parametric design in which things can be efficiently manipulated even late in the design process, broadening the design space. Through our experimentation in grasshopper i have learnt a new three dimensional media which personally aids my development in this area of study and into the future. While we weren’t able to master the program intirely, we were able to grasp a basic understand of its possibilites and limitations and a more focussed understand in a particular area which was more specfic to us. This brief gave us the opportunity to design a project and to develop skills in making proposals and critically thinking about our own designs by questioning how they are specifically advantagous.


Bonnie williams final journal 391546