March / April 2013
United Kingdom: Art and Architecture of
Portal Tombs Russiaâ€™s Ancient Dolmens
Give Rise to Sacred
Modern Meaning Patterned Orientations in Jordan: An Astronomical, Religious, and Mythological Mystery
Korea: Dolmen Capital of the World PLUS:
Fun Facts about Dolmens, Engineering of the Past
TABLE OF CONTENTS
About the Contributors
Introduction to Dolmens
Engineering of the Past
Russiaâ€™s Ancient Dolmens Give Rise to Sacred Modern Meaning
United Kingdom: Art and Architecture of Portal Tombs
Patterned Orientations in Jordan: An Astronomical, Religious, and Mythological Mystery
Korea: Dolmen Capital of the World
Fun Facts about Dolmens
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ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS Bona Yun I am in my third year at University of Victoria, majoring in Anthropology. Enjoying napping and watching sitcoms to pass time, I cried when Michael Jackson died, and once again fell in love with Marilyn Manroe, watching her signature movie Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.
Why do you like Archaeology? It is fascinating to re-enter the past and get a glimpse what it could have been like. Archaeology is time-less as long as we have a future.
Britney Oswell Hi, my name is Britney. I am a third year anthropology major with a particular interest in archaeology.
Why do you like Archaeology? Archaeology has added a whole new realm my fascination with and love of anthropology. I am continually amazing by what archaeologists learn about the past from burials and human remains as well as other archaeological remains. I am especially interested in the in the interplay of gender and social status in mortuary practices.
Darcy Butler I am a fourth year archaeology student who continues to develop an interest in this area of anthropology.
Why do you like Archaeology? The best part about archaeology is getting the opportunity to learn about our history as a people. By interpreting the past, it allows us to learn more about ourselves as well. I look forward to expanding my involvement within archaeology.
Rebecca Doyle I'm a 4th year anthropology student with a focus in biological anthropology. I specialize in osteology and forensics.
Why do you like Archaeology? I enjoy archaeology because it allows for a mixture of hard science and creative interpretation.
What’s a Dolmen? dol·men [dohl-men, -muhn, dol-] noun Archaeology a structure usually regarded as a tomb, consisting of two or more large, upright stones set with a space between and capped by a horizontal stone. Dictionary.com
olmens are ancient stone structures from Neolithic times that take many forms and functions. Typically, dolmens consists of three vertical walls toped with a flat stone slabs Dolmens are found all over the world, and the details of each structure vary across regions. Dolmens are prehistoric burial chambers. They are also known as portal tombs (Corlett, 2012). Due to the effort associated with erecting these large stone monuments, dolmens are believed to be burial markers for leaders, elites and other significant members of society (Osenton, 2001). Historically and contemporarily, dolmens also serve as places of worship and ritual (Markovin, 2002). Archaeologists use the many dolmens found throughout the world to gain glimpses into the values and beliefs of those who lived in the past. In particular, they help archaeologists gain a better understanding of the rituals and beliefs regarding death, burial and the afterlife of peoples in the past. Due to the fact that dolmens are found across many geographical areas, they are likely to have originated independently in distinct regions. This is particularly apparent in the different dolmens found throughout the world. This dolmen edition will further explore some of the fascinating aspects of dolmens, and also take a closer look at some of the different dolmens found in locations across the world, including Korea, Russia, Jordan and the United Kingdom.
ENGINEERING OF THE PAST Building dolmens requires significant effort and planning. coordination was necessary to transport and lift heavy capstones Large amounts of energy are necessary to quarry and transport the (Osenton, 2001). These team skills had to develop before efficient stones involved in the construction of dolmens. The capstones, building was possible; however, once established it was evident that which can weigh from 10-100 tons, require particularly large amounts of energy (Lee, 2007). The construction of dolmens necessitates the assembly of specialists, large amounts of laborers and properly prepared stones. Lee (2007) states that these requirements suggest the ancient
a small community could construct megaliths of up to 10 tons relatively quickly (Osenton, 2001). In his article about the orientation of dolmens in Western Europe, Hoskin (2008) suggests that is was possible for a single family to construct a modest size of the megalithic tomb in a few days.
societies that built dolmens must have lived in an agricultural based society. This social structure would have allowed for the labor specialization and sufficient central power to organize the individuals performing the necessary labor to create a dolmen (Lee, 2007). In creating dolmens, innovative engineering methods were
The construction of larger dolmens would have required much more skill and effort. Through the difficulties encountered, Osentonâ€™s (2001) experiment showed that, unlike common preconceptions, prehistoric construction did not use brute force, but rather employed specific skills and well orchestrated teamwork.
used to transport and correctly place the stones. There are many theories proposed to explain the methods used in prehistoric megalithic engineering (Osenton, 2001). In an experimental archaeology investigation, Osenton (2001) and team set out to reproduce megalithic construction techniques that were as close to
These large stone monuments are significant achievements of construction, and are found all over the world, attesting to the skill and organization of Mesolithic societies. The significant effort required in dolmen constructions suggests that social standing played a central role in dictating those individuals who were interred
the archeological record as possible. Using only axe-based within dolmens (Lee, 2007). technology, it was found that a clear command structure and
Fig 12. Fig 10.
Ancient Dolmens Give Rise to Sacred Modern Meaning Dolmens, common simple stone structures, are most in the West Caucasus is not an entirely new phenomenon, and commonly described as ancient burial chambers. They are they were documented in the nineteenth century (Lavrov, 1960 as considered to be relics from long ago that hold little importance sited in Markovin, 2002). Europeans have also been known to today. However, dolmens along the Western Caucasus of Russia have become modern sites of pilgrimage and worship, according to Markovin (2002). He also believes that this modern fascination with prehistoric stone structures is a result of Vladimir Merge’s series of books “Ringing Cedars of Russia” (Markovin, 2002).
worship dolmens throughout time (Marsiro, 1998 as cited in Markovin, 2002).The conviction that the dolmens walls preserve the breath and energy of ancient peoples has been suggested to be the cause of their mystical nature and worship. In this case, it is not the structure per se that is the focus, but rather the
Merge dates the dolmens in this area back ten thousand years, which predates the Egyptian pyramids. Archaeologically, these dolmens date to the Neolithic in eighth millennium B.C. (Markovin, 2002). In spite of their antiquity, these dolmens have been inscribed with functional meaning for modern people. In his
presence of the ancient remains of spirits that is held within the form of a dolmen. In his article “The Powerful Dead: Archaeological Relationships between the Living and the Dead” Parker Pearson (1993) argues that the dead can be powerful influences on
books, Merge suggests that dolmens were erected for venerable people. These people included chiefs, who withdrew into the dolmens for eternal meditation. While there are very few studies on Western Caucasian dolmens, Merge’s books have influenced the construction of modern meanings surrounding dolmens in
human society. The case of these dolmens in Russia is a perfect example of the dead having agency over the living. This is an interesting case, because there is no evidence that the living folk are related to or even aware of whom the dolmens contain. Those within the dolmens are considered bearers of ancient
Western Russia. Every dolmen is treated as a “monument of wisdom and great sacrifice of the spirit for the sake of future generations” (Merge 1998, p.39 as sited in Markovin, 2002). Sitting in the presence of these ancient dolmens is thought to
wisdom, which suggests that they still possess high status, even in death. As Pearson emphasizes, it is the living that construct these relationships with the dead. In the case of Western Caucasus Dolmens, there are reports of profound effects on even doubtful visitors who sit in the presence of these ancient
provide answers and guidance, since dolmens are considered to structures. be repositories of ancient knowledge. The veneration of dolmens
UNITED KINGDOM: ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE OF
PORTAL TOMBS pattern. There is nearly always a â€˜capstoneâ€™ in the entry, which is supported by two or more upright stones called orthostats (Robin, 2010; Wordwell, 1997). These entry ways are somewhat shorter
Most megalithics in the United Kingdom are known as passage tombs, however, there are actually roughly five categories of megalithics found in the United Kingdom. Our focus in this
and stouter than the dolmens found in the Middle East or Asia. Following the entry way there are often passages that are sometimes lined with orthostats, sometimes with smaller cobbles or boulders (Cooney, 1997; Robin, 2010).
article are the portal and passage tombs. These tombs are known as Dolmens in both the middle east and asia. The major difference between portal tombs and passage tombs is the passageway that follows the entry way. If that passage is long, the tomb is referred to as a passage tomb. If
The tombs in which individuals are buried tend to be surrounded by concentric walls or passages. These also appear to be roofed, and subsequently covered in an assortment of materials ranging from sand to handmade clay boulders. These materials are collectively referred to as tumulus. The overall shape of the tombs are generally circular in shape and are called cairns (Cooney, 1997;
there is little to no passageway, the tomb is referred to as a portal tomb (Robin, 2010). Several elements go into the construction of a portal tomb in the United Kingdom, but there does seem to be a general
Robin, 2010). Fig 13.
Many portal tombs have more than one chamber in which individuals may be placed, either interred, or after their remains
geometric patterns including lines, arches, spirals, chevrons, and lozenges (O’Sullivan & Downey, 2012; Robin, 2010). Interestingly, the
thousands of years. This leaves archaeologists to wonder over the divisions of gender, property, and social status. It also allows them
are cremated. There seems to be a pattern that is based on presumed gender (Robin 2010). We find more females on the right hand side of the tombs and more children on the left hand side of the tombs. In addition, the males
designs are more often elaborate and concentrated to the right hand side of the tombs (Robin, 2010).
to admire the art, architecture, and even play of light through and over the stones that make up these ancient tombs.
tend to buried in the chambers in the centre of the tombs. We can also see patterns based on age, but this is less common (Robin, 2010).
This artwork has recently been the major focus of portal research. O’Sullivan and
Individuals are often accompanied by a variety of goods and sometimes even
Downey discuss the various aspects of the artwork found in portal tombs. They find that most of the work is located on orthostats. However, they also note that the more complex and interesting designs are found on what are
furniture. Items such as pins, beads, and pendants, as well as goods and tools like polished stone balls, axes, and weapons are found within the tombs. These goods are arranged in patterns that seem to be specific
called the kerbstones. Kerbstones are sones that that form the concentric rings surrounding the inner chamber. They also define two different categories of artwork: Descriptive, meaning two dimensional motifs, usually
to different types of tombs. They can also range in quality from very rich items to very simple items. They are most often composed of wood, bone or tooth, or stone (Robin, 2010).
geometric patterns, and Plastic, meaning art that plays on the natural surface of the stone. Plastic art will often overlay descriptive art, and is only found on surfaces “accessible after the tombs were built...” (O’Sullivan & Downey,
Inside the tombs, we will often see decorations on ‘threshhold’ or ‘sill’ stones which are found at the bases of the entry ways of both the tomb and interior chambers, and on the walls of the chambers and passageways (O’Sullivan & Downey, 2012; Robin, 2010). These will often be motifs of
2012). The portal tombs of the United Kingdom are representative of the Neolithic time period, which roughly spans 4000- 2500 BCE. The physical and creative effort that went into creating these monuments has lasted for
Opposite: A portal tomb at sunset, Clare Co., Ireland Bottom Left: A kerbstone at Knowth, displaying a variety of artwork commonly found in portal tombs Bottom Middle: A rough distribution of portal tombs in Ireland Bottom Right: An orthostat, showing common forms of artwork. Fig 16.
Patterned Orientation in Jordan: An Astronomical, Religious, and Mythological Mystery The consistency of dolmen orientation across Jordan appears to facilitate a particular pattern of customized
There are two specific locations w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n t h a t h a v e archaeotopographically and
construction. This arrangement has raised speculation in regards to the roots of megalithic monuments' in funerary customs, and the relationship their orientation may have with the astronomy,
archaeoastronomically investigated the contributions of dolmens' orientation within the Jordan Valley in terms of funerary customs: Ala Safat and Tell al Matabi. The dolmens at the necropolis of Ala Safat are
religion, and mythology of the Palestinian culture. The majority of the dolmens throughout the Jordan Valley date to c. 3000 B. C., and are primarily oriented north-south direction (Yassine, K., 1985).
dated to the Palestinian Early Bronze Age, and the majority of them are oriented to the north (Belmonte, J. A., 2013). The site referred to as Tell al Matabi contains dolmens that are dated around the early to
The findings at the Damiyah dolmen fields in Jordan confirmed to the use of these megalithic monuments as tombs. Pottery findings, as a result of excavation, have allowed archaeologists to date these dolmens to the Early Bronze Age. This research has also produced evidence of skeletal remains, which further confirm the use of these dolmens for funerary purposes (Yassine, K., 1985). Jordanian tombs are made from travertine and Ramia sandstone. They are also c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h e x t r e m e l y l a rg e "capstones" that are placed horizontally on top of two alternative supporting stones,
middle fourth millennium BC, and they are primarily oriented south-east and south (Belmonte, J. A., 2013). These two groups of dolmens are located on the south and east coasts of the Levant, which is the eastern part of the Mediterranean. They are also some of the most distinctive in style, as well as largest in size, in the Jordan Valley. In particular, at Ala Safat, there have been a number of theories generated to explain the role of cultural astronomy in the dolmens' orientation within the Jordan Valley.
which are placed in a lower and vertical position (World Monuments Fund, 2013).
The first theory is that they may have been oriented in relation to the northern stars (Belmonte, J. A., 2013). With this orientation,
the past builders of these Jordanian dolmens may have been following a similar funerary structural pattern and set of beliefs as the ancient Egyptians. The ancient Egyptians were only 250 km southwest from the Jordan Valley. During the early third millennium BC, the ancient Egyptians had also began construction of megalithic monuments that were interpreted as being oriented according to astronomical beliefs in relation to their funerary practices (Belmonte, J. A., 2013). Since a well-known relationship existed among the Early Palestinian Bronze Culture and the early dynasties of Egypt, it is possible that they were influencing each other. As a result, these two cultures potentially shared the same funerary and astronomical beliefs. A second theory to explain the orientation of the dolmens in the Jordan Valley is that they were oriented to face either the sunrise or sunset (Belmonte, J. A., 2013). Most of the dolmens in the Golan area, which is north of Ala Safat, are oriented to the north and east. In addition, the backstones of the nineteen north facing dolmens at Ala Safat have a tendency to run parallel with a direction that does not fall out of range with the rising or setting sun, which is 61 to 199 degrees (Belmonte, J. A., 2013). However, more information is needed in order to support this theory. " The third theory is that the dolmens in this region have been oriented to be either perpendicular, or parallel, to the Jordan River (Belmonte, J. A., 2013). This once again draws from the understanding that the Jordanian builders in the past may have shared certain cultural beliefs with the ancient Egyptians. It is believed that a number of ancient Egyptian structures have been oriented in relation to the Nile River in this same way (Belmonte, J. A., 2013). Therefore, it is possible that the Jordanian builders in the past may have carried out the same practice. However, on its own, this theory cannot be a possible explanation because it requires the information derived from both the first and second theory to be a viable option.
In contrast, the dolmens found influence on funerary practices during the at Tell al Matabi are not understood to be Early Bronze Age in the Near Eastern oriented due to astronomy. Instead, regions. He symbolized fertility of the these dolmens are believed to be oriented according to a pre-established custom or pattern of construction. This may be the result of a paradigmatic case of “archaeotopogrpahy”, since seventy-
land, and may possibly have been the reason for the amount of south facing dolmens in this region. It may be further interpreted then that the dolmens are oriented in relation to the presumed
five percent of the dolmens at this site are oriented towards Mount Nebo. This is a scared landscape in Jordan, since it is historically acknowledged as the burial site of Moses (Belmonte, J. A., 2013).
location of the myth Orion during the Winter Solstice (Polcaro, A., & Polcaro, V. F., 2006). However, there is insufficient evidence to support these claims about mythology as a definitive motivation for
Therefore, this provides speculation into the orientation of the dolmens in this the possibility that the dolmens may have region. been oriented due to the religious beliefs Although there are many of the region. theories as to why the Jordanian dolmen A survey of dolmen fields in the builders in the past have oriented them in Upper Wadi Zarqua Valley in Jordan has also produced an alternative hypothesis that takes into consideration the Palestinian culture’s mythology in explaining the orientation of the tombs.
a very apparent custom of organization, modern archaeologists do not have a definitive answer as to why this was so. In order to confirm the link between dolmen orientation and funerary customs
This theory may still incorporate astronomy, however, in some cases, these two realms can be intertwined. For example, the god Dumuzi in Palestinian mythology may have had a great
rooted in the astronomy, religion, or mythology of Palestinian culture, it is necessary to conduct further research in this area.
Korea: Dolmen Capital of the World
Forty percent of the worldâ€™s dolmens are found in Korea (Paik, 2007). With this concentration, the 20,000 dolmens found in Korea make up the largest concentration of dolmens in the world.
The capstone type of dolmens is a large stone lying flat on ground, like a coffin, which are commonly associated with the cist jar burials. This type of burial is through to be younger those
It is believed that the dolmens found in Korea were created in the late Neolithic to early Bronze Age (The Trustees of the British Museum, 2000).
traditions found in Northern part of Korea (The Trustees of the British Museum, 2000). The Southern dolmens have a large flat boulder covering piles of stones. Individuals in the Southern part of Korea invested more effort into building dolmens and performing burial rituals.
Many different types of dolmen styles are found throughout Korea. These can be classified as Northern, Southern, and Capstone. (The Trustees of the British Museum, 2000). Because of the large numbers of table type dolmens found in Northern Korea, these are classified as Northern. The Northern type diffused to central and southern regions with morphological changes along the way. The presence of the Southern type was
This is apparent in the elaborate size of dolmens and the expensive offerings, such as the bronze objects and red burnished pots, which are only present in the South (Rhee and Choi, 1992).
also occurring at the same time. Concurrently, dolmens also continued to increase in size. It is thought that dolmens became too large and onerous to create. Consequently, regions adopted more convenient and less time consuming ways to bury their dead (Rhee and Choi, 1992).
Korean archaeologists have identified that dolmens may be linked to hierarchy (Lee, 2007). However, due to the frequent nature of dolmens in Korea, it must also be recognized that Dolmens are not only created to mark individuals of high social status (Kim, 2004). The artifacts found within dolmens can serve as possible markers of social status.
From the far right: Many dolmens within the Chilgok region are recovered with stone blades and arrow heads. A checkerboard type of dolmen replica model in South-western Korea. Middle: A dolmen from Gochang, Hwasun, and Ganghwa Dolmen sites that United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has listed in the World Heritage List.
A red burnished pottery that has been reconstructed, which was associated within the dolmen it was located in. Far left: Dressed up in “caveman” outfit, the group of Korean students participate in the demonstration experiment of dolmen building. Dragging the boulder up a mound of earthen material with using only ropes and logs, 200 students were able to make a smaller version of the dolmen replica.
The majority of dolmens in Korea are not associated with artifacts, but a small number of sites have been found with artifacts. The artifacts found within dolmen tombs have been recognized as significant or “key artifacts” (Kim, 2004). These noteworthy artifacts are thought to reflect the higher wealth and social status of those interred within dolmens. The most common burial items are stone blades and arrowheads, this suggests that those individuals found with stone tools are a part of the “commoner” level of the society (Kim, 2004). Often only a single stone blade is buried with the individual, but in some places there are several dozens of stone arrowheads, which also shows the different levels within the commoner level (Kim, 2004). Ceramics
Stone and bronze blades are also status symbols. Stone blades are very unique to Korean dolmens and only 4 bronze materials are found within Korea. However, these could not be linked as one as the levels of the status, since they are known to be found within different periods. Archaeologists suggest that they are placed within certain time period where bronze could have been more valuable than stone tools. However the dating of the arrowheads and bronze artifacts suggests that they are from different time spans. For this reason, the Bronze should not be considered in an analysis of Neolithic dolmens in Korea. Dolmens which are fascinated by many have been reconstructed and rebuilt for appreciation and to test how much effort they are in need to make them. To appreciate the megalithic
are the next most frequently found grave good. Following ceramics, Red-polish earthenware potter with painted patterns is thought to signal more elite social status (Kim, 2004). Lee (2007) suggests that the red is considered to be used for royal and associated with the colour of blood that could fend off evil spirits.
cultures, Kochang city locals did a hands- on construction of the small northern type dolmen. It included 200 enthusiastic students with an energetic ‘chief’ to participate making of the dolmen. They used only wooden rollers and ropes to drag the capstone on top. This was achieved in half an hour (Walsh, 1999). The blocks of
Red earthenware is meant to symbolize revival in the afterlife and protection from misfortune (Lee, 2007).
stones are retrieved by wedges and spikes that are drive into the seams and cracks of stone surfaces. There has been evidence of wedge implements during quarrying process at Sucheon region (Lee, 2007).
Some archaeologists propose that jewelry and other clothing decorations are placed with the individual, unearthing it with crescent-shaped and cylindrical jade beads (Lee, 2007).
Passage or portal tombs are often thought to align with particular solar events, and the focus of much archaeology in regards to these structures is the technical aspect of orientation and location. Robert Hensey addresses an alternate theory in regards to tomb alignments. In his 2008 article “The Observance of Light: A Ritualistic Perspective on ‘Imperfectly’ Aligned Passage Tombs,” he discusses the experience of watching light fill a tomb. He provides a compelling argument that the alignment and location of the tombs are influenced not only by the social and economic factors of the individuals or families, but also by the emotional response evoked by the interaction of light and stone.
Dolmens are extraordinary feats of construction. The most difficult task involved in constructing dolmens is the quarrying and transport of the capstone. The building of dolmens required the mobilization of significant amounts of manpower and skill specialization to place the capstone on top of the supporting stones. It is believed that in Korea, a particular method of placing the capstones was developed. First, holes are dug to secure the supporting stones (1). The supporting stones are then covered with a mound of earth to provide a solid surface for positioning the capstone (2). Next, logs are placed on the mound and used to role the capstone into position (3). Finally, the mound of earth is removed and the dolmen stands alone (4).
THE ART INSIDE A veritable plethora of symbolism exists in relative secret, gracing the walls of tombs in the United Kingdom. Muiris O'Sullivan and Liam Downey explore dolmens, or 'portal tombs' as they are called, and discuss an awesome variety of pecked, ground and incised engravings, known as petroglyphs. The images can be simple, composed of geometric shapes such as lozenges, chevrons, triangles, squares, arcs or spirals, or the images can be complex, pulling many elements together to create an eye-catching display on either an orthostat or a kerbstone. Archaeologists are still working to understand the meaning behind much of the artwork. Though some patterns are beginning to emerge, there are many, many more left to unravel.
STEP by STEP
16 Fig 29.
In the case of Jordanian dolmens, Andrea and Vito Francesco Polcaro have made certain interpretations that may link the funerary customs of these monuments with the astronomical culture and spiritual beliefs of the region. If the funerary monument is astronomically oriented, it is often interpreted that it will face in the direction that would facilitate the deceased individual’s soul as they exit the tomb. In this way, it will guide the soul in the correct direction to take their place in the sky. There have been other interpretations based on religious or mythological beliefs of the area. A sort platform, or “themenos”, located outside of the tomb is usually indicative of a ritual practice that may have taken place outside of the dolmen. An alternative explanation could be that they were constructed in the opposite direction from the one in which the individual performed the rite. This could have been done to avoid acting disrespectful in the area in front of the dolmen.
Stars over the JORDANIAN VALLEY Fig 30.
Fig 33. Fig 31.
Most of the dolmens are located in areas of moutain slopes and flat lands. It is believed that wedges and spikes were driven into the seams and cracks of the stone blocks (Lee, 2007). Using stone tools, Lee presumed that the slabs were broken off to the bigger blocks and cliff faces. In Suncheon region in Korea, provides evidences of the use of wedge implements during the quarrying process.
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Front Cover: http://picturesque.ie/?page_id=18
Table of Contents: http://www.360x180.fr/index.php?lang=en&page=spheriques_france_56 Fig 1. http://fc03.deviantart.net/fs71/i/2011/179/9/3/poulnabrone_dolmen_by_pinkmonra-d3k8v3z.jpg Fig 2. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_zKBbtj9rWrU/TTY3bfVzupI/AAAAAAAAGR4/Xqc9LKwQxPs/s1600/daily+kor+SNU +mathematician+says+dolmen+clear+sign+ancient+Koreans+invented+pi+02.jpg Fig 3. http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/forum/topics/caucasus-dolmens-russia?xg_source=activity Fig 4. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dolmen_in_Johfiyeh_Irbid_north_of_Jordan_Dec2009.jpg Fig 5. http://www.arasgcc.com/attractions/irish-heritage Engineering of the Past: http://fineartamerica.com/featured/legananny-dolmen-portal-tomb-ancient-historic-monument-county-down-irish-irelandjoe-fox.html Fig 6. http://www.voicesfromthedawn.com/wp-content/sites/pages/proleekSun.jpg Fig 7. http://www.spaceoflovemagazine.com/images/dolmen_silence_2.jpg Fig 8. http://www.spaceoflovemagazine.com/images/dolmen_silence.jpg Fig 9. http://images.tribe.net/tribe/upload/photo/f6c/6c3/f6c6c367-a3cc-4da6-abbd-bbeff96213d3 Fig 10. http://dolmen.russian-women.net/ Fig 11. http://www.thelivingmoon.com/43ancients/02files/The_Case_for_Hobbits_Caucasian_Dolmens.html 20
Fig 12. http://russia-photo.com/desktop-wallpapers-photos-en/Gelendzhik-image-wallpaper-1680-1050-Russia-A-DolmenRussian-Ni769684.shtml Fig 13. https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/-LQ47ICWbYoY/UETy3Jig3uI/AAAAAAABXNI/D2SSPVw_pbw/Poulnabrone %2BDolman%252C%2BCo%2BClare.jpg Fig 14. O'Sullivan, M.; Downey, L.(2012). Passage Tombs and Megalithic Art. Archaeology Ireland. 26(1), 36-40 Fig 15. http://www.megalithomania.com//make_mini_dist_map?type=2 Fig 16. O'Sullivan, M.; Downey, L.(2012). Passage Tombs and Megalithic Art. Archaeology Ireland. 26(1), 36-40 Fig 17, 19, 20, 21 http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=10774 Fig 18. http://fatherdaughtertalk.blogspot.ca/2010_12_01_archive.html Fig 22. Lee, Y. M. (2007). Overview of Korea’s Dolmen Culture. Koreana, 21 (1), 14-21. Fig 23. http://rachelkso.blogspot.ca/2008/11/incheon-ganghwa-island.html Fig 24. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/977/gallery/ Fig 25. http://www.nrich.go.kr/english_new/loresch_Ins/gy_Drcherita.jsp Fig 26. Walsh, P. (1999). Megalithic Cultures of the World: A View from South Korea. Archaeology Ireland, 13 (2), 20-23. Fig 27. http://poloconghaile.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Newgrange-Winter-Solstice-CREDIT-Office-of-Public-Works.jpg Fig 28. Lee, Y. M. (2007). Overview of Korea’s Dolmen Culture. Koreana, 21 (1), 14-21.
Fig 29. http://www.carrowkeel.com/sites/loughcrew/jpegs/conwell.jpg Fig 30. http://www.flickr.com/photos/franks_astrophotography/3630537421/ Fig 31, 32. Lee, Y. M. (2007). Overview of Koreaâ€™s Dolmen Culture. Koreana, 21 (1), 14-21. Fig 33, 34, 35. http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?cid=3077&docId=1582259&mobile&categoryId=3077 Fun facts background: http://126.96.36.199/~svenrend/?galleries=film-storyboards