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The future working environment in commercial vehicles/ REPORT )

Bogdan Ionita MFA Advanced Product Design/ Ume책 Institute of Design/ Ume책 University 2013-2014 )

COLOSSUS the new generation of autonomous wheel loaders for volvo


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction 1.1.Project Overview 1.2.Volvo Company/ Volvo Construction Equipment 1.3.Wheel Loader(definition)

User study

05-09

2.1.Växjö 2.2.Västerslätt, Umea/Grus Schakt 2.3.User Workshop 2.4.Areas of interest 2.5.Goals and wishes

10-20

The focus

21-26

3.1.Wheel Loader activity groups 3.2. Query/Pits 3.3. Gravel loading 3.4. Loading Pattern 3.5. Loading Scheme

Ideation

5.1.Bases 5.2.Preliminary Process 5.3.Preliminary Concept Sketches 5.4.Preliminary Concepts 5.5.Final Concept

Final Result 7.1.Colossus 7.2.Scenario 7.3.Details 7.4.Dimension Comparison 7.5.Basic cinematic

27-35

36-49

50-53

54-71

Model Making

72-75

Appendices

77-79

9.1.References 9.2.Schedule

4.1.Bases 4.2.Method 4.3.Ideation Process 4.4.Ideation Phase Conclusions 3.5. Loading Scheme

Concept

Concept Refinement 6.1.Process 6.2.CAID Process 6.3.Final CAID


INTRODUCTION


Introduction

1.1.Project overview The term project is held in collaboration with Heavy Vehicles, a membership organization of all the important manufacturers of heavy vehicles. The purpose of the Association is to strengthen the long-term growth and profitability of the companies of the membership, through collaboration and the securing of competence. The Association contributes to an innovative environment of growth for the companies in the Association.1 The project aims to search for innovative and future solutions through the use of userfocused research. One of the methods is Human Centered Design that divides any design process in 3 stages, Hear, Create, Deliver. This work, entitled Design brief, aims at summarizing, understanding the ordering the data obtained in the first stage of the project. This stage was characterized by participatory observations, user studies and user interviews.

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1.2.Volvo Company/ Volvo Construction Equipment Volvo Construction Equipment, started in 1832, due to the effort of Johan Theofron Munktell and the brothers Jean and Carl Gerhard Bolinder, and is the oldest active industrial company in the world. Volvo CE’s products and services are offered in more than 125 countries through proprietary or independent dealerships. Customers are using Volvo machines in quarries & aggregates, energy related industries (oil & gas), heavy infrastructure, utilities, road construction, building, demolition, recycling industry, industrial material handling, and forestry industry.2 Volvo Construction Equipment offers a wide range of machines such as: wheeled and crawler excavators (diggers), articulated haulers (dumpers, dump trucks), scraper haulers, wheel loaders, pipe-layers, demolition equipment, waste handlers, motor graders, paver, compactors, milling equipment, tack distributors, road wideners and a range of mini loaders.

1.3. Wheel Loader(definition) A wheel loader is a heavy equipment machine used in construction and sidewalk maintenance to move aside or load materials such as asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, snow, feed, gravel, logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, wood-chips, etc. into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hopper, or rail-car).3 In other word, a wheel loader is similar with a tractor that has front attached a big articulated bucket. Usually the wheel loaders use wheels for locomotion but if the construction spot permits, it can be provided with tracks. In every case, a wheel loader is doubled by a 06

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dump track. This machine is similar to a wheeled container, which takes all the load from the bucket and transports it. The most common actions which can be done with the help of the wheel loader can be separated in two categories: TRANSPORT and REMOVE(or DEMOLISH). A very interesting aspect about this machine is the fact that only your imagination can be the limit of all the operation you can achieve with it.

1.3.1. Classification

Considering the wheel loaders’ weight, dimensions, bucket capacity and the power of lifting, these machines are grouped in characteristic divisions, such as: compact wheel loaders, small wheel loaders, medium wheel loaders and heavy wheel loaders.

1.3.2. Attachments

Considering the specific tasks, a wheel loader can be equipped with different tools, for a more efficient approach. Volvo describes very detailed the whole range of tools.


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1.3.3.Brief History of wheel loaders The heritage of todays designed wheel loaders has a history of more than 90 years. Before the wheel loaders, the job of digging or transporting different materials was done using crawler shovels actioned by cables(1)(2) or even by people themselves. In 1920’ begins the modernization of the loading principle, by combining cable operated buckets and farm tractors(3).

1

In 1929 the English firm E. Boydell & Company builds a cable operated wheel loader using a 28 horsepower Fordson tractor.

2 3

After WWII, Tractomotive Corporation, the biggest tractor builders at that time, decide to incorporate hydraulic system in their wheel loader designs. This was the event that changed the way wheel loaders looked and functioned, all over the world.

4

In 1953, the first articulated wheel loader is built by Mixermobile Manufacturers.(4) In 1954, Volvo builds their first wheel loader with attachment bracket, the H-10. It was based on a reversed tractor. (5) In 1956, the Japanese company Komatsu builds their first wheel loader: W120. (6) In 1963, Caterpillar Tractor builds their first articulated wheel loader-Cat 988. 6

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5


In 1968, Caterpillar Tractor builds the wheel loader model Cat 992. In 1970, the International Harvester Company launches the massive 580 Payloader – the world’s largest wheel loader to that date.(7)(8) In 2000, LeTourneau builds L-2350 which remains till now world’s largest wheel loader. (9) 7

9

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1.3.4. The most frequent activities where a wheel loader can be involved In present wheel loaders are considered to be more like Swiss knives. They combine functionalities and can serve multiple purposes. But as Jan Karlsson presents in his PH thesis called Analyzes of a wheel loader usage, a pattern can be found in today wheel-loaders uses. In other words three main categories can be named as predominant and they all have to do with the front tool which is rarely changed. Timber handling With the grappling tool the operator has to operate a tool in form of the grapple. The operator has to have a high accuracy of the grappling tool and little tractive effort during the loading phase. The loading take place at the same position, but the unloading can vary along with the distance traveled during one cycle. Pallet handling The pallet handling is a very versatile application in many ways. The actual pallet can vary in both size and weight. The operator has to have a very accurate positioning of the forks during several phases. The transport distance can vary depending on the loading and unloading and not as repetitive as other applications. During loading very little tractive effort is needed to load the pallet. Gravel Handling The gravel loading and unloading is a very repetitive action and the variable depends on the dimensions of the load receiver, the distance and the type of load. A commune cycle can be 10

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summarized like the following steps: the wheel loader enters the bank at starts the bucket filling then reversing towards, changing the direction and starts to accelerate again towards. Then the wheel loader will empty the bucket to the receiver. After the load is dumped the wheel loader will reverse towards again. the wheel loader will change direction and move forward towards the bank.

Fig 8 The most common application for the wheel loader especially the larger wheel loader is with the be used in a number of variants. Many materials can be used, the loading can be done to a truck, or a loading pocket. The distance traveled between each loading phase can vary. The bucke Another common application is the fork tool for handling pallets. Here no third or fourth function can be different application between the cycles such as dozing and cleaning up spilled material on the w detect the tool in question. When handling pallets it is not uncommon to both the loading and unloading a difference regarding the material in terms of not only density but also the aspect of how easily occur when the first (boom) angle is either low or high. Therefore it is not feasible to use the angle of the be loaded (in the bucket). In the case of rehandeling which means material already processed b detect the pallet application. Even the load can be hard to detect as the material can be extremely ligh crusher, it is easy to load the material into the bucket because the material does not stick toge bulky see fig 7. One possible way to detect the application pallet could be to investigate the usage of the does not necessarily mean low density see fig 9. General for all bucket application is that the lo together with the first and second angle. The angles could give some information especially in the load with the first angle low i.e. the bucket close to the ground see fig 9. The tractive effort is relativ unloading phase. In these phases the vehicle speed is often low and the forks are often parallel relativ bucket penetrate the pile. The loading is done in a similar trajectory with both first and second an ground and only small adjustments are being made by the operator. Before the loading phase and a applications not consistent with the timber grapple or pallet fork. Depending on the distance unloading phase both the first and second angle is normally not adjusted until the lengths of the forks are position or the loading receiver the lifting phase can continue after the loading phase during of the pallet or load see fig 7. With the information and knowledge of what phase the machine is in durin retardation to reach its maximum just before the load receiver. If the distance is long the buck with load the second angle is often parallel or positive relative to the ground se fig 8. This differs from th lowered to a “transport” position if the wheel loader is traveling over a greater distance to the unlo application where the bucket is never parallel to the ground when traveling with load. Similar to the application from truck very little tractive effort is used during the loading phase. Combined these possibl criteria’s for pallet application with fork could be used to determine the application. The above ana Fig 8 application is only valid for pallet whereas there isthe many other applications with the the bucket. differentB The most common application for applications the wheel loader especially larger wheel loader is with of such as crushing forks, car body forks, rake etc. the loading can be done to a truck, articulate be forks used in a number of variants. Many materials canforks be used, Fig 6

or a loading pocket. The distance traveled between each loading phase can vary. The bucket can be different application between the cycles such as dozing and cleaning up spilled material on the work site. a difference regarding the material in terms of not only density but also the aspect of how easily the mat be loaded (in the bucket). In the case of rehandeling which means material already processed by, for exa crusher, it is easy to load the material into the bucket because the material does not stick together so m does not necessarily mean low density see fig 9. General for all bucket application is that the loading tak with the first angle low i.e. the bucket close to the ground see fig 9. The tractive effort is relative large t bucket penetrate the pile. The loading is done in a similar trajectory with both first and second angle for a applications not consistent with the timber grapple or pallet fork. Depending on the distance to the un position or the loading receiver the lifting phase can continue after the loading phase during accelera retardation to reach its maximum just before the load receiver. If the distance is long the bucket can be lowered to a “transport” position if the wheel loader is traveling over a greater distance to the unloading po

Fig 9


USER STUDY 11

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User Study 2.1.Växjö

In Växjö began the first phase of the project. There I had the opportunity to meet Marcus Koggdal- Manager Mechanical Engineering Volvo CE and his wishes for the future. Marcus held a presentation at the headquarters of Volvo from Växjö, where he talked about the broad range of products available for the customer and in particular discussed about the present situation of the wheel loader in construction sites(urban or suburban). After we discussed along the whole VOLVO range of wheel loaders, and after I understood how they work and what would be the most important activities in which they are involved, the representatives expressed their desire and openness to rethinking the concept of a wheel loader and they wanted to underline that the project should be focused on the future, on the future user and the future needs. The next day, having the basic knowledge and information, we’ve engaged into a brainstorming session together with two representatives in which we tried to challenge new answers, discover new problems and trying out the feasibility of new concept and ideas born on the spot. The findings have been numerous. So that the ideas were thus divided into 3 groups: Challenge, Areas of interest and Future. Representatives of Volvo have concluded in each group as follows:

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Safety when entering and exiting the machine;

Visibility all around the machine;

Future autonomous machine, future design, think free and innovative;


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2.2.Västerslätt, Umea/Grus Schakt The second stage in familiarizing with the user was made in Vasterslatt, where with the help of Mikael, wheel loader driver, I managed to better understand the relationship between the user and the machine. Mikael is 35 years old, 11 years of wheel loader experience, he has a girlfriend and he likes snowboarding. He is very proud that he can easily maneuver the machine and he doesn’t hesitate to show the hypnotic way his fingers are moving across the bucket knobs. I realized that you can only achieve this with a big amount of work experience. So I can say that he is a virtuoso. He seemed he was pleased in general, too few issues seeming like it would bother. From what I suspected, he adapted and now no longer sees it as a problem. He complained that the work is repetitive and can be very flat. The most frequent activities are loading materials, moving containers or transporting heavy objects using the bucket. He was very disappointed that usually he gets called, for different wheel loader jobs, at random hours and he has to comply. Mikael has a special relation with his Volvo loader, even if he says that it is like an office for him, I think is more than that. He explained, full of enthusiasm, how he added the GPS system to the wheel loader which in his opinion is very useful and very precise. I could easily see other minor hand made modification on the vehicle, such a tool holder for the exterior, or personal 14

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stuff compartments in the interior cabin. In my opinion, this kind of machines when they are owned(or used for a long period of time by a single person) they become a part of the home concept. It closely follows the user personality and his vision of a pleasant place to spend time. In other cases the vehicle can be perceived like a member of the family, or a very good friend. In this case it’s anthropomorphized. Depending on the culture of the owner, this effect can be visible or not. In Mikael’s case, this process was very minimal, as I said, limited to some daily functional aspects, nothing ornamental.


They can call at 7 pm on a Saturday when you are eating a nice dinner with your girlfriend.

‘We had a flat tire like once a month...’

‘If you don’t have a spinner Knob handle on your steering wheel you’re done.’

‘I was looking at all directions like a crazy person for several hours just to avoid a collision’

Name: Mikael Age: 34 years Work experience: 11 years 15

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‘The cabin is my office’


2.3.User workshop Based on all he field research, my colleagues and I sorted all the information and grouped all we got into areas of interest. An area of interest is an idea in which a designer can see some developing potential.

and focused only on the immediate aspect of the problem. This process can help your mind generate a big amount of ideas by essentializing the reason which creates the problem, and then finding the most logical or illogical solution. As long as the facts are kept simple, your mind has a lot of creative opportunities.

Entering and exiting the cabin

After we agreed on the areas of interest (10), in teams, we defined the most important problems from these areas of interest and translated them into solution (11). The solutions were punctual,

Efficiency of the counterweight

The flat tires problem

RepetitiveBoringLow Productivity

Visibility 11 16

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10


At the end of the creative exercise, my colleagues and I, putt everyone’s ideas together, reviewed everything and choose the most appealing opportunities and solutions. Based on everyones voting we could highlight the most important ones:

Opportunities:

Visibility

Pride

Productivity

Maintenance

Ergonomic

Environment

Safety

Flexibility

Solutions: Night Vision

Clean Form

Laser Projection

Smart Suit

Remote Head

Lifted Cabin

Modular Tool

Adjustable Counter Weight

Based on what we choose we had to create and sketch a concept which referred to a specific solution/opportunity. The concepts revealed that almost everyone was aiming for a far future, trying to solve today’s problems with tomorrow’s technology. I think this could be a very relevant approach.

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2.4.Areas of interest Reflection on opportunities Visibility

Using the ideas and the information gathered in the User workshop, I made my own interest schematics, which reflects my personal interests and my own design point of view regarding the subject of wheel loaders.

Pride

Environment

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The problem of harming the environment it should be a very important concern in designing heavy vehicles. Some machines use tires instead of just tracks so as not to damage the area in which it operates. However, the environment has still to suffered. A design solution might be finding new methods of locomotion to alleviate the pressure that the vehicle exercise on the ground.

The problem of visibility has a lot of implications in every activity. Lack of visibility can affect productivity, safety (both for the driver and the people around the machine) and affects the quality of the work. This problem could translate into redesigning of the cabin considering the driver specific position. This position should enhance driver visual relation with the bucket or the used tool.

Driver’s pride is an element which should not be neglected. Brand plays a strong role in this issue. The vehicle overall aspect influences driver’s self-esteem as well. In the working environment the driver becomes one with the machine. Many handlers see the mechanized tool as an extension of their hand, like an artist sees the brush.

Maintenance

Problems translated i design opportu

Through Maintenance I understand all the activities that are related with the vehicle and have the purpose of prolonging the vehicles function capacities. Todays Wheel loader exterior is very exposed to weather and the complicated shapes of elements make it very hard to be properly cleaned. This issue could be considered in the design process through finding clean shapes or efficient dirt remove coatings.


Communication

Teamwork is very important for a company who uses wheel-loaders. Usually this vehicle job is just a link from a big chain of other activities performed by other specific machines. So everything should work in harmony for the goals to be reached. Thus, communication between work colleagues is essential. A solution to this aspect could be analyzing how the wheel loader interacts with other vehicles and search better and more efficient ways.

Problems nslated into n opportunities Safety

Intuitive

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The wheel loader interface should be intuitive. Complicated instructions and maneuvers are easy to be mistaken. In the same time intuitive ways of manipulating machines keeps the mind fresh, more cautious and as a result more productive.

Autonomous

Safety is one of the most important thing when it comes to heavy machines. Volvo CE underlined the fact that drivers usually get injured when they exit or enter the cabin. Safety matters apply to people outside the vehicle too, which has to know and keep the safe distance.

Many drivers complain about the very busy schedule. There are many times when the work is so intense so you can not even take a 10 minutes break. In this case a good question can be Do we really need the driver to be there? An autonomous solution of driving the wheel loader could be efficient, productive and stress less.


2.5.Goals and wishes

What it should

What it could

1. The vehicle should be autonomous and should express this aspect.

1. Autonomous control could be beneficial in some cases. For easy tasks the tool could be remote controlled.

2. The vehicle should reinterpret the old ways of loading gravel, considering efficiency aspects.

2. Thinking of the driver interface, and make it intuitive could be a boost of efficiency in every day’s work.

3. The vehicle should be safe for the people around it. 3. The interface could use augmented reality principles. 4. The vehicle architecture should permit new efficient ways of performing usual tasks. 5.The vehicle should do as little harm as possible to the environment. 6.The exterior should inspire respect, should resemble the old wheel loader. 7. The exterior should be treated in a careful manner, considering the cleaning aspects.

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4.The engine could be changed with an electric one. The future locomotive industry is based on the electric energy.


THE FOCUS


The Focus

3.1.Wheel Loader activity groups For a better approach on the subject I chose to focus on a single base activity of the wheel loader. In my opinion, valuable results can come only from well structured and targeted questions. In conclusion, because loading gravel is the only activity which can not be handled without a wheel loader (for ex. the timber loading can be done by specialized forwarders and pallets can be lifted with specialized fork lifters), I chose the gravel pits to be my main area of research and decided to focus on all the actions that a wheel loader can be involved in this space.

gravel loading

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fork lifting

log loading


3.2. Query/Pits One of the places where the need of a wheel loader is irreplaceable is the query pits or gravel pits or so called surface mines. The gravel pit is the result of surface mining techniques of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rock are found near the surface. Open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred to as quarries. Open-pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. Materials typically extracted from open-pit mines include: Bitumen Clay Coal, Copper, Coquina, Diamonds, Gravel and stone (stone refers to bedrock, while gravel is unconsolidated material, as found in glacial or fluvial deposits), Granite, Gritstone, etc.

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3.3. Gravel loading The wheel loader activity in the gravel pit can focus on a group of repetitive clusters such as Moving material in the grinder (the machine which grinds the gravel into specific densities); Loading the gravel into to the dump truck/Hauler; and Moving the material from a spot to another. I decided to gather all this information into a visual map of activities for a better understanding of the environment. This map can be found on the next page.

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A visual map of wheel loader’s activity in a gravel pit Loading the gravel in the hauler

Loading the grinned gravel in the bucket

Loading the grinned gravel in the hauler

Loading the gravel from the pile.

Loading the gravel in the grinder

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Loading the grinned gravel from the pile


3.4. Loading Pattern (10)

3.5. Loading scheme (11)

10

This is the visual translation of the loading cycle. Each number represents a cluster of commands that the wheel loader driver should harmonize. For example in cluster 1, the driver should tilt the angle of the bucket, while accelerating and steering, to maintain the vehicle in the precise trajectory. A perfect cycle is ideal made from 18 such clusters but imagine that the smallest change in the scheme generates a bigger cluster and in the end a longer cycle. This is one of the biggest efficiency problem that wheel loader driver face. If the scheme is closely followed, the only variables are the continuously changing angle and shape of the load on the ground and of the load into the hauler. These are the only choice generators for the driver. Except these two, all the other actions require robotic thinking and action.

The most common loading series is the first cycle unloading at the rear of the load receiver and the last cycle at the front of the load receiver. There is also a difference in the application of the triggering criteria. The differences between cycle 1 and cycle n, in a loading pattern, is the fact that the material will fill up on the load receiver thus the unloading must take place at different places over the load receiver affecting the geometry of the short cycle and the fact that material is removed from the pile. These are the two variables which can not be transformed into pattern elements. The variants of a short cycle are endless but here a common and optimal cycle is assumed. The short loading cycle operates in 18 different phases. The operator has to decide well before where and when the turning points of the cycle are going to be. Harmony is the key in a short loading cycle, the bucket shall just reach the correct height when the wheel loader approaches the load receiver. This stipulates that the speed of the lifting motion, the steering and the speed of the wheel loader itself has to be well matched. During loading the operator has to use the bucket in the pile to apply pressure to the front wheels together with the correct amount of tractive effort on the wheels not making them spin.

11 120

90

2x Machine width 2 x Bucket depth

2 1

18

3

9

11 10 12

13

2 x Machine length

8

4 17

14

7

16 Fig 2

5

6 15 45

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The operator has to decide well before where and when the turning points of the cycle are going to be. Harmony is the key in a short loading cycle, the bucket shall just reach the correct height when the wheel loader approaches the load receiver. This stipulates that the speed of the lifting motion, the steering and the speed of the wheel loader itself has to be well matched. During loading the operator has to use the bucket in the pile to apply pressure to the front wheels together with the correct amount of tractive effort on the wheels not making them spin.


IDEATION


Mood image for ideation


Ideation

4.1.Bases After I summarized and documented the information from Vaxjo and gathered and concluded on all the data I could gathered from the user study and workshops, I have decided to focus my ideation phase on three main directions. Safety, autonomy and efficiency. Speaking of safety, the wheel loader has many issues that can rapidly transform in a big life risk, both for the driver and for the people around. As I searched for information, I found a British health and safety report for the year 2012 which stated that in 2011 there were almost 2000 vehicle accidents involving wheel loaders which translate into major injuries to the drivers. The accidents were caused by lack of visibility, lack of attention, lack of respect to the safety rules and the basic rules of driving the wheel loader with the load in front. Considering the technology available at the moment, why should the driver be exposed to so many risks and why not divide the wheel loader into 2 separated parts. The functional part where all the riscks are taken and The driving cab which is the brain and should be as far as possible from the functional part. So very fast I realized that the two of my areas of interest were linked in some way. Talking about efficiency, considering the diagram of the wheel loaders moves, it’s easy to realize that all these moves are repetitive. A human driver cannot do two perfect identical moves, so for

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every move he does he struggles to follow a pattern which will never be able to perfectly follow. Losing off course time and interest. And a bored driver or an unstimulated driver is most probably to be exposed to safety risks. All these facts translate into low efficiency. So why not replace the human with an algorithm which will be able to perfectly adjust all the moves to the needed situation. So once again this area leads, like the first one to an autonomous vehicle.

SAFETY

The driver is not needed anymore, not safely and not even efficiently speaking. So then the problem should be rewritten as how can autonomy, which comes as a safety and efficiency reason, reciprocally support efficiency and safety.

AUTONOMY

EFFICIENCY


4.2.Method As a result of all this thinking process, I started to find out what autonomy could mean for a wheel loader and what changes will this concept bring. A wheel loader like other vehicle, in my opinion, could be compared to a human body. So if you remove the cabin it’s like removing the head, or the heart, for-example, which is connected to other parts and functions. So in order to do that I decided to divide the vehicle and see what connexions are there between the parts. I divided the wheel loader into six parts: the cabin, the tool, the locomotion system, the engine, the articulation and the counter weight. As this diagram shows, I realized that every part is in some way connected to the carbine, and i consider that a change which i am trying to make could generate a chain reaction. For an example of relation between parts, the tool is situated in front, for the driver to able to see the loading and unloading process. If the cabin is situated in the middle of the vehicle, the tool should be on one of the sides for the driver to be able to see it. So by changing the cabin’s place, the tool place will change as well, based on the interdependence relation. In conclusion, through this algorithm of thinking I found out the reason to question the entire architecture of the vehicle.

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X


1.

2.

4.3.Ideation Process The first idea is basically an autonomous wheel loader, which uses a preplanned work pattern to move or load the gravel. For that he uses an ordinary bucket connected to an robotic hydraulic arm which has freedom of movement. So it can load the hauler only using the arm movement. The balance is done not using a counter weight but by constantly adapt the wheels position so as the load to be in the vehicles center of gravity.

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The second idea uses the same principle of robotic arm, but this one is inspired by the elephant trump. The movements are generated by electrical motors while the load is not carried but vacuumed. The bucket works like a vacuum head. The arm unloads the gravel into a mobile trailer/haul which automatically will go to a specific spot when is filled and will also be automatically replaced by an empty one.


3. 4.

The third idea uses the same mobile haul principle, but the loading is done without using mechanical force but using conveyor bands and rotational wheels which gather the gravel into the the same spot. The conveyor band transports the gravel directly into the mobile haul without any need of additional movements.

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The forth idea focuses more on the vehicle’s tool and by means of efficiency tries to morph all of the three tools into a multi-functional new one. The vehicle is autonomous and depending on the job it needs to do, it can choose between the properties of the tool without the need to stop for the classic changing of the tool.


5.

6.

The fifth idea is based on Archimedes screw principle. It uses a front bucket to guide the gravel into the screw head. The screw will rapidly fill the mobile haul.

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The sixth idea combines the front bucket with a conveyor band which will gather the gravel into the mobile haul. This concept has safety sensor which disables the machine in case of near human presence. This machine can be used even in city operations or landscape planning. The project could be loaded into it’s planned operations, and using satellite orientation and 3d scanners, it automatically transforms the landscape, from an auto-cad file into reality.


4.4.Ideation Phase Conclusions After the result of the ideation process was presented to the sponsors of the project, they reacted concerned and reserved without giving out too much feedback. They liked the processes but the result was getting too far from their preconceived image of the new wheel loader. One of the most important aspects was that by changing the way of loading, i broke all the connections with the old wheel loader. Not only functional connections, but visual as well. The result gave the impression that the project was going to take the shape more of a self object, not of a new link into a chain of steps. So, in conclusion I decided to focus more on aspects which can resemble the old wheel loader (for example keeping the bucket) and put more emphasis on efficiency, from the gravel pit usage point of view. I will replace the vehicle movement for unloading through an overhead bucket rotation. I will try to replaced the loading principle. Instead of using inertia force for loading, I use hydraulics force. By extending the arms, the scoop enters the gravel pile without the need of the vehicle to move. I replace the petrol engine with an electric one. Or at least a hybrid. And I will need a counter weight to balance the vehicle while the arm revolves.

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CONCEPT


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Concept

5.1.Bases The concept phase is based on the most common activity in the gravel pit which is loading the haulers. Based on the moving pattern (which was presented earlier), I tried to question the whole movement and tried to find better solutions which will give a better answer from an efficient point of view. Through this process I came up with several patterns, each one of them having the same result, moving load from A to B but in different manners. After judging the efficiency of every solution, I marked the ones which presented potential with a green dot. It seemed that a very good choice to regain back energy is having the same path for the loading and unloading. It the same principle which transforms the electric engine, in the breaking moment, into a generator. So in other words my concept was based on boosting the efficiency not only by replacing the human driving but by reinterpreting every aspect which can lead to saving time and energy.

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5.2.Preliminary Process A35F

After I decided on the most efficient movement for the loading and unloading process I started to design all the other features around this main functionality. Because the load will move 180 degrees, the best balancing solution was a counterweight which follows the opposite of this movement. In other words,because I based my concept on autonomous principles, in order to be efficient I had to add variable features which will be used to constantly adapt the vehicle to the changing conditions. The counter-weight, the extension of the arms and the bucket tilting are this type of features. In order to start the concept sketching process I had to decide on the main proportion of the vehicle . To be able to prove the efficiency benefits of the concept I focused on one of the biggest load carriers/ haulers and based the main cinematics on this type of vehicle

Pos

A35F

A40F A35F Pos mm foot

A35F A40F mm

foot

A40F A35F

A40F foot

A

11 180

11A 263

1136’8’’ 180 A

36’11’’ 11 263 11 180

36’8’’ 11 263

36’11’’ 36’8’’

36’11’’

5 476

5A1476

518'0" 476 A1

518'0" 476 5 476

18'0" 5 476

18'0" 18'0"

18'0"

A2

6 241

6A2404

620’6’’ 241 A2

621’0’’ 404 6 241

20’6’’ 6 404

21’0’’ 20’6’’

21’0’’

B

5 540

5B 821

B 518'2" 540

519'1" 821 5 540

18'2" 5 821

19'1" 18'2"

19'1"

C

3 621

3C673

3 621 11'11" C

312'1" 673 3 621

11'11" 3 673

12'1" 11'11"

12'1"

C1

3 546

3C1597

311’8’’ 546 C1

11’10’’ 3 597 3 546

11’8’’ 3 597

11’10’’ 11’8’’

11’10’’

C2

1 772

1C2772

15’10’’ 772 C2

15’10’’ 772 1 772

5’10’’ 1 772

5’10’’ 5’10’’

5’10’’

D

3 101

3D101

310'2" 101 D

310'2" 101 3 101

10'2" 3 101

10'2" 10'2"

10'2"

D1

2 941

2D1942

2 941 9’8’’ D1

2 942 9’8’’ 2 941

9’8’’ 2 942

9’8’’9’8’’

9’8’’

E

1 277

1E 277

E 1 277 4'2"

1 277 1 277 4'2"

4'2" 1 277

4'2"4'2"

4'2"

F

4 578

4F 518

415'0" 578 F

4 518 4 578 14'10"

15'0" 4 518

14'10" 15'0"

14'10"

G

1 820

1G940

1 820 G 6'0"

1 940 1 820 6'4"

6'0" 1 940

6'4"6'0"

6'4"

H

1 683

1H706

1 683 H 5'6"

1 706 1 683 5'7"

5'6" 1 706

5'7"5'6"

5'7"

I

650

I 495

650 I 2'2"

495 1'8"650

2'2"495

1'8"2'2"

1'8"

J

2 995

3J 154

J 29'10" 995

310'4" 154 2 995

9'10" 3 154

10'4" 9'10"

10'4"

K

2 314

2K 457

2 314 K 7'7"

2 457 2 314 8'1"

7'7" 2 457

8'1"7'7"

8'1"

L

900

L 844

900 L 2'11"

844 2'9"900

2'11"844

2'9" 2'11"

2'9"

M

7 248

7M287

723'9" 248 M

7 287 7 248 23'11"

23'9" 7 287

23'11" 23'9"

23'11"

N

8 853

8N967

829'1" 853 N

829'5" 967 8 853

29'1" 8 967

29'5" 29'1"

29'5"

N1

4 395

4N1307

414'5" 395 N1

414'2" 307 4 395

14'5" 4 307

14'2" 14'5"

14'2"

O

3 106

3O374

310'2" 106 O

311'1" 374 3 106

10'2" 3 374

11'1" 10'2"

11'1"

O**

3 304

3O** 497

10'11" 3 304 O**

311'6" 497 3 304

10'11" 3 497

11'6" 10'11"

11'6"

P

2 870

3P 074

9’5’’ 2 870 P

310'1’’ 074 2 870

9’5’’ 3 074

10'1’’9’5’’

10'1’’

Q

2 553

2Q730

8'5" 2 553 Q

9'0" 2 730 2 553

8'5" 2 730

9'0"8'5"

9'0"

R

579

R 635

1'11" 579 R

2'1"579 635

1'11"635

2'1" 1'11"

2'1"

R1

668

R1722

668 2'2" R1

722 2'4"668

2'2"722

2'4"2'2"

2'4"

2 422

2S 653

27'11" 422 S

8'8" 2 653 2 422

7'11" 2 653

8'8" 7'11"

8'8"

T

3 401

3T 462

311'2" 401 T

311'4" 462 3 401

11'2" 3 462

11'4" 11'2"

11'4"

U

3 516

3U565

311'6" 516 U

311'8" 565 3 516

11'6" 3 565

11'8" 11'6"

11'8"

V

2 534

2V 636

8'4" 2 534 V

8'8" 2 636 2 534

8'4" 2 636

8'8"8'4"

8'8"

V*

2 625

2V*709

8'7" 2 625 V*

28'11" 709 2 625

8'7" 2 709

8'11"8'7"

8'11"

W

3 258

3W433

W 310'8" 258

311'3" 433 3 258

10'8" 3 433

11'3" 10'8"

11'3"

W*

3 410

3W*570

311'2" 410 W*

311'9" 570 3 410

11'2" 3 570

11'9" 11'2"

11'9"

X

521

X 571

521 X 1'9"

571521 1'11"

1'9"571

1'11"1'9"

1'11"

X1

607

X1658

607 2'0" X1

658 2'2"607

2'0"658

2'2"2'0"

2'2"

X2

754

X2807

754 2'6" X2

807 2'8"754

2'6"807

2'8"2'6"

2'8"

2 534

2Y 636

2 534 8'3" Y

8'8" 2 636 2 534

8'3" 2 636

8'8"8'3"

8'8"

Y

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Pos

A1

S

39

A40F mm

Y*

2 625

2Y*709

Y* 8'7" 2 625

28'11" 709 2 625

8'7" 2 709

8'11"8'7"

8'11"

Z

3 258

3Z 433

310'8" 258 Z

311'3" 433 3 258

10'8" 3 433

11'3" 10'8"

11'3"

A35F: Unloaded machine with Unloaded 26,5R25A35F: machine Unloaded with 26,5R25 machine with 26,5R25 11'9" 11'2" 11'9" A35F: A40F: Unloaded machine A40F: with Unloaded 29,5R25A40F: machine Unloaded with 29,5R25 machine with 29,5R25 24.3° 23.6° 24.3° *) A35F with optional 775/65R29 *) A35F with tires; optional *) A35F775/65R29 with optionaltires; 775/65R29 tires; 72°70° 70°72° 70° 875/65R29 A40F with optional A40F with tires. optional A40F875/65R29 with optionaltires. 875/65R29 tires. overhung tailgate. **) tailgate. with overhung tailgate. 45°45° **) with 45°45° 45° **) with overhung

Z*

3 410

3Z*570

311'2" 410 Z*

311'9" 570 3 410

11'2" 3 570

a1

23,6°

a24,3° 1

a1 23,6° 23.6°

24,3° 24.3° 23,6°

23.6° 24,3°

a2

72°

a2 70°

a2 72°

70°72°

a3

45°

a3 45°

45° a3

45°45°


5.3.Preliminary Concept Sketches After defining gabarite proportions I printed the volumetry on several papers and then through over-sketching I combined all the functions that i intended to incorporate in this concept and in the same time I searched a coherent form language to express all this. For the form language I try not to have other inspiration than the one set in the ideation faze, but because this project was in some extent commissioned i had to use Volvo’s brand identity. In order to acheve this goal I deconstructed nowdays Volvo CE vehicle aesthetics combined with the Volvo CE concepts and put the parts together into a inspiration map.

A. B.

C.

D. E.

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5.4.Preliminary Concepts pros

+Instead of two complementary arms the sliding counterweight seemed a good idea from the beginning; +The bucket describes instantly the type of the vehicle;

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cons

-The overall shape seems old and not too appealing; -Even if the movement is symmetrical the vehicle is not describing this aspect

1.


cons

pros +The compact wheel frame makes the vehicle more stable.

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-The opening mechanism of the bucket can complicate the whole cluster of moment by adding a mechanism which should replace another mechanism; -The overall aspect resembles a wheel loader without a cabin.

2.


pros

+The extendable arms will permit the vehicle to stay on position while scooping +By lowering the pivot point the vehicle gains stability;

cons

-The sliding counterweight cuts the vehicle body into 2; -Even if the movement is symmetrical the vehicle is not describing this aspect

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3.


pros

+The compact wheel frame makes the vehicle more stable; +The extendable arms will permit the vehicle to stay on position while scooping +By lowering the pivot point the vehicle gains stability;

cons

-The wheel’s shock absorbing system seems to complicate the concept. While there is no driver this system can be completely left aside.

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4.


pros

+The compact wheel frame makes the vehicle more stable; +The extendable arms will permit the vehicle to stay on position while scooping +By lowering the pivot point the vehicle gains stability; +The upper surface can be used for solar panels

cons

-The sliding counterweight cuts the vehicle body into 2; -Even if the movement is symmetrical the vehicle is not describing this aspect -The wheel’s shock absorbing system seems to complicate the concept; -The solar panels can be easily broken by the falling rocks;.

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5.


pros

+The compact wheel frame makes the vehicle more stable; +The extendable arms will permit the vehicle to stay on position while scooping +By lowering the pivot point the vehicle gains stability; +The upper surface can be used for solar panels +The overall aspect is cleaner and closer to the ideal one. +The counterweight will slide under the vehicle.

cons

-The solar panels can be easily broken by the falling rocks;.

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6.


pros

+The compact wheel frame makes the vehicle more stable; +The extendable arms will permit the vehicle to stay on position while scooping +By lowering the pivot point the vehicle gains stability; +The upper surface can be used for solar panels +The overall aspect is cleaner and closer to the ideal one. +The counterweight will slide under the vehicle.

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cons

-The solar panels can be easily broken by the falling rocks;

180

o

7.


5.5.Final Concept The final concept represents a mixture of all the positive ideas and characteristics of the previous preliminary phases. I decided to move the pivot point to the center of the side surface to reduce the depth of the

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vehicle. The body remained symmetrical and as a visual language I emphasized some important curves to describe the rotational movement. The front and the back are interchangeable and this described by the color of light. Red means back and white means front. For efficient use of the weight, the counterweight

is constituted by several rechargeable batteries. The engine is hybrid, so in the daytime it will be powered by diesel fuel and by night it will used the energy stored during the day.


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o


CONCEPT REFINEMENT


Concept Refinement 6.1.Process

All the functional aspects were very clearly disused and defined and as a result the refinement process was only about finding the best relations to the form which will represent all these aspects. In conclusion the refining process was a number of steps, each based on the previous one. Given the time limit I had to concentrate the entire process to 4 days which was a good choice because I only focused on the most important aspects which kept me away from getting lost in less important details.

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6.2.CAID Process


6.3.Final CAID

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FINAL RESULT


COLOSSUS

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Final Result 7.1.Colossus

The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the Greek Titan Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes, on the Greek island of the same name, by Chares of Lindos in 280 BC. It is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was constructed to celebrate Rhodes’ victory over the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, whose son unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. Before its destruction in the earthquake of 226 BC, the Colossus of Rhodes stood over 30 meters high,making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world. The legend says that the statue was destroyed by the gods themselves because they considered it defied them. They put a curse on it to never be built again. Taking this meaning, in a romantic manner I like to say that I untie the curse by giving another meaning and another shape to the mighty colossus. In my opinion the name is the element which can create the story or the right set for a product. “Colossus” takes the vehicle in a mythical world and almost makes it a creature which is tamed by the man to serve his purposes. In other words, Colossus is a concept for a new generation of autonomous wheel loaders. The concept questions the iconic wheel loader by reinterpreting its functionality and pattern of movement.

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The concept aims for quicker, more productive and safer loading of rocks, gravel and sand in surface quarries and presents a future where quarry workers safety will be maximized through the use of autonomous vehicles. Colossus envisions a future where people will utilize technology and use it for improved comfort, safety and productivity.


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7.2.Scenario The scenario of usage begins with a screen. Because it’s an autonomous vehicle, the interaction with the user will be made through a interface. Imaging that a gravel pit would be separated into sectors like in image (a), each driver/supervisor will have to take care of only one sector. This sector is composed by several gravel piles marked with dotted circles- image (b). The autonomous wheel loaders are represented with white rect-

a

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angular shapes. So in order to achieve his duty, the driver/supervisor has to assign the vehicle to the specific gravel pile. The vehicle will automatically detect the correct path to follow-image (c), and will wait for confirmation. After the driver/ supervisor accepts the path his job is done. The vehicle will automatically drive to the gravel pile an will engage the loading process. The loading process is presented in the following pages, through a cycle made from 8 steps.

b

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c


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the signal

1

scanning the gravel pile

2

controlling the hauler for the parking procedure

3

starting the loading process

4


5

extending the arm to approach the gravel pile

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7

rotating the arm+counter weight movement

6

Unloading

8


the cluster 62

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1-8


7.3.Details

SOLAR PANELS

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HYBRID ENGINE

ELECTRIC

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DIESEL


COUNTER WEIGHT AND BATTERIES 65

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SLIDING OF THE COUNTER WEIGHT 66

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THE SCANNER AND THE CAMERA

PARKING AND MOVEMENT SENSOR

LIGHTS AND SENSORS 67

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BACK


FRONT

LIGHTS AND SENSORS 68

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WORKING LIGHTS

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7.4.Dimension Comparison

9300 6640 3700

2960

D1660

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7.5.Basic cinematic

15160

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W

MODEL MAKING


Model Making For the model making I wanted to use all the available technology, to get more familiarized and try to move out from my comfort zone. As a result the model is a combination between 3d printed parts, milled volumes, laser cut profiles and some hand crafted elements. The elements were painted and then assembled. The model is partial functional which means that I wanted to show the rotational movement of the arms and the rotation of the bucket.

Milled

Laser cut

3D Printed

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Final presentation

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Appendices

9.1 References Images:

Text:

1. www.tungafordon.com 2. www.volvo.com/constructionequipment 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel_loader Bibliography Keith Haddock, 1998, Giant Earthmovers, MotorBooks International Keith Haddock, 2007, The Earthmover Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Heavy Equipment of the World, MotorBooks International

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1. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/StateLibQld_2_292867_ Steam_shovel,_Mt._Morgan,_1903.jpg 2. http://www.tetralab.ru/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=13795411 3. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://horowhenua.kete.net.nz/image_files/45212/2002.099.0010.JPG&imgrefurl=http://horowhenua.kete.net. nz/site/images/show/8751-man-stan-graham-on-tractor-with-bucket-scoop-operated-by-cables&h=918&w=612&sz=129&tbnid=W38LKHiP30P2mM&tbnh=275&tbnw=183&zoom=1&usg=__zyp828mtPz9ahBnQHnCLFQp3uB8= 4. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.contrafedpublishing.co.nz/ site/contrafed/images/2010/Machines/Scoopmobile_2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. contrafedpublishing.co.nz/Contractor/March+2010/The+Hewco+LD3+Scoopmobile.html&h=109&w=283&sz=43&tbnid=XgIZFBiQzfeTcM&tbnh=87&tbnw=226&zoom=1&usg=__3xtIbeWl5rL5DRvxAiOeaRLQgj0= 5. http://bagry.cz/forum/stavebni_stroje/zvlastnosti_a_prototypy/(offset)/140 6. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://imageshack.us/a/img28/9795/35jb. jpg&imgrefurl=https://forum.lowyat.net/topic/2890624/all&h=480&w=640&sz=77&tbnid=_VaClO7hNvim2M&tbnh=194&tbnw=259&zoom=1&usg=__ZLvZxhf4yClFWzCV9WBXvkA1gUg= 7.8. http://www.redpowermagazine.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=19516 9. http://tbi.dp.ua/p1826999-shiny-michelin-dlya.html


9.2.Schedule 45

46

47

48

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50

User study

User workshop

Problem Definition & Research

Ideation & Concept Development

Concept Refinement

Final Design + CAID Modeling

Renderings

Physical model

Presentation

Research presentation

Design brief submission

Ideation presentation to HEAVY VEHICLES


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Concept presentation to HEAVY VEHICLES

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01

02

My birthday! I am turning 26 :)

03

04

Internal presentation

External presentation

Bogdan Ionita Report  
Bogdan Ionita Report  
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