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ÉÊ /ë+-+$-/ë+-0Ü7Ü-/+è,-ý7Ü-:ë-{æ<-`Ü-(Ü$-"ßÊ TIBET AND ITS PEOPLE –AN ESSENCE OF TRUE HISTORY A presentation of the facts from 127 BCE to 1959; Chinese occupation of Tibet, The Middle-Way Approach, striving for a peaceful resolution on the issue of Tibet and Tibetan Democracy in Exile

An Educational Supplement to Build Awareness of Tibet’s Cultural, Religious and Political History Compiled by: Kalsang Gyatso Kunor


Compiler’s Note The situation in Tibet, under the Chinese Communist rule, is as grim as it was more than 60 years ago when the Chinese Communists first began their era of devastation in Tibet. As each new Tibetan generation ages without ever setting foot in Tibet, and because of my regular contacts with people from different countries, I have been urged to compile a brief factual history of Tibet that includes reliable original documents and authentic pictures from various sources. In an incident while I was working in a middle school students there ,during a project discussion, said that the “the Tibetans demanded independence from China and the Chinese government kicked them out of Tibet, “ rather than realizing that Tibet was independent and the Tibetans were asking the Chinese to leave Tibet. In a second incident, while meeting a Chinese student to help him with a class assignment, the student, without any hesitation, proclaimed “Tibet is a part of China. Tibetans peel off human beings and drink blood, but now Tibetans are very happy under the Chinese rule,” all in our introduction! I told him “I am really sorry that your government has misled you with wrong information about Tibet. We will find a time to discuss about this later.” Many people know His Holiness the Dalai Lama as a great Tibetan leader as well as a global icon of peace and compassion, but many are ignorant of the truth about Tibet. Even amongst the Tibetans, many, especially the younger generations need to know what Tibet was and what it is now. Again, during one of my visits to a middle school, I saw a student project display of a map of Tibet which showed Tibet as the portion called “Tibet Autonomous Region” and includes only the province of U-Tsang. The other two Tibetan provinces of Kham and Amdo were excluded while the Chinese names of “Sichuan” and “Qinghai” were there instead. Also, the map stated the Tibetan population as a little more than 2 million rather the 6 million of historical Tibet. This project was done by a Tibetan student. I believe the student had been directed to one of the many websites of distorted Tibetan history created by either the Chinese government or authors with their own political agenda.. This compilation is mainly aimed at providing facts about Tibet and its people for all walks of life, including the hardcore Chinese communist leaders in Beijing. I believe that everyone has the right to access true information, especially, as my examples above illustrate, school age children. First part of this book, A Brief History of Tibet – 127 BCE to the 1959 Chinese Occupation of Tibet, was partially funded by a high school student foundation. This grant also made copies available to the libraries of several high schools and middle schools for educational and cultural understanding. Since there are no funds available for this present version, Tibet and its People – An Essence of True History, it is only accessible on this website. There is no profit motive and suggestions and corrections are welcome. Readers are also suggested to read the books and visit the websites given at the end of each topic for further details.

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Finally, I would like to thank all the sources mentioned in the bibliography and the copyright permissions at the end of this book. I would also like to thank Dr. Lori J. Cayton for editing, Patrick Grady, Emily Miller and Colleen Muldowney for valuable suggestions and Ellen Pryor, Tenzin Monlam, my son Tenzin Lobsang Kunor and Sangay Puri for technical support for the first 121 pages. I am solely responsible for any shortcomings on the following pages. I hope this book is of some use to all those who wish to learn about Tibet and that it helps achieve the undeniable truth which Tibet and the Tibetan people have long searched for. September 24, 2011

Kalsang Gyatso Kunor

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President.Rajendra Prasad of India met the Fourteenth Dalai Lama in New Delhi, just after the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s flight from Tibet in March 1959

The Dalai Lama visited the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in New Delhi in September 7, 1959

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Contents 1.

Introduction to Tibet and its Culture

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2.

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1959 Chinese Occupation of Tibet ÀÑ Tibetan dÜ-:ë-0-e³$History -#ë$-:ë- 127 BC¿ÀÅto the,<dÜ-:ë- ¿ÇÃÇ :ë9-{-+09-bÜ<-/ë+/1,-/6ß$-e<-ý-/9-bÜ-/ë+-`Ü-{:-9/<-:ë-{æ<-dë#<-/Z¨<Ê

ÁÑ Reconstruction /1,-eë:-,$-þ9-in#<ëExile Ê

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3.

. Justification of Tibetan Independence ÂÑ /ë+-9$-/1,-#1$-0-8Ü,-ý7Ü- hÜ0<-0*ß,-"ß$<-þè:Ê 4

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The Middle-Way Approach: A Framework for Resolving the Issue of Tibet

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ÃÑ +/ß-07Ü-:0Ê Resolutions and International Documents on Tibet Ä6.Ñ G/ëovernment +-Uë9-#º¥$-"#-#Ü-ië<-&ë+-+$-Ê {:- Ü7Ü-8Ü#-&-#:-&è-"#Ê

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8.

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of Global Tibet Support Groups ÆÑ List 730-uÜ$-,$-/ë+-+ë,-{/-þë9-2ì#<-ý-"#-#Ü-*ë-#º¥$-Ê 9.

Environmental Devastation in Tibet as a Result of Chinese Occupation

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10.

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in Tibet ¿¾Ñ Current /ë+-,$-#Situation Ü-+-P7Ü-#,<Y$<Ê

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On December 7, 1950 while addressing the Indian Parliament India’s first Prime Minister Shri Jawaharlal Nehru said “….surely, according to the principles I uphold, the last voice in regard to Tibet should be the voice of the people of Tibet and nobody else”.

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¿Ñ /ë+-+$Ê /ë+-`Ü-9Ü#-#º¥$-$ë-‡ë+Ê 1. Introduction to Tibet and its Culture a) Maps of Tibet showing Historical and Contemporary Boundaries

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b) Geographical Position

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c) Rivers

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d) Lakes

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e) Mountains

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f) Environmental Conditions

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g) Racial Origin of Tibet

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h) Religion

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i) The Founders of the Tibetan Religious Schools

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j) Reincarnation in Tibetan Buddhism

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k) The Land of Avalokitesvara’s Followers

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l) Discovering the Fourteenth Dalai Lama – A Search for Reincarnation

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m) Government

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n) Governmental Structure

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o) Tibetan National Flag and its Explanations

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p) Tibetan National Emblem/Seal

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q) Tibetan National Anthem

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r) The Currency of Independent Tibet s) Language and Literature

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t) Provinces of Tibet

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u) v) w) x)

Art & Architecture (Potala, World Heritage Recognition, and Mandala of Yamantaka) 41 The Prophecies 44 An Outline of Tibetan Culture 45 Suggested Readings 51

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Map of Tibet showing Historical and Contemporary Boundaries

Tibet lies at the center of Asia, with an area of 2.5 million sq km. (965,000 Sq miles). The earth’s highest mountains, a vast elevated plateau and great river valleys make up the physical homeland of six million Tibetans. It has an average altitude of over 4,000 meters (14,000 feet) above the sea level and is appropriately known as the ‘Roof of the World’. The landmass of Tibet is comprised of three provinces: U-Tsang (Central Tibet), Kham (Eastern Tibet) and Amdo (North Eastern Tibet). These three Provinces have been firmly bound with common Tibetan writing, Buddhism and leadership for centuries.

Tibet and its Neighboring Countries before the Chinese Occupation of Tibet in 1959

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Geographical Position Tibet lies west of China, north of India and Nepal, east of Persia (Iran) and south of Russia and Mongolia. It is the highest country in the world. On its border with Nepal stands Mount Everest; and common to the border of Nepal, Indian State of Sikkim, and Tibet is Kanchenjunga. Between Bhutan and Tibet lies Mount Chomo Lhari. Other great mountains such as Kailash, sacred to the Buddhist and Hindu alike, Tsari, Yalha Shambo, Chomo Kharak, Kangkar Shameh, Nyachen Thanglha and Machen Pomra (Amne Machen) are studded about Tibet like precious jewels. At Tachienlu in the east, an iron bridge divides China from Tibet, and a white stupa known as Chorten Karpo marks the limit of Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s northern frontier at Karchu. The southern border of Tibet is formed by the Himalayas; the western border by Karakoram Range; and northern by the Altyn Tagh range, which borders on Turkestan.

Tibet is also referred to as Gangri Rawai Korwai Shingkham â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Abode of Mountains

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Rivers The Rivers of Tibet are the sources of many of Asia’s most important waterways. There are four rivers, all having descriptive names, that rise near Mount Kailash in the west. The Sengye Khabab (Out of the Lion’s Mouth) flows through Kashmir to become the Indus in Pakistan; the Langchen Khabab (Out of the Elephant’s Mouth) flows southward to become the Sutlej in western India; the Macha Khabab (Out of the Peacock’s Mouth) becomes the sacred Ganges (though Gangotri, in India, is the accepted source for Hindus); and the Tachok Khabab (Out of the Horse’s Mouth) flows eastward and joining the Kyichu River south of Lhasa, forms the Brahmaputra, which winds through Assam and Bengal in India. The Ngoechu River rises in central Tibet and flows through Dotoe (Kham) in eastern Tibet and into Burma as the Salween. From northern Tibet, two rivers, Ngomchu and the Zachu, flow through eastern Tibet, merge, and enter Laos and Thailand as the Mekong. The Drichu River also flows through Kham and into China as the Yangtse. The Machu River, coming from the mountain Machen Pomra in eastern Tibet, passes through Domey (Amdo) and becomes the Huang Ho (Yellow River) of China.

Yarlung Tsangpo

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Lakes The largest and important lakes of Tibet: Lhamoe Lhatso is one of the holiest lakes in central Tibet. The discovery of the 13th and 14th Dalai Lamas was aided by images appearing on this lake. Tso Mapham (Manasarovar) in western Tibet is sacred to both Buddhist and Hindu, Namtso Chukmo (Tengri Nor) north of Lhasa in central Tibet is the highest saltwater lake in the world, Yardok Yutso (Yumtso) in central Tibet has nine islands, one of which houses a monastery and a Guru Padmasambhavaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (8th century during King Trisong Detsen) footprint in stone. And Tso Trishor Gyalmo (Kokonor) in northeast is the largest lake in Tibet.

Yardo Yutso (Yumtso)

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Mountains

Chomolungma (Mount Everest) The highest mountain in the world, Chomolunga, stands at 8,848m above sea level in south central Tibet bordering Nepal.

Mount Khawa Karpo This sacred mountain in Kham province stands at 6,740 m above seal level.

 Mount Namcha Barwa This mountain is located in south east central Tibet, and stands 7,782 m above sea level

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Environmental Conditions Tibet had one of the most successful systems of environmental protection for an inhabited region of the world. Formal protection of wildlife and the environment through parks and reserves were not required in Tibet as Tibetan Buddhism taught that all living and non-living elements of nature exist interdependently. Buddhism prohibits the killing of animals and advocates loving compassion and equal respect for sentient beings and the environment. PLANTS: Over 100,000 species of higher elevation plants grow in Tibet, many of them rare and native to Tibet. These plants include about 2,000 varieties of medical herbs used in the traditional medicinal systems of Tibet, China and India. Rhododendron, saffron, bottle-brush tree, high mountain rhubarb, Himalayan alpine Serra Tula, falconer tree and hell Bonne are among the many plants found in Tibet. There are 400 species of rhododendron on the Tibetan Plateau, which make up about 50 percent of the world’s total species. According to scientists, the Tibetan Plateau consists of over 12,000 species from 1,500 genera of vascular plants, which accounts for over half of the total genera found in China. BIRDS: In Tibet, there are over 532 different species of birds in 57 families, which is about 70 percent of the total families found through out China. Some of the birds include: storks, wild swans, Blyth’s kingfisher, geese, ducks, shorebirds, raptors, brown-chested jungle flycatchers, redstarts, finches, grey-sided thrushes, Przewalski’s parrot bills, wagtails, chickadees, large-billed bush warblers, bearded vultures, woodpeckers and nuthatches. The most famous is the black-necked crane, called trung trung kaynak in Tibetan. Unfortunately, without the Tibetan sense of environmentalism, several of these birds are threatened with extinction. ANIMALS: The mountains and forests of Tibet are home to a vast range of animal life found only in Tibet. Many rare and endangered animals face an uncertain future unless their habitats begin to change positively. These rare and threaten animals include: the snow leopard, Tibetan takin, Himalayan black bear, wild yak (Tib.: drong), blue sheep, musk deer, golden monkey, wild ass (Tib.: kyang), Tibetan gazelle, Himalayan mouse hare, Tibetan antelope, giant panda and red panda. FOREST: Tibet’s forests covered 25.2 million hectares. Most forests in Tibet grow on steep, isolated slopes in the river valleys of Tibet’s low lying southeastern region. The principal types are tropical montane and subtropical montane coniferous forest, with evergreen spruce, fir, pine larch, cypress, birch and oak among the main species.

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Tibet’s forests are primarily old growth, with trees over 200 years old. The average stock density is 272 cubic meters per hectare, but U-Tsang’s old growth areas reach 2,300 cubic meters per hectare - the world’s highest stock density for conifers. Many of these forests have suffered from deforestation by the Chinese which has caused many environmental issues such as land slides, erosion, etc. MINERALS: Tibet also had rich and untouched mineral resources. Tibet has deposits of about 126 different minerals accounting for a significant share of the entire world’s reserves of gold, chromites, copper, borax and iron. The former Chinese Communist Party Chair, Yin Fatang, reported that the world’s largest supply of uranium was locked in to the Himalayan region of Tibet. WATERS: Tibet is the source of many of the Asia’s principal rivers, which include: the Brahmaputra (Yarlung Tsangpo), the Indus (Senge Khabab), the Sutlej (Langchen Khabab), the Karnali (Macha Khabab), Arun (Phongchu), the Salween (Gyalmo Ngulchu), the Mekong (Zachu), the Yangtse (Drichu), the Huangho or Yellow River (Machu) and the Irrawaddy. These rivers flow into ten countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. These rivers and their tributaries are the life-blood of millions of people in Asia. More than 15,000 natural lakes are found in Tibet and some of the prominent lakes are Mansarovar (Mapham Yumtso), Namtso, Yamdrok Yumtso and the largest, Kokonor Lake (Tso Ngonpo). Research figures show that rivers originating in Tibet sustain the lives of 47 percent of the world’s population and 85 percent of Asia’s total population. Thus, the environmental issues of Tibet are not an inconsequential regional issue, but have an immense global significance to warrant international attention. More than ever before, the need to save the Tibetan Plateau from ecological devastation is urgent. Frankly, it is not the question of the survival of Tibetans, but much of humanity.

Source: Department of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, India

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Chenrezig

The Racial Origin of Tibet There are two traditions concerning the racial origin of the Tibetan people. The first may be called the tradition of Indian ancestry from Kauraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Rupati and the second tradition maintains that Tibetans are descended from monkeys; specifically from a male monkey, an incarnation of the deity Avalokitesvara (Chenresig) the Buddha of compassion, who produced 6 progenies through a mountain ogress in Yarlung Valley. The ogress was believed to be the Goddess Tara. Gradually their descendants lost their various simian characteristics. The six progenies became the 6 ancient tribes of Tibet. The great Indian pandit, Atisha, who visited Tibet in the eleventh century, discovered a document in a pillar at the Jokhang, or central temple in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital, which provides evidence of the second tradition for the origin of the Tibetan people. The document was written during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo in the seventh century.

The majority of people in the U-Tsang region of Tibet are short of stature, roundheaded, and high-cheek-boned and slightly different from those of the other two regions. The people of Dotoe (Kham) and Domed (Amdo) are tall, long-headed, and long limbed.

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Religion

The Buddha According to early writings, Bon, Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oldest religion was founded by Tonpa Sherab Miwo of Shangshung in western Tibet. Bon is still one of the religious traditions of Tibet. Buddhism first came into Tibet in the seventh century from Nepal and India; but the actual active propagation began in the eighth century with Padmasambhava. Buddhism was not introduced into Tibet all at once, but at different times and by different teachers. The principal sects of Tibetan Buddhism are Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug. There were also adherents to Muslim and Hindu faiths in Tibet; there was freedom of religious worship and thought before the Chinese occupation. Tibetans lean strongly on their Buddhist faith and believe in the doctrine of karma which teaches that the rewards and punishments of ones life are the result of ones actions in the previous life. This is evident by the sincere and cheerful attitudes of most Tibetans. There were more than 6000 monasteries and nunneries in Tibet including Gaden, Derepung and Sera the three great monastic seats. These three main monasteries alone had more than 18,000 monks. But most of them have been totally destroyed during the Chinese occupation.

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The Founders of the Tibetan Religious Schools

Tonpa Sherab

Bon Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oldest spiritual tradition is Bon. It was founded by Tonpa Sherab Mewo and remained the dominant religion of Tibet until King Songtsen Gampo introduced Buddhism in the seventh century. Gradually, Buddhism became the dominant religion of Tibet. However, Bon religion continues to thrive today with a vibrant monastic community, whose discipline, dedication and scholarship are indeed exemplary among the exile Tibetans. Tonpa Sherab is said to have been born in the mythical land of Olmo Lung Ring, whose location remains something of a mystery. The land is traditionally described as dominated by holy Mount Yung-drung Gu-tzeg (Edifice of Nine Swastikas) in Western Tibet, which many scholars identify as Mount Kailash. Due to the sacredness of the Olmo Lung Ring and the mountain, both the counterclockwise swastika and the number nine are of great significance in the Bon tradition. The current head of Bon tradition is Gyalwa Menri Trizin.

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Tibetan Buddhism: The Four Schools Tibetan Buddhism is broadly divided into Nyingma, Kagyud, Sakya and Gelung Schools. Although each school has its respective head, His Holiness the Dalai Lama is the ultimate spiritual leader of all.

Guru Padmasambhawa

The Nyingma School The Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism traces its origin to the Indian adept, Guru Padmasamvhava. He travelled to Tibet in the eight century at the invitation of Tibetan King Trisong Detsen and hid numerous secret doctrines in various places. These were later discovered at appropriate times and became codified into the teachings of the Nyingma order. The instruction of the Nyingma School is Dzogchen (The Great Completion). Vimalamitra, another Indian master and contemporary of Padmasambhava, transmitted this teaching to Tibetan scholar Nyangting Ngezin. The Dzongchen percepts were later explained and elaborated by Longchenpa in the form of text, which became known as Nying-thig (Heartâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Drop).

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The Great Translator Marpa

The Kagyud School This school was founded in the eleventh century by the Great Translator Marpa. He travelled three time to India and studied under Naropa, one of the most accomplished Indian Vajrayana masters of all times. Marpaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s principal disciple was the great yogi mediator, Milarepa, who is credited with obtaining enlightenment in one lifetime. The central practice of the Kagyud School is known as the Six Yogas of Naropa. The Kagyud School gradually diversified into Four Greater Subsects and Eight Lesser Subsects. The Four Greater Subsects are: Tselpa Kagyud Phagdru Kagyud Barom Kagyud Kamtsang Kagyud

The Eight Lesser Subsects are: Drikung Kagyud Taklung Kagyud Trophu Kagyud Drukpa Kagyud Marpa Kagyud Yelpa Kagyud Yasang Kagyud Shugseb Kagyud

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The Five Sakya Foundeers

The Sakya School The Sakya School was founded in the eleventh century by Khon Kunchog Gyalpo. The central teaching of this school is the doctrine of Paths and Fruits, which is derived from the tradition Drongmi, a great translator who studies in India. Sakya Kunga Gyaltsen (1182 – 1353), better known as Sakya Pandita, was the most illustrious of Sakya masters. He maintained diplomatic relations with the Mongols and saved Tibet from the onslaught of the Mongol army. Sakya Pandita’s nephew, Drogon Choegyal Phagpa, was also a legendary Buddhist scholar. His wisdom and dignity so impressed the Mongol emperor of China, Qublai Khan, the emperor later accepted him as his spiritual master and gifted him rule over all Tibet. But the most precious gift, as Phagpa himself perceived it, was the Khan’s promise to give up the annual drowning of Chinese subjects en masse in the Chinese region of the Mongol Empire. This school consists of Three Subsects: Tsarpa, Ngorpa, Sakya

The overall head of the Sakya School is Sakya Trizin

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Je Tsongkhapa

The Gelug School This school was founded in the fourteenth century by Je Tsongkhapa, but had its roots in the earlier Kadampa tradition founded by the Bengali reformist scholar Atisha Dipankar. This school stressed the importance of strictly following monastic discipline and scholarship as a basis for pure religious practice. In 1409 Tsongkhapa founded the monastic university of Gaden in Lhasa. Subsequently Drepung and Sera monastic universities were founded near the capital by his followers and in time they became the three biggest monasteries in Tibet. Over the centuries Gelug grew to become the dominant religious school in Tibet. The head of the Gelug School, known as the Gaden Tripa (Gaden Throne Holder), is appointed on the basis of scholarship and seniority.

Source: Tibet at a Glance, Tibet Museum, DIIR, Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala

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Reincarnation in Tibetan Buddhism Reincarnation as an institution, that is, the formal recognition of the reincarnation or rebirth of a previous great master, is unique to Tibetan Buddhism. This tradition began in the 13th century with the line of the Karmapas, the head of the Karma Kargyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. Reincarnated lamas are known as tulkus, “emanation bodies” or “the Living Buddhas.” The birth of Karma Pakshi (1203 –1283), the Second Karmapa, was predicted by his predecessor, Dusum Khyenpa, and this began the reincarnation system in Tibet. Beings who have put the Buddha’s teachings into practice and thereby gained control of their future rebirth are reborn for the benefit of sentient beings. The search for the reincarnation begins with clues left by the tulku who has passed. In addition to these clues, the tulkus also leave signs that are analyzed by lamas and/or protective deities gifted with intuitive powers, as well as other traditional or religious methods of testing. Some of the traditional methods may include divinations, visit to special places such as “vision lakes,” etc. For example, after several days of prayers and meditations at Lhamoi Latso, the sacred lake, the Regent had very elaborate visions of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama’s birthplace. The Regent saw, among other things, a monastery with jade green and gold roofs, a home with turquoise roof tiles, etc. These aided the Regent and others to find the 14th Dalai Lama’s incarnation. Recognition of Tulkus, is something that can neither be appointed from above, nor be elected by the general populace, or be bestowed upon someone as a "title" or "position". The task of finding the reincarnation of these special teachers has traditionally been carried out by their disciples with guidance from the heads of the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism, as well as the traditional Bon religion. The Dalai Lama is referred to as the ultimate say for recognition of the tulkus. In the case of a very high teacher such as the Dalai Lamas, Tibetan government officials may also play a role in finding the true reincarnation. However, although foreigners may have witnessed aspects of this tradition they have never been involved in the actual recognition process. Any countries or individuals claiming otherwise have no basis in the minds of Tibetans and the followers of Tibetan Buddhism.

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The Land of Avalokitesvara’s followers Historical facts of how the Dalai Lama is the Manifestation of the Buddha of Compassion, Avalokitesvara (Sanskrit), Chenrezig (Tibetan) Tradition holds that the snow land of Tibet is the land of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara’s followers. Karandavya Sutra mentions that when the Buddha was about to pass into Paranirvana, Avalokitesvara requested him to live longer for the people of the northern snow land, where the Buddha had neither visited, nor given teaching. The Buddha replied; O Bodhisattva, adopt that land as the place to tame your followers. First manifest yourself as a human being Then tame them with the teachings Let this be your service to sentient beings In the Jataka Tales on Ratna Das, it is stated that Dakini Sangwa Yeshi and others offered this vajra song to Avalokitesvara: O Avalokitesvara! Guardian of the Snow Land This auspicious region is yours They have forged karmic bonds with you They have accumulated merits Let the rays of Ten Dharmic Virtues fall on them Make this land an ideal example of happiness Let your sun shine on this land This land seeks peace and tranquility from you The Jataka Tales goes on to mention this prophecy of the Buddha’s: The Snow Land to the north Is shaped like a lotus blossom O Avalokitesvara! Supreme source of happiness And the supreme source of inner peace You are the savior of all beings You should rule the Land of Snow Mountains

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Discovering the Fourteenth Dalai Lama – A Search for Reincarnation

The Fourteenth Dalai Lama in the Enthronement Ceremony

With the passing of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama in 1933, the search for his reincarnation began in accordance with the established Tibetan traditions. The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and patron saint of Tibet. Bodhisattvas are enlightened beings who have postponed their own nirvana or enlightenment and chosen to take rebirth in order to serve humanity (please see Bodhisattvas Taming Ground on page 20). The Regent had to look for clues left by the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. A Regent is appointed by the National Assembly of Tibet to take responsibility for the running the government during the interim period when the Dalai Lama matures or during the absence of a Dalai Lama. A number of initial clues helped guide the search party for the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. The first clue was the Thirteenth Dalai Lama’s body, which had been facing south, turned to the east a few days after his passing. The next clue was a star-shaped fungus appeared on the northeast side of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama’s tomb. As per the third clue, people said that unusual clouds floated into the northeast sky beyond Lhasa, the capital of Tibet. In the spring of 1935, the Regent travelled to the sacred lake Lhamoi Latso, 90 miles from Lhasa in search of clues indicating the reincarnation of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. Tibetans believe that visions of the future can be seen in the waters of this lake. After several days of prayers and meditations, the Regent saw the visions of three Tibetan letters Ah Ka and Ma followed by a picture of a monastery with roofs of jade green and gold and a house with turquoise tiles. The Regent’s experience at Lhamoi Latso helped to guide him in his search for the Dalai Lama.

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Sacred Lake Lhamoi Latso

In the following year the Regent sent out search parties of high lamas and government officials, who carried the secrets of visions from across Tibet, on a search for the next Dalai Lama. One such party led by Kewtsang Rinpoche from Sera Monastery went to the northeast of Tibet. As the party arrived at Amdo, they came upon the Kumbum monastery with its jade green and gold roof. Remembering the Regent’s earlier visions from Lhamoi Lhatso, they believed that the letter Ah for Amdo, Ka for Kumbum monastery and Ka and Ma together might have significance for the monastery of Karma Rolpai Dorje. In the nearby village of Taktser, they also noticed a house with turquoise tiles. Within this house they learned that a boy had been born to the family two years prior on July 6, 1935. Both of these clues paralleled the Regent’s experience the previous year at Lhamoi Latso and indicated that they were close to discovering the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. When approaching the house Kewtsang Rinpoche disguised himself as a servant in a sheepskin cloak which he wore over his monk robe. Losang Tsewang, a junior monastic official, pretended to be the leader of the party and went to the house of turquoise tiles. At the gate of the house, the strangers were met by the boy’s parents. The strangers requested the parents make some tea for them as they had come from a long distance. The moment a little boy in the kitchen saw the man in the sheepskin cloak, he ran over to him and sat in his lap. The boy grabbed the rosary of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama from around the man’s neck and indicated that he wanted to keep them. The man promised to give it to him, if he could guess who he was and the boy replied “sera aga” which meant in local dialect a Sera Lama. They then asked who the leader was and the boy said “Lobsang” and he knew the real servant as “Amdo Kasang.” The search party hid their

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excitement and everything was kept strictly confidential. The next morning when the party was getting ready to leave, the boy insisted that he wanted to go with them. A few days later, a whole search party of senior monks and high officials returned to the family. Kewtsang Rinpoche revealed his identity and wanted to test the boy. One test involved two identical black rosaries that they brought with them. The boy picked up the one belonging to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and put it around his neck. The same test was made with two yellow rosaries. They then offered him two drums: a very small drum which the Dalai Lama had used for calling attendants and a larger, much more ornate drum with golden straps. The boy chose the little drum, and began to beat it in the way the drums are beaten during prayers. After he had passed these tests they presented him two walking sticks. The boy touched the wrong walking stick and then took the other, which belonged to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and held it in his hand. When they wondered about his hesitation, they discovered that the first one had also been used by the Thirteenth Dalai Lama before he had given it to a lama, who in turn had given it to Kewtsang Rinpoche. In addition to the young boy passing these tests Kewtsang Rinpoche and Lobsang Tsewang also learned that some years before the Thirteenth Dalai Lama visited Kumbum in Amdo and stayed at the monastery of Karma Ralpai Dorje. He had left a pair of his boots or Jachen behind at the monastery. He had also looked for sometime at the house where the Fourteenth Dalai Lama was to be born and remarked that it was a beautiful place. The accumulation of these tests convinced the search party that they had discovered the reincarnation of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. A detailed report that included the visions witnessed by the Regent, the tests which the boy successfully completed, and the clues and indications which the Thirteenth Dalai Lama had given regarding the place where he wanted to be born was submitted to the National Assembly of Tibet. This report stressed that the search and investigation was all in accord with the advice of the leading oracles and lamas. Based on the above religious and traditional facts the Assembly unanimously confirmed that the reincarnation of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama had been found. The Dalai Lama was welcomed with utmost reverence and homage by the Tibetan Government and the people. The reception started from ThuTopchu River and concluded in Lhasa, the capital city. Every village and town joined in the processions, while horns, flutes, drums and cymbals sounded. Clouds of smoke rose from incense burners as Tibetan people flocked with folded hands to have a glimpse of next the Dalai Lama as he passed through on his three months and thirteen day journey.

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The Main Official Reception for the Dalai Lama by the Tibetan Government and its People at Doguthang

The main reception venue was at Doguthang, on the outskirts of Lhasa. The Regent, Prime Minister, Senior Abbots of the monasteries, the head of the British Mission and Representatives of Bhutan, Nepal and China received the Dalai Lama. On both sides of the route thousands of monks greeted him with colorful banners. Groups of people sang songs of welcome with musical instruments and soldiers of all the regiments of the Tibetan army presented arms to the Dalai Lama. The whole population of Lhasa thronged together in their best clothes to receive and welcome the Dalai Lama with homage.

Dalai Lama's escort at Doguthang

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The Sertringasol or enthronement ceremony was held on the fourteenth day of the first month of the Iron Dragon year 1940. The ceremony was held in the Si-Shie-Phuntsok the Hall of All Good Deeds of the Spiritual and Temporal Worlds - in the eastern wing of the Potala Palace. The ceremony was attended by the Regent, diplomatic representatives of the neighboring countries, and members of the Tibetan Cabinet, the Chief Official Abbot, the Senior Chamberlain, lay and monastic Tibetan Government officials, abbots and assistant abbots of the three monasteries of Drepung, Sera and Gaden and the members of the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s family. At the conclusion of all the established religious and traditional ceremonies, and after being presented with The Seals of The Government of Tibet, the Dalai Lama was formerly recognized as the Fourteenth Dalai Lama - the Spiritual and Temporal Ruler of Tibet. Upon hearing the news of the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s enthronement joy and reverence swept throughout the entire Tibetan population in the three provinces of Tibet.

The Dalai Lama with his parents and brother Gyalo Dhondup

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Government At the apex of the Tibetan Government structure is the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet, the Dalai Lama. In theory, the power of the Dalai Lama is absolute, but in practice he does not exercise his authority without consultation with his various advisors. During the absence, or minority, of the Dalai Lama, a Regent (Gyaltsab) is appointed by the National Assembly (Tsogdu) to run the government. The government structure was dualistic in nature with two Prime Ministers (Silon)â&#x20AC;&#x201D;one a lay man and the other a monk. The administration was divided into civil and religious branches. The Council (Kashag) the chief executive body, composed of four Ministers (Kalon), three lay and one monk, attended to all matters of private and national issues. Below the Council were major governmental departments: Political, Military, Economic, Judicial, Foreign, Financial, and Educational. Except for the Finance Department (Tsekhang), all other departments were headed by one lay and one monk official. The Finance Department was composed of four lay officials; each accorded the title of Tsepon. The administration of religious affairs was overseen by the Lord Chamberlain (Chikhyab Khenpo) and a Council of four monks known as Trungyig Chenmo. The Lord Chamberlain was also in charge of the Forest Department and the Private Treasury of the Dalai Lama. A joint session of the four Trungyig Chenmo and the four Tsepon was held to discuss matters of political importance and other issues. When the National Assembly met to discuss issues of national importance, the Council of the Trungyig Chenmo and the Council of the Tsepon presided over the meeting. The decisions made by the National Assembly were usually not altered and were forwarded to the Dalai Lama through the Council (Kashag) and the Office of the Prime Minister for final approval. This brief outline reflects the structure of the Tibetan Government as it was before the Preparatory Committee for the Autonomous Region of Tibet was established by the Chinese Communists in 1956.

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Governmental Structure of Independent Tibet before the Chinese invasion in 1959 The Dalai Lama Spiritual and Temporal Ruler | Tsogdu (National Assembly) | Silon (Prime Ministers) | Kashag (Council/Cabinet) | Chikhyab Khenpo (Lord Chamberlain) | Trungyig Chemo (Secretary Generals)

Religious

Tsepon (Finance Ministers)

| Departmental Heads | Political Judicial Economic Educational Foreign Military

Governors (Governors were appointed by the Office of the Prime Minister) | District Officials | District Offices

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Last Prime Minister (lay) of Independent Tibet, Silon Lukhangwa in 1952

Lukhangwa, Shakabpa, Ngabo and Namselingpa Four Members of the last Tsepons of Tibet in 1959

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Four Trungyichemo (ca. 1948) :( left to right, front)Lhautara, Lheting, Cawtang, Chompel Thubten (photo courtesy of India Office Library and Records, British Library)

Leading military and monk/lay officials (ca. 1920 -1922) Photo courtesy of India Office Library and Records, British Library)

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Source: Tibet at a Glance, the Tibet Museum, Dharamsala, India

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Tibetan National Emblem/Seal

The above Tibetan National Emblem has been the symbol of the Government of Tibet for centuries. The emblem combines several elements of the Tibetan National Flag and important Buddhist symbols. The important elements are the sun and the moon above the mountains represents the nation of Tibet, often known in Tibetan language as ‘Gangri Rawai Korwai Shingkham’ the Land Surrounded by Snow Mountains. On the slopes of the mountains, a pair of snow lions holding the Dharmachakra, the wheel of Dharma represents the Eightfold Path of Buddhism. Inside the Dharmachakra, the three colored swirling jewel represents the practices of the ten exalted virtues and The 16 humane conducts. The inscription on the curling banner below reads: bod gzung dga’ldan pho brang phogs las rnm rgyal, which means Gaden Phodang Tibetan Government victorious in all directions. This Tibetan National Emblem still remains as the official emblem of the Tibetan Government in Exile and is used on all the important official documents.

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Tibetan National Anthem

English Translation

Let the radiant light shine of Buddha's wish-fulfilling gem teachings, the treasure mine of all hopes for happiness and benefit in both worldly life and liberation. O Protectors who hold the jewel of the teachings and all beings, nourishing them greatly, may the sum of your virtuous deeds grow full. Firmly enduring in a diamond-hard state, guard all directions with compassion and love. Above our heads may divinely appointed rule abide endowed with a hundred benefits and let the power increase of four fold auspiciousness, May a new golden age of happiness and bliss spread throughout the three provinces of Tibet and the glory expand of religious-secular rule. By the spread of Buddha's teachings in the ten directions, may everyone throughout the world enjoy the glories of happiness and peace. In the battle against dark negative forces may the auspicious sunshine of the teachings and beings of Tibet and the brilliance of myriad radiant prosperities be ever triumphant.

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The Currency of Independent Tibet



  In early times the barter system was practiced in Tibet. From the barter system Tibetans next used silver for trade. In 1792 the Tibetan Government began minting its own coins, Tamka with Tibetan inscriptions. The Nepali coin was used as a model. Later copper coins were minted in various denominations and were embossed with the seal of lions. The denominations included Sang-gang, Sho-gang and Karma. In 1890 the Tibetan Government first introduced paper currency. The first notes were in denominations of five, ten, fifteen, twenty five and fifty tamka. These notes were later renamed sang and were issued in denominations of five, ten, fifteen, and one hundred. After the paper notes, copper and silvers coins were minted in 1910 in the units of five, ten, fifteen, thirty and one hundred sho-gang. In 1918 there was one series of gold coins struck. All the notes and coins bore the Tibetan Government seal of the lion together with the date of issue. Gold reserves were deposited in the government treasury to back up the currency notes. The Communist Chinese invaded Tibet in 1949 and by 1959 they had completely taken over the Tibetan Government. In 1959 all of the Tibetan currency had been replaced with Chinese currency.

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Language and Literature There is no resemblance between the language of Tibet and those of India and China, although the Tibetan script was adapted from an Indian one. The Tibetan script came into being when Tibet’s king Songtsen Gampo (reigned 629649) sent his minister, Thonmi Sambhota and 16 students to India to study the script of the Guptas. The current Tibetan script was derived from the Brahmi and Gupta written traditions which were used in India as early as A.D. 350. Thonmi Sambhota is credited with creating the Tibetan written language. The amazing similarities of the Tibetan script with those of the Brahmi and Guptas can be seen in Buhler, Indische Palaeography, Plate IV, Cols. I-VII. The renown Tibetan Historian Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa mentions in his ‘Tibet, A Political History’ “in my own study of Gupta script, I am able to read most of letters, although the meaning of the words is unknown to me”. Within the Chol-kha-sum (the three provinces of Tibet) there is a wide range of dialects, creating for the Tibetans the same sort of language problems found in other countries. There is however, only one written language and this gives unity to Tibetan literature. The Tibetan written language is also used in India (Himalayan regions), Bhutan (rdzon-kha), and Nepal (Sharpas, Dolpos, Lokas and Grogpas) and in the northern areas of Pakistan (Balti dialects). Nicholas Tournadre, a Tibetan language expert has written that ‘Tibetan in its various dialects is spoken over an area the size of Western Europe’.

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The Three Provinces of Tibet

Tibet as one nation: the traditional costumes U-Tsang, left, Kham, centre, and Amdo, right

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The Potala Palace: Seat of the Government of Tibet and the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Winter Palace in Tibet before 1959

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The Prophecies The 13th Dalai Lama’s Prophecy

Guru Padmasambhava’s Prophecy

“When the iron bird flies and horses run on wheels, the Tibetan people will be scattered like ants across the face of the earth, and the Dharma will come to the land of red men.”

“It may happen that here in the centre of Tibet the religion and secular administration may be attacked both from the outside and from the inside. Unless we can guard our own country, it will happen now that the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, the father and the son, the holder of the faith, the glorious rebirths, will be broken down and left without a name. As regards, the monasteries and priesthood, their lands and other properties will be destroyed. The administrative customs of the three religious kings will be weakened. The officers of the state, ecclesiastical and secular, will find their lands seized and they themselves made to serve their enemies, or wander about the country as beggars do. All beings will be sunk in great hardship and in overpowering fear. The days and nights will drag slowly into suffering”

_ attributed to Padmasambhava, founder of Buddhism in Tibet, sometime in the late 8th Century, A.D.

_ The last testament of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama, 1932, eighteen years before the Chinese invasion of Tibet. Translated by Sir Charles Bell.

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An Outline of Tibetan Culture by Robert A.F. Thurman

Anyone who knows the Tibetan language and has firsthand experience of Tibetan people knows the utter distinctness of the Tibetan culture. But to demonstrate this fact it is helpful to think back to ground principles. What is a “national culture”? A nation is more than a state, which is more than a tribe, which is more than a clan, which is more than a family. The only common political unit larger than a nation used to be called an “empire” though now there are entities called “United States” and “Union of Republics.” The English nation’s descendants of Angles and Saxons and Celts and Normans, to name a few tribes, themselves the amalgams of clans, can usually think of themselves as members of a single nation. Scots sometimes have difficulty thinking of themselves as part of the English nation, and the Irish cannot, though both groups were part of Great Britain for centuries. A people seem to think of themselves as a single nation when they have 1. Come together in a common territory through history, 2. Share a common language fixed on a writing system, live under a common system of laws, 3. Are imbued with a common sense of history, tolerate an understood range of religious beliefs and 4. Intuitively feel a common sense of identity through any of these commonalties, often buttressed by a sense of racial similarity. Tibetans claim that Tibet is a separate nation with a distinct culture, yet the Chinese claim that it is a minority member of the Chinese nation (sometimes they say, inexplicably, “family of nations”) with a local variation of a common culture. Taking the above six points as elements of a working definition of the term culture, we can examine the historical facts point by point. Common Territory

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No sizable Chinese populations had settled in Tibet until China’s occupation. A border was established between the warring Tang Empire and Yarlung Empire running east of Chamdo and Derge up toward Lanchou. Invading warlord armies – Mongol and Manchu troops in the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries, respectively – came to Tibet, as well as sporadic diplomatic missions, a few merchants and visiting monks. But there were no noticeable settled Chinese populations. This has of course changed since I959: there are now 7.5 million Chinese settlers in Tibet, excluding army garrisons. In historical terms, they have to be considered recent colonists, in no position to anchor a common culture. Common Language Tibetan is quite different from Chinese. It used to belong to the “Tibeto-Burman” family, although recently some linguists have taken up the label “Sino-Tibetan” (to include Sinic, Daic, Bodic [Tibetan] and Burmic, with the first two and the last two forming distinct subfamilies). These terminological games do not alter the fundamental difference in the languages. Chinese is written in ideograms and is monosyllabic, non inflected and tonal. Tibetan is written in an alphabet and is polysyllabic; is inflected with case , declension and gender structures adapted from Sanskrit; and is not semantically tonal. Tibetan borrows some words from Chinese, but it also borrows Indian, Nepali and Mongolian words. After 30 years of occupation, a mere handful of the present Chinese colonists speak Tibetan, although a younger generation of Tibetans has been forced to learn colloquial Chinese. Common System of Laws The first laws were promulgated in Tibet by Emperor Songtsen Gampo in the seventh century A.D. They refer to the Buddhist moral laws of India, with no relation to the Confucian canon of Chinese tradition. Under the Mongolian Empire, Mongol military laws were occasionally enforced in both Tibet and China. During all other periods of Tibetan history Tibetan laws based on Buddhism were administered in Tibetan courts by officials of the various Tibetan governments.

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The Chinese did not think of Tibetans as accepting of their laws, and the Tibetans did not even know what laws of China were. Common Sense of History The Tibetan national sense of history has strong ties to Buddhism. Also, the Tibetan national epic, poetry, drama, and historical literature emphasizes Tibetans’ distinctness from China and other Asian nations. Tibetan classics are totally unknown to the Chinese, and, conversely, the Chinese classics and literary masterpieces were never translated into Tibetan until China’s occupation of Tibet. Tibetans take greatest pride in their spiritual relationship with the Holy Land of India, and vast numbers of Buddhist and literary works were translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan over a period of seven centuries. The Chinese have considered the Tibetans as uncivilized barbarians since the time of Confucius. The Tibetans were among the serious dangers to the Chinese, part of the reason for the building of the Great Wall. Tibetan armies conquered the then-Chinese capital at Chang-an in the eighth century. Good relations with the Tibetans were considered important by Mongol emperors, such as Kublai Khan , and Manchu emperors, especially K’ang-hsi and Ch’ien Lung, who considered the Tibetans the key to staying on the good side of the redoubtable Mongols. Thus, in historical terms, it is understandable that the Tibetans feel crushed to be under the domination of and occupation by China. The present Chinese colonists also feel themselves to be beleaguered masters of an alien land – among savages, so to speak – and hence tend to treat the Tibetan “natives” much more harshly than they do their fellow Chinese. Common Race On the street, so to speak, neither Tibetans not Chinese consider themselves to be racially related. Some Tibetans do seem to resemble the Sinitic racial type, with a epicanthal fold at the eye and a certain roundness of head. But there are also Mongolian-type Tibetans, Indic types, Dardic types, Burmese types, Turkic types and even Caucasian types in the north-east province.

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Although Tibetans, Mongolians and Burmese are not so racially different from Chinese as whites or blacks, most Chinese can easily identify them by face as Tibetans, not as fellow Chinese. This leaves quite remote the possibility of Tibetans and Chinese coming to share a common identity. It seems hard to ground such a sense when they share no common territory, no common language, no common laws, no common sense of history or common literature, only marginal communality of religious beliefs and no common racial type. The Manchu emperors were quite aware of the lack of common identity between Manchus, Mongols, Uighurs, Tibetans and Chinese, and so they tried to draw their legitimacy from their role as conqueror and mediator between these hereditary enemies. The Kuomintang dreamed of retaining the Manchu Empire but failed even to get started. The Communist government stepped in militarily to every territory patrolled by the Manchu armies, except for Outer Mongolia, and has been trying very hard to create a common sense of identity, using the internationalist ideology of world Communist revolution. Indeed, the whole aim of Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cultural policy in Tibet has been to eradicate the Tibetan sense of distinct identity and inculcate in the Tibetans a sense of communality with the Chinese as fellow Communists and revolutionaries. That policy has so far proved dramatically unsuccessful. The Tibetansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; immediate return to monastery rebuilding and other religious pursuits since the relaxation of policies in the 1980s has shown the world how totally they have repudiated communism, how wholeheartedly they have rejected becoming part of a Chinese nation and how devotedly they are clinging to their Buddhist faith. The present Chinese government is quite aware of this immovable core of Tibetan national identity, and therefore has begun to allow for its resurgence as a tourist attraction, perhaps trying the impossible in letting the Tibetans reconstruct the form of the culture while trying to prevent the revival of its heart. Tibetans are unique on the planet in that their national life is wholly dedicated to Buddhism. For them the Dharma is all in all. Their culture was laboriously transformed over the thousand-year period from Srong btsan sgam po (early seventh century) to the Great Fifth Dalai Lama (early seventeenth century) from a normally ethnocentric, warlike, imperialistic national culture to a universally Buddhicized spiritual, peaceful culture.

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Essentially, they have been unilaterally disarmed for over 300 years. Their material development has been systematically neglected in favor of their spiritual development. For centuries, the main line item in the budget of the national government has been support of the monasteries and the studies and the practices of the monks and nuns. The wheel was purposely never used for transport, but only for generating prayers, the energy of OM MANI PADME HUM. Their rulers have been spiritual lineages of wisdom and compassion, triumphing over dynastic blood lineages. Tibetan culture thus represents Buddhism’s most sustained experiment in transforming a social environment. It is of course a still incomplete experiment, and the present Dalai Lama and other active leaders look forward to completing it, especially by balancing spiritual development with more effort toward a modest, post-industrial level of material progress. Elsewhere, I have described Tibet in sociological terms as having evolved a unique personality constellation called “inner modernity,” in contrast with the “outer modernity” of our societies (which we view as the only modernity). It is a culture of inestimable value us, as a mirror of ours, as extremely inward as we have been extremely outward. It may contain precious keys with which we can rediscover planetary equilibrium, restoring spiritual sanity to those maddened by extreme materialism. Its life or death is our life or death. It lives underground at home, in open air only in exile. We must protect it, nurture it and patiently wait for all concerned to rediscover its jewel-like value and need for special treasuring. Common Religions The common thread of Buddhism bound China and Tibet together to some degree in some eras. However, Confucianism and Taoism were always important in China, but totally absent in Tibet. Even in terms of Buddhism’s, Tantrism is central to Tibetan Buddhism but only represents a small movement in Chinese Buddhism. Most Chinese Buddhists to this day have great difficulties with Tantric ideas, misunderstanding Tantrism completely and considering it a “debased” form of Buddhism. (Most Chinese Buddhists are unaware that Chinese Buddhism itself includes traditions of Tantrism.) Very little religious common ground, therefore, exists between Chinese and Tibetans. 50


The Mongols and Manchus were different in this respect, and that is why the famous â&#x20AC;&#x153;priest-patronâ&#x20AC;? relationship was only formed between Sakyapa Lamas and Mongol emperors in the thirteenth century, and between Gelukpa Dalai Lamas and Manchu emperors in the seventeenth century. Relationships were never formed between any Tibetan lamas and any actually Chinese emperors during the 900 years of the Tang, Sung and Ming dynasties combined. Most recently, the Nationalist Chinese (Kuomintang) government set no foot in Tibet, from 1911 until its departure fromChina in 1947. And, so, the first Chinese rulers to have any political role in Tibet have been the Chinese Communists, since 1950. Naturally there is no question of the Communists sharing any common religious ground with the Tibetans, who are so devoted to Buddhism.

A sketch map of Tibet with its people in their traditional dresses in different regions of Tibet before 1959

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Suggested readings for details

Among Tibetan Texts History and Literature of the Tibetan Plateau Tracing the Development of Spiritual Ideals and Art in Tibet 6002000 A.D. Author(s) : Smith, E Gene Synopsis: For three decades E.Gene Smith ran the American Library of Congressâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Tibetan Text Publication Project, an effort to salvage and reprint the Tibetan literature that had been brought by the exile community or by members of the Bhotia communities of Sikkim, Bhutan, India, and Nepal

Shrine for Tibet The Alice S.Kandell Collection of Tibetan Sacred Art Author(s): Rhie, Marylin M and Robert Thurman with photographs by John Bigelow Taylor Synopsis: A beautiful, lavishly illustrated study of Tibetan sacred art, mainly sculpture and thangka paintings. This book is the third in the series, following on after Wisdom and Compassion: Sacred Art of Tibet, and Worlds of Transformation

Anthropology of Tibet and Himalaya Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya Author(s) : Bramble, Charles and Martin Brauen Synopsis: Academic papers and essays by various scholars from an international seminar on the anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya

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Tibetan Arts Author(s): Heller, Amy Synopsis: A treasure trove of art and artifacts from 600 to 2000 AD, which illustrate the remarkable art historical development of Tibet.

Ancient Tibet Author(s): Yeshe De Project Synopsis: An excellent survey of Tibet and the geology, and early history of its people, with chapters on the rise of the Himalayas and the development of plant and animal life; and the growth of Tibetan tribes to the flowering of the empire in the 8th and 9th centuries.

The Currency of Tibet Author(s) : Bertsch, Wolfgang Synopsis: A sourcebook for the study of Tibetan coins, paper money and other forms of Tibetan currency.

The Dalai Lamas by Brauen, Martin A stunning history of all the fourteen Dalai Lamas, each portrayed in text and illustrations. The contents include: the Dalai Lamas and the Origins of Reincarnate...

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DISCOVERY, RECOGNITION AND ENTHRONEMENT OF THE 14TH DALAI LAMA A collection of accounts by Khemey Sonam Wangdu, Sir Basil J. Gould, and Hugh E. Richardson

Author(s) : Diemberger, Maria Antonia Siron Synopsis: Spellbinding color images from the author's fascinating and varied journey through Tibet, ranging from visits to nomads in remote highlands to the cyber cafe in Lhasa.

Author(s): Phuntsok Namgyal Synopsis: A spectacular photographic book about the Potala Palace in Tibet, published in connection with China Publishing House in Beijing

Tibet Its Story

Cultural History of Tibet by David L. Snellgrove, Hugh Richardson

By Hugh Richardson This important work by Snellgrove and Richardson remains one of the very best surveys of the Tibetans, their religion, and their rich and complex culture. Moreover, it continues to have great relevance today, as we witness the ongoing destruction of this culture at the hands of the occupying Chinese population. In Snellgrove's, words, the book serves to "keep in public view the clear historical right of the Tibetan people to selfdetermination."

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House of Turquoise Roof Synopsis: A frank and revealing autobiography of a Tibetan noblewoman, recalling life in Lhasa before the Chinese invasion.

Across the Tibetan Plateau Ecosystems, Wildlife and Conservation Author(s) : Fleming, Robert L and Dorje Tsering and Liu Wulin, with a foreword by Jimmy Carter Synopsis: Remarkable photographs celebrate the wild places and wildlife of the Roof of the World. The beauty and diversity of the Tibetan plateau is staggering: from Mount Everest to the world's deepest gorge, from tropical jungles to artic-like tundra, from trees twenty feet in diameter to vast herds and solitary specimens of some of the least well-known animals on the planet. Certain photographs, such as those of a newborn Tibetan antelope or the elusive red ghoral, are among the few ever taken of these subjects

Author(s) : Tsepak Rigzin Festivals such as Losar - The Tibetan New Year, Monlam - The Great Prayer Festival, Saka Dawa, Buddha's Descent from Tushita, and the Dalai Lama's Birthday are each colorfully described preserving their own special charm

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2. Tibetan History 127 BC up to the Chinese Occupation of Tibet in 1959

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a)

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Tibet’s First King Nyatri Tsenpo 127 BC

b) The Three Great Kings 617 – 841

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c) Guru Padmasambhava 8th century

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d) Period of Disintegration and Restoration 842 -1247

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e) Rule of Tibet by Sakyapas 1182 – 1260

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f) Rule of Tibet by Phagmo Drupas 1349 -1435, Rinpung and Tsangpa hegemonies 1556 – 1641

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g) Rule of Tibet by the Dalai Lamas 1642 – present Suggested Readings

65 78

h) Invasion Suggested Readings

81 83

i) Repression Suggested Readings

84 87

j) Resentment, Resistance and Revolt Suggested Readings

90 97

k) Into Exile Suggested Readings

98 101

l) In Exile Suggested Readings

102 107

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Tibet’s First King Nyatri Tsenpo 127 BC

Tibet’s first king Nyatri Tsenpo ascended the throne in 127 BC. The year also marks the start of the Tibetan calendar called the “Royal Tibetan Year”. Nyatri Tsenpo ushered in a period of glory for Tibet. He built Yumbulagang, the first house in Tibet which still exists in central Tibet.

 Tibet’s First House Yumbulagang 127 B.C.

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The Three Great Kings

Trisong Detsen, Songtsen Gampo, and Tri Ralpachen

Songtsen Gampo (617 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 649 A.D.) Songtsen Gampo ascended to the throne at the age of thirteen. During the reign of King Songtsen Gampo, Tibet emerged as a unified state and became a great military power, with its armies marching across Central Asia. Thus, the King of Nepal and the Emperor of China offered their daughters in marriage to the Tibetan king. The marriages with the Nepalese and Chinese princesses have been given prominence in the religious story of Tibet because of their contributions to Buddhism.

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Sontsen Gampo promoted Buddhism in Tibet and sent seventeen Tibetan students to India to master its languages and, through them, Buddhism. Thonmi Sambhota, the most famous of these students, mastered Sanskrit and was introduced to Buddhism. He then returned to Tibet and, on the basis of the Brahmi and Gupta scripts, devised the Tibetan alphabet and grammar. For the first time in the history of Tibet he was then able to translate several important Buddhist texts from Sanskrit into Tibetan. Songtsen Gampo invited a large number of Buddhist translators and scholars from India, and the entire corpus of Buddhist teaching was translated into Tibetan Songtsen Gampo was also Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first lawmaker. He drew up ten moral principles and sixteen rules of public conduct. The border between Tibet and China was defined.

King Songtsen Gampo and his Chinese and Nepali queens Wen-châ&#x20AC;&#x2122;eng Kung-chu and Bhrikuti Devi

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Trisong Detsen (742 – 798 A.D.) The second great ruler of the Yarlung dynasty, Trisong Detsen, was born to King Tridhe Tsugden. He ascended the throne at the age of fourteen. During the reign of King Trisong Detsen, the Tibetan Empire was at its peak and its armies invaded China and several Central Asian countries. In 763 the Tibetans seized the then Chinese capital at Chang’an (present day Xian). As the Chinese emperor had fled, the Tibetans appointed a new emperor. This significant victory has been recorded for posterity on the Shol Doring (stone pillar) in Lhasa. He started a wide-scale restoration of Buddhist temples erected by King Songtsen Gampo and invited Indian pandits like Santiraksita to Tibet, who together with Padmasambhava constructed Tibet’s first monastery at Samye. Eager to know if Tibetans were capable of becoming good monks, the king selected seven intelligent men to be used as a trial group. These neophytes were trained by Santiraksita, and they became the first monks in Tibet. The trail group was so successful that many Tibetans then became monks. A school for the study of Sanskrit was established at Samye and large numbers of Buddhist texts from India were translated into the Tibetan language. Atisha, a celebrated Indian pandit who visited Samye in the eleventh century, wrote that he had never seen such an extensive and thorough system of translation of Buddhist texts, even in India. The king also declared Buddhism as the official religion of Tibet.

Samye Monastery, the First Monastery in Tibet 770’s

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Tri Ralpachen (806 – 841 A.D.) Tri Ralpachen came to power in 815. During his reign the Tibetan armies won many victories and in 821-2 a piece treaty was concluded with China. The inscription of the text of the treaty was inscribed, both in Tibetan and Chinese, on three stone pillars: one was erected in Gungu Meru to demarcate the border between the two nations, the second in Lhasa, and the third in the Chinese capital Chang’an (modern-day-Xian). Eminent Tibetan scholars, Kawa Paltsek and Chogru Lui Gyaltsen, worked with Indian scholars who were invited to Tibet to prepare the first Sanskrit –Tibetan lexicon called the Mahavyutpatti. Tri Ralpachen also introduced a new system of weights and measures based on the Indian model.

The first Sanskrit –Tibetan lexicon called the Mahavyutpatti

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Guru Padmasambhava

From around 640 to 842 CE, Tibet was in a phase of expansion during which it absorbed the state of Zhang-zhung, and then substantial Chinese, Nepalese and other territories surrounding it. It was near the end of this period, under royal patronage, the first Tibetan Buddhist monastery was founded at Samye. According to legend, local deities and demons opposed to the introduction of Buddhism destroyed every night what was being built during the day. The king consulted Santarakshita, the Indian monastic who was to be the first abbot of the new monastery. He advised that the great tantric mahasiddha (great adept), Padmasambhava, be summoned from India to tame local deities and bind them to the service of Buddha-dharma. Padmasambhava's journey through the Tibetan landscape subduing and binding a succession of named deities at specific places forms the core of his life activity. These events, mythical, legendary or historical have consequences for practitioners of Tibetan Buddhism today. That is the most important aspect of his work, and the reason why he is referred to as Guru Rinpoche, being regarded as the "second Buddha."

Source: 1995 paper by Prof. Geoffrey Samuel of Newcastle U., Australia

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Period of Disintegration and Restoration Tri Ralpachen, one of the great Buddhist kings of Tibet was succeeded by his brother Lang Darma in 836 BCE. Lang Darma was said to have hidden horns and a black tongue. Lang Darma would hide his horns under his hair which was arranged in two plaits. Lang Darma and two of his ministers promulgated laws to destroy Buddhism in Tibet. Well known monks were executed for refusing to abandon their Buddhist faith. The Indian pandits and scholars, finding themselves treated with little or no respect, returned to their native land. Lang Darma and his ministers succeeded destroying Buddhism in central Tibet, but not in other parts of the country where their authority could not be imposed. By 842 religious persecutions had become so severe in central Tibet that Lhalung Palgye Dorje, a monk set out for Lhasa from Yerpa, shot an arrow assassinating Lang Darma. The assassination of Lang Darma in 842 led to the decentralization of royal authority in Tibet. The long lineage of royalty came to an end collapsing the Tibetan kingdom. Lang Darmaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s two sons established separate thrones, one in Lhasa and the other in Yalung. This marked the first schism in the royal line and central authority. No central authority was restored until 1247, when Sakya Pandita was invested with the right to rule over the Trikor Chuksum (Thirteen Districts) of Tibet by Prince Godan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. Therefore, the dates 842 and 1247 mark the period of decentralized control in Tibet, during which the country consisted of many small hegemonies like the very many small kingdoms in ancient India. Buddhism was however restored in Tibet with the initiation of Gongpa Rabsal, a monk, and the tremendous sacrifices made by Lha Lama Yeshe Od and Changchub Od who invited Indian pandits back to Tibet. The arrival of renowned Indian pandits, primarily Atisha in 978 was considered to be the beginning of the renaissance of Buddhism in Tibet, and was described as â&#x20AC;&#x153;a spark rekindled in the east that spread by a wind blowing from the westâ&#x20AC;?.

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Rule of Tibet by Lineage of Sakyapas (1182 to 1260)

After the reign of the tsenpos or kings, Tibet was ruled by the lineage of Sakyapas, one of the four major religious sects of Tibetan Buddhism. Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen ruled Tibet from 1182 to 1251 and then by Sakya Drogon Phagpa until 1260. In 1253, Kublai Khan became the ruler of Mongolia and the following year Kublai Khan offered Sakya Phagpa to administer the three provinces of Tibet (U-Tsang, Kham and Amdo) in exchange for religious teachings. According to tradition, Phagpa bestowed consecration on twenty five of Kublai’s ministers on three different occasions. The first occasion earned him the spiritual and temporal authority over thirteen districts (Trikor Chusum) of central Tibet. After the second occasion, he was invested with authority over the three regions of Tibet, the Chol-kha-sum, comprised of U-Tsang, (Central Tibet) Dotoe (Kham) and Domey (Amdo) When Kublai became Khan in 1260, Phagpa was given the title of Tishri (Chinese: Ti-shih), meaning “Imperial Preceptor,” after the third occasion. Thus, the Lamas and Patrons relationship began.

Sakya Pandita

Drogon Phagpa

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Kublai Khan


Rule of Tibet by the Phagmo Drupa, Rinpung, and Tsangpa Hegemonies

Phagmo Drupa

(1349 -1435) Rinpung and Tsangpas (1556-1641)

Changchub Gyaltsen had full power over Tibet during the three major hegemonies and gained Tibet’s independence from the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China 1358. Changchub Gyaltsen’s reforms included the distribution of land, the promotion of agriculture, and the establishment of a code of conduct for all citizens. Furthermore, he established military posts for the protection of travelers and pilgrims and installed preventive measures for epidemics. He issued a book of instructions on border defense and tax collection. The contribution of Changchub Gyaltsen’s reforms marked a period of great peace and prosperity for the people of Tibet. Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa writes in his book TIBET A Political History “during his time, the country was so secured that it was said an old woman carrying a sack full of gold could pass without fear from one end of Tibet to the other; thus this period of internal security was known as the era of Genmo Serkhor“translated as “Old Woman Carrying Gold”. Tibet gained its independence from the Mongols in the time of Changchup Gyaltsen (1302-64) and China gained its in 1368 under the leadership of Chu Yuan-chang. The allegation that the Chinese Emperors of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) inherited claim to Tibet from their Mongol predecessors is not valid. The Mongols, in building an empire, first gained control over part of Tibet and then, after many years, finally conquered China. From 1349 to 1435, Tibet was successively ruled by Lamas from the Phagmo Drupa lineage, followed by Rinpung and theTsangpa kings from 1556 to 1641. The reign of the Tsangpa kings was followed by the Dalai Lamas.

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Rule of Tibet by the Dalai Lamas (1st Dalai Lama Gedun Drupa 1391 to 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso 1617)

In order to trace the origin of the Dalai Lamas and their emergence to power, it is necessary to go back to the 15th century. The lama, who became known posthumously as the first Dalai Lama was Gedun Drupa, he was born in 1391. He was followed by Gedun Gyatso in 1475 and then Sonam Gyatso in 1543. The Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso was born in 1543 at Tolung, near Lhasa, to Namgyal Drakpa and Pelzom Bhuti, a rich family. In 1546, at the age of three, Sonam Dakpa Gyaltsen, the ruler of Tibet, and Panchen Sonam Dakpa recognized him as the reincarnation of Gedun Gyatso. In 1578 Altan Khan of Tumat Mongols invited Sonam Gyatso, the abbot of the great Drepung Monastery and reincarnation of Gedun Gyatso, to Mongolia. Sonam Gyatso began a program of religious instructions for the Khan and his people. Altan Khan was converted to Buddhism and the Khan made important religious proclamation to his people. Altan Khan offered Sonam Gyatso the title of “Dalai Lama”. Dalai in Mongolian means “ocean” and “Lama” in Tibetan means “wisdom or the highest.” Thus, Dalai Lama means “Ocean of Wisdom”.

Sonam Gyatso, The 3rd Dalai Lama

Altan Khan The Mongol King

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The Fifth Dalai Lama Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617- 1682)

The Fifth Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso, was born in 1617 in Lhoka Chingwar Taktse, south of Lhasa to Dudul Rabten and Kunga Lhanzi. When Sonam Choephel, the chief attendant of the Fourth Dalai Lama heard of the exceptional abilities of the ChongGya boy, he paid a visit to the child and showed him articles belonging to the previous Dalai Lama. The boy at once said those belonged to him. In 1642 the Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, assumed Tibet’s spiritual and temporal responsibility at a time when Tibet was in political turmoil. However, all this uncertainty was laid to rest by Gushri Khan; the chief of the Qoshot Mongols.Gushri Khan completed the unification of Tibet in 1642 and offered the entire three provinces of Tibet to the Dalai Lama to rule. The Dalai Lama founded the present form the Tibetan government, popularly known as “Gaden Phodrang “. Tibet’s neighboring countries Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, Ladakh and the Indian states dispatched their representatives to Tibet to participate in the inaugural ceremony of the new “Gaden Phodrang” government. The Dalai Lama proclaimed Lhasa as the capital for the new government. He promulgated laws for public conduct, appointed governors to different districts and chose his ministers. In 1645, the Dalai Lama began the construction of the Potala Palace where the ruins of the palace Tritse Marpo built in the 7th century, by the 33rd King Songtsen Gampo. The Potala became the seat of the independent Tibet up to the Chinese occupation of Tibet in 1959. The Dalai Lama sent his representatives to many towns in Kham areas: Gyarong, Golog, Tachienlu, Gyalthang, Chating and Jun to reduce heavy taxation, mediate local feuds, establish new monasteries and to resettle areas that had been abandoned by the people. The similar steps were also taken in the Central Tibet and other parts of Tibet. In 1648 The Dalai Lama sent two Tibetan government officials, Lhakhangpa and Badro to Tachienlu, Chakla, Gyarong, Bah, Lithang, Jun, Gyalthang , Mili, Dan,

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Gakhok, Lingtsang, Lhathok and Nangchen, all in eastern Kham to take a census of the population and collect taxes from the landholders. There were 56 books on the tax collection of revenue in these districts. The Dalai Lama was a very influential person. Through his religious authority the Dalai Lama influenced in the political affairs of Mongols and neighboring countries including China. The Mongol Chiefs in Mongolia and Tibet gave the Dalai Lama oaths, marked with their seals to remain united in 1659. In 1649, Sunzhi, the Manchu emperor, invited the Dalai Lama to Peking. When he reached the Chinese province of Ningxia, he was greeted by the emperor's minister and military commander who came with three thousand cavalry to escort the Tibetan leader. The emperor himself traveled from Peking and greeted him at a place called Kothor. In the Chinese capital, the Dalai Lama stayed at the Yellow Palace, built for him by the emperor. When the emperor officially met the Dalai Lama, the two of then exchanged titles. In 1653, the Dalai Lama returned to Tibet. The Fifth Dalai Lama was a great scholar, well versed in Sanskrit. He wrote many books including “Bslabya-mu-thi-la’s Phring-ba” a book on temporal and spiritual matters. He also established two educational institutions, one for lay officials and another for monk officials, where they were taught Mongolian, Sanskrit, astrology, poetry, and administration. He was a man of few words, but what he said carried conviction and influenced rulers beyond the borders of Tibet.

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The Seventh Dalai Lama, Kelsang Gyatso (1708 - 1757)

The Seventh Dalai Lama was born in 1708 to Sonam Dargya and Lobsang Chotso in Lithang, two years after the disappearance of the Sixth. Thupten Jampaling Monastery, which was founded in Lithang by the Third Dalai Lama, was astonished by the wonders of the child and also the state oracles of Lithang had predicted that the newborn child would be the reincarnation of the late Dalai Lama. However due to the turbulent political situation, they could not escort the new Dalai Lama to Lhasa, and he was taken to Kumbum monastery, where he was ordained by Ngawang Lobsang Tenpai Gyaltsen. In 1720, he was enthroned in the Potala Palace and he took the novice vows of monkhood from Panchen Lobsang Yeshi, who gave him the name Kelsang Gyatso. In 1726, during the auspicious month of Saka Dawa, he took the Gelong vows (full ordination) from Panchen Rinpoche. He sought the tutor of Panchen Lobsang Yeshi, the Abbot of Gyumey monastery and the Abbot of Shalu monastery, Ngawang Yonten, from whom he studied the entire major Buddhist philosophical treatises and became a master in both the sutra and tantra. In 1751, at the age of forty-three, he constituted the 'Kashag' or council of ministers to administer the Tibetan government and then abolished the post of Desi, as it placed too much power in one man's hand. The Dalai Lama became the spiritual and political leader of Tibet. At the age of forty-five, he founded the Tse-School in the Potala Palace and built the new palace of Norling Kalsang Phodrang. The Seventh Dalai Lama was a great scholar and wrote many books, especially on the tantra. He was also a great poet who, unlike Tsangyang Gyatso, dwelt on spiritual themes. His simple and unblemished life won him the hearts of all Tibetans. He died in 1757.

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The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso (1876 -1933) (6th Dalai Lama Tsayang Gyatso 1682 to 12th Dalai Lama Trinley Gyatso 1875)

The Fifth Dalai Lama was followed by a succession of Dalai Lamas who ruled Tibet with full sovereignty. The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso, was born in the Fire Mouse year of 1876 at Langdun in Dagpo, central Tibet to Kunga Rinchen and Lobsang Dolma, a peasant couple. In 1877, he was recognized as the reincarnation of the 12th Dalai Lama following predictions from the State Oracle Nechung and other auspicious signs at his birthplace. The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso, assumed spiritual and temporal power on August 8, 1895. In 1904 British India invaded Tibet which kept Russian influence from moving in to Tibet. As a result of the British invasion the thirteenth Dalai Lama had to leave Tibet for Mongolia and China. Subsequently a convention was signed between Tibet and British India. In 1911, the Manchu Dynasty was overthrown by the revolution led by Sun Yat-sen and the Tibetans took this opportunity to expel the remnant Manchu forces from Tibet. On January 8, 1913 the Dalai Lama issued a proclamation and reaffirmed Tibetan Independence, which was later confirmed by the Simla Treaty in 1914 between British India and Tibet. The Dalai Lama introduced the first currencies and coins in Tibet. He also established the first post office in Tibet. In 1914, he strengthened the Tibetan military force by organizing special training. In 1916, he established the Tibetan Medical Institute which is well known today as Men-Tse Khang. In 1923, he established a police headquarter in Lhasa and the first English school in Gyaltse (Gyangtse). He sent four 70


young Tibetans to England to study engineering. The Dalai Lama composed the present day Tibetan National Anthem.

The Proclamation of Tibetan Independence issued by the Thirteenth Dalai Lama After the collapse of the Manchu Empire in 1911, all remaining Manchu Chinese troops in Tibet were driven out of the country. As a result the Dalai Lama issued a formal proclamation declaring Tibetan independence. The following proclamation was issued on the eighth day of the first month of the Water-Ox year, in 1913: Translation of the Tibetan Text I, the Dalai Lama, most omniscient possessor of the Buddhist faith, whose title was conferred by the Lord Buddhaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s command from the glorious land of India, speak to you as follows: I am speaking to all classes of Tibetan people. Lord Buddha, from the glorious country of India, prophesied that the reincarnations of Avalokiteshvara, through successive rulers from the early religious kings to the present day, would look after the welfare of Tibet. During the time of Genghis Khan and Altan Khan of the Mongols, the Ming dynasty of the Chinese, and the Châ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ing Dynasty of the Manchus, Tibet and China cooperated on the basis of benefactor and priest relationship. A few years ago, the Chinese authorities in Szechuan and Yunnan endeavored to colonize our territory. They brought large numbers of troops into central Tibet on the pretext of policing the trade marts. I, therefore, left Lhasa with my ministers for the Indo-Tibetan border, hoping to clarify to the Manchu emperor by wire that the existing relationship between Tibet and China had been that of patron and priest and had not been based on the subordination of one to the other. There was no other choice for me but to cross the border, because Chinese troops were following with the intention of taking me alive or dead. On my arrival in India, I dispatched several telegrams to the Emperor; but his reply to my demands was delayed by corrupt officials at Peking. Meanwhile, the Manchu empire collapsed. The Tibetans were encouraged to expel the Chinese from central Tibet. I, too, returned safely to my rightful and sacred country, and I am now in the course of driving out the remnants of Chinese troops from DoKham in Eastern Tibet. Now, the Chinese intention of colonizing Tibet under the patron-priest relationship has faded like a rainbow in the sky. Having once again achieved for ourselves a period of happiness and peace, I have now allotted to all of you the following duties to be carried out without negligence: 1. Peace and happiness in this world can only be maintained by preserving the faith of Buddhism. It is, therefore, essential to preserve all Buddhist institutions in Tibet, such as the

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Jokhang temple and Ramoche in Lhasa, Samye, and Traduk in southern Tibet, and the three great monasteries, etc. 2. The various Buddhist sects in Tibet should be kept in a distinct and pure form. Buddhism should be taught, learned, and meditated upon properly. Except for special persons, the administrators of monasteries are forbidden to trade, loan money, deal in any kind of livestock, and/or subjugate anotherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s subjects. 3. The Tibetan governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s civil and military officials, when collecting taxes or dealing with their subject citizens, should carry out their duties with fair and honest judgment so as to benefit the government without hurting the interests of the subject citizens. Some of the central government officials posted at Ngari Korsum in western Tibet, and Do Kham in eastern Tibet, are coercing their subject citizens to purchase commercial goods at high prices and have imposed transportation rights exceeding the limit permitted by the government. Houses, properties and lands belonging to subject citizens have been confiscated on the pretext of minor breaches of the law. Furthermore, the amputation of citizensâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; limbs has been carried out as a form of punishment. Henceforth, such severe punishments are forbidden. 4. Tibet is a country with rich natural resources; but it is not scientifically advanced like other lands. We are a small, religious, and independent nation. To keep up with the rest of the world, we must defend our country. In view of past invasions by foreigners, our people may have to face certain difficulties, which they must disregard. To safeguard and maintain the independence of our country, one and all should voluntarily work hard. Our subject citizens residing near the borders should be alert and keep the government informed by special messenger of any suspicious developments. Our subjects must not create major clashes between two nations because of minor incidents. 5. Tibet, although thinly populated, is an extensive country. Some local officials and landholders are jealously obstructing other people from developing vacant lands, even though they are not doing so themselves. People with such intentions are enemies of the State and our progress. From now on, no one is allowed to obstruct anyone else from cultivating whatever vacant lands are available. Land taxes will not be collected until three years have passed; after that the land cultivator will have to pay taxes to the government and to the landlord every year, proportionate to the rent. The land will belong to the cultivator. Your duties to the government and to the people will have been achieved when you have executed all that I have said here. This letter must be posted and proclaimed in every district of Tibet, and a copy kept in the records of the offices in every district. From the Potala Palace. (Seal of the Dalai Lama)

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Photo and caption courtesy: Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa TIBET, A Political History

Photo and caption courtesy: Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa TIBET, A Political History

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The Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (1935 -

)

His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, is both the head of state and the spiritual leader of Tibet. He was born on July 6, 1935 to a farming family in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, in northeastern Tibet. At the age of two the child, Lhamo Dhondup, was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso. The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara(Sanskrit) or Chenrezig(Tibetan), the Bodhisattva of Compassion and patron saint of Tibet. Bodhisattvas have developed the exceptional attitude of striving for enlightenment for the sake of all living beings.

The Dalai Lama during his final examination 1959 in Tibet

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The Dalai Lama began his monastic education at the age of six. The curriculum consisted of five major and five minor subjects. The major subjects included logic, Tibetan art and culture, Sanskrit, medicine, and Buddhist philosophy which was further divided into five categories: Prajnaparimita, the perfection of wisdom; Madhyamika, the philosophy of the middle Way; Vinaya, the canon of monastic discipline; Abidharma, metaphysics; and Pramana, logic and epistemology. The five minor subjects consisted of poetry, music and drama, astrology, calligraphy and phrasing, and synonyms. At 23, in 1959 he sat for his final examination in the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa, during the annual Monlam (prayer) Festival. He passed with honors and was awarded the Geshe Lharampa degree, the highest-level degree equivalent to a doctorate of Buddhist philosophy.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama at age 14 in Lhasa, Tibet

The Dalai Lama was called upon to assume full political power on November 17, 1950 after China's invasion of Eastern Tibet in 1949. The Peking government invited the Dalai Lama to visit China in 1954. While in Peking the Dalai Lama had several meetings concerning the status of Tibet, its people and its future, with Chairman Mao Tse-tung and other Chinese leaders, including Vice Chairman Chu Teh and Prime Minister Chou Enlai. During the first meeting between the Dalai Lama and Mao Tsetung, Mao Tse-tung said to the Dalai Lama that it was the mission of China to bring progress to Tibet by developing its natural resources. Further, the Chinese generals who had come to Lhasa were Chinese representatives who would help the Dalai

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Lama and the Tibetan people. He also promised that the generals were not there to exercise any kind of authority over the Tibetan government or people. However, at the end of the Dalai Lama’s visit Mao Tse-tung gave a long lecture to the Dalai Lama about the true form of democracy. He advised the Dalai Lama how to become a leader of the people and how to listen to their suggestions. Then Mao Tse-tung edged closer to the Dalai Lama and whispered “I understand you very well. But of course, religion is poison. Tibet and Mongolia are both poisoned by it.” The Dalai Lama was startled by these remarks. The Dalai Lama also met with the Soviet leaders, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Bulganin and Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during this visit in Peking. The Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa in 1955 with hopes that Tibet and its people had been saved from the worst consequences of Chinese domination.

The Dalai Lama and Mao Tse-tung in Peking with the Panchen Lama and Chou En-lai to the right and Liu Shaoqi to the left in 1955

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The Dalai Lama and Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Premier Chou En-lai and the Panchen Lama in India 1956

After his visit to China, the Dalai Lama was invited to India to attend the 2,500th Buddha Jayanti in 1956. While in India, the Dalai Lama again had a series of meetings with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Premier Chou En-lai about the continued deteriorating conditions in Tibet.

The Dalai Lama with Senior Tutor Ling Rinpoche, Junior Tutor Trichang Rinpoche, Tibetan Government Officials and Family Members in India 1956

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The Dalai Lama also appealed to the United Nations to intervene on behalf of Tibetans regarding the worsening situation in Tibet. But the General Assembly decided not to consider the question of Tibet. Tibet was left alone to face the rising Communist regime and in March 1959, with the brutal suppression of the Tibetan national uprising in Lhasa by Chinese troops, the Dalai Lama was forced to escape into exile. Some 80,000 Tibetan refugees followed the Dalai Lama to India. Since then The Dalai Lama has been living in Dharamsala, India and has formed a democratic Tibetan Government-in-exile. After arriving in India in 1959, the Dalai Lama had hopes of resolving the Tibetan issue with the Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Republic China through negotiations.

The Dalai Lama with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Premier Chou En-lai, the Panchen Lama And Indira Gandhi in India 1956

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Suggested readings for details

Author(s) : Shakabpa, Tsepon W D Synopsis: New Indian edition. A full account of Tibet's history from its earliest civilisations up to the current Chinese occupation, written by an eminent scholar and former member of the Tibetan government.

Portrait of a Dalai Lama The Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth Author(s) : Bell, Sir Charles Synopsis: A compelling and masterly picture of the 13th Dalai Lama painted by the diplomat whose long friendship with the Great 13th qualified him more than any other to write this biography. It is the vivid story of a powerful yet humble man who worked tirelessly to prevent the oncoming tragedy he foresaw. His rule would prove to be more strong, more radical and more complete than that of any Dalai Lama since the Great Fifth.

In the Service of His Country Synopsis: This book tells the story of a remarkable individual who rose from humble origins as the son of a farmer to become one of the outstanding figures in the social and political life of Tibet prior to the Chinese takeover in the 1950`s.

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The Tibetan Empire in Central Tibet Author(s) : Beckwith, Christopher I Synopsis: A detailed narrative history of the Tibetan empire from about AD 600 to 866, during the early Middle Ages, and the struggle for dominance over the Silk Route lands.

Tibet and Her Neighbors A History by McKay, Alex Synopsis: In this important new work, leading historians provide a history of Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s diplomatic relations with countries including Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia, British India, Russia.

THE FOURTEEN DALAI LAMAS: A Sacred Legacy of Reincarnation by Glenn H. Mullin, foreword by H.H. the Dalai Lama, edited by Valerie Shepherd The Fourteenth Dalai Lama, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize and spiritual leader of Tibetans in exile, is well known in the West, but the 600-year tradition to which he is heir is less familiar. In this book, Mullin offers the life stories of all fourteen Dalai Lamas in one volume.

My Tibet Author(s) : Dalai Lama and Rowell, Galen Synopsis: Personal reflections to match incredibly beautiful photographs of the land the Dalai Lama was forced to flee in 1959. With 118 colour illustrations

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Tibet: Past and Present Author(s) : Bell, Sir Charles Synopsis: Sir Charles Bell's detailed geo-political study of Tibet first published in 1924

The Story of Tibet Author(s) : Laird, Thomas Synopsis: A new book on Tibetan history featuring candid interviews with the Dalai Lama by veteran journalist Thomas Laird, author of Into Tibet (about the CIA in Tibet)

Seven Years in Tibet Synopsis: The best-selling true story of the Austrian mountaineer who escaped from British internment in India to Tibet during World War Two, and became a teacher of the Dalai Lama. Heinrich Harrer, already a famous mountaineer and Olympic ski champion, was climbing in the Himalayas when the Second World War broke out. With great difficulty he succeeded in crossing into Tibet and the then forbidden city of Lhasa, one of the first Westerners to lay eyes on this holiest of places. For seven years Harrer learned the language and acquired a greater understanding of the Tibetans and their unique way of life. A travel-writing landmark, this is a stunning story of incredible courage and self-reliance set against the backdrop of a mysterious and magnificent culture. Now a movie starring Brad Pitt.

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Invasion In October 1949 with the Communist regime in full control of mainland China, Radio Peking announced that Tibet was a part of China and that the People’s Liberation Army would march into Tibet to liberate the Tibetans from foreign imperialists. The Tibetan Government strongly reacted to the Peking announcement by stating that Tibet had never been a part of China. Moreover, there was no need to liberate Tibet from foreign imperialists as no foreign power controlled Tibet. The Chinese forces unexpectedly attacked eastern Tibet, Kham, ( now a part Sichuan Province) from eight different directions on October 7, 1950 and later northeastern Tibet, Amdo, northeastern Tibet ( now a part of Qinghai Province). The Tibetan army aided by Khampa volunteers fought back the Chinese army for a short time and in a few instances with some success. But the Tibetan army was hopelessly outnumbered and outmatched. The Tibetan Government contended that Tibet was a sovereign and independent country and China’s invasion was a total violation of Tibet’s territorial integrity. But the People’s Republic of China announced on October 25, 1950 that “People’s army units have been ordered to advance into Tibet to free three million Tibetans from the imperialist oppression and consolidate national defenses on the western borders of China.” This announcement was made after the Chinese forces had already invaded Tibet earlier in October. On October 26, 1950 the government of India protested to the People’s Republic of China against the use of force in Tibet and stated that the invasion was not in the interests of China or of peace. On November 6, 1950 Great Britain deplored the Chinese invasion and use of force in Tibet and “fully supported the stand taken by the Government of India.” The Tibetan government sent a high level Tibetan Delegation to Peking for talks with the Chinese government in May 1951. Once in Chinese hands, the Tibetan Delegation fell prey to Chinese pressure and had no alternative but to serve as contributors to the so-called 17- Point Agreement of May 23, 1951. Using forged Tibetan seals the Chinese forced the Tibetan delegation to use the forged seals and seal the documents with them. In this way the Chinese were able to make it appear as if the 17-point agreement had the approval of the Tibetan Government. On September 9, 1951 several thousand Chinese Communist troops arrived in Lhasa, Tibet’s capital in Central Tibet, under the command of Wang Chi-mei followed by some 20,000 additional troops under the command of Chang Kuo-hua and T’an Kuansan. The so-called Chinese Liberation forces demanded the Tibetan government supply them with land for military camps, in addition to enormous amount of food

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for their soldiers. As a result, the stable Tibetan economy broke down. For the first time in Tibetan history, the Tibetan people of Lhasa were on the verge of famine. The Tibetan people protested against the illegal measures adopted by the Chinese, but conditions continued to go from bad to worse.

Newly arrived Chinese troops in Tibet 1950-59. Before 1949 there had not been a single Chinese soldier in Tibet

Marshal Ch’en I, China’s Deputy Prime Minister arrived in Lhasa on April 17, 1956 to preside at the inauguration of “the Preparatory Committee for the Autonomous Region of Tibet.” Shortly after arriving in Lhasa the Communist Chinese engaged in an intensive build up of their military forces in Tibet. They also used their military to force the Tibetans to carry out Chinese communist reforms despite Tibetans reluctance to be involved.

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Suggested Readings

Tears of the Lotus In 1949 Mao Tse-tung first sent his Peoples Liberation Army into the eastern Tibetan province of Amdo; he followed with an invasion of the province of Kham in 1950. Ill-prepared, disorganized and badly outnumbered, the small Tibetan armed forces were no match for the invaders. At first the Chinese persuaded many Tibetans that their intent was merely to help them share in the future greatness and wealth that Mao had promised all. In a short time the Tibetan tribesmen realized, however, that the true purpose of the invasion was otherwise. Their religion and their freedom were at stake. Despite the repeated efforts by the Dalai Lama and others in Lhasa to dissuade them, the people resisted the Chinese--at great cost: over one million dead in the 1950s. This work includes accounts of the role of Tibetans who collaborated with the Chinese invaders, the resistance movement, the Dalai Lamas lack of support for the movement, and how even so the resistance made it possible for the Dalai Lama to escape from Lhasa in 1959.

Memories of Life in Lhasa Under Chinese Rule Author(s) : Tubten Khetsun and translated by Matthew Akester Synopsis: Born in 1941, Tubten Khetsun is a nephew of the Gyatso Tashi Khendrung, one of the senior government officials taken prisoner in the Tibetan people's uprising of March 10, 1959. Khetsun himself was arrested while defending the Dalai Lama's summer palace, and after serving a four-year sentence, he spent close to 20 years in Lhasa as a requisitioned laborer and "class enemy".

Cutting off the Serpents Head â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1944 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1995 Author(s): Tibet Information Network Synopsis: A Human Rights Watch report into political repression in Tibet

Dragon in the Land of Snows: a History of Modern Tibet Since 1947 By Tsering Shakya Drawing on unpublished primary sources, a history of modern Tibet from 1947 provides both Chinese and Tibetan perspectives on events, describes Chinese depredations of Tibet, critiques Tibet's leadership strategy as well as that of China, and documents the country's ongoing struggle to maintain it. Political History: Published in 2000

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Repression By 1950 it was evident that the aim of the Chinese was complete political domination of the Tibetan government and thereby the entire country. During a joint meeting with the Dalai Lama, Tibetan Prime Ministers Lobsang Tashi, Lukhang and the Chinese General Zhang Jinwu, the General demanded implementation of “the 17-point Agreement” which meant that the Tibetan army should be incorporated into the People’s Liberation Army that the Tibetan national Flag should be replaced with the Chinese Flag through out Tibet. The Tibetan Prime Ministers said that “the 17-point Agreement” was signed under duress with forged Tibetan seals and they could not agree to these demands. The Chinese authorities accused the two Prime Ministers of conspiracy and of being imperialist agents and forced the Dalai Lama to accept their resignation in 1952. As soon as the Chinese felt that they were in control, reforms were forcibly introduced. They introduced the commune system throughout Tibet which failed miserably causing Tibet to become a land of paupers. In 1979, Deng Xiaoping stated that Tibet over the past 20 years had suffered greatly under the Gang of Four. In June 1980 Hu Yaobang, the Chinese Communist Secretary of the time visited Tibet. He was shocked by the region’s poverty. He called for efforts to bring the standard of living to pre-1959 levels within three years. He stated that the presence of a large number of Chinese, including cadres, was obstructing the development of Tibet and called for repatriation of 85%of the cadres from Tibet, but it never happened.

Villages and monasteries throughout Tibet were totally destroyed. Religious leaders and lay leaders were humiliated, imprisoned, tortured and killed by their own students, relatives and friends who were forced to turn on the leaders. Land was confiscated. Sacred images, books of scriptures, and other objects of holy significance to the Tibetans were broken, desecrated, or simply stolen. Blasphemous proclamations were made on posters and newspapers and preached in schools, saying that religion was only a means of exploiting the people, and that Lord Buddha was a “reactionary.” These were the atrocities in Tibet from 1949 – 1959. The destructions and sufferings of the Cultural Revolution, from 1966 – 1976, were still to come.

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Death Toll A systemic study conducted by the Central Tibetan Administration, showed that 1.2 million Tibetans had died as a direct result of Chinese occupation of Tibet from 1949 to 1983. The following is abstract figures from Tibet and China Two Distinct Nations by Dakpa Tender Bhallan: Tortured to death in prison Executed Killed in fighting Starvation Suicide Struggled to death ________________

173,221 156,758 432,705 342,970 9,002 92,731 ________ 1,207,387

The Panchen Lama spoke about the “Seventy-Thousand-Character Petition” he had submitted to the Chinese government in the early 1060’s, long before the Cultural Revolution, complaining about the deteriorating situation in Tibet. For this he suffered nine years and eight months of imprisonment, much of which was in solidary confinement. He was tortured and humiliated during the detention. In an address to a meeting of the Sub-committee of the National People’s Congress in Beijing in 1987, the late Panchen Lama said, “If there was a film made on all the atrocities perpetrated in Qinghai (Qinghai was called Amdo before 1949 and His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama is Amdo. Amdo was one of the three traditional Tibetan Provinces of independent Tibet) province, it would shock the viewers. In Golok area, many people were killed and their dead bodies rolled down the hill into a big ditch. The soldiers forced family members and relatives of the dead to celebrate and dance on the dead bodies. Soon after, they were also massacred with machine guns.”the Panchen Lama further said that in Amdo and Kham, people were subjected to unspeakable atrocities. “They were shot in groups of 10 or 20.” The Panchen Lama, a vocal advocate of Tibet cultural and identity passed away mysteriously in 1989. His reincarnation, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, recognized at age 6 in 1995 was taken into custody by the Chinese government along with his family. On April 25, 2011 Gedhun Choekyi Nyima turned 22 and to date no one knows his whereabouts. The Chinese government asserted its political motive into the reincarnation search by installing another young boy, Gyaiancain Norbu as the 11th Panchen Lama. 86


Buddhist Institutions and their Population As is widely known Tibet was a Buddhist country and had over 6,000 monasteries and nunneries belonging to all the schools of Buddhism including Bon before 1959. Each of these had between 100 to 7,700 monks and nuns. The Chinese army vandalized these religious institutions and put to banal uses or destroyed them to complete ruins. The following is a yet another abstract from Tibet and China Two Distinct Nations by Dakpa Tender Bhallan:

Religious Schools

Gelug Monastery Gelug Nunnery Nyingma Monastery Nyingma Nunnery Sakya Monastery Sakya Nunnery Kagyud Monastery Kagyud Nunnery Unspecified Sects Bon Monastery ________________ Total

Monastery/Nunnery

2,827 220 1,597 320 388 41 480 137 92 257 ________ 6,259

Monks

Nuns

Tantric

323,392 11,589 124,040

7,240 9,638

53,396

17 1,239

39,007

209 4,714

13,355 12,258 _______ 565,448

Gaden Monastery before Chinese occupation in 1959 Photo courtesy Office of Tibet, NY

_____ 27,180

________ 7,466

Gaden Monastery after Chinese occupation 1959 Photo courtesy Office of Tibet, NY

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Over 6000 monasteries and nunneries were systematically razed; their valuable collections of religious statuary were either melted down or sold in foreign antique markets. Painting masterpieces were thrown onto burning piles of priceless Tibetan books. In fact, about 60% of Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exceptionally prolific literature was put to the torch. Suggested readings

The Anguish of Tibet Anguish of Tibet by Kelly, Petra K and Bastien, Gert and Aiello, Pat Synopsis: Since the 1950s when China invaded and occupied Tibet, more than one million Tibetans have lost their lives and nearly all of the 6,000 monasteries have been destroyed. This book chronicles the Chinese government's attempts to destroy the Tibetan people and their culture and the non-violent campaign to stop it.

Testimony of a Tibetan Prisoner Author(s) : Palden GyatsoSynopsis: In 1992 Palden Gyatso was released after 33 years' incarceration in Chinese prisons. He had witnessed the systematic smashing of his culture and religion, and the imprisonment and execution of thousands of innocent Tibetans. Throughout his unimaginable sufferings at the hands of the Chinese his spirit remained unbroken. This powerful book is the story of his life and irrefutable testimony (he even smuggled the instruments of his torture out with him) to the appalling suffering of the Tibetan nation at the hands of the Chinese

A Strange Liberation by David Patt A Tibetan Man and woman tell their deeply personal stories of 30 years of Chinese occupation.

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One Woman's Historic Fight to Free Tibet Author(s): Ama Adhe Synopsis: A harrowing but inspiring full-length testimony of a Tibetan woman's prison camp experience. Ama Adhe spent 27 years in Chinese labour camps and is one of the few who survives to tell the stories of torture, starvation and degradation that countless Tibetans endured. When Adhe Tapontsang, known affectionately as Ama (mother) Adhe, left Tibet in 1987, she was allowed to do so on the condition that she remain silent about her treatment in jail. Yet, she made a promise to herself and to the many that did not survive - she would not let the truth about China's occupation go unheard or unchallenged.

In Their Own Voices Author(s) : Belmer, Scott Synopsis: Nine Tibetan monks from the Drepung Gomang monastery offer their stories of their escape from Chinese Communist rule in Tibet.

Surviving the Dragon: A Tibetan Lama's Account of 40 Years under Chinese Rule By Arjia Rinpoche

Orphans of the Cold War America and the Tibetan Struggle for planes flying over uncharted territory, from the Survival Synopsis: This is the vivid, dramatic, and never fully before revealed account of the very secret war for Tibet. Drawing on numerous previously classified documents, interviews, and his own experience as a CIA officer in charge of American covert operations inside Tibet and abroad, Knaus offers a sweeping narrative those races from Washington conference rooms to unmarked corridors of the United Nations to the peaks of the world's highest mountains. Though it came to nothing, Tibetan freedom fighters were trained in Colorado, and the guerillas were supplied by the CIA. 1974's improvement in Sino-US relations ended all cooperation.

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Imagining Tibet Author(s) : Rather, Heinz and Dodin, Thierry Synopsis: Essays examining how western views of Tibet have evolved from perceptions of an exotic Shangrila to a ravaged and conquered land whose society is undergoing systematic destruction.

The Search for Panchen Lama Author(s) : Hilton, Isabel Synopsis: The political intrigue surrounding the boy named by the Dalai Lama as the 11th Panchen Lama, kept incommunicado by China.

Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Tibet Rowman & Littlefield, 2008 - History - 315 pages This groundbreaking book explores China's efforts to assimilate Tibet, in the process rewriting Tibetan history to conform to its own goals. Warren Smith argues that Beijing fears any genuine autonomy or dialogue with the Dalai Lama, convinced that it will fuel renewed nationalism in _China's Tibet,_ as the leadership calls its possession. Highlighting China's past and current propaganda on Tibet, the book demonstrates China's sensitivity regarding the legitimacy of its rule. In the absence of any solution, Smith advocates promoting Tibet's right to self-determination as the most viable strategy for sustaining international attention and maintaining the most essential elements of Tibetan national identity. This thoroughly informed work will be valuable not only to Tibet experts and students, but also to the larger world of Tibet activists, sympathizers, and others attempting to understand China's policies.

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Resentment, Resistance and Revolt When the Dalai Lama returned from the Buddhist ceremonies in India in 1956, he was saddened to see and hear the terrible things that were happening in Kham and Amdo provinces. The Tibetan people in these two regions were subjected to unspeakable atrocities since the Chinese invasion of 1949. The Dalai Lama had several serious talks with the three Chinese senior generals, Chang-chin-wu, Tan Kuo-hwa and Tan Kuansen. Their comments and responses hardly seemed to bear any relation to what was happening. Since the invasion of Tibet in 1949 to the wide-spread occupation of Tibet in 1959, the Tibetan people tried various means to get the world’s attention. They expressed their resentment of occupation, they engaged in resistance and they revolted against the occupiers. According to Dakpa Tender Bhallen, an eye witness who wrote of his experiences in Tibet and China Two Distinct Nations the following chronology occurred: Petitions from the Tibetan Military Camps After signing “the 17-point Agreement,” the surviving Tibetan troops in Chamdo (Kham) were allowed to return home to Lhasa. The Chinese demanded that the Tibetan government should retain no more than 1000 troops: 500 in the bodyguard regiment and 500 for public security. The remaining troops, they said should be disbanded. Under intense pressure from the Chinese authorities, the Tibetan government made an announcement to this effect in 1955. In reply, the Tibetan military camps in Lhasa issued a petition to continue to serve their country, even if that meant without pay. Thus, the Tibetan army remained in active service until the fall of Lhasa in 1959. The First Resistance Organization The standing committee members of the first resistance organization were Chagzod Dhamchoy Sonam, Jamyang Dawa, Karme Khang Phuntsok Tashi and Lobsang Phuntsok. The rest of the members of the resistance organization were craftsmen, artisans, traders, government and private building contractors, janitors, messengers, police personnel, local toughies, and other volunteers in Lhasa. In addition, contacts were made with government officials and leaders of various districts in Tibet. These contacts resulted in a six-point petition against the “17-point Agreement”. The petition was submitted to the Chinese representative in Lhasa on March 31, 1952. A

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copy of the petition was submitted to the Kashag (Tibetan Cabinet). The petition demanded that: 1. The power and position of the Dalai Lama and Tibetan independence should be preserved; 2. Tibetan religious days should be observed as before; 3. The Tibetan government should continue to exercise its traditional political power; 4. Only a limited number of Chinese troops should remain in Lhasa, any troops over this amount should return to China; 5. The Tibetan army should be allowed to wear their traditional uniform and they should follow their traditional military rule; 6. Business activities in Tibet should continue as before. The Second Resistance Organization The people’s representatives in the second resistance organization were Bumthang Secretary Gyaltsen Lobsang, Lhabchuk Dakpa Thinley and Alo Chozed Tsering Dorje. This organization also submitted a six-point petition against the “17-point Agreement” to the Chinese representative in Lhasa and a copy to the Kashag. The petition expressed opposition to: 1. The practice of forcing tens of thousands of Tibetans to work on road and airstrip constructions; 2. The presence of large of number of Chinese civilians and military personnel in Tibet; 3. The Chinese demand that the Tibetan army should be incorporated into the People’s Liberation Army; 4. The Chinese demand for an end to the use and printing of Tibetan currency notes; 5. The Chinese proposal for the establishment of the “Tibet Autonomous Region;” 6. The Chinese reforms in eastern Tibet (Kham), which had driven thousands of Tibetans to the mountains. The Chinese authorities arrested the three leaders of this organization, Lhabchuk Dakpa Thinley died in captivity.

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The Revolt The increasing Chinese crimes and acts of violence towards the Tibetan population drove the Tibetans to desperation, forcing many to take up an armed revolt. Adruk Gonpo Tashi formed the first armed resistance force, known as Chushi Gangdruk. Led mainly by fighters from Kham ordinary people from Amdo and U-tsang (the three traditional provinces of Tibet) gradually joined this resistance group. As there was no way for the fighters to receive their provisions from the Tibetan government, local Tibetans supported them and provided all their needs. They had several engagements with the Chinese soldiers in Nyemo and other parts of Tibet. And, gradually, the Tibetans made their way to Chogra Palbar, where their ranks swelled. The main detachment based in Driguthang, dealt crushing blows to the Chinese troops forcing the Chinese to withdraw from Lhokha. As a result, the Dalai Lama was able to make his way safely to India through the Lhokha area. However, as the Dalai Lama points out in his book My Land and My People, there were some in the Chinese army who were sincere and straightforward, for example General Chin Rhawo-chen. Also, there were other Chinese who sympathized with the Tibetans, but they were all subject to strict Communist discipline. There was one Chinese soldier who felt so strongly that the Chinese were wrong that he joined the Tibetan guerilla force in 1958 and fought with them for nine months before becoming a refugee in India 1959.

Chushi Gangdrug Fighters in Lhoka 1958

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Tibetan National Uprising 1959 (An eye witness account by Dakpa Tender Bhallen in his own words translated into English)

On March 10, 1959 the Dalai Lama was scheduled to attend a theatrical show in Siliphug, the main Chinese military camp in Lhasa. Chinese General Dan Guansen called Takla Phuntsok Tashi, commander of the Dalai Lama’s bodyguard regiment, to their military camp to discuss the visit. The General said that only a limited number of attendants and bodyguards could accompany the Dalai Lama. The bodyguards, he said, should not come any where near the Chinese military camp, and that the populace would not be allowed to approach anywhere near the military camp. Further, the Dalai Lama’s party should not go by way of the stone bridge in front of the Potala. When the visit was finalized, it was announced that the Tibetan soldiers should guard the Dalai Lama’s route and that the people of Lhasa and Shol should not come near the Chinese camp. The people of Lhasa received this announcement with great anxiety. They knew that important Tibetan lamas and leaders in Kham and Amdo had disappeared mysteriously after being invited to Chinese shows, meetings and banquets. The Tibetans were convinced that this invitation was a trap to abduct the Dalai Lama. On March 10, early in the morning, the whole of Lhasa camped around the perimeter of the Norbulingka, the palace where the Dalai Lama was staying at that time. The multitude clogged all the approach routes to the Norbulinka, and requested the Kashag (the Tibetan Cabinet) to call off the visit. The Kashag communicated this request to the Dalai Lama and decided to send a delegation consisting of Kalon (Cabinet Minister) Surkhang, Neushar and Shenkhawa to explain the new development to the Chinese at the military camp. But all the paths were blocked; the delegates had a difficult time threading their way out of the Norbuliingka premises. Speaking aloud from the main gate platform, the Kashag representatives asked the people to go home, stating that the Dalai Lama had decided to postpone the visit. They requested the throng of Tibetans to move aside to make way for the Kashag vehicle to pass through. At that time, the gathered people hastily appointed 30 representatives to speak on their behalf. Six representatives, including Sholpa Tadongpa, Kopon Nyerpa, and Manang Apo, approached the main gate. Placing scarves at the feet of the Kalons,

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they related the people’s demand: It would not do to merely postpone the visit. The Kashag must give assurance that it would never make decisions about a visit of this nature without consulting the people. The Kashag must give an assurance that the Chinese officials would never be given direct access to the Dalai Lama. If Chinese government had anything to say to the Tibetan government or the Dalai Lama, it should do so through the Kashag. If the Chinese accepted these demands the gathered people would return home. Otherwise, there was no way they would leave. At that time, I was standing close to the main gate and was able to hear everything. Shortly thereafter, the Kashag members left for the Chinese military camp to communicate the people’s demands. At the same time, a meeting of Tibetan National Assembly was held in the Norbulingka’s prayer Hall with 30 representatives of the crowd surrounding the Norbulingka. The multitude convened a separate meeting of their own and drafted a letter to the Chinese representatives. The letter stated that Tibet belonged to the Tibetans and that all the Chinese should leave the country. A large group of people marched through the streets of Lhasa, pasting posters with these demands. Shouting slogans, they marched through Tromsik-khang, Barkor and the marketplace, making their way to the Chinese representative’s residence at Yuthok House, where they gave the protest letter. Those we remained around the Norbulingka made stoves and gathered firewood. Some of them went home to fetch provisions. When the Kalons left for the Chinese military camp, the Tibetan military leaders displayed their anger and started using abusive words. They exchanged secret letters, in which they speculated whether the Kalons would return safely or would find themselves prisoners of the Chinese. In the end, the Kalons did return safely. By then, the Chinese army was on full alert. Reinforcements arrived soon after the Tibetans surrounded the Norbulingka. A large number of military trucks trundled along the Kyangthang Naga road, bringing in additional soldiers and arms. Lhasa was now an extremely dangerous place for the Dalai Lama. On the night of March 17, the Dalai Lama secretly left Lhasa and went to Lhokha. The Chinese were certain that the Dalai Lama was in the Norbulingkha. In the dead of night on March 20, around 2:00 a.m , artillery shells pounded the Norbulingkha, Chakpori and the Potala. Thousands of Tibetans were killed.

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On March 21, the Chinese troops moved into the Norbulingka and jailed the surviving Tibetans. When the Chinese did not find the Dalai Lama among the survivors, they checked each and every dead body that had a clean-shaven head. After checking all the dead bodies within the Norbulingka they then checked the bodies on the banks of the Southern River, on the hillsides, and along the Great Swamp-land of the north.

Tibetan National Uprising of March 10, 1959

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Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Uprising March 1959 On March 12, 1959 a large contingent of Tibetan women met in Lhasa and made posters demanding the Chinese withdrawal from every part of Tibet. The women then went on a procession, shouting slogans and pasting the posters on walls through out Lhasa The procession was led by Kunsang, resident of Kunling Gurteng house, and the nuns of Galing Sharchoe nunnery. The demonstrators went to the Chinese officials at Yuthok house to present their memorandum asking them to quit Tibet. The demonstrators included the residents of Lhasa and a large number of pilgrims from different parts of Tibet, who had converged on Lhasa for the Great Prayer Festival, where the Dalai Lama sat for the Doctor of Divinity examinations. A section of women went on to the Indian and Nepalese missions where they reported that they were engaged in a peaceful campaign to seek justice against the Chinese. They asked the Indian and Nepalese governments to mediate and bear witness to the illegal Chinese occupation of Tibet. Later, Kunsang, the nuns of Galing Sharchoe nunnery, and many other members of the womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s movement were arrested and subjected to 20 years of interrogation and imprisonment. Kunsang was finally executed in a narrow gorge after being sentenced to death during a meeting of inmates of Gurtsa, Sangyib and Drapchi prisons. Other testimonies stated that the nuns of Galing Sharchoe were brought to a public sentencing rally at Powo Lingkha. They were then taken to the other side of the Kyichu river and executed in a gorge.

Tibetan Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Uprising on March 12, 1959 in Lhasa

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Suggested readings

Buddhaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Warriors Author(s): Dunham, Mikel Synopsis: This is the story of the thousands of Tibetans who bravely resisted the Chinese occupation of their country and the desecration of all that was holy to them. From the farthest reaches of Tbet - Kham, Amdo, and Golok - the most feared warrior tribes in Asia mounted their warhorses and rode together for the first time in history. By their side were monks who renounced their vows od non-violence to fight for their country. Tibet's only source of outside help came clandestinely from America. A small group of CIA agents secretly trained and armed the freedom fighters.

Orphans of the Cold War America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival Synopsis: This is the vivid, dramatic, and never fully before revealed account of the very secret war for Tibet. Drawing on numerous previously classified documents, interviews, and his own experience as a CIA officer in charge of American covert operations inside Tibet and abroad, Knaus offers a sweeping narrative those races from Washington conference rooms to unmarked planes flying over uncharted territory, from the corridors of the United Nations to the peaks of the world's highest mountains. Though it came to nothing, Tibetan freedom fighters were trained in Colorado, and the guerillas were supplied by the CIA. 1974's improvement in Sino-US relations ended all cooperation.

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Into Exile The Dalai Lama did his best to avoid a disastrous clash between the unarmed Tibetan people and the Chinese army. However, there was every indication that the Chinese military was going to bomb the Norbulingka and the Potala Palace. So, the Dalai Lama, in disguise, escaped from the Norbulingka on the night of March 17, 1959. The Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plan was to reopen negotiations with the Chinese from Lhuntse Dzong, a place not very far from the border, to prevent Lhasa from shelling and a peaceful solution to the escaping violence. But on March 20, at 2 oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;clock in the morning, the Chinese army began firing on the Nobulingka, the Potala and other strategic places in Lhasa followed by tanks and infantry attacks. Some 12,000 people were killed. The Chinese army moved into the Norbuligka on March 21, and jailed the surviving Tibetans. The Dalai Lama lost his last attempt to prevent the bombing of Lhasa and the brave people surrounding the Norbulingka. With profound sadness and desperation the Dalai Lama and his party continued their journey towards India. For weeks they had to press on through the heart of the high mountains, icy valleys and lower passes, and often slippery pathways. The party went over passes of 19,000 feet and higher, where the snow and ice rarely melted.

The Dalai Lama being escorted into exile by the Chushi Gangdrug Forces in March 1959

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The Dalai Lama being strongly protected by the Chushi Gangdrug Forces en route to India in 1959

The Dalai Lama in front with his youngest brother Ngari Rinpoche at his left

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During the Dalai Lama’s escape he was under the protection of the guerilla fighters. While escaping, the Dalai Lama was informed that the Chinese had dissolved the Tibetan Government. With the dissolution of the Tibetan Government, the Chinese broke the only promise from the Seventeenth Point Agreement that had so far not been broken. The Dalai Lama and the cabinet members with him decided to not accept the dissolution of the Tibetan Government and create a new temporary government as soon as they arrived at Lhuntse Dzong. The establishment of a temporary government was consecrated in accordance with religious and traditional ceremonial procedures on March 29, 1959. Monks, lay officials, village headmen and many other people joined the ceremony. A proclamation of the establishment of the temporary government was read out to the assembly and the Dalai Lama formerly signed the proclamation and copies of it were sent to throughout Tibet. While the ceremony was going on news came saying that the Chinese military was following the Dalai Lama and preparing to attack Lhuntse Dzong. Upon hearing this So the Dalai Lama and his cabinet Ministers realized that they now had no choice but to escape, so they sent Tibetan officials to the Indian border who asked the Indian government for asylum. After several days, a telegram from the Indian Prime Minister, Shri Jawaharlal Nehru, was delivered to the Dalai Lama. I stated ”My colleagues and I welcome you and send our greetings on your safe arrival in India. We shall be happy to afford the necessary facilities for you, your family, and entourage to reside in India. The people of India who hold you in great veneration will no doubt accord their traditional respect to your personage. Kind regards to you.” When the Dalai Lama arrived at the railway station in Tezpur, India, he was “astonished and overwhelmed” to find thousands of telegrams of good wishes and about 100 journalists and photographers. Newspapers from all over the world had sent representatives to this remote place to meet and hear what the Dalai Lama had to say, t they called “the story of the year.” The Dalai Lama was given a warm welcome. Letters reached him from many world leaders, expressing sympathy at the tragic events in Tibet while joyful that he had arrived safely in India.

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Suggested readings for details

My Land and My People By 14th Dalai Lama This dignified testament by a great spiritual and temporal leader, driven into exile by Communist China, is one of the most heartbreaking documents ever published. His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama of Tibet relates the story of his brief, tumultuous reign climaxed by the appalling destruction and systematic murder of his people by the Chinese.

Escape from the Land of Snows The Young Dalai Lama's Harrowing Flight to Freedom and the Making of a Spiritual Hero Author(s) : Talty, Stephan A full, vividly descriptive account of the young Dalai Lama's escape from Tibet in 1959, fleeing from Mao's Chinese Communist occupation of his country.

Flight at the Cuckoosâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Behest Author(s): Dewatshang, Kunga Samten Synopsis: The life and times of the leader of the Chushi Gantruk guerillas, who escorted the Dalai Lama on his escape from Tibet. His was a generation that lost everything, either to live on in misery in their conquered homeland or to rebuild a life in exile.

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In Exile

The Dalai Lama and the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in New Delhi where they discussed about the rehabilitation of Tibetans refugees in India in 1959 (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)

With his arduous flight to freedom over, the Dalai Lama with his entourage accepted the Government of India’s offer of Mussoorie, a summer resort town in the hills of Northern India as a temporary residence. Newsmen from around the world crowded into Mussoorie to hear what the Dalai Lama had to say: but in the hope that peaceful negotiations might be effected with the Chinese government, the Dalai Lama refrained from making any press statement for a few months. On April 24, 1959, Prime Minister Nehru met with the Dalai Lama at Mussoorie. Then on May 30, 1959 Indian supporters of Tibet’s independence held a convention in Calcutta and passed a resolution to set up an Afro-Asian Committee to help promote sympathy for the situation in Tibet. On June 20, 1959, the Dalai Lama held his first press conference at his new headquarters in Mussoorie. He gave a clear picture of the political status that he desired for his country. He said, “ I and my government are…..fully prepared to

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welcome a peaceful and amicable solution of the present tragic problem, provided that such a solution guarantees that preservation of the rights and powers which Tibet has enjoyed and exercised without interference prior to 1959.â&#x20AC;? On this day the Dalai Lama issued a press statement in which he repudiated the "17-Point Agreement", describing it as having been forced upon Tibet by invasion, threat and deceit. The International Commission of Jurists stated that through this repudiation Tibet legally "discharged herself of the obligation under the agreement.â&#x20AC;? The International Commission of Jurists examined the treaties of the early part of this century and concluded that Tibet was a fully sovereign state, independent in fact and in law of Chinese control. The International Commission of Jurists was an independent association of judges, lawyers, and teachers of law supported by 30,000 lawyers from fifty countries. In its investigation, the Commission examined every Chinese and Tibetan statement and interrogated Tibetan refugees from whom they heard horrific stories of extreme cruelty.

The Dalai Lama in Delhi, the Indian Capital in 1959

In the meantime refugees were pouring out from Tibet with horrifying stories. The refugees were scattered in communities in India, Bhutan, Sikkim (then a kingdom), and Nepal. It was evident that the Chinese had made up their minds to subdue Tibet 104


by brutality. The Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s officials, most of whom were former Tibetan government officials in Tibet, committed themselves resettling the refugees, who arrived in thousands. A Central Relief Committee was set up to coordinate the help received from the Government of India, various voluntary agencies, and from governments of many foreign countries. The out-pouring was unparallel in the more than 2200 years of Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history. Further, that the Dalai Lama and his officials were being challenged with the numerous accounts of sufferings of Tibetans in Tibet as well as the overwhelming needs of the thousands of Tibetan refugees who had escaped.

 Tibetan Refugees at Missamari Camp in India in May 1959

The Dalai Lama, amid the formidable challenges in resettling thousands of Tibetan refugees, deemed education to be the foremost priority. He appealed to Prime Minister Nehru to establish Tibetan schools for the refugee children in order to preserve the Tibetan language and culture as well as to provide a modern education. Prime Minister Nehru took special interest in undertaking the formation of an independent Society for Tibetan Education within the Indian Ministry of Education. In addition, the Indian Government was to bear all the expenses for setting up the schools.

Two weeks after the arrival the Dalai Lama the first orphanage opened and the Dalai Lama asked his older sister Tsering Dolma to take care of the young children whose 105


parents had died while escaping or died after arrival in India due to the change in climate and exposure to new diseases. This orphanage grew to what we now called the Tibetan Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Village which exists in several areas in India. In addition, the monks from the various monasteries in Tibet who escaped were all sent to Buxer in Missamari where they continued their religious studies and traditions.

The Dalai Lama with Tibetan refugee children in India in 1959

The Dalai Lama in Mussoorie, India in 1959

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The Dalai Lama again appealed to the United Nations to stop the untold repression the Tibetan people endured due to the Chinese communist invasion in Tibet. On October 9, 1959, amid heated opposition from the Communist bloc, the General Committee of the United Nations debated the Tibetan question. In mid October 1959 the General Assembly considered the General Committeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recommendation that the Tibetan issue be discussed. A resolution was finally passed by a vote of 46 to 9, with 26 abstentions with Costa Ricaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vote in favor of the resolution later. The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1353 (XIV) New York, 1959 stated: 1) Affirms its belief that respect for the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is essential for the evolution of a peaceful world order based on the rule of law; 2) Calls for respect for the fundamental human rights of the Tibetan people and for their distinctive cultural and religious life.

The Dalai Lama with Gyalyum Chenmo, the Great Mother

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Suggested readings for details

In Exile from the Land of Snows The Definitive Account of the Dalai Lama and Tibet Synopsis: An engrossing and passionately informed account of Tibet, the Dalai Lama and the Chinese invasion.

Freedom in Exile Synopsis: Following his award of the Nobel Peace Prize, this is the d autobiography in which the Dalai Lama talks freely of his life and the tragic story of Tibet, and also discusses contemporary issues.

Tibetan Foothold Synopsis: The moving tale of the author's work in Tibetan refugee camps in India during the 60s, endowed with the dry wit and humour she is famous for

The Tibetan Diaspora This Book Is An Attempt To Document The Lives Of Members Of The Exiled Tibetan Community In Indian And Elsewhere. It Thus Aims To Fill A Gap In Our Understanding. The Book Focuses On Two Main Themes: How Tibetans In Exile Preserve Their Culture, And How The Community Prepares Itself For The Return To Tibet. The Book Also Carries An Interview With His Holiness The Dalai Lama.

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The Future of Tibet Peter Lang, 2004 - Political Science - 121 pages This book discusses the emergence of democracy's modernizing force in an exiled community with a political history based on a feudal theocracy. Since his exile almost forty years ago, the Dalai Lama and his governmentin-exile have steered this fledgling democratic community toward the fulfillment of his dream of converting a theocracy to a democracy. The establishment of a tripartite government with separate powers and the development of a framework for a future democratic polity - if and when Tibetans regain their land - is a testament to the ongoing democratizing revolution.

Dharamsala Author(s) : Russell, Jeremy Synopsis: The Indian Himalayan hill town of Dharamsala, which means place of refuge, is home to the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan people in exile. This is a beautiful photographic book which acts as an introduction to Tibetan Buddhist culture and also as a stunning reminder for travelers and pilgrims who have visited this remarkable town.

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ÁÑ /1,-eë:-,$-þ9-#<ëÊ 3. Reconstruction in Exile Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, India

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Promotion of Democracy Administrative Structure

Full Democracy His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama’s Devolution of Political Responsibilities to the Elected Leaders

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Parliament and Tibetan National General Meeting Beseech His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Continue Remain as both Spiritual and Temporal Leader of Tibetan People

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Parliament Amends Charter on Devolution of His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s Formal Authority

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The Dalai Lama’s Three Main Commitments of Life

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Major Awards, Honors and Dignitaries Met

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New Administrative Structure

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Dhanlang Chatrel (Green Book)

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Central Tibetan Administration Dharamsala, India In 1949 the People’s Liberation Army of China marched into Tibet’s eastern provinces of Kham and Amdo, seizing control over the eastern Tibetan headquarters of Chamdo in the following year. Then in 1951, the so-called “17-Point Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet” was forced upon the Tibetan government and people. In the succeeding years, the Chinese army advanced further west and eventually crushed the Tibetan national uprising of Lhasa in 1959. This led to the flight of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and some 80,000 Tibetans who sought refuge in India, Nepal and Bhutan. The influx of refugees continues even today. Currently, the Tibetan exile population is over 140,000, of which about 100,000 are based in India. On 29 April 1959, His Holiness the Dalai Lama established the Tibetan exile administration in the north Indian hill station of Mussoorie. Named the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, this is the continuation of the government of independent Tibet. In May 1960, the CTA was moved to Dharamsala. The Tibetan people, both in and outside Tibet, look to the CTA as their sole and legitimate representative. This and the administration’s commitment to truth, nonviolence and genuine democracy as its inviolable principles mean that it is now being recognized increasingly by parliaments and general public round the world as the legitimate and true representative of the Tibetan people. Right from its inception, the CTA has set itself the twin task of rehabilitating Tibetan refugees and restoring freedom and happiness in Tibet. The rehabilitation agenda includes three important programs: a) promoting education among the exile population; b) building a firm culture of democracy; and c) paving the way for selfreliance so that the Tibetan people are able to survive with the self-esteem and confidence that flows from not having to depend on external assistance.

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First group of Tibetans who shouldered the reconstruction work in exile

Promotion of Democracy The Central Tibetan Administration’s experiment with modern democracy, in particular, is a preparation for the reconstruction of Tibet when freedom is restored there. As part of this exercise, a parliament, then named the Commission of Tibetan People’s Deputies, was instituted on 2 September 1960.

The First Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies in 1960

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The parliament gradually matured into a full-fledged legislative body, thus coming to be known as the Assembly of Tibetan Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Deputies (ATPD). Then in 2006, its name was changed to the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile (TPiE).

His Holiness the Dalai Lama addresses Assembly of Tibetan Peoples Deputies, Dharamsala

In 1990 His Holiness the Dalai Lama announced further democratization, by which the composition of the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile was increased to 46 members. The parliament was empowered to elect the members of the Kashag or the Council of Ministers, which was made answerable to the peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s elected representatives. Similarly, the Tibetan judiciary, known as the Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission, was instituted in 1992 under the provisions of the Arbitration Act of the government of India.

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The newly empowered Tibetan parliament issued the exile Tibetan constitution under the title of The Charter of the Tibetans in Exile.

The First Tibetan Special General Meeting 2008, Dharamsala

In 2001 the Tibetan parliament, on the advice of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, 114


amended the Charter to provide for direct election of the Kalon Tripa (the highest executive authority) by the exile populace. The Kalon Tripa, in turn, nominates the other Kalons (cabinet members), and seeks the parliament’s approval for their appointment. The first directly-elected Kalon Tripa — Professor Samdhong Rinpoche Lobsang Tenzin — took the oath of office on 5 September 2001. He was elected to the post of Kalon Tripa for the second time in August 2006.

Dr Lobsang Sangay, a senior fellow of Harvard University, won 27,051 votes (55 percent) in the final round of polling held on 20 March 2011 and became the 3rd directly-elected Kalon Tripa. His five years term begins in August 2011.

Administrative Structure Population

127,935 (Approximate world-wide distribution: India 94,203, Nepal 13,514, Bhutan1298, and rest of the world 18,920 (As per the second demographic survey of Tibetans in Exile conducted by the Office of the Planning Commission in 2009

Head of State

His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Judiciary

Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission

Legislature

Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile with 44 members

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Executive

The Kashag (Cabinet) is the apex executive body. The Kalon Tripa (Executive Chief) is elected directly by the exile population for the term of five years. Under the Kashag are the main departments of Religion and Culture, Home, Education, Finance, Security, Information and International Relations, and Health

Major NGOs

Tibetan Youth Congress (TYC), Tibetan Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Association (WTA), National Democratic Party of Tibet (NDPT). GU-Chu-Sum Movement

Foreign Missions Based in New Delhi, Kathmandu, New York, London, Geneva, Moscow, Brussels, Canberra, Tokyo, Pretoria and Taipei Livelihood

Agriculture, agro-industries, carpet weaving and exports, service sector. The winter sweater selling business is the economic

mainstay of about 70 percent of the exile population in India Education

Total schools enrolment is 85 to 90 percent of the school-aged children in exile

The Three Autonomous Institutional Bodies within CTA: The Election Commission The Public Service Commission The Office of the Auditor General Source: The Official Website of Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, India

Please visit http://www.tibet.net for details on Central Tibetan Administration, India

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Full Democracy in Exile

Central Tibetan Administration Dharamasala, India HIS HOLINESS THE FOURTEENTH DALAI LAMAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S DEVOLUTION OF POLITICAL RESPONSIBILITIES TO THE ELECTED LEADERS

His Holiness the Dalai Lama on March 10, 2011, Dharamsala, India

Message of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to the Fourteenth Assembly of the Tibetan People's Deputies The essence of a democratic system is, in short, the assumption of political responsibility by elected leaders for the popular good. In order for our process of democratization to be complete, the time has come for me to devolve my formal authority to such an elected leadership. The general lack of experience and political maturity in our democratic institutions has prevented us from doing this earlier.

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Given that the line of Dalai Lamas has provided political leadership for nearly four centuries, it might be difficult for Tibetans generally and especially those in Tibet to envisage and accept a political system that is not led by the Dalai Lama. Therefore, over the past 50 years I have tried in various ways to raise people’s political awareness and encourage their participation in our democratic process. In my 10th March statement of 1969, for instance, I stated, “When the day comes for Tibet to be governed by its own people, it will be for the people to decide as to what form of government they will have. The system of governance by the line of the Dalai Lamas may or may not be there. In particular, the opinion of the forward-looking younger generation will be an influential factor.” Similarly, in my 10th March statement of 1988, I stated, “As I have said many times, even the continuation of the institution of the Dalai Lama is for the people to decide.” Since the 1980s, I have repeatedly advised the Kashag, ATPD and the public that Tibetans should take full responsibility for the administration and welfare of the people as if the Dalai Lama were not there. I informed the Chairman of the Thirteenth ATPD and the then Chief Justice Commissioner that I should be relieved of functions related to my political and administrative status, including such ceremonial responsibilities as the signing of bills adopted by the legislative body. However, my proposal was not even considered. On 31st August 2010, during the First Tibetan General Meeting (organized by ATPD), I explained this again in detail. Now, a decision on this important matter should be delayed no longer. All the necessary amendments to the Charter and other related regulations should be made during this session so that I am completely relieved of formal authority. I want to acknowledge here that many of my fellow Tibetans, inside and outside Tibet, have earnestly requested me to continue to give political leadership at this critical time. My intention to devolve political authority derives neither from a wish to shirk responsibility nor because I am disheartened. On the contrary, I wish to devolve authority solely for the benefit of the Tibetan people in the long run. It is extremely important that we ensure the continuity of our exile Tibetan administration and our struggle until the issue of Tibet has been successfully resolved. If we have to remain in exile for several more decades, a time will inevitably come when I will no longer be able to provide leadership. Therefore, it is necessary that we establish a sound system of governance while I remain able and healthy, in order that the exile Tibetan administration can become self-reliant rather than being dependent

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on the Dalai Lama. If we are able to implement such a system from this time onwards, I will still be able to help resolve problems if called upon to do so. But, if the implementation of such a system is delayed and a day comes when my leadership is suddenly unavailable, the consequent uncertainty might present an overwhelming challenge. Therefore, it is the duty of all Tibetans to make every effort to prevent such an eventuality. As one among the six million Tibetans, bearing in mind that the Dalai Lamas have a special historic and karmic relationship with the Tibetan people, and as long as Tibetans place their trust and faith in me, I will continue to serve the cause of Tibet. March 11, 2011

Parliament and Tibetan National General Meeting beseech His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Continue to Remain as both Spiritual and Temporal Leader [Monday, 14 March 2011, 6:04 p.m.]

After holding a whole day discussion on 18 March, the Assembly passed a three-point resolution “strongly beseeching His Holiness the Dalai Lama to continue to remain as both the spiritual and temporal leader of the Tibetan people”. The resolution was presented to His Holiness through his secretaries on 19 March. The office of His Holiness in its response said “There is no change in His Holiness the Dalai Lama's decision as conveyed in detail in his earlier message. Therefore the resolution could not be accepted and have been directed to send it back.” DHARAMSHALA: The landmark Tibetan National General Meeting which was successfully concluded today unanimously approved a proposal to beseech His Holiness the Dalai Lama to assume the role of ceremonial head of state. The 4-day meeting attended by Tibetans from across the world deliberated the draft amendments to the charter on the devolution of His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s political and administrative powers to the democratically elected Tibetan leadership. The meeting also endorsed another proposal to request His Holiness to accept the inclusion of the new Preamble and responsibilities assigned to him in Article 1 in case if he turns down the proposal on ceremonial role. The Article 1 makes him the protector and symbol of the Tibetan nation. May 23 to 26th 2011

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Delegates representing Tibetans across the world at the closing plenary session of the four-day Tibetan. National General Meeting in Dharamsala, India, on 24 May 2011

Parliament Opens Deliberation on Charter Amendments [Thursday, 26 May 2011, 4:53 p.m.]

DHARAMSHALA: The Tibetan Parliament has begun deliberation on the recommendations made during the recently concluded Tibetan national general meeting on the draft amendments to the Charter on the devolution of His Holiness the 120


Dalai Lama's political responsibilities to the elected Tibetan leadership. A three-day additional session which opened this morning will approve the amendments to the Charter. In his opening address, Mr Penpa Tsering, speaker of the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile, informed the House that the proposed amendments to the Charter, including proposals for His Holiness the Dalai Lama to remain as the ceremonial head, was presented to him yesterday. “His Holiness the Dalai Lama categorically refused to retain the post of ceremonial head of state. Nevertheless, we have conveyed to him the appeal as the genuine aspiration of the Tibetan people living in and outside Tibet,” the speaker told the House. The speaker said His Holiness has accepted the Preamble and the roles assigned to him under 3 clauses in the Article 1. FINAL DRAFT

PREAMBLE From the time of its founding, commonly placed in the early 2nd Century BC, Tibet has existed as a sovereign nation for almost its entire history. When the Great Fifth Dalai Lama assumed the supreme spiritual and temporal leadership of Tibet in 1642, the Gaden Phodrang government he established became the legitimate government of the whole Tibetan people in the three regions of Tibet. Since then successive Dalai Lamas maintained the spiritual and temporal leadership of Tibet in this manner. His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama assumed the political leadership of Tibet, thus becoming both its spiritual and temporal leader, in 1950. The People’s Republic of China invaded Tibet and coerced its government into signing the 17-Point Agreement in 1951, in which the Gaden Podrang government was designated as the “Local Government of Tibet.” However, its legitimacy as the government of Tibet was maintained and under the terms of the said Agreement the established status, functions and powers of the Dalai Lama were guaranteed to remain unaltered. When the People’s Republic of China’s authorities in Tibet violated the 121


Agreement and resorted to the use of brute violence and repression against Tibetans, His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Kashag (council of ministers) were compelled to escape from Tibet into exile. Immediately upon arriving in India, His Holiness the Dalai Lama repudiated the 17 Point Agreement on 18 April 1959. Whereas the Tibetan people recognize and look to His Holiness the Dalai Lama and his Kashag as their legitimate government regardless of where it may be, His Holiness established the new seat of the central Tibetan administration in India to safeguard, represent and pursue the interests of the Tibetan nation and its people without interruption. Soon thereafter, His Holiness the Dalai Lama acted upon his long cherished desire to democratize the Tibetan governance system and institutions, and in 1960 created the Commission of Tibetan People’s Deputies as the elected representative assembly of the people. The Eleventh Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies adopted the Charter of Tibetans in Exile, ratified by His Holiness the Dalai Lama on 28 June 1991, to be the constitutional law governing the Central Tibetan Administration in conformity with modern norms of democracy. The Charter provided that the successive Dalai Lamas shall exercise their responsibilities as head of the Tibetan nation and as chief executive of the Tibetan administration. To complete the democratization process and ensure that the future of the Tibetan people not be unduly dependent on one individual, and in full consideration of the challenges and goals before the Tibetan people, His Holiness the Dalai Lama on 14 March 2011 formally announced to the Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies his intention to transfer all his administrative and political powers and responsibilities to the elected leaders of the Central Tibetan Administration. In deference to His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s irrevocable decision to relinquish his administrative and political roles and in the face of His Holiness’ rejection of pleas to reconsider that decision, the Fourteenth Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies, in its additional session, adopted necessary amendments to the Charter to give effect to His Holiness’ directive to appropriately amend the Charter while safeguarding the continuity of the Central Tibetan Administration as the legitimate governing body and representative of the whole Tibetan people, in whom sovereignty resides.

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By the act of ratification of the said amendments on [29 May 2011] in accordance with the present Chapter 11 of the Charter, His Holiness the Dalai Lama fully vests the Central Tibetan Administration and in particular its democratic leadership organs with the powers and responsibilities formerly held jointly by His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Central Tibetan Administration to represent and serve the whole people of Tibet. The thus amended Charter, ratified by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, enters into force on this [29th day of May] 2011.

ARTICLE 1: PROTECTOR AND SYMBOL OF THE NATION His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, human manifestation of Avaloketeshvara, is the guardian and protector of the Tibetan nation. He is the guide illuminating the path, the supreme leader, the symbol of the Tibetan identity and unity, and the voice of the whole Tibetan people. His authority is derived from centuries old history and heritage and, above all, from the will of the people in whom sovereignty is vested and therefore comprises the following inherent rights and responsibilities: 1. To provide advice and encouragement with respect to the protection and promotion of the physical, spiritual, ethical and cultural wellbeing of the Tibetan people, to remain engaged in the efforts to reach a satisfactory solution to the question of Tibet and to accomplish the cherished goals of the Tibetan people; 2. To provide guidance in various forms to the Assembly of Tibetan Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Deputies and Kashag in matters of importance to the Tibetan people, including the community and its institutions in exile, at His Holinessâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; own initiative or at the request of those bodies; 3. To meet with world leaders and other important individuals and bodies to speak on behalf of the Tibetan people, to explain and discuss their concerns and needs as well as to appoint representatives and envoys to serve the interests of the Tibetan people in any part of the world.

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Parliament Amends Charter on Devolution of His Holiness the Dalai Lama's Formal Authority [Sunday, 29 May 2011, 8:02 p.m.] DHARAMSHALA: The 14th Tibetan Parliament-Exile, after three days of intense deliberation during its additional session, gave its stamp of approval for the devolution of His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s administrative and political powers to the democratically elected Tibetan leaders. The Parliament today presented the amendments to His Holiness the Dalai Lama for his ratification. After giving his approval, His Holiness will fully vest the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) and in particular its democratic leadership organs with the powers and responsibilities formerly held jointly by him and the CTA to represent and serve the whole people of Tibet. During the additional session from 26 – 28 May, the Parliament approved a new preamble and inherent rights and responsibilities to be assigned to His Holiness the Dalai Lama under Article 1 of the charter. The preamble underlines “safeguarding the continuity of the Central Tibetan Administration as the legitimate governing body and representative of the whole Tibetan people, in whom sovereignty resides”. It also enshrines Tibet's position as a sovereign nation from the early 2nd century BC until the invasion by the People's Republic of China in 1951, and His Holiness the Dalai Lama's efforts in introducing democratic reforms after coming into exile in India since 1959. Under Article 1, His Holiness the Dalai Lama is the “Protector and Symbol of Tibet and Tibetan People”. His Holiness’ duties will be to provide advice and encouragement with respect to the protection and promotion of the physical, spiritual, ethical and cultural wellbeing of the Tibetan people, to remain engaged in the efforts to reach a satisfactory solution to the question of Tibet and to accomplish the cherished goals of the Tibetan people. He will provide suggestions in various forms to the Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies and Kashag in matters of importance to the Tibetan people, including the community and its institutions in exile, at his own initiative or at the request of those bodies.

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He will meet with world leaders and other important individuals and bodies to speak on behalf of the Tibetan people, to explain and discuss their concerns and needs as well as to designate representatives and special envoys appointed by the cabinet to serve the interests of the Tibetan people in any part of the world. The powers vested with His Holiness the Dalai Lama as head of the executive under Article 19 have been delegated to the Kalon Tripa. Accordingly, Kalon Tripa is empowered to approve and promulgate bills and regulations passed by the Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile. Other responsibilities have been devolved to the parliament and the judiciary. Another landmark amendment made to the charter is the annulment of Council of Regency enshrined in Articles (31 – 35), provisions which earlier empower the council to assume the Dalai Lama’s role in circumstances when the latter is not acting as head of the state. The Parliament approved that the title of “Tibetan Government-in-Exile” in Tibetan language be changed to “Central Tibetan Administration”. The title of “Bod Shung Gaden Phodrang Chogle Namgyal” in the emblem was also changed to “Denpanyi Nampar Gyalgyur Chig” (translated as Truth will Prevail). The additional session of the parliament was convened against the backdrop of a fourday national general meeting on the proposed amendment to the charter from 21 – 24 May. Over 418 delegates representing Tibetans from across the world, who attended the national meeting, unanimously approved proposals to appeal to His Holiness to assume the role of ceremonial head of state in addition to the Preamble and Article 1. During his meeting with the delegates a day after the meeting on 25 May, His Holiness categorically rejected the proposal for the ceremonial head, but gave his consent to the Preamble and inherent rights and responsibilities to be assigned to him in Article 1. The new duties are not binding on His Holiness the Dalai Lama. In a letter issued to the Parliament on 27 May, His Holiness the Dalai Lama suggested changes in the Article 1 and called for immediate amendment to the charter.

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The Dalai Lama’s Three Main Commitments of Life His Holiness the Dalai Lama will continue to commit himself to his Three Main Commitments of Life and the responsibilities recorded under Article 1 in the Preamble of the charter. Firstly, on the level of a human being, His Holiness’ first commitment is the promotion of human values such as compassion, forgiveness, tolerance, contentment and self-discipline. All human beings are the same. We all want happiness and do not want suffering. Even people who do not believe in religion recognize the importance of these human values in making their life happier. His Holiness refers to these human values as secular ethics. He remains committed to talk about the importance of these human values and share them with everyone he meets. Secondly, on the level of a religious practitioner, His Holiness’ second commitment is the promotion of religious harmony and understanding among the world’s major religious traditions. Despite philosophical differences, all major world religions have the same potential to create good human beings. It is therefore important for all religious traditions to respect one another and recognize the value of each other’s respective traditions. As far as one truth, one religion is concerned; this is relevant on an individual level. However, for the community at large, several truths, several religions are necessary. Thirdly, His Holiness is a Tibetan and carries the name of the ‘Dalai Lama’.Tibetans place their trust in him. Therefore, his third commitment is to the Tibetan issue. His Holiness’ has a responsibility to act as the free spokesperson of the Tibetans in their struggle for justice. As far as this third commitment is concerned, it will cease to exist once a mutually beneficial solution is reached between the Tibetans and Chinese. However, His Holiness will carry on with the first two commitments till his last breath.

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Major Awards and Honors and Dignitaries Met

The Nobel Peace Prize December 10, 1989

US Congressional Gold Medal October 17, 2006

His Holiness the Dalai Lama was conferred 129 (1957 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; July 2011) major awards and honors of honorary doctorates, presidential medals, peace awards, distinguish peace leader awards, human rights and liberty awards, community leadership awards, Man of the Year Award, gold medals, inspiration and compassion awards, international freedom awards, Honorary Citizenships, Prize for Love and Compassion, Shine A Light Award, Life Time Achievement Award including the Nobel Peace Prize and US Congressional Gold Medal from various universities, parliaments, congress, and international organizations from many countries. Books His Holiness the Dalai Lama has authored more than 108 books on Buddhism, spirituality, loving kindness, compassion, moral ethics, mind and science, happiness, and universal responsibility. Dignitaries Met: His Holiness the Dalai Lama has travelled far and wide and met many heads of states, kings, queens, religious leaders, scholars, heads of international institutions and organizations, and many more in all the continents of this world. The Dalai Lama continues to meet people from all walks of life to promote Three Commitments of his Life to create a global happy family. Please visit www.dalailama.com for details on His Holiness the Dalai Lama and his numerous activities to make this world a better place for all beings.

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New Administrative Structure

Third directly elected Kalon Tripa Dr. Lobsang Sangay (L), takes oath of office and secrecy beforetheChief Justice Commissioner of Central Tibetan Administration, Mr. Ngawang Phelgyal (R), HisHoliness the Dalai Lama flanked by out-going Kalon Tripa Prof. Samdhong Rinpoche (L), and Speaker Penpa Tsering (R) at swearing-in ceremony at Tsuglangkhang, the main temple in Dharamsala, India on August 8, 2011/photo by Namgyal Tsewang

Population

127,935 (Approximate world-wide distribution: India 94,203, Nepal 13,514, Bhutan1298, and rest of the world 18,920 (As per the second demographic survey of Tibetans in Exile conducted by the Office of the Planning Commission in 2009

Protector and Symbol of the Nation

His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Administration

Democratic and popularly elected

Head of State

Kalon Tripa

Judiciary

Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission

Legislature

Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile with 44 members

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Executive

The Kashag (Cabinet) is the apex executive body. The Kalon Tripa (Executive Chief) is elected directly by the exile population for the term of five years. Under the Kashag are the main departments of Religion and Culture, Home, Education, Finance, Security, Information and International Relations, and Health

Major NGOs

Tibetan Youth Congress (TYC), Tibetan Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Association (WTA), National Democratic Party of Tibet (NDPT). GU-Chu-Sum Movement

Foreign Missions Based in New Delhi, Kathmandu, New York, London, Geneva, Moscow, Brussels, Canberra, Tokyo, Pretoria and Taipei Livelihood

Agriculture, agro-industries, carpet weaving and exports, service sector. The winter sweater selling business is the economic

mainstay of about 70 percent of the exile population in India Education

Total schools enrolment is 85 to 90 percent of the school-aged children in exile

The Three Autonomous Institutional Bodies within CTA: The Election Commission The Public Service Commission The Office of the Auditor General Kuger Yigtsang

Private Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Source: The Official Website of Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, India Please visit http://www.tibet.net for details on Central Tibetan Administration, India

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Dhanglang Chatrel (Green Book) Tibetan Voluntary Contribution Introduction: The hostile transformation that swept the whole of Tibet following its armed occupation by the Communist Chinese in 1959 had culminated into His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tibet's spiritual and temporal leader, escaping from the impending dangers into exile, in India. His Holiness's decision to seek asylum in India was mainly influenced by his firm determination to continue the struggle for regaining freedom for his people and preserving their distinct and unique cultural, religious and traditional heritage. In view of providing immediate rehabilitation of the hundreds and thousands of people, who followed His Holiness the Dalai Lama into exile and primarily to regain Tibet's lost freedom, the Central Tibetan Administration was established as a continuation to the legitimate Government in Tibet. More than fifty years on, today the Tibetan refugees have emerged as the most successful and flourishing community among the refugee communities in the world. The Central Tibetan Administration can today boast of its positive contributions towards various global concerns - be it the creation of environmental awareness or the protection of various aspects of human rights or the promotion of democratic institutions. These achievements are mainly due to the efforts of Tibetan people both inside and outside Tibet, under the charismatic leadership of His Holiness and the presence of democratically elected stable government, which has received unstinted support and legitimacy from the wide spectrum of international community. Chatrel: Its background Among the many indispensable conditions responsible for making the Central Tibetan Administration a sound foothold, an early development of Tibetan Freedom Movement, whose main activity is to collect Chatrel, forms one of the most important 130


parts. In 1972 at Sarnath, Varanasi, a group of devoted Tibetans had resolved to spearhead the establishment of what is now referred to as "Tibetan Freedom Movement" in the Tibetan exile community. The governing members of the Tibetan Freedom Movement convened its preliminary meeting at Dharamsala on 30th July, 1972 during which resolution pertaining to the procedures for payment of Chatrel by all the Tibetans were passed. 1. It was resolved during the meeting that to look after present and future welfare of Tibetan people, a firm and stable government is a must and it could be possible only if a regular source of finance can be arranged. As such beginning from 1st August, 1972 all the Tibetans are to make contribution in the form of Chatrel and certain percentage of monthly salary in case of salaried persons. 2. The meeting also underlined that to recognize Tibetan government in exile as a legitimate government of Tibetans by all the Tibetan and to signify this exile recognition, every individual Tibetan must contribute voluntary tax and thereby render legitimacy to the government. This will go a long way to lend credibility to the government while the contributors can make legitimate claim of being the subject of the Tibetan government in exile. Since the presence of such system of making Chatrel have important political significance, all Tibetans to pay Chatrel and the amounts and procedures for contributions are to be finalized at this meeting. Chatrel: Its significance On the basis of the resolution passed in the preliminary general meeting of the Tibetan Freedom Movement, which was held on 30th July 1972, the 11th Assembly of the Tibetan People's Deputy had on 1st April 1992 adopted a law on the Chatrel to be contributed by the Tibetan Community in exile. As enshrined in the Charter of the Tibetans in exile, contribution of Chatrel by the people of Tibet is recognized as one of their main duties and accordingly the contribution are being collected on a regular basis. Chatrel: Its goals and needs The existence of Chatrel symbolizes the Tibetan people's recognition of their Government-in-exile. Besides, in the international community, it also enables to portray the exile government headed by His Holiness the Dalai Lama as a legitimate government.

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It exhibits the Tibetan people's support towards augmentation of the exile government's financial requirements. It also exhibits popular support for a stable Tibetan government-in-exile until Tibet regains its freedom. From the legal point of view, those who contribute towards Chatrel are recognized as bonafide Tibetans in exile Rights and Duties of the people of Tibet The payment of Chatrel is not only the right but also the responsibility of the Tibetan people as enshrined in article 13 of the Charter of the Tibetans in exile. As such all the Tibetans must pay voluntary tax. Conclusion: Being in exile, the payment of tax by the Tibetans was named as "Voluntary Tax". If it is referred to by any other names such as; donation, fund etc. then the very purpose of involving the general public for making contributions to the exile government, which is to show the existence of the system of paying taxes as in any other government, will be undermined. Payment of voluntary tax is considered among the duties of the citizens in article 13, clause 4 of the Charter. And since one is not entitled to the rights of citizen without performing one's duties as a citizen, the payment of voluntary tax can be also considered as a right. The need for making contributions towards voluntary tax by all the Tibetans has very important political significance. Thus, collecting voluntary tax is the major work of the respective members of Tibetan Freedom Movement and all the Tibetans should also pay it promptly by their own accord.

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Suggested readings for details

Tibetan Government- in Exile This book provides a detailed account of the structure and political strategies of the Tibetan government-in exile, the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), in northern India. Since its founding in 1959, it has been led by the 14th Dalai Lama who struggles to regain the Tibetan homeland. Based on a theoretical approach on exile organizations a " and extensive empirical studies in Asia a " this book discusses CTAa (TM)s political strategies to gain national loyalty, and international support, in order to secure its own organizational survival and the ultimate goal: the return to Tibet.

Immigrant Ambassadors Stanford University Press, 2009 - Political Science - 266 pages The Tibetan Diaspora began fifty years ago when the current Dalai Lama fled Lhasa and established a government-in-exile in India. For those fifty years, the vast majority of Tibetans have kept their stateless refugee status in India and Nepal as a reminder to themselves and the world that Tibet is under Chinese occupation and that they are committed to returning someday.

Tibet Author(s): Lazar, Edward Synopsis: Essays by Tibetans in exile who continue to struggle for Tibetan independence. Their continuing resolve to end China's violent suppression and colonization of Tibet reflects the inner strength and determination of the Tibetan people, and a faith that the international community will act in support of a liberated Tibet.

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ÂÑ /ë+-9$-/1,-#1$-0-8Ü,-ý7Ü-hÜ0<-0*ß,-"ß$<-þè:Ê 4. Justification of Tibetan Independence

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Independent Tibet – at a Glance

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a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k)

Head of State Seat of Tibetan Government in Tibet Tibetan National Flag Tibetan National Emblem/Seal Tibetan National Anthem Map of Independent Tibet and its neighboring countries Treaties Currency of Independent Tibet Tibetan Army Tibetan Language and Literature Postal Stamps of Independent Tibet

l) Tibetan Flag’s International Appearance m) Tibetan Passport

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Treaties and Conventions 1 2 3 4

The First Tibet-China Relationship Treaty 821 A.D. Treaty of 823 A.D. Demarcating the Border between Tibet and China Tibet Mongolia Treaty of 1913 The Simla Convention between Tibet, Britain, and China in 1914

139 140 142 145 150

List of Other Treaties:

a) Peace Treaty between Ladakh and Tibet at Tingmosang 1684 b) Ladakhi Letter of Agreement 1842 c) Agreement between Tibet and Kashmir 1852 d) Treaty between Tibet and Nepal 1856 e) Chefoo Convention 1876 f) Convention Relating to Burmah and Thibet 1886 g) Convention between Great Britain and Tibet 1904 h) Convention between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet 1906

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i) Agreement between Great Britain, China and Tibet Amending Trade Regulations of 1893 j) Anglo-Tibetan Declaration 1914 k) Anglo-Tibetan Trade Regulations 1914 l) Agreement for the Restoration of Peaceful Relations between China and Tibet 1918 m) Supplementary Agreement Regarding Mutual Withdrawal of Troops and Cessation of hostilities between Chinese and Tibetans 1918

5. Tibet at the Asian Relations Conference 1947

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6. The Full Story of â&#x20AC;&#x153;The 17 Point Agreementâ&#x20AC;?

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Suggested Readings

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Independent Tibet â&#x20AC;&#x201C; at a Glance

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The Tibetan Flag's International Appearance The September 1934 issue of the National Geographic Magazine devoted a feature on the flags of the many nations of the world. One flag mentioned is the Tibetan national flag. We reproduce below both the cover of that particular issue of the magazine.

"With its towering mountain of snow, before which stand two snow lions fighting for a flaming gem, the flag of Tibet is one of the most distinctive of the East," says the September 1934 issue of the National Geographic magazine.

Source: National Geographic Magazine

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Tibetan government-issued passport of Tsepon Wangchuk Deden Shakabpa, Tibet's finance minister in the 1940s. The passport bears visas from India, the United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, Switzerland, and France.

Letterhead of the Tibetan Foreign Office (here on a message to Mao Zedong in 1949)

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Treaties and Conventions The First Tibet-China Relationship Treaty 821 A.D.

Tibet-China Treaty, on the Pillar of 821 A.D. in Shol, Lhasa, Tibet

The relationship between Tibet and China was first established between the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo and the Chinese Tang Emperor. Since then, the two countries have enjoyed both cordial and antagonistic relations. In the eight century, China was bound to pay Tibet an annual tribute of 50,000 bolts of brocade. This is stated very clearly on the stone pillar standing in Shol, in front of the Potala in Lhasa.

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Treaty of 823 A.D. Demarcating the Border between Tibet and China

Tibet -China Treaty Pillar of 823, Jokhang Square, Lhasa, Tibet

Translation of the inscription on the west face of the Stone Pillar in Lhasa The great king of Tibet, the Divine Manifestation, the bTsan-po and the great king of China, the Chinese ruler Hwang Te, Nephew and Uncle, after consulting about the alliance of their dominions have made a great treaty and ratified the agreement. In order that it may never be changed, so that it may be celebrated in every age and every generation the terms of the agreement have been inscribed on a stone pillar. The Divine Manifestation, the bTsan-po, Khri gTsug-Ide-brtsan himself and the Chinese Ruler, B'un B''u, He'u Tig Hwang Te, their majesties the Nephew and the Uncle, through the great profundity of their minds know whatsoever is good and ill for present and future alike. With great compassion, making no distinction between outer and inner in sheltering all with kindness, they have agreed in their counsel on a great purpose of lasting good--the single thought of causing happiness for the whole population--and have renewed the respectful courtesies of their old friendship. Having consulted to consolidate still further the measure 142


of neighborly contentment they have made a great treaty. Both Tibet and China shall keep the country and frontiers of which they are now in possession. The whole region to the east being the country of Great China and the whole region to the west being assuredly the veritable country of Great Tibet, from either side of that frontier there shall be no warfare, no hostile invasions, and no seizure of territory. If there be any suspicious person, he shall be arrested and an investigation made and, having been suitably provided for, he shall be sent back. Now that the dominions are allied and a great treaty of peace has been made in this way, since it is necessary also to continue the communication of pleasant messages between Nephew and Uncle, envoys setting out from either side shall follow the old established route. According to former custom their horses shall be changed at Tsang Kun Yog, which is between Tibet and China. Beyond sTse Zhung Cheg, where Chinese territory is met, the Chinese shall provide all facilities; westwards, beyond Tseng Shu Hywan, where Tibetan territory is met, the Tibetans shall provide all facilities. According to the close and friendly relationship between Nephew and Uncle the customary courtesy and respect shall be practiced. Between the two countries no smoke or dust shall appear. Not even a word of sudden alarm or of enmity shall be spoken and, from those who guard the frontier upwards, all shall live at ease without suspicion or fear, their land being their land and their bed their bed. Dwelling in peace they shall win the blessing of happiness for ten thousand generations. The sound of praise shall extend to every place reached by the sun and moon. And in order that this agreement establishing a great era when Tibetans shall be happy in Tibet and Chinese shall be happy in China shall never be changed, the Three Jewels, the body of saints, the sun and moon, planets and stars have been invoked as witnesses; its purport has been expounded in solemn words; the oath has been sworn with the sacrifice of animals; and the agreement has been solemnized. If the parties do not act in accordance with this agreement or if it is violated, whether it be Tibet or China that is first guilty of an offence against it, whatever stratagem or deceit is used in retaliation shall not be considered a breach of the agreement. Thus, the rulers and ministers of both Tibet and China declared and swore to the oath; and the text having been written in detail it was sealed with the seals of both great kings. The Pillar was inscribed with the signatures of those ministers who took part in the agreement and the text of the agreement was deposited in the archives of each party. The text of this treaty was inscribed on three stone pillars: one was erected in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, the second in Chang-an, the then capital of China and the third in G-gu-Miru border between Tibet and China. 143


Tibet Mongolia Treaty of 1913

Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet (1913) [397] TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND ALLIANCE Concluded Between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet at Urga 29 December 1912 (11 January 1913) (translation of the Tibetan text) Mongolia and Thibet, having freed themselves from the dynasty of the Manchus and separated from China, have formed their own independent States, and, having in view that both States from time immemorial have professed one and the same religion, with a view to strengthening their historic and mutual friendship the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Nikta Biliktu Da-Lama Rabdan, and the Assistant Minister, General and Manlai baatyr beiseh Damdinsurun, as plenipotentiaries of the Government of the ruler of the Mongol people, and gudjir tsanshib kanchen-Lubsan-

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Agvan, donir Agvan Choinzin, director of the Bank Ishichjamtso, and the clerk Gendun Galsan, as plenipotentiaries of the Dalai Lama, the ruler of Thibet,'have made the following agreement. Article 1. The ruler of Thibet, Dalai Lama, approves and recognizes the formation of an independent Mongol State, and the proclamation, in the year of the pig and the ninth day of the eleventh month, of Chjebzun Damba Lama of the yellow faith as ruler of the country. Article 2. The ruler of the Mongol people, Chjebzun Damba Lama, approves and recognizes the formation of an independent (Thibetan) State and the proclamation of the Dalai Lama as ruler of Thibet. Article 3. Both States will work by joint consideration for the well-being of the Buddhist faith. Article 4. Both States, Mongolia and Thibet, from now and for all time will afford each other assistance against external and internal dangers. Article 5. Each State within its own territory will afford assistance to the subjects of the other travelling officially or privately on affairs of religion or State. Article 6. Both States, Mongolia and Thibet, as formerly, will carry on a reciprocal trade in the products of their respective countries in wares, cattle, &c., and will also open industrial establishments. Article 7. From now the granting of credit to anyone will be permitted only with the knowledge and sanction of official institutions. Without such sanction Government institutions will not consider claims. As regards contracts made previous to the conclusion of the present treaty, where serious loss is being incurred through the inability of the two parties to come to terms, such debts may be recovered by (Government) institutions, but in no case shall the debt concern "shabinars" or "khoshuns." Article 8. Should it prove necessary to supplement the articles of the present treaty, the Mongolian and Thibetan Governments must appoint special delegates, who will conclude such agreements as the conditions of the time shall demand. Article 9. The present treaty shall come into force from the date of its signature.

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Plenipotentiaries from the Mongolian Government for the conclusion of the treaty: Nikta Biliktu Da-Lama Rabdan, Minister for Foreign Affairs; and General and Manlai baatyr beiseh Damdinsurun, Assistant Minister. Plenipotentiaries from the Dalai Lama, the ruler of Thibet, for the conclusion of the treaty: Gudjir tsanshib kanchen Lubsan-Agvan, Choinzin, the Director of the Bank of Thibet Ishichjamtsa, and the clerk, Gendun-Galsan. Signed (by Mongol reckoning) in the fourth day of the twelfth month of the second year of the "Raised by the Many," and by Thibetan reckoning on the same day and month of the year of the "water-mouse."

International Symposium on â&#x20AC;&#x153;1913 Treaty between Mongolia and Tibet, held in Mongolia form October 13-14, 2010

Discussion on Significance of 1913 Tibeto-Mongol Treaty held at Dharamsala, Inidia on December 30, 2010

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THE SIMLA CONVENTION BETWEEN TIBET, BRITAIN, AND CHINA IN 1914



Photo: The Sino-Indian Boundary Question (Enlarged Edition). Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1962. Photostat of eastern sector of original map of the McMahon line with signatures and seals of Tibetan and British plenipotentiaries, Delhi 24 March 1914. Original scale 1:5000, 000.

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CONVENTION BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN, CHINA, AND TIBET SIMLA 1914 Attached to the Anglo-Tibetan Declaration of 3 July 1914

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, His Excellency the President of the Republic of China, and His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet, being sincerely desirous to settle by mutual agreement various questions concerning the interests of their several States on the Continent of Asia, and further to regulate the relations of their several Governments, have resolved to conclude a Convention on this subject and have nominated for this purpose their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say: His Majesty the King Of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, Sir Arthur Henry McMahon, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign and Political Department; His Excellency the President of the Republic of China, Monsieur Ivan Chen, Officer of the Order of the Chia Ho; His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet, Lonchen Ga-den Shatra Pal-jor Dorje; who having communicated to each other their respective full powers and finding them to be in good and due form have agreed upon and concluded the following Convention in eleven Articles. Article 1. The Conventions specified in the Schedule to the present Convention shall, except in so far as they may have been modified by, or may be inconsistent with or repugnant to, any of the provisions of the present Convention, continue to be binding upon the High Contracting Parties. Article 2. The Governments of Great Britain and China recognizing that Tibet is under the suzerainty of China, and recognizing also the autonomy of Outer Tibet, engage to respect the territorial integrity of the country, and to abstain from interference in the administration of Outer Tibet (including the selection and installation of the Dalai Lama), which shall remain in the hands of the Tibetan Government at Lhasa. The Government of China engages not to convert Tibet into a Chinese province. The Government of Great Britain engages not to annex Tibet or any portion of it. 148


Article 3. Recognizing the special interest of Great Britain, in virtue of the geographical position of Tibet, in the existence of an effective Tibetan Government, and in the maintenance of peace and order in the neighborhood of the frontiers of India and adjoining States, the Government of China engages, except as provided in Article 4 of this Convention, not to send troops into Outer Tibet, nor to station civil or military officers, nor to establish Chinese colonies in the country. Should any such troops or officials remain in Outer Tibet at the date of the signature of this Convention, they shall be withdrawn within a period not exceeding three months. The Government of Great Britain engages not to station military or civil officers in Tibet (except as provided in the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet) nor troops (except the Agents' escorts), nor to establish colonies in that country. Article 4. The foregoing Article shall not be held to preclude the continuance of the arrangement by which, in the past, a Chinese high-official with suitable escort has been maintained at Lhasa, but it is hereby provided that the said escort shall in no circumstances exceed 300 men. Article 5. The Governments of China and Tibet engage that they will not enter into any negotiations or agreements regarding Tibet with one another, or with any other Power, excepting such negotiations and agreements between Great Britain and Tibet as are provided for by the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet and the Convention of April 27, 1906, between Great Britain and China. Article 6. Article III of the Convention of April 27, 1906, between Great Britain and China is hereby cancelled, and it is understood that in Article IX(d) of the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet the term 'Foreign Power' does not include China. Not less favorable treatment shag be accorded to British commerce than to the commerce of China or the most favored nation. Article 7.a. The Tibet Trade Regulations of 1893 and 1908 are hereby cancelled. b. The Tibetan Government engages to negotiate with the British Government new Trade Regulations for Outer Tibet to give effect to Articles II, IV and V of the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet without delay; provided always that such Regulations shall in no way modify the present Convention except with the consent of the Chinese Government.

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Article 8. The British Agent who resides at Gyantse may visit Lhasa with his escort whenever it is necessary to consult with the Tibetan Government regarding matters arising out of the Convention of September 7, 1904, between Great Britain and Tibet, which it has been found impossible to settle at Gyantse by correspondence or otherwise. Article 9. For the purpose of the present Convention the borders of Tibet, and the boundary between Outer and Inner Tibet, shall be as shown in red and blue respectively on the map attached hereto.1 Nothing in the present Convention shag be held to prejudice the existing rights of the Tibetan Government in Inner Tibet, which include the power to select and appoint the high priests of monasteries and to retain full control in all matters affecting religious institutions. Article 10. The English, Chinese and Tibetan texts of the present Convention have been carefully examined and found to correspond, but in the event of there being any difference of meaning between them the English text shall be authoritative. Article 11. The present Convention will take effect from the date of signature. In token whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed and sealed this Convention, three copies in English, three in Chinese and three in Tibetan. Done at Simla this third day of July, A.D., one thousand nine hundred and fourteen, corresponding with the Chinese date, the third day of the seventh month of the third year of the Republic, and the Tibetan date, the tenth day of the fifth month of the Wood-Tiger year. Initial of the Lonchen Shatra2 A.H.M. Seal of the Lonchen Shatra Seal of the British Plenipotentiary Schedule 1. Convention between Great Britain and China relating to Sikkim and Tibet, signed at Calcutta the 17th March 1890.

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2. Convention between Great Britain and Tibet, signed at Lhasa the 7th September 1904. 3. Convention between Great Britain and China respecting Tibet, signed at Peking the 27th April 1906. The notes exchanged are to the following effect: 1. It is understood by the High Contracting Parties that Tibet forms part of Chinese territory. 2. After the selection and installation of the Dalai Lama by the Tibetan Government, the latter will notify the installation to the Chinese Government whose representative at Lhasa will then formally communicate to His Holiness the titles consistent with his dignity, which have been conferred by the Chinese Government. 3. It is also understood that the selection and appointment of all officers in Outer Tibet will rest with the Tibetan Government. 4. Outer Tibet shall not be represented in the Chinese Parliament or in any other similar body. 5. It is understood that the escorts attached to the British Trade Agencies in Tibet shall not exceed seventy-five per centum of the escort of the Chinese Representative at Lhasa. 6. The Government of China is hereby released from its engagements under Article III of the Convention of March 17, 1890, between Great Britain and China to prevent acts of aggression from the Tibetan side of the Tibet-Sikkim frontier. 7. The Chinese high official referred to in Article 4 will be free to enter Tibet as soon as the terms of Article 3 have been fulfilled to the satisfaction of representatives of the three signatories to this Convention, who will investigate and report without delay. Initial of the Lonchen Shatra (Initialled) A.H.M. Seal of the Lonchen Shatra Seal of the British Plenipotentiary

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Notes 1. Published for the first time by the Government of India in An Atlas of the Northern Frontier of India, 15 January, 1960. Source: Crown-copyright Document, FO 535/17, No. 231, Enclosure 8. Crown-copyright documents in the India Office Records and the Public Record Office reproduced and/or transcribed in this publication appear by permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 2. Owing to the impossibility of writing initials in Tibetan, the mark of the Lonchen at this place is his signature. Reproduced from M. C. van Walt van Praag's Status of Tibet: History, Rights and Prospects in International Law.

Other Treaties: . Peace Treaty between Ladakh and Tibet at Tingmosang 1684 . Ladakhi Letter of Agreement 1842 . Agreement between Tibet and Kashmir 1852 . Treaty between Tibet and Nepal 1856 . Chefoo Convention 1876 . Convention Relating to Burmah and Thibet 1886 . Convention between Great Britain and Tiibet 1904 . Convention between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet 1906 . Agreement between Great Britain, China and Tibet Amending Trade Regulations of 1893 . Anglo-Tibetan Declaration 1914 . Anglo-Tibetan Trade Regulations 1914 . Agreement for the Restoration of Peaceful Relations between China and Tibet 1918 . Supplementary Agreement Regarding Mutual Withdrawal of Troops and Cessation of hostilities between Chinese and Tibetans 1918

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TIBET AT THE ASIAN RELATIONS CONFERENCE

 Two Tibetan delegates (front right) during the Asian Relations in Delhi in 1947 as Mahatma Gandhi speaks (far left). A Tibetan flag is seen in front of them along with flags of other participating countries.

Speech by Sampo Theiji, Tibetan delegate to Asian Relations Conference 24 March 1947 Our Tibetan Government received an invitation to join in the Asian Relations Conference. We are a country which administers its subjects on the basis of religious aspirations and India being the motherland of Buddhism, we Buddhist and specially Tibet had friendly relations with India from ancient times. Therefore our Government has sent us here to attend this great Conference to maintain our peaceful relations based on religion. In a similar way we are very glad to meet representatives from all the Asian countries in this Conference and we wish to express our sincere gratitude to the great Indian leaders, Mahadma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, and to all the distinguished representatives who have gathered in this Conference. As for the future, all the Asian countries will feel as brothers towards each other, a feeling based on spiritual relationship, so that in this way we might hope that there will be everlasting peace and unity in Asia. Published in Asian Relations Conference 1947 153


"The 17-Point Agreement" The full story as revealed by the Tibetans and Chinese who were involved* Introduction After the occupation of eastern Tibet's provincial capital, Chamdo, the People's Republic of China (PRC), on May 23, 1951, forced Tibet to sign the 17-point "Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet". The alternative, the occupying forces said, was immediate military operation in the remaining parts of Tibet. Commentaries in Chinese official publications maintain that the "agreement" reflected the Chinese government's recognition of Tibet's unique and distinct historical, political, and cultural status in relation to the PRC at that time. The PRC did not feel the need for such an "agreement" with any other area liberated by it.(1) In the recent years, political analysts have referred to this "agreement" as a blueprint of the PRC's current "one-country, two-systems" formula.(2) Whatever the case may be, Tibetans opposed this "agreement" as nothing less than a death warrant of their centuries-old history of independence. They were particularly indignant with the circumstances under which their delegates had been forced to sign it. In fact, Tibetan Prime Minister Lukhangwa clearly told Chinese Representative Zhang Jingwu in 1952 that the Tibetan "people did not accept the agreement".(3) Nevertheless, the Dalai Lama decided to work with the invading forces "in order to save my people and country from total destruction". For eight years, he tried to abide by the terms of this document. China, on the other hand, showed no inclination to honor its own part of the "Agreement"; its People's Liberation Army (PLA) immediately set out to inflict unbelievable atrocities upon the Tibetan people in order to hasten the occupation of Tibet and destruction of its distinct identity. By 1959, the Dalai Lama realized that it was impossible to work with the Chinese authorities any longer. In March of that year he fled Tibet and, on his arrival in India, repudiated the "17-point Agreement" as having been "thrust upon Tibetan Government and people by the threat of arms". Invasion of Tibet and fall of Chamdo On October 1, 1949 the People's Republic of China was founded. Soon after, Radio Beijing began to announce that "the People's Liberation Army must liberate all 154


Chinese territories, including Tibet, Xinjiang, Hainan and Taiwan." In response, the Tibetan Foreign Office wrote to Mao Zedong on November 2, 1949 to say that "Tibet has from the earliest times up to now been an independent country whose political administration had never been taken over by any foreign country; and Tibet also defended her own territories from foreign invasions."(4) The Foreign Office letter asked for direct negotiations for the return of Tibetan territories annexed by China's earlier governments. Copies of this letter were sent to the Government of India, Great Britain and United States. But these governments advised Tibet to enter into direct negotiations with China as any other course of action might provoke military retaliation. In the meanwhile, the PLA marched into eastern Tibet and circulated a ten-point document, asking Tibetans to cooperate with China in "liberating" Tibet from foreign imperialists. This struck as a curious statement to the Tibetan government who knew that there were fewer than ten foreigners in the country. It responded by making a series of radio announcements stating that there were no foreign imperialists on Tibetan soil, that Tibet had never been part of China, and that if China invaded Tibet just as big insects eat small ones, Tibet would fight back even if it were reduced to the female population.(5) At the same time, the Tibetan government decided to send a delegation, consisting of two senior officials--Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa and Tsechag Thubten Gyalpo--and five assistants to negotiate with the PRC in a third country, possibly the USSR, Singapore or Hong Kong. China suggested Hong Kong as the venue, to which the Tibetan government agreed and directed its delegation to discuss the Foreign Office letter to Chairman Mao Zedong and the threatening Chinese radio announcements about an imminent "liberation of Tibet". The government also instructed the delegation to secure the Chinese assurance that the territorial integrity of Tibet would not be violated, and to drive home the point that Tibet would not tolerate Chinese interference.(6) On March 7, 1950 the delegates reached Kalimpong en route to Delhi. On reaching Delhi, they ran into an unforeseen problem: the British would not issue them the visas to travel to Hong Kong, probably because they did not want to antagonize China as the visa would have to be stamped on the passport issued by the Tibetan government. Thus, in June 1950 the Tibetan government instructed its delegates to hold negotiations in Delhi. The Chinese did not want this and suggested that the Tibetans should come to Beijing after a preliminary round of talks in Delhi with their new Ambassador to India.(7)

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In the course of the negotiation, the Chinese Ambassador, Yuan Zhong Xian, demanded that the Tibetan delegation accept a three-point proposal: i) Tibet should be recognized as part of China ii) Tibetan national defense will be handled by China; iii) Tibet's political and trade relations with foreign countries must be conducted through China. They were then to proceed to Beijing in confirmation of the "agreement". The Tibetan government instructed the delegates to reject the Chinese proposal, particularly the first point. So the negotiation was suspended. By then China had already started its military offensive on Chamdo, eastern Tibet's provincial capital. It happened on October 7, 1950 when Commanders Wang Qimei and Zhang Guohua led 40,000 PLA troops from the South-West Military Region in an eight-pronged attack on Chamdo. The Tibetan force, numbering 8,000 troops, engaged the PLA troops in fierce battles. By October 19 the Tibetans had fought 21 battles and lost over 5,700 men.(8) Chamdo fell to the PLA and Kalon Ngabo Ngawang Jigme, provincial governor, was captured.(9) The Chinese aggression came as a rude shock to India. In a sharp note to Beijing on October 26, 1950, the Indian Foreign Ministry wrote: "Now that the invasion of Tibet has been ordered by Chinese government, peaceful negotiations can hardly be synchronized with it and there naturally will be fear on the part of Tibetans that negotiations will be under duress. In the present context of world events, invasion by Chinese troops of Tibet cannot but be regarded as deplorable and in the considered judgment of the Government of India, not in the interest of China or peace."(10) A number of countries, including the United States and Britain, expressed their support for the Indian position. Back in Lhasa, the Tibetan Government decided to secure the UN mediation on Tibet's behalf. It wrote to the UN Secretary General on November 11, 1950, appealing for the world body's intervention. The letter said, in part: "Tibet recognizes that it is in no position to resist the Chinese advance. It is thus that it agreed to negotiate on friendly terms with the Chinese Government...Though there is little hope that a nation dedicated to peace will be able to resist the brutal effort of men trained to war, we understand that the United Nations has decided to stop aggression wherever it takes place."(11) The Tibetan National Assembly convened an emergency session and requested the Dalai Lama, only fifteen (12) at that time, to assume full authority as head of state and move his government temporarily to Dromo (Yatung), near the Indian border, so that he would be out of personal danger. At the same time the Tibetan Foreign Office

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issued the following statement: "Tibet is united as one man behind the Dalai Lama who has taken over full powers ... We have appealed to the world for peaceful intervention in (the face of this) clear case of unprovoked aggression."(13) On November 17, 1950 the Dalai Lama assumed power at a formal ceremony and wrote to Mao Zedong: "The relationship between Tibet and China has deteriorated during my minority. Now that I have taken responsibility, I wish to revive the past harmonious relationship between us." The Dalai Lama asked Mao to release the Tibetan prisoners of war and withdraw Chinese troops from the Tibetan territory.(14) On that very day El Salvador formally asked that the aggression against Tibet be put on the UN General Assembly agenda. However, the issue was not discussed in the UN General Assembly at the suggestion of the Indian delegation who asserted that a peaceful solution which was mutually advantageous to Tibet, India and China could be reached between the parties concerned. A second letter by the Tibetan delegation to the United Nations on December 8, 1950 did not change the situation. Negotiations in Chamdo In Chamdo, Ngabo Ngawang Jigme and other captured Tibetan officials had undergone "re-education" in Chinese Communist Party policies on minority nationalities and lenient treatment for collaborators.(15) On the insistence of his captors, Ngabo sent two successive messages to Lhasa, requesting negotiations with China in Chamdo and offering his service as a negotiator. This, Ngabo assured, was the best means of preventing the military invasion of Tibet's remaining areas. He also assured that the PLA would not march into Lhasa or undermine the safety of the Dalai Lama whilst the negotiations were in progress.(16) Having lost eastern and northern Tibet to the PLA and lacking active international support, the Tibetan government accepted Ngabo's suggestion and appointed a threemember delegation, consisting of Ngabo, and the Lhasa-based Khenchung Thubten Legmon and Sampho Tenzin Dhondup. On reaching Chamdo, Khenchung and Sampho handed the Tibetan government's two letters to Ngabo. One letter named Ngabo as the leader of the delegation and instructed him to insist on Tibetan independence and the withdrawal of PLA troops from the Tibetan territory.(17) The second letter was a five-point agenda for negotiations: 1. There is no imperialist influence in Tibet; the little contact Tibet had with the British was the result of the travels of the 13th Dalai Lama to India. As for the relationship with the United States, this was only commercial.

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2. The Tibetan territories seized by earlier Chinese governments and later occupied by the PLA must be returned to Tibet. 3. In the event of foreign imperial influence being exerted on Tibet, the Tibetan government would appeal to China for help. 4. Chinese troops stationed in Kham and northern Tibet should be withdrawn. 5. In future, the Chinese government should not listen to trouble-making rumors of the Panchen Lama and Reting factions.(18) When Ngabo presented the content of this letter, the Chinese responded with their own five-point position statement: 1. It is clear that the British and Americans have interfered in our affairs. This is evident from the fact that they prevented the Tibetan negotiating team (in India) from proceeding to Beijing. 2. The defense of the Motherland is the prime objective and troops must be dispatched. 3. After the dispatch of our troops, we will ensure equality of nationalities and regional autonomy. The Tibetan army and the Dalai Lama's position will not be changed. The Dalai Lama should not go to a foreign country. He should retain the traditional position. 4. When the national regional autonomy is granted to Tibet, the Dalai Lama's traditional position will continue; there will be no change in this. 5. Regarding the relationship between different factions in Tibet, we will discuss and decide this in the interest of unity. We do not harbor vindictive desires.(19) Negotiations in Beijing Since the positions of the two sides were completely at variance, it was apparent that there was no point in continuing the negotiation in Chamdo. In view of this, Ngabo requested the Tibetan government to shift the venue of negotiations, either to Lhasa or Beijing. The Kashag decided on Lhasa. Shortly afterwards, however, the Chinese Embassy in New Delhi sent a message to the Dalai Lama's temporary headquarters in Dromo, proposing Beijing as the venue. The Dalai Lama accepted this proposal and sent a five-member negotiating team, consisting of the three delegates in Chamdo, plus Kheme Sonam Wangdu and Lhawutara Thubten Tenthar from Dromo. The team was to be assisted by Takla Phuntsok Tashi as the Chinese interpreter and Sadhutsang Rinchen as the English interpreter. While the delegates in Chamdo were asked to proceed directly to Beijing, those in Dromo were asked to take the sea route via India. They were instructed to refer all the important matters back to Dromo for final

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decision and were expressly not given the plenipotentiary authority to conclude an "agreement".(20) They were given a five-point directive for negotiations: 1. The religious country of Tibet has been independent from an early time; the close priest-patron relationship between Tibet and China, which has been in existence from an early time, should be continued and further strengthened. 2. The Tibetan government will continue to have the same kind of relationship with new China as it did with the Kuomintang government. 3. The Chinese representative and his staff-members in Tibet should not exceed 100; their security will be the responsibility of the Tibetan army. 4. Tibetan territories up to Dhartsedho (Ch: Kangting) must be returned to the Tibetan government, and all the Chinese civilian and military personnel must be withdrawn. 5. The Tibetan army will be responsible for defending Tibet's frontiers.(21) On March 29 Ngabo's party left Chamdo. The journey took nearly a month, during which Baba Phuntsok Wangyal (head of public relations affairs of the 18th Army) Lu'o Yus-hung (Baba Phuntsok Wangyal's assistant), Deng Xiaoping and other Communist ideologues indoctrinated them on the virtues of Chinese Communist Party policies on minority nationalities and United Front efforts.(22) On April 22 they reached Beijing railway station to a tumultuous welcome by several hundred Chinese, including Premier Zhou Enlai, Vice-premier Gou Moru, Secretary of the Chinese People's Government Lin Beiqu, and United Front and Nationalities Affairs Commission Minister Li Weihan.(23) Four days later, on April 26, the delegates from Dromo arrived at Beijing railway station and were received by Lin Beiqu, Li Weihan, other Chinese leaders, students, Ngabo's party and officials of Tashilhunpo Monastery.(24) The Tibetan negotiators were lodged in Beijing Hotel and isolated from any contact with the outside world.(25) On April 28, 1951 Li Weihan invited the Tibetan delegates to the Nationalities Affairs Commission office to discuss the "organization, time and agenda of the negotiation". During the meeting, the Tibetans were given copies of the ten-point document, circulated earlier in eastern Tibet. They were asked to study this document as the agenda for discussion :(26) 1. The Tibetan people shall unite and drive out the imperialist aggressive forces from Tibet; the Tibetan people shall return to the big family of the Motherland-the People's Republic of China. 2. Tibet shall have the right to exercise national regional autonomy.

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3. The existing political system of Tibet will not be altered; the established status, functions and powers of the Dalai Lama will not be altered; officials of various ranks shall hold office as usual. 4. Religious freedom and monasteries will be protected; Tibetan people's freedom of religious belief, customs and tradition will be respected. 5. Without altering the existing Tibetan military system, the Tibetan army will be made part of the national defense force of the People's Republic of China. 6. The spoken and written language and school education of the Tibetan nationality will be promoted. 7. Tibetan agriculture, livestock raising, industry and commerce will be developed. 8. In matters relating to reforms in Tibet, the people and leaders of Tibet shall discuss and make decisions on the basis of people's wishes. 9. In so far as former pro-British, pro-America and pro-Kuomintang officials completely severe relations with them and do not engage in resistance and sabotage, they may continue to hold office irrespective of their past. 10. The PLA of China entering Tibet will strengthen national defense; the PLA will abide by the above-mentioned policies; the entire military expenses will be provided by the Central People's Government; the PLA will be fair in all buying and selling.(27) On April 29, 1951 the two sides met for the first round of negotiations at the military headquarters in Beijing.(28) The Chinese delegation was headed by Li Weihan, and included Zhang Jingwu (director of the People's Armed Forces Department), Zhang Guohua (leader of the 18th Army), and Sun Zhiyuan (political commissar of the South-West Military Region). Baba Phuntsok Wangyal and Lu'o Yus-hung assisted the Chinese team.(29) Li Weihan opened the negotiations by presenting the ten-point document and stated that this should be the agenda for discussion. The Tibetan delegation rejected the Chinese proposal and asked for discussions on the five points proposed by its government. In addition, Ngabo complained that the PLA troops from Xinjiang and Amdo (Qinghai) were moving towards Lhasa and Ngari, and that this would make it difficult for the Dalai Lama to live in Tibet. He asked for Beijing's assurance to halt the PLA's advance.(30) Li Weihan said he would refer the question of PLA advance to the "Central Government", but refused to discuss the Tibetan government proposal. The meeting ended after half an hour. At the second meeting, on May 2, Ngabo pressed the Tibetan position and stated that "Tibet had been an independent country and the past relationship with China had

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been one of priest and patron relationship."(31) He stated that the PLA's continued advance on Tibet was the most crucial issue, and that unless there was a clear decision to halt this, the negotiation would run into problems.(32) Li Weihan pointed out that the question of the status of Tibet was not under discussion, and Chinese sovereignty over Tibet was non-negotiable.(33) He said that the purpose of the meeting was to discuss the 10-point proposal and no other issues should be added to the agenda. He added that the decision to deploy PLA troops in Tibet had been made by the Central Government. The PLA's advance on Tibet, he said, was beneficial to Tibet as well as to the whole of China. He claimed that the Chinese Government was there to liberate the minority nationalities and counter imperialist aggression. Particularly, it was necessary to have a strong national army to protect Tibet's frontiers. He added that Britain and India recognized Tibet as part of China. Li went on to say that the PLA's advance on Tibet was China's internal affairs and that Britain and India had no right to interfere in this. He further added that China recognized the Dalai Lama's traditional position and that Chairman Mao had congratulated the Dalai Lama when he assumed Tibet's political power. Li threatened to strip the Dalai Lama of his position if he left for India.(34) As the Tibetans continued to stick fast to their position, the Chinese delegates assumed more and more threatening postures. At one point, Zhang Jingwu jumped on his feet, livid with anger. He said with the air of finality that the ten points for the liberation of Tibet was the Party's unanimous decision made at the time of the founding of the People's Republic of China. Thus, the second meeting ended in utter disappointment for the Tibetan delegates.(35) The third meeting, on May 7, was no more encouraging. The Tibetans had no opportunity to speak; they were reduced to listening to a stream of threatening monologues from the Chinese interlocutors. The fourth meeting, on May 10, held yet another surprise for the Tibetans. Li Weihan started by commenting belligerently on the proceedings of previous meetings. Then, he unveiled Beijing's decision to establish a Military-Administrative Commission in Tibet upon the conclusion of the "agreement". The Tibetan delegates were completely taken aback. Lhawutara asked what would be the function and purpose of this Commission. Li stated that it would be the apex body to decide all political and military affairs of Tibet. Lhawutara countered if this would not undermine and contradict the position and powers of the Dalai Lama. Li flew into a fit of rage, and demanded to know who had told them that there would be no change in the power and position of the Dalai Lama. He asked the Tibetan delegates if they meant to

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oppose the establishment of the Commission. He told the delegates that if they did not agree to the proposal, they could return home any day, either before or after the armed liberation. The PLA troops, he said, were already stationed on Tibetan soil and that all it took to put them back into action was a simple telegram from Beijing. He asked the delegates to decide whether they wanted a peaceful liberation or an armed liberation.(36) In the following few days, there was no meeting. During that time, the Tibetan delegates met several times in Ngabo's room, and expressed concerns over how the negotiations might end in the light of the Chinese delegation's constant use of threats and bullying tactics. Ngabo said, "Now, we are in Chinese hands; they can beat or kill us. If they bully us like this, there cannot be any agreement."(37) For over three weeks, since the Tibetan delegates' arrival in Beijing, the Chinese authorities had prevented them from having any contact with their government or with anyone who could communicate with their government. The Chinese said that the nature of the negotiations was very sensitive and that communicating with Lhasa or Dromo would compromise the confidentiality of the negotiation. The Chinese also stated that the facilities for communication with Lhasa were not adequate. Because of this, the delegates did not even know whether the Dalai Lama was still in Tibet or had left the country. On May 14 the fifth meeting was held. By now, there was no doubt that if the Tibetans did not agree to the Chinese demand, the PLA would immediately resume its march into Tibet and bring death and destruction. Under the circumstances, the Tibetans decided that it was best to agree tentatively to the Chinese draft of the "agreement".(38) But they had one condition: if the Tibetan government and the Dalai Lama did not accept the "agreement" and if the Dalai Lama escaped from Tibet, they would need a guarantee that his power and position would be restored to him in the event of his return after four or five years. The Chinese agreed to this condition, but maintained that it should not be included in the main "agreement" since it could create unwelcome speculations when the document was announced to the world. Instead, the Chinese wanted this to be part of a separate, secret "agreement".(39) At the same time, the Chinese came up with a new proposal. They said that the differences between the Tibetan government and the Panchen Lama should be discussed, resolved and included in the "agreement". Ngabo replied that the Tibetan government had directed "us" to discuss the issues between Tibet and China, and not the internal matters of Tibet. He stated that the Panchen Lama issue should be discussed and resolved in another forum. The Chinese were adamant that if the

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internal issue of Tibet were not resolved, there was no point in signing the "agreement". Ngabo replied that if this were the case, the Tibetan delegates had no business in Beijing. "I request the Chinese government to see to the safe return of the four other delegates, including Kheme, to Tibet. As for me, I am a subject of Chamdo Liberation Committee. You can command me to return to Chamdo or to stay in Beijing." Turning to his four colleagues, he said, "Now that it has become impossible to sign the agreement, you may return to Tibet. I have requested the Chinese government to ensure your safety. As for me, I am obligated to do whatever they tell me." Thus, the negotiations broke down for a few days.(40) Whilst the negotiations were in abeyance, Sun Zhiyuan and Baba Phuntsok Wangyal visited Ngabo's hotel to persuade him to agree to the inclusion of the Panchen Lama issue in the "agreement". Ngabo adamantly opposed Sun's suggestion and argued all day long. Finally, Sun suggested that they should agree to the phrasing that the status and functions of the Panchen Lama should be the same as when the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and the Ninth Panchen Lama had been in friendly and amicable relations with each other. Ngabo agreed and this became the sixth point of the "agreement".(41) Informal sessions like this were frequently held to exert pressure on the Tibetan delegates, who, according to Baba Phuntsok Wangyal, bargained hard for their own government's position.(42) The 17-point "agreement" On May 21 the Chinese finalized the drafts of the main "agreement" and the separate, seven-point secret document. The main "agreement" was more or less the same as the 10-point document proposed in the beginning. It had 17 points and a lengthy preamble, claiming Chinese sovereignty over Tibet. The Tibetan delegates saw the preamble for the first time on that day. Although the Chinese government has not released the contents of the separate, seven-point document, some of the clauses that Ngabo, Kheme and Takla Phuntsok Tashi have referred to in their statements and books are: â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

If the Dalai Lama escapes from Tibet and returns after four or five years, his power and position will be restored to him. During the Dalai Lama's exile, the Tibetan government will provide for all his personal needs. About one jun (20,000-men military division) of PLA will be stationed on the frontiers of Tibet. One or two Tibetan ministers will be given the rank of deputy commander of the PLA troops in Tibet. (The Tibetans then did not have any idea of how many men were there in one jun).

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â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

The Tibetan government shall continue to retain 500 bodyguards for the Dalai Lama and 1,000 security personnel in various regions of Tibet. (This has reference to point 8 of the main "agreement") The Tibetan Foreign Office shall be merged with the Chinese foreign relations branch office to be established in Tibet. The Tibetan Foreign Office personnel shall be given suitable positions in the Chinese foreign relations branch office. (This has reference to point 14 of the main "agreement")

The Chinese delegates made it plain that the terms, as they now stood, were final and amounted to an ultimatum. No further discussion was permitted. The Tibetan delegation did not even get to contact its government for instructions.43 It was given the choice of either signing the "agreement" on its own authority or accepting responsibility for an immediate military advance on Lhasa. The signing ceremony On May 23, the Tibetan and Chinese delegates signed what came to be known as the "Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet". Since the Tibetan delegates were not authorised to conclude an agreement, they did not have their government seal; all they had were the seals of their respective positions in the government. However, they denied having them in order to indicate their disapproval of the "agreement".(44) The Chinese then improvised wooden seals inscribed with the names of the delegates, and affixed them to the document. At that time, the Tibetan delegation warned the Chinese that they were signing the "agreement" only in their personal capacity and had no authority to bind either the Dalai Lama or the Tibetan Government to it. On the next day the delegates had a meeting with Mao Zedong, during which he made a long speech, proclaiming his love and concern for Tibetans. He said that the Communist Party's aim was to serve the cultural and economic development of Tibet and not to act as masters. "If the local Chinese officials oppress you, you must complain directly to us...This agreement is a matter of pride for both the Tibetans and Chinese." He added that the Tibetans could even become the presidents of China and control Beijing.(45) The delegates also met Zhou Enlai during which he gave his response to Ngabo's earlier letter, asking for the unification of Tibetan areas in Kham and Amdo under the existing Tibetan administration. Zhou Enlai said that since there were historical differences among the different Tibetan areas, it was not the right time to unite all the Tibetan areas under one administration. He, however, agreed that the Tibetan areas could unite after some years through dialogues between the two sides.(46)

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Tibetan government's disapproval of the "agreement" On May 27, 1951 Radio Beijing broadcast the full text of the "agreement". This was the first time the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan Government heard of the document; their reaction was one of shock and disbelief.47 Later, when the Tibetan government received a telegram from the delegates to confirm this news, it immediately sent a reply, reprimanding them for signing the "agreement" without consulting it. The government instructed the delegates to wait in Beijing for further instructions and to send the text of the 17-point Agreement and the seven-point secret agreement.48 But the Chinese government told the Tibetan delegates that it was inconvenient to transmit the message telegraphically, and that, moreover, sending the 17-point agreement would lead to the loss of state secrets. The delegates then proposed to travel to Dromo, via India, to report the "agreement" to their government. The Chinese objected to Ngabo's travel via India, citing risk to his life from foreign agents.49 Thus, the delegates left in two groups: Ngabo and Khenchung Thubten Legmon went home through Chamdo, along with Zhang Guohua and Baba Phuntsok Wangyal, while the remaining delegates travelled via India. In the meantime, the Tibetan government received a telegraphic message to say that the Chinese Government representative, General Zhang Jingwu, was on his way to Dromo, via India. Some Tibetan officials suggested that the Dalai Lama should leave for India for safety. After a great deal of argument, everyone agreed that he should wait until the Chinese general arrived.50 In Dromo, Zhang Jingwu and his colleagues asked the Tibetan government to send a telegram, congratulating the Chinese government for the "agreement". The Tibetan ministers ignored his suggestion and switched to the discussion on protocols concerning his meeting with the Dalai Lama on the following day. Zhang insisted that, as a representative of the Central Government, he should meet the Dalai Lama on equal terms. When the meeting took place, he asked the Dalai Lama to send a telegram to Mao to welcome and accept the "agreement". His Holiness ignored this suggestion. Hao Guangfu, Zhang Jingwu's telegraph operator, later reported that some high-ranking Tibetan officials and even some delegates of the negotiating team opposed the circumstances and terms of the agreement.51 When the Tibetan delegation members, Kheme and Lhawutara, arrived in Dromo, they reported the circumstances of the "17-point Agreement" to the Tibetan ministers

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and requested an audience with the Dalai Lama. The ministers refused them audience to indicate their displeasure with the "agreement".52 When Zhang Jingwu insisted repeatedly on the congratulatory telegram regarding the "agreeement", the Kashag said that it would telegraph its reaction after meeting Ngabo in Lhasa. Zhang said that an earlier reaction would help to enhance the Dalai Lama's reputation among the Chinese people. On July 20 the Kashag sent a telegram to China, stating that it would give its reaction after the arrival of Ngabo with the original text of the "agreement" and after discussing it in the Tibetan National Assembly.53 On July 21 the Dalai Lama left for Lhasa. Zhang Jingwu followed two days later and arrived in Lhasa on August 8. He expected the two prime ministers to come for his reception. 54 But the Kashag sent two lower-ranking officials, Kalon Lhalu Tsewang Dorje and Kastab Thubten Rabyang, to drive home the message that Tibet did not consider itself a part of China. This point was not lost on Zhang, who immediately set himself the task of implementing the "United Front" work, aimed at consolidating the Communist Party influence by enlisting the support of prominent members of the Tibetan society.55 Zhang visited the two prime ministers repeatedly and asked them to radio their acceptance of the "17-point Agreement". During one such session, Prime Minister Lukhangwa said, "Ngabo's responsibility was to discuss a peaceful solution. He was not given the authority to discuss military matters. The 17-point Agreement is beyond our imagination. When Ngabo returns, he will report to us the circumstances surrounding the signing of the agreement. We will discuss the agreement after hearing his report. ...Tibet is a peace-loving, religious country. Therefore, it will be better for you to send an intelligent and competent representative rather than an army. China is a populous and powerful country. But it must work within its limits. If pushed beyond the level of tolerance, even a sleeping man will wake up and fight."56 The Dalai Lama reached Lhasa on August 17. On September 9 around 3,000 Chinese troops, under the command of Wang Qimei and accompanied by Ngabo and Baba Phuntsok Wangyal, arrived in Lhasa. From September 24-26 Ngabo and the four other delegates addressed the Tibetan National Assembly to give a detailed account of how the "17-point Agreement" had been signed.57 Lhawutara said that if the agreement was not seen to be beneficial to the government and people of Tibet, the delegates were willing to accept any form of punishment since "we signed it without asking for the approval (of the government)".58 The National Assembly, while recognizing the extenuating circumstances under which the delegates had to sign the "agreement", asked the government to accept the "Agreement", provided the following conditions were fulfilled:

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• • •

There should be a limit on the number of PLA troops to be stationed in Tibet and that the soldiers should not converge on Lhasa, but proceed directly to the borders. The Tibetan government should have the right to raise with the Chinese authorities such points as are found to be unacceptable in the course of implementation. The powers of the Military-Administrative Commission should be confined to the maintenance of the PLA discipline. Matters relating to developmental activities, (e.g. mining), and border security should be decided according to the situation in Tibet. Whenever the Chinese government violates any provision of the "agreement", the Tibetan government should have the right to intervene.59

On the basis of this recommendation, the Kashag told Zhang Jingwu that it would radio its acceptance of the "agreement", provided China agreed to three conditions: • •

The powers and functions of the Military-Administrative Commission should be defined vis-a-vis the powers and functions of the Dalai Lama; Only a limited number of PLA troops should be stationed in Tibet; the responsibility for defending the important borders should be entrusted to the Tibetan army; All the Tibetan-inhabited areas should be united under the Tibetan government; Chamdo and other areas of Kham should be returned to the Tibetan government.60

Zhang Jingwu ignored the first two points. Referring to the third point, he said that this should be decided later through a referendum conducted among the Tibetans in Sichuan, Gansu, Yunnan, and Qinghai.61 Soon, about 20,000 additional PLA troops came to central Tibet and occupied the principal cities of Ruthok and Gartok, and then Gyangtse and Shigatse. With this, the military control of Tibet was virtually complete. From this position of strength, China refused to reopen negotiations, and the Dalai Lama effectively lost the ability to either accept or reject any Tibet-China "agreement". Now the only option before the Dalai Lama was to work with the Chinese and make the most of the "agreement" in the interest of his people. On October 24 Zhang Jingwu sent to Mao Zedong a telegram in the name of the Dalai Lama to express support for the "agreement'. Four days later, on October 29, a large contingent of PLA came to Lhasa under the command of Zhang Guohua and Tan Guansen.

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At the same time, people's resentment against the "17-point Agreement" was increasing. Their resentment was fuelled further by the arrival of tens of thousands of Chinese troops and the resulting ten-fold increase in food prices, which raised the spectre of first famine in Tibet's history. The angry populace snapped the Chinese power and telegraph lines, threw rocks at the residences of the Chinese officials, spat on and beat up stray Chinese military or intelligence personnel. Posters came up at night, denouncing the Chinese occupation of Tibet.62 Resistance movements were formed, which the Chinese were determined to crush with brutal force. On March 31, 1952 Mimang Tsongdu, People's Assembly for resistance, was born. On April 1 about 1,000 members of Mimang Tsongdu picketed Zhang Jingwu's residence and shouted slogans for Tibetan independence and the withdrawal of the PLA from Tibet. The Chinese immediately blamed the two prime ministers and "foreign imperialists" for inciting this. The Tibetan government was pressured to ban Mimang Tsongdu and force the resignation of the two prime ministers.63 Now, there was no doubt in the minds of the Chinese leaders that Tibetans looked upon the "agreement" with sheer contempt. On April 6, 1952 Mao Zedong said, "Not only the two Silons (i.e. prime ministers) but also the Dalai and most of his clique were reluctant to accept the Agreement and are unwilling to carry it out... As yet we do not have a material base for fully implementing the agreement, nor do we have a base for this purpose in terms of support among the masses or in the upper stratum." 64 The Chinese leaders promptly set out to undermine the powers and positions of the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government: First the existing political and regional divisions were exploited and institutionalized in order to create rival centres of power. Secondly, new "Central Government" organs were created alongside the existing Tibetan institutions. Backed by the PLA, these new organs systematically wrested all powers from the Tibetan government. Thirdly, communist reforms were introduced in Kham and Amdo against the wishes of the Tibetan people; the Tibetan way of life was forcibly changed and hundreds of Tibetan religious and cultural institutions were razed to the ground. The Tibetans reacted by taking up arms against the Chinese. Thousands of Tibetans died in skirmishes; many went to jail and were never seen again. The resistance gradually spread to central Tibet, culminating in the national uprising in Lhasa on March 10, 1959 and the escape of the Dalai Lama to India. On his arrival in India, the Dalai Lama issued a press statement in Tezpur, Assam, on April 18, 1959. In it, the Dalai Lama stated that the "17-point Agreement" had been

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signed under pressure from the Chinese government. Then, on June 20, he issued another press statement from his new headquarters in Mussoorie, in which he repudiated the "Agreement", describing it as having been forced upon Tibet by invasion, threat and deceit. The International Commission of Jurists stated that through this repudiation Tibet legally "discharged herself of the obligation under the Agreement". * This write-up is based primarily on the accounts of Zhang Guohua, Lu'o Yus-hung, Baba Phuntsok Wangyal, Hao Guangfu, Ngabo Ngawang Jigme, Sampho Tenzin Dhondup, Kheme Sonam Wangdu, Lhawutara Thubten Tenthar, and Takla Phuntsok Tashi. • • • • •

• •

Zhang Guohua was a member of the Chinese team in Beijing. Lu'o Yus-hung was an assistant of the Chinese team. Baba Phuntsok Wangyal was a translator for the Chinese team. Hao Guangfu was a telegraph operator of Zhang Jinwu, China's first representative in Tibet. Ngabo Ngawang Jigme, Sampho Tenzin Dhondup, Kheme Sonam Wangdu and Lhawutara Thubten Tenthar were members of the Tibetan negotiating team in Beijing. Ngabo later became a vice-chairman of the Chinese NPC, whereas Lhawutara became a member of the Chinese Political Consultative Committee. Takla Phuntsok Tashi was a translator of the Tibetan team.

Source: Department of Information and International Relations, CTA Dharamsala, India

Signing of “17 Point Agreement” on May 23, 1951 in Beijing

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Suggested readings for details

The Status of Tibet THE STATUS OF TIBET: HISTORY, RIGHTS, AND PROSPECTS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

Michael C. van Walt van Praag By van Walt van Praag,Michael C.

The Great Tibetan Stonewall of China Author(s): Berkin, Martyn Synopsis: The status of Tibet in international law and international policy on Tibet, including a supplement containing constitutional documents and basic treaties.

Corpus of Early Tibetan Inscriptions Author(s): Richardson, Hugh Synopsis: The inscriptions cover the years 764-840, the most well known being the treaty of 821/822 between Tibet and China, recorded on a stone pillar outside the Jokhang.

Tibet: The Position in International Law Author(s) : McCorquoda, Robert and Orosz, Nicholas Synopsis: Papers from a conference of leading international lawyers from 14 countries held in 1993 in London to consider the claims of the Tibetan people to the right of self-determination. Two committees, each under a judge, examined in detail the material evidence, including submissions by the Chinese government.

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Uncompromising Tibet Author(s): Von Effra, Wolfgang Synopsis: The author relates how Tibet has, since the beginning of written history, relentlessly fought and negotiated with foreign powers in different eras and circumstances, always to emerge as a nation uncompromising on the question of its freedom

Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation, and traces the history and development of Tibetan culture and religion from ancient times to the present day. Authored by Dr. Segius L. Kuzmin, Senior Scholar of Russian Academy of Sciences, the book was released on the March 10 2010, the 51st anniversary of the Tibetan National Uprising Day.

Please visit: Tibet Justice Center, Oakland, CA www.tibetjustice.org for legal materials on Tibet.

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ÃÑ +/ß-07Ü-:0Ê 5. THE MIDDLE-WAY APPROACH: A FRAMEWORK FOR RESOLVING THE ISSUE OF TIBET

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THE MIDDLE-WAY APPROACH A FRAMEWORK FOR RESOLVING THE ISSUE OF TIBET (Strasbourg Proposal June 15, 1988)

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MEMORANDUM ON GENUINE AUTONOMY FOR THE TIBETAN PEOPLE

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Presented by the Envoys of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to the Government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) at the eighth round of talks in Beijing on October 31, 2008

Note on the Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People

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Presented by the Envoys of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to their Chinese counterparts of PRC during the ninth round of dialogue in Beijing from January 26 to 31, 2010

Source: Department of Information and International Relations (DIIR) Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, India

Suggested Readings

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ÉÊ +/ß-07Ü-:0Ê

The Middle-Way Approach

(Source: Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, India)

The Middle-Way Approach: A Framework for Resolving the Issue of Tibet Introduction The Middle-Way Approach is proposed by His Holiness the Dalai Lama to peacefully resolve the issue of Tibet and to bring about stability and co-existence between the Tibetan and Chinese peoples based on equality and mutual co-operation. It is also a policy adopted democratically by the Central Tibetan Administration and the Tibetan people through a series of discussions held over a long time. This brief introduction to the Middle-Way policy and its history is intended for the Tibetan people inside and outside Tibet-and all those interested-to have a better understanding of the issues involved. A. Meaning of the Middle-Way Approach The Tibetan people do not accept the present status of Tibet under the People's Republic of China. At the same time, they do not seek independence for Tibet, which is a historical fact. Treading a middle path in between these two lies the policy and means to achieve a genuine autonomy for all Tibetans living in the three traditional provinces of Tibet within the framework of the People's Republic of China. This is called the Middle-Way Approach, a non-partisan and moderate position that safeguards the vital interests of all concerned parties-for Tibetans: the protection and preservation of their culture, religion and national identity; for the Chinese: the security and territorial integrity of the motherland; and for neighbors and other third parties: peaceful borders and international relations. B. History of the Middle-Way Approach Although the 17-Point Agreement between the Tibetan government and the People's Republic of China was not reached on an equal footing or through mutual consent, His Holiness the Dalai Lama-for the sake of the mutual benefit of the Tibetan and Chinese peoples-made all possible efforts to achieve a peaceful settlement with the Chinese government for eight years since 1951. Even after His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Kashag arrived in the Lokha region from Lhasa in 1959, he continued his efforts to achieve a negotiated settlement with the Chinese military officials. His attempts to abide by the terms of the 17-Point Agreement are analogous to the 173


Middle-Way Approach. Unfortunately, the Chinese army unleashed a harsh military crackdown in Lhasa, Tibet's capital, and this convinced His Holiness the Dalai Lama that his hope for co-existence with the Chinese government was no longer possible. Under the circumstances, he had no other option but to seek refuge in India and work in exile for the freedom and happiness of all the Tibetan people. Soon after his arrival in Tezpur, India, His Holiness the Dalai Lama issued a statement on 18 April 1959, explaining that the 17-Point Agreement was signed under duress and that the Chinese government had deliberately violated the terms of the Agreement. Thus from that day onwards, he declared that the agreement would be considered null and void, and he would strive for the restoration of Tibet's independence. Since then until 1979, the Central Tibetan Administration and the Tibetan people adopted a policy of seeking independence for Tibet. However, the world in general has become increasingly interdependent politically, militarily and economically. Consequently, great changes have been taking place in the independent status of countries and nationalities. In China also, changes will certainly take place and a time will come for both sides to engage in actual negotiations. Therefore, His Holiness the Dalai Lama has believed for a long time that in order to resolve the Tibetan issue through negotiations, it is more beneficial to change the policy of restoring Tibetan independence to an approach that offers mutual benefits to China as well as to Tibet. C. The Middle-Way Approach was not Formulated Suddenly Although this approach occurred to His Holiness the Dalai Lama a long time ago, he did not decide it arbitrarily or thrust it upon others. Since the early 1970s, he held a series of discussions on this issue with, and solicited suggestions from, the Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the Assembly of Tibetan People's Deputies, the Kashag and many scholarly and experienced people. Particularly in 1979, the late Chinese paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping's proposal to His Holiness the Dalai Lama that "except independence, all other issues can be resolved through negotiations", was very much in agreement with His Holiness the Dalai Lama's long-held belief of finding a mutually-beneficial solution. Immediately, His Holiness the Dalai Lama gave a favorable response by agreeing to undertake negotiations and decided to change the policy of restoring Tibet's independence to that of the Middle-Way Approach. This decision was again taken after a due process of consultations with the then Assembly of Tibetan People's Deputies, the Kashag and many scholarly and experienced people. Therefore, this Approach is not something that has emerged all of a sudden; it has a definite history of evolution.

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D. The Middle-Way Approach was Adopted Democratically Since the decision to pursue the Middle-Way Approach and before His Holiness the Dalai Lama issued a statement in the European parliament in Strasbourg on 15 June 1988-which formed the basis of our negotiations as to what kind of autonomy was needed by the Tibetan people-a four-day special conference was organized in Dharamsala from 6 June 1988. This conference was attended by the members of the Assembly of Tibetan People's Deputies and the Kashag, public servants, all the Tibetan settlement officers and the members of the local Tibetan Assemblies, representatives from the Tibetan NGOs, newly-arrived Tibetans and special invitees. They held extensive discussions on the text of the proposal and finally endorsed it unanimously. Since the Chinese government did not respond positively to the proposal, His Holiness the Dalai Lama again proposed in 1996 and 1997 that the Tibetan people should decide on the best possible way of realizing the cause of Tibet through a referendum. Accordingly, a preliminary opinion poll was conducted in which more than 64% of the total opinion letters received expressed that there was no need to hold a referendum, and that they would support the Middle-Way Approach, or whatever decisions His Holiness the Dalai Lama takes from time to time, in accordance with the changing political situation in China and the world at large. To this effect, the Assembly of Tibetan People's Deputies adopted a unanimous resolution on 18 September 1997 and informed His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Responding to this, His Holiness the Dalai Lama said in his 10 March statement of 1998: "...Last year, we conducted an opinion poll of the Tibetans in exile and collected suggestions from Tibet wherever possible on the proposed referendum, by which the Tibetan people were to determine the future course of our freedom struggle to their full satisfaction. Based on the outcome of this poll and suggestions from Tibet, the Assembly of Tibetan People's Deputies, our parliament in exile, passed a resolution empowering me to continue to use my discretion on the matter without seeking recourse to a referendum. I wish to thank the people of Tibet for the tremendous trust, confidence and hope they place in me. I continue to believe that my "Middle-Way Approach" is the most realistic and pragmatic course to resolve the issue of Tibet peacefully. This approach meets the vital needs of the Tibetan people while ensuring the unity and stability of the People's Republic of China. I will, therefore, continue to pursue this course of approach with full commitment and make earnest efforts to reach out to the Chinese leadership..." This policy was, hence, adopted taking into account the opinion

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of the Tibetan people and a unanimous resolution passed by the Assembly of Tibetan People's Deputies. E. Important Components of the Middle-Way Approach 1. Without seeking independence for Tibet, the Central Tibetan Administration strives for the creation of a political entity comprising the three traditional provinces of Tibet; 2. Such an entity should enjoy a status of genuine national regional autonomy; 3. This autonomy should be governed by the popularly-elected legislature and executive through a democratic process and should have an independent judicial system; 4. As soon as the above status is agreed upon by the Chinese government, Tibet would not seek separation from, and remain within, the People's Republic of China; 5. Until the time Tibet is transformed into a zone of peace and non-violence, the Chinese government can keep a limited number of armed forces in Tibet for its protection; 6. The Central Government of the People's Republic of China has the responsibility for the political aspects of Tibet's international relations and defense, whereas the Tibetan people should manage all other affairs pertaining to Tibet, such as religion and culture, education, economy, health, ecological and environmental protection; 7. The Chinese government should stop its policy of human rights violations in Tibet and the transfer of Chinese population into Tibetan areas; 8. To resolve the issue of Tibet, His Holiness the Dalai Lama shall take the main responsibility of sincerely pursuing negotiations and reconciliation with the Chinese government. F. Special Characteristics of the Middle-Way Approach Considering the fact that the unity and co-existence between the Tibetan and Chinese peoples is more important than the political requirements of the Tibetan people, His Holiness the Dalai Lama has pursued a mutually-beneficial Middle-Way policy, which is a great political step forward. Irrespective of population size, economy or military strength, the equality of nationalities means that all nationalities can co-exist on an equal footing, without any discrimination based on one nationality being superior or better than the other. As such, it is an indispensable criterion for ensuring unity among the nationalities. If the Tibetan and Chinese peoples can co-exist on an equal footing, this will serve as the basis for guaranteeing the unity of nationalities,

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social stability and territorial integrity of the People's Republic of China, which are of paramount importance to China. Therefore, the special characteristic of the MiddleWay Approach is that it can achieve peace through non-violence, mutual benefit, unity of nationalities and social stability. Conclusion It is hoped that this brief introduction to the Middle-Way policy and its history, adopted by the Central Tibetan Administration and the Tibetan people, will receive due attention from all quarters and will help in better understanding this approach. We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the peoples of the world in general-and in particular the Tibetan leaders, officials and scholars in Tibet-who support and endorse the Middle-Way Approach. -Issued by the Department of Information and International Relations (DIIR), updated August 2006 (Translated from the original Tibetan)

His Holiness the Dalai Lama's Special Envoy Kasur Lodi Gyari, Envoy Kelsang Gyaltsen and members of our Task Force, Sonam N. Dagpo and Bhuchung K. Tsering, and the Executive Vice Minister of the Central United Front Work Department, Zhu Weiqun, and the Vice Minister, Sithar from the Chinese side from June 29 to July 5, 2007 for the sixth round of talk in Bejieng.

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MEMORANDUM ON GENUINE AUTONOMY FOR THE TIBETAN PEOPLE Beijing October 31, 2008

I INTRODUCTION Since the renewal of direct contact with the Central Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 2002, extensive discussions have been held between the envoys of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama and representatives of the Central Government. In these discussions we have put forth clearly the aspirations of Tibetans. The essence of the Middle Way Approach is to secure genuine autonomy for the Tibetan people within the scope of the Constitution of the PRC. This is of mutual benefit and based on the long-term interest of both the Tibetan and Chinese peoples. We remain firmly committed not to seek separation or independence. We are seeking a solution to the Tibetan problem through genuine autonomy, which is compatible with the principles on autonomy in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The protection and development of the unique Tibetan identity in all its aspects serves the larger interest of humanity in general and those of the Tibetan and Chinese people in particular. During the seventh round of talks in Beijing on 1 and 2 July 2008, the Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and the Minister of the Central United Front Work Department, Mr. Du Qinglin, explicitly invited suggestions from His Holiness the Dalai Lama for the stability and development of Tibet. The Executive Vice Minister of the Central United Front Work Department, Mr. Zhu Weiqun, further said they would like to hear our views on the degree or form of autonomy we are seeking as well as on all aspects of regional autonomy within the scope of the Constitution of the PRC. Accordingly, this memorandum puts forth our position on genuine autonomy and how the specific needs of the Tibetan nationality for autonomy and self-government can be met through application of the principles on autonomy of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, as we understand them. On this basis, His Holiness the Dalai Lama is confident that the basic needs of the Tibetan nationality can be met through genuine autonomy within the PRC. The PRC is a multi-national state, and as in many other parts of the world, it seeks to resolve the nationality question through autonomy and the self-government of the 178


minority nationalities. The Constitution of the PRC contains fundamental principles on autonomy and self-government whose objectives are compatible with the needs and aspirations of the Tibetans. Regional national autonomy is aimed at opposing both the oppression and the separation of nationalities by rejecting both Han Chauvinism and local nationalism. It is intended to ensure the protection of the culture and the identity of minority nationalities by powering them to become masters of their own affairs. To a very considerable extent Tibetan needs can be met within the constitutional principles on autonomy, as we understand them. On several points, the Constitution gives significant discretionary powers to state organs in the decision-making and on the operation of the system of autonomy. These discretionary powers can be exercised to facilitate genuine autonomy for Tibetans in ways that would respond to the uniqueness of the Tibetan situation. In implementing these principles, legislation relevant to autonomy may consequently need to be reviewed or amended to respond to the specific characteristics and needs of the Tibetan nationality. Given good will on both sides, outstanding problems can be resolved within the constitutional principles on autonomy. In this way national unity and stability and harmonious relations between the Tibetan and other nationalities will be established.

II RESPECT FOR THE INTEGRITY OF THE TIBETAN NATIONALITY Tibetans belong to one minority nationality regardless of the current administrative division. The integrity of the Tibetan nationality must be respected. That is the spirit, the intent and the principle underlying the constitutional concept of national regional autonomy as well as the principle of equality of nationalities. There is no dispute about the fact that Tibetans share the same language, culture, spiritual tradition, core values and customs, that they belong to the same ethnic group and that they have a strong sense of common identity. Tibetans share a common history and despite periods of political or administrative divisions, Tibetans continuously remained united by their religion, culture, education, language, way of life and by their unique high plateau environment. The Tibetan nationality lives in one contiguous area on the Tibetan plateau, which they have inhabited for millennia and to which they are therefore indigenous. For purposes of the constitutional principles of national regional autonomy Tibetans in the PRC in fact live as a single nationality all over the Tibetan plateau.

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On account of the above reasons, the PRC has recognized the Tibetan nationality as one of the 55 minority nationalities.

III TIBETAN ASPIRATIONS Tibetans have a rich and distinct history, culture and spiritual tradition all of which form valuable parts of the heritage of humanity. Not only do Tibetans wish to preserve their own heritage, which they cherish, but equally they wish to further develop their culture and spiritual life and knowledge in ways that are particularly suited to the needs and conditions of humanity in the 21st century. As a part of the multi-national state of the PRC, Tibetans can benefit greatly from the rapid economic and scientific development the country is experiencing. While wanting to actively participate and contribute to this development, we want to ensure that this happens without the people losing their Tibetan identity, culture and core values and without putting the distinct and fragile environment of the Tibetan plateau, to which Tibetans are indigenous, at risk. The uniqueness of the Tibetan situation has consistently been recognized within the PRC and has been reflected in the terms of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;17 Point Agreementâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and in statements and policies of successive leaders of the PRC since then, and should remain the basis for defining the scope and structure of the specific autonomy to be exercised by the Tibetan nationality within the PRC. The Constitution reflects a fundamental principle of flexibility to accommodate special situations, including the special characteristics and needs of minority nationalities. His Holiness the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment to seek a solution for the Tibetan people within the PRC is clear and unambiguous. This position is in full compliance and agreement with paramount leader Deng Xiaoping's statement in which he emphasized that except for independence all other issues could be resolved through dialogue. Whereas, we are committed, therefore, to fully respect the territorial integrity of the PRC, we expect the Central Government to recognize and fully respect the integrity of the Tibetan nationality and its right to exercise genuine autonomy within the PRC. We believe that this is the basis for resolving the differences between us and promoting unity, stability and harmony among nationalities. For Tibetans to advance as a distinct nationality within the PRC, they need to continue to progress and develop economically, socially and politically in ways that correspond to the development of the PRC and the world as a whole while respecting

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and nurturing the Tibetan characteristics of such development. For this to happen, it is imperative that the right of Tibetans to govern themselves be recognized and implemented throughout the region where they live in compact communities in the PRC, in accordance with the Tibetan nationality’s own needs, priorities and characteristics. The Tibetan people's culture and identity can only be preserved and promoted by the Tibetans themselves and not by any others. Therefore, Tibetans should be capable of self-help, self-development and self-government, and an optimal balance needs to be found between this and the necessary and welcome guidance and assistance for Tibet from the Central Government and other provinces and regions of the PRC.

IV BASIC NEEDS OF TIBETANS Subject Matters of Self-government 1) Language Language is the most important attribute of the Tibetan people’s identity. Tibetan is the primary means of communication, the language in which their literature, their spiritual texts and historical as well as scientific works are written. The Tibetan language is not only at the same high level as that of Sanskrit in terms of grammar, but is also the only one that has the capability of translating from Sanskrit without an iota of error. Therefore, Tibetan language has not only the richest and best-translated literatures; many scholars even contend that it has also the richest and largest number of literary compositions. The Constitution of the PRC, in Article 4, guarantees the freedom of all nationalities “to use and develop their own spoken and written languages ...”. In order for Tibetans to use and develop their own language, Tibetan must be respected as the main spoken and written language. Similarly, the principal language of the Tibetan autonomous areas needs to be Tibetan. This principle is broadly recognized in the Constitution in Article 121, which states, “the organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas employ the spoken and written language or language in common use in the locality.” Article 10 of the Law on Regional National Autonomy (LRNA) provides that these organs “shall guarantee the freedom of the nationalities in these areas to use and develop their own spoken and written languages....” Consistent with the principle of recognition of Tibetan as the main language in Tibetan areas, the LRNA (Article 36) also allows the autonomous government 181


authorities to decide on â&#x20AC;&#x153;the language used in instruction and enrolment proceduresâ&#x20AC;? with regard to education. This implies recognition of the principle that the principal medium of education be Tibetan. 2) Culture The concept of national regional autonomy is primarily for the purpose of preservation of the culture of minority nationalities. Consequently, the constitution of PRC contains references to cultural preservation in Articles 22, 47 and 119 as also in Article 38 of the LRNA. To Tibetans, Tibetan culture is closely connected to our religion, tradition, language and identity, which are facing threats at various levels. Since Tibetans live within the multinational state of the PRC, this distinct Tibetan cultural heritage needs protection through appropriate constitutional provisions. 3) Religion Religion is fundamental to Tibetans and Buddhism is closely linked to their identity. We recognize the importance of separation of church and state, but this should not affect the freedom and practice of believers. It is impossible for Tibetans to imagine personal or community freedom without the freedom of belief, conscience and religion. The Constitution recognizes the importance of religion and protects the right to profess it. Article 36 guarantees all citizens the right to the freedom of religious belief. No one can compel another to believe in or not to believe in any religion. Discrimination on the basis of religion is forbidden. An interpretation of the constitutional principle in light of international standard would also cover the freedom of the manner of belief or worship. The freedom covers the right of monasteries to be organized and run according to Buddhist monastic tradition, to engage in teachings and studies, and to enroll any number of monks and nuns or age group in accordance with these rules. The normal practice to hold public teachings and the empowerment of large gatherings is covered by this freedom and the state should not interfere in religious practices and traditions, such as the relationship between a teacher and his disciple, management of monastic institutions, and the recognition of reincarnations. 4) Education The desire of Tibetans to develop and administer their own education system in cooperation and in coordination with the central governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ministry of education is supported by the principles contained in the Constitution with regard to education. So is the aspiration to engage in and contribute to the development of science and technology. We note the increasing recognition in international scientific development

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of the contribution which Buddhist psychology, metaphysics, cosmology and the understanding of the mind is making to modern science. Whereas, under Article 19 of the Constitution the state takes on the overall responsibility to provide education for its citizens, Article 119 recognizes the principle that â&#x20AC;&#x153;[T]he organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas independently administer educational .... affairs in their respective areas...â&#x20AC;? This principle is also reflected in Article 36 of the LRNA. Since the degree of autonomy in decision-making is unclear, the point to be emphasized is that the Tibetan need to exercise genuine autonomy with regard to its own nationalityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s education and this is supported by the principles of the constitution on autonomy. As for the aspiration to engage in and contribute to the development of scientific knowledge and technology, the Constitution (Article 119) and the LRNA (Article 39) clearly recognize the right of autonomous areas to develop scientific knowledge and technology. 5) Environment Protection Tibet is the prime source of Asia's great rivers. It also has the earth's loftiest mountains as well as the world's most extensive and highest plateau, rich in mineral resources, ancient forests, and many deep valleys untouched by human disturbances. This environmental protection practice was enhanced by the Tibetan people's traditional respect for all forms of life, which prohibits the harming of all sentient beings, whether human or animal. Tibet used to be an unspoiled wilderness sanctuary in a unique natural environment. Today, Tibet's traditional environment is suffering irreparable damage. The effects of this are especially notable on the grasslands, the croplands, the forests, the water resources and the wildlife. In view of this, according to Articles 45 and 66 of the LNRA, the Tibetan people should be given the right over the environment and allow them to follow their traditional conservation practices. 6) Utilization of Natural Resources With respect to the protection and management of the natural environment and the utilization of natural resources the Constitution and the LRNA only acknowledge a

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limited role for the organs of self-government of the autonomous areas (see LRNA Articles 27, 28, 45, 66, and Article 118 of the Constitution, which pledges that the state “shall give due consideration to the interests of [the national autonomous areas]]”. The LRNA recognizes the importance for the autonomous areas to protect and develop forests and grasslands (Article 27) and to “give priority to the rational exploitation and utilization of the natural resources that the local authorities are entitled to develop”, but only within the limits of state plans and legal stipulations. In fact, the central role of the State in these matters is reflected in the Constitution (Article 9). The principles of autonomy enunciated in the Constitution cannot, in our view, truly lead to Tibetans becoming masters of their own destiny if they are not sufficiently involved in decision-making on utilization of natural resources such as mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grasslands, etc. The ownership of land is the foundation on which the development of natural resources, taxes and revenues of an economy are based. Therefore, it is essential that only the nationality of the autonomous region shall have the legal authority to transfer or lease land, except land owned by the state. In the same manner, the autonomous region must have the independent authority to formulate and implement developmental plans concurrent to the state plans. 7) Economic Development and Trade Economic Development in Tibet is welcome and much needed. The Tibetan people remain one of the most economically backward regions within the PRC. The Constitution recognizes the principle that the autonomous authorities have an important role to play in the economic development of their areas in view of local characteristics and needs (Article 118 of the Constitution, also reflected in LRNA Article 25). The Constitution also recognizes the principle of autonomy in the administration and management of finances (Article 117, and LRNA Article 32). At the same time, the Constitution also recognizes the importance of providing State funding and assistance to the autonomous areas to accelerate development (Article 122, LRNA Article 22). Similarly, Article 31 of the LRNA recognizes the competence of autonomous areas, especially those such as Tibet, adjoining foreign countries, to conduct border trade as well as trade with foreign countries. The recognition of these principles is important to the Tibetan nationality given the region’s proximity to foreign countries with which the people have cultural, religious, ethnic and economic affinities.

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The assistance rendered by the Central Government and the provinces has temporary benefits, but in the long run if the Tibetan people are not self-reliant and become dependent on others it has greater harm. Therefore, an important objective of autonomy is to make the Tibetan people economically self-reliant. 8) Public health The Constitution enunciates the responsibility of the State to provide health and medical services (Article 21). Article 119 recognizes that this is an area of responsibility of the autonomous areas. The LRNA (Article 40) also recognizes the right of organs of self-government of the autonomous areas to â&#x20AC;&#x153;make independent decisions on plans for developing local medical and health services and for advancing both modern and the traditional medicine of the nationalities.â&#x20AC;? The existing health system fails to adequately cover the needs of the rural Tibetan population. According to the principles of the above-mentioned laws, the regional autonomous organs need to have the competencies and resources to cover the health need of the entire Tibetan population. They also need the competencies to promote the traditional Tibetan medical and astro system strictly according to traditional practice. 9) Public Security In matters of public security it is important that the majority of security personnel consist of members of the local nationality who understand and respect local customs and traditions. What is lacking in Tibetan areas is absence of decision-making authority in the hands of local Tibetan officials. An important aspect of autonomy and self-government is the responsibility for the internal public order and security of the autonomous areas. The Constitution (Article 120) and LRNA (Article 24) recognize the importance of local involvement and authorize autonomous areas to organize their security within "the military system of the State and practical needs and with the approval of the State Council." 10) Regulation on population migration The fundamental objective of national regional autonomy and self-government is the preservation of the identity, culture, language and so forth of the minority nationality and to ensure that it is the master of its own affairs. When applied to a particular territory in which the minority nationality lives in a concentrated community or communities, the very principle and purpose of national regional autonomy is disregarded if large scale migration and settlement of the majority Han nationality 185


and other nationalities is encouraged and allowed. Major demographic changes that result from such migration will have the effect of assimilating rather than integrating the Tibetan nationality into the Han nationality and gradually extinguishing the distinct culture and identity of the Tibetan nationality. Also, the influx of large numbers of Han and other nationalities into Tibetan areas will fundamentally change the conditions necessary for the exercise of regional autonomy since the constitutional criteria for the exercise of autonomy, namely that the minority nationality “live in compact communities” in a particular territory is changed and undermined by the population movements and transfers. If such migrations and settlements continue uncontrolled, Tibetans will no longer live in a compact community or communities and will consequently no longer be entitled, under the Constitution, to national regional autonomy. This would effectively violate the very principles of the Constitution in its approach to the nationalities issue. There is precedent in the PRC for restriction on the movement or residence of citizens. There is only a very limited recognition of the right of autonomous areas to work out measures to control “the transient population” in those areas. To us it would be vital that the autonomous organs of self-government have the authority to regulate the residence, settlement and employment or economic activities of persons who wish to move to Tibetan areas from other parts of the PRC in order to ensure respect for and the realization of the objectives of the principle of autonomy. It is not our intention to expel the non-Tibetans who have permanently settled in Tibet and have lived there and grown up there for a considerable time. Our concern is the induced massive movement of primarily Han but also some other nationalities into many areas of Tibet, upsetting existing communities, marginalizing the Tibetan population there and threatening the fragile natural environment. 11) Cultural, educational and religious exchanges with other countries Besides the importance of exchanges and cooperation between the Tibetan nationality and other nationalities, provinces, and regions of the PRC in the subject matters of autonomy, such as culture, art, education, science, public health, sports, religion, environment, economy and so forth, the power of autonomous areas to conduct such exchanges with foreign countries in these areas is also recognized in the LRNA (Article 42).

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V APPLICATION OF A SINGLE ADMINISTRATION FOR THE TIBETAN NATIONALITY IN THE PRC In order for the Tibetan nationality to develop and flourish with its distinct identity, culture and spiritual tradition through the exercise of self-government on the above mentioned basic Tibetan needs, the entire community, comprising all the areas currently designated by the PRC as Tibetan autonomous areas, should be under one single administrative entity. The current administrative divisions, by which Tibetan communities are ruled and administered under different provinces and regions of the PRC, foments fragmentation, promotes unequal development, and weakens the ability of the Tibetan nationality to protect and promote its common cultural, spiritual and ethnic identity. Rather than respecting the integrity of the nationality, this policy promotes its fragmentation and disregards the spirit of autonomy. Whereas the other major minority nationalities such as the Uighurs and Mongols govern themselves almost entirely within their respective single autonomous regions, Tibetans remain as if they were several minority nationalities instead of one. Bringing all the Tibetans currently living in designated Tibetan autonomous areas within a single autonomous administrative unit is entirely in accordance with the constitutional principle contained in Article 4, also reflected in the LRNA (Article 2), that “regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of minority nationalities live in concentrated communities.” The LRNA describes regional national autonomy as the “basic policy adopted by the Communist Party of China for the solution of the national question in China” and explains its meaning and intent in its Preface: the minority nationalities, under unified state leadership, practice regional autonomy in areas where they live in concentrated communities and set up organs of selfgovernment for the exercise of the power of autonomy. Regional national autonomy embodies the state’s full respect for and guarantee of the right of the minority nationalities to administer their internal affairs and its adherence to the principle of equality, unity and common prosperity of all nationalities. It is clear that the Tibetan nationality within the PRC will be able to exercise its right to govern itself and administer its internal affairs effectively only once it can do so through an organ of self-government that has jurisdiction over the Tibetan nationality as a whole. The LRNA recognizes the principle that boundaries of national autonomous areas may need to be modified. The need for the application of the fundamental principles of the Constitution on regional autonomy through respect of the integrity of the

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Tibetan nationality is not only totally legitimate, but the administrative changes that may be required to achieve this in no way violate constitutional principles. There are several precedents where this has been actually done.

VI THE NATURE AND STRUCTURE OF THE AUTONOMY The extent to which the right to self-government and self-administration can be exercised on the preceding subject matters largely determines the genuine character of Tibetan autonomy. The task at hand is therefore to look into the manner in which autonomy can be regulated and exercised for it to effectively respond to the unique situation and basic needs of the Tibetan nationality. The exercise of genuine autonomy would include the right of Tibetans to create their own regional government and government institutions and processes that are best suited to their needs and characteristics. It would require that the Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Congress of the autonomous region have the power to legislate on all matters within the competencies of the region (that is the subject matters referred to above) and that other organs of the autonomous government have the power to execute and administer decisions autonomously. Autonomy also entails representation and meaningful participation in national decision-making in the Central Government. Processes for effective consultation and close cooperation or joint decision-making between the Central Government and the regional government on areas of common interest also need to be in place for the autonomy to be effective. A crucial element of genuine autonomy is the guarantee the Constitution or other laws provide that powers and responsibilities allocated to the autonomous region cannot be unilaterally abrogated or changed. This means that neither the Central Government nor the autonomous regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s government should be able, without the consent of the other, to change the basic features of the autonomy. The parameters and specifics of such genuine autonomy for Tibet that respond to the unique needs and conditions of the Tibetan people and region should be set out in some detail in regulations on the exercise of autonomy, as provided for in Article 116 of the Constitution (enacted in LRNA Article 19) or, if it is found to be more appropriate, in a separate set of laws or regulations adopted for that purpose. The Constitution, including Article 31, provides the flexibility to adopt special laws to respond to unique situations such as the Tibetan one, while respecting the established social, economic and political system of the country.

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The Constitution in Section VI provides for organs of self-government of national autonomous regions and acknowledges their power to legislate. Thus Article 116 (enacted in Article 19 of the LRNA) refers to their power to enact “separate regulations in light of the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the nationality or nationalities in the areas concerned.” Similarly, the Constitution recognizes the power of autonomous administration in a number of areas (Article 117120) as well as the power of autonomous governments to apply flexibility in implementing the laws and policies of the Central Government and higher state organs to suit the conditions of the autonomous area concerned (Article 115). The above-mentioned legal provisions do contain significant limitations to the decision-making authority of the autonomous organs of government. But the Constitution nevertheless recognizes the principle that organs of self-government make laws and policy decisions that address local needs and that these may be different from those adopted elsewhere, including by the Central Government. Although the needs of the Tibetans are broadly consistent with the principles on autonomy contained in the Constitution, as we have shown, their realization is impeded because of the existence of a number of problems, which makes the implementation of those principles today difficult or ineffective. Implementation of genuine autonomy, for example, requires clear divisions of powers and responsibilities between the Central Government and the government of the autonomous region with respect to subject matter competency. Currently there is no such clarity and the scope of legislative powers of autonomous regions is both uncertain and severely restricted. Thus, whereas the Constitution intends to recognize the special need for autonomous regions to legislate on many matters that affect them, the requirements of Article 116 for prior approval at the highest level of the Central Government - by the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress (NPC) inhibit the implementation of this principle of autonomy. In reality, it is only autonomous regional congresses that expressly require such approval, while the congresses of ordinary (not autonomous) provinces of the PRC do not need prior permission and merely report the passage of regulations to the Standing Committee of the NPC “for the record” (Article 100). The exercise of autonomy is further subject to a considerable number of laws and regulations, according to Article 115 of the Constitution. Certain laws effectively restrict the autonomy of the autonomous region, while others are not always consistent with one another. The result is that the exact scope of the autonomy is unclear and is not fixed, since it is unilaterally changed with the enactment of laws

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and regulations are higher levels of the state, and even by changes in policy. There is also no adequate process for consultation or for settling differences that arise between the organs of the Central Government and of the regional government with respect to the scope and exercise of autonomy. In practice, the resulting uncertainty limits the initiative of regional authorities and impedes the exercise of genuine autonomy by Tibetans today. We do not at this stage wish to enter into details regarding these and other impediments to the exercise of genuine autonomy today by Tibetans, but mention them by way of example so that these may be addressed in the appropriate manner in our dialogue in the future. We will continue to study the Constitution and other relevant legal provisions and, when appropriate, will be pleased to provide further analysis of these issues, as we understand them.

VII THE WAY FORWARD As stated at the beginning of this memorandum, our intention is to explore how the needs of the Tibetan nationality can be met within the framework of PRC since we believe these needs are consistent with the principles of the Constitution on autonomy. As His Holiness the Dalai Lama stated on a number of occasions, we have no hidden agenda. We have no intention at all of using any agreement on genuine autonomy as stepping stone for separation from the PRC. The objective of the Tibetan Government in Exile is to represent the interests of the Tibetan people and to speak on their behalf. Therefore, it will no longer be needed and will be dissolved once an agreement is reached between us. In fact, His Holiness has reiterated his decision not to accept any political office in Tibet at any time in the future. His Holiness the Dalai Lama, nevertheless, plans to use all his personal influence to ensure such an agreement would have the legitimacy necessary to obtain the support of the Tibetan people. Given these strong commitments, we propose that the next step in this process be the agreement to start serious discussions on the points raised in this memorandum. For this purpose we propose that we discuss and agree on a mutually agreeable mechanism or mechanisms and a timetable to do so effectively. News & Articles from CTA's official website http://www.tibet.net/en/index.phpid=109&articletype=press Š TCRC

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Note on the Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People Beijing January 26 to 31, 2010

Introduction This Note addresses the principal concerns and objections raised by the Chinese Central Government regarding the substance of the Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People (hereinafter ‘the Memorandum’) which was presented to the Government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on October 31, 2008 at the eighth round of talks in Beijing. Having carefully studied the responses and reactions of Minister Du Qinglin and Executive Vice-Minister Zhu Weiqun conveyed during the talks, including the written Note, and in statements made by the Chinese Central Government following the talks, it seems that some issues raised in the Memorandum may have been misunderstood, while others appear to have not been understood by the Chinese Central Government. The Chinese Central Government maintains that the Memorandum contravenes the Constitution of the PRC as well as the ‘three adherences’ [1]. The Tibetan side believes that the Tibetan people’s needs, as set out in the Memorandum, can be met within the framework and spirit of the Constitution and its principles on autonomy and that these proposals do not contravene or conflict with the ‘three adherences’. We believe that the present Note will help to clarify this. His Holiness the Dalai Lama started internal discussions, as early as in 1974, to find ways to resolve the future status of Tibet through an autonomy arrangement instead of seeking independence. In 1979 Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping expressed willingness to discuss and resolve all issues except the independence of Tibet. Since then His Holiness the Dalai Lama has taken numerous initiatives to bring about a mutually acceptable negotiated solution to the question of Tibet. In doing so His Holiness the Dalai Lama has steadfastly followed the Middle-Way approach, which means the pursuit of a mutually acceptable and mutually beneficial solution through negotiations, in the spirit of reconciliation and compromise. The Five-Point Peace Plan and the Strasbourg Proposal were presented in this spirit. With the failure to elicit any positive response from the Chinese Central Government to these initiatives, along with the imposition of martial law in March 1989 and the deterioration of the situation in Tibet, His Holiness the Dalai Lama felt compelled to state in 1991 that his Strasbourg Proposal had become ineffectual. His Holiness the Dalai Lama nevertheless maintained his commitment to the Middle-Way approach.

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The re-establishment of a dialogue process between the Chinese Central Government and representatives of His Holiness the Dalai Lama in 2002 provided the opportunity for each side to explain their positions and to gain a better understanding of the concerns, needs and interests of the other side. Moreover, taking into consideration the Chinese Central Government’s real concerns, needs and interests, His Holiness the Dalai Lama has given much thought with due consideration to the reality of the situation. This reflects His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s flexibility, openness and pragmatism and, above all, sincerity and determination to seek a mutually beneficial solution. The Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People was prepared in response to the suggestion from the Chinese Central Government made at the seventh round of talks in July 2008. However, the Chinese Central Government’s reactions and main criticisms of the Memorandum appear to be based not on the merits of that proposal which was officially presented to it, but on earlier proposals that were made public as well as other statements made at different times and contexts. The Memorandum and the present Note strongly reemphasise that His Holiness the Dalai Lama is not seeking independence or separation but a solution within the framework of the Constitution and its principles on autonomy as reiterated many times in the past. The Special General Meeting of the Tibetans in Diaspora held in November 2008 in Dharamsala reconfirmed for the time being the mandate for the continuation of the dialogue process with the PRC on the basis of the Middle-Way approach. On their part, members of the international community urged both sides to return to the talks. A number of them expressed the opinion that the Memorandum can form a good basis for discussion. 1. Respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the PRC His Holiness the Dalai Lama has repeatedly stated that he is not seeking separation of Tibet from the People’s Republic of China, and that he is not seeking independence for Tibet. He seeks a sustainable solution within the PRC. This position is stated unambiguously in the Memorandum. The Memorandum calls for the exercise of genuine autonomy, not for independence, ‘semi-independence’ or ‘independence in disguised form’. The substance of the Memorandum, which explains what is meant by genuine autonomy, makes this unambiguously clear. The form and degree of autonomy proposed in the

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Memorandum is consistent with the principles on autonomy in the Constitution of the PRC. Autonomous regions in different parts of the world exercise the kind of selfgovernance that is proposed in the Memorandum, without thereby challenging or threatening the sovereignty and unity of the state of which they are a part. This is true of autonomous regions within unitary states as well as those with federal characteristics. Observers of the situation, including unbiased political leaders and scholars in the international community, have also acknowledged that the Memorandum is a call for autonomy within the PRC and not for independence or separation from the PRC. The Chinese government's viewpoint on the history of Tibet is different from that held by Tibetans and His Holiness the Dalai Lama is fully aware that Tibetans cannot agree to it. History is a past event and it cannot be altered. However, His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s position is forward-looking, not backward grasping. He does not wish to make this difference on history to be an obstacle in seeking a mutually beneficial common future within the PRC. The Chinese Central Government’s responses to the Memorandum reveal a persistent suspicion on its part that His Holiness’ proposals are tactical initiatives to advance the hidden agenda of independence. His Holiness the Dalai Lama is aware of the PRC’s concerns and sensitivities with regard to the legitimacy of the present situation in Tibet. For this reason His Holiness the Dalai Lama has conveyed through his Envoys and publicly stated that he stands ready to lend his moral authority to endow an autonomy agreement, once reached, with the legitimacy it will need to gain the support of the people and to be properly implemented. 2. Respecting the Constitution of the PRC The Memorandum explicitly states that the genuine autonomy sought by His Holiness the Dalai Lama for the Tibetan people is to be accommodated within the framework of the Constitution and its principles on autonomy, not outside of it. The fundamental principle underlying the concept of national regional autonomy is to preserve and protect a minority nationality’s identity, language, custom, tradition and culture in a multi-national state based on equality and cooperation. The Constitution provides for the establishment of organs of self-government where the national minorities live in concentrated communities in order for them to exercise the power of autonomy. In conformity with this principle, the White Paper on Regional Ethnic Autonomy in Tibet (May 2004), states that minority nationalities are “arbiters of their own destiny and masters of their own affairs”.

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Within the parameters of its underlying principles, a Constitution needs to be responsive to the needs of the times and adapt to new or changed circumstances. The leaders of the PRC have demonstrated the flexibility of the Constitution of the PRC in their interpretation and implementation of it, and have also enacted modifications and amendments in response to changing circumstances. If applied to the Tibetan situation, such flexibility would, as is stated in the Memorandum, indeed permit the accommodation of the Tibetan needs within the framework of the Constitution and its principles on autonomy. 3. Respecting the ‘three adherences’ The position of His Holiness the Dalai Lama as presented in the Memorandum, in no way challenges or brings into question the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party in the PRC. At the same time, it is reasonable to expect that, in order to promote unity, stability and a harmonious society, the Party would change its attitude of treating Tibetan culture, religion and identity as a threat. The Memorandum also does not challenge the socialist system of the PRC. Nothing in it suggests a demand for a change to this system or for its exclusion from Tibetan areas. As for His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s views on socialism, it is well known that he has always favoured a socialist economy and ideology that promotes equality and benefits to uplift the poorer sections of society. His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s call for genuine autonomy within the PRC recognises the principles on autonomy for minority nationalities contained in the Constitution of the PRC and is in line with the declared intent of those principles. As pointed out in the Memorandum, the current implementation of the provisions on autonomy, however, effectively results in the denial of genuine autonomy to the Tibetan and fails to provide for the exercise of the right of Tibetans to govern themselves and to be “masters of their own affairs.” Today, important decisions pertaining to the welfare of Tibetans are not being made by Tibetans. Implementing the proposed genuine autonomy explained in the Memorandum would ensure for the Tibetans the ability to exercise the right to true autonomy and therefore to become masters of their own affairs, in line with the Constitutional principles on autonomy. Thus, the Memorandum for genuine autonomy does not oppose the ‘three adherences’.

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4. Respecting the hierarchy and authority of the Chinese Central Government The proposals contained in the Memorandum in no way imply a denial of the authority of the National Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Congress (NPC) and other organs of the Chinese Central Government. As stated in the Memorandum, the proposal fully respects the hierarchical differences between the Central Government and its organs, including the NPC, and the autonomous government of Tibet. Any form of genuine autonomy entails a division and allocation of powers and responsibilities, including that of making laws and regulations, between the central and the autonomous local government. Of course, the power to adopt laws and regulations is limited to the areas of competency of the autonomous region. This is true in unitary states as well as in federal systems. This principle is also recognised in the Constitution. The spirit of the Constitutional provisions on autonomy is to give autonomous regions broader decision-making authority over and above that enjoyed by ordinary provinces. But today, the requirement for prior approval by the Standing Committee of the NPC for all laws and regulations of the autonomous regions (Art. 116 of the Constitution) is exercised in a way that in fact leaves the autonomous regions with much less authority to make decisions that suit local conditions than that of the ordinary (not autonomous) provinces of China. Whenever there is a division and allocation of decision-making power between different levels of government (between the Central Government and the autonomous government), it is important to have processes in place for consultation and cooperation. This helps to improve mutual understanding and to ensure that contradictions and possible inconsistencies in policies, laws and regulations are minimised. It also reduces the chances of disputes arising regarding the exercise of the powers allocated to these different organs of government. Such processes and mechanisms do not put the Central and autonomous governments on equal footing, nor do they imply the rejection of the leadership of the Central Government. The important feature of entrenchment of autonomy arrangements in the Constitution or in other appropriate ways also does not imply equality of status between the central and local government nor does it restrict or weaken the authority of the former. The measure is intended to provide (legal) security to both the autonomous and the central authorities that neither can unilaterally change the basic features of the autonomy they have set up, and that a process of consultation must take place at least for fundamental changes to be enacted.

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5. Concerns raised by the Chinese Central Government on specific competencies referred to in the Memorandum a) Public security Concern was raised over the inclusion of public security aspects in the package of competencies allocated to the autonomous region in the Memorandum because the government apparently interpreted this to mean defence matters. National defence and public security are two different matters. His Holiness the Dalai Lama is clear on the point that the responsibility for national defence of the PRC is and should remain with the Central Government. This is not a competency to be exercised by the autonomous region. This is indeed the case in most autonomy arrangements. The Memorandum in fact refers specifically to “internal public order and security,” and makes the important point that the majority of the security personnel should be Tibetans, because they understand the local customs and traditions. It also helps to curb local incidents leading to disharmony among the nationalities. The Memorandum in this respect is consistent with the principle enunciated in Article 120 of the Constitution (reflected also in Article 24 of the LRNA), which states: “The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas may, in accordance with the military system of the state and practical local needs and with approval of the State Council, organise local public security forces for the maintenance of public order.” It should also be emphasised in this context that the Memorandum at no point proposes the withdrawal of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) from Tibetan areas. b) Language The protection, use, and development of the Tibetan language are one of the crucial issues for the exercise of genuine autonomy by Tibetans. The emphasis on the need to respect Tibetan as the main or principal language in the Tibetan areas is not controversial, since a similar position is expressed in the Chinese Central Government’s White Paper on Regional Ethnic Autonomy in Tibet, where it is stated that regulations adopted by the Tibet regional government prescribe that “equal attention be given to Tibetan and Han-Chinese languages in the Tibetan Autonomous region, with the Tibetan language as the major one...” (emphasis added). Moreover, the very usage of “main language” in the Memorandum clearly implies the use of other languages, too.

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The absence of a demand in the Memorandum that Chinese should also be used and taught should not be interpreted as an “exclusion” of this language, which is the principal and common language in the PRC as a whole. It should also be noted in this context that the leadership in exile has taken steps to encourage Tibetans in exile to learn Chinese. Tibetan proposal which emphasises the study of the Tibetan people’s own language should therefore not be interpreted as being a “separatist view”. c) Regulation of population migration The Memorandum proposes that the local government of the autonomous region should have the competency to regulate the residence, settlement and employment or economic activities of persons who wish to move to Tibetan areas from elsewhere. This is a common feature of autonomy and is certainly not without precedent in the PRC. A number of countries have instituted systems or adopted laws to protect vulnerable regions or indigenous and minority peoples from excessive immigration from other parts of the country. The Memorandum explicitly states that it is not suggesting the expulsion of non-Tibetans who have lived in Tibetan areas for years. His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Kashag also made this clear in earlier statements, as did the Envoys in their discussions with their Chinese counterparts. In an address to the European Parliament on December 4, 2008, His Holiness the Dalai Lama reiterated that “our intention is not to expel non-Tibetans. Our concern is the induced mass movement of primarily Han, but also some other nationalities, into many Tibetan areas, which in turn marginalises the native Tibetan population and threatens Tibet’s fragile environment.” From this it is clear that His Holiness is not at all suggesting that Tibet be inhabited by only Tibetans, with other nationalities not being able to do so. The issue concerns the appropriate division of powers regarding the regulation of transient, seasonal workers and new settlers so as to protect the vulnerable population indigenous to Tibetan areas. In responding to the Memorandum the Chinese Central Government rejected the proposition that the autonomous authorities would regulate the entrance and economic activities of persons from other parts of the PRC in part because “in the Constitution and the Law on Regional National Autonomy there are no provisions to restrict transient population.” In fact, the Law on Regional National Autonomy, in its Article 43, explicitly mandates such a regulation:

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“In accordance with legal stipulations, the organs of self-government of national autonomous areas shall work out measures for control of the transient population.” Thus, the Tibetan proposal contained in the Memorandum in this regard is not incompatible with the Constitution. d) Religion The point made in the Memorandum, that Tibetans be free to practice their religion according to their own beliefs, is entirely consistent with the principles of religious freedom contained in the Constitution of the PRC. It is also consistent with the principle of separation of religion and polity adopted in many countries of the world. Article 36 of the Constitution guarantees that no one can “compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in any religion.” We endorse this principle but observe that today the government authorities do interfere in important ways in the ability of Tibetans to practice their religion. The spiritual relationship between master and student and the giving of religious teachings, etc. are essential components of the Dharma practice. Restricting these is a violation of religious freedom. Similarly, the interference and direct involvement by the state and its institutions in matters of recognition of reincarnated lamas, as provided in the regulation on the management of reincarnated lamas adopted by the State on July 18, 2007 is a grave violation of the freedom of religious belief enshrined in the Constitution. The practice of religion is widespread and fundamental to the Tibetan people. Rather than seeing Buddhist practice as a threat, concerned authorities should respect it. Traditionally or historically Buddhism has always been a major unifying and positive factor between the Tibetan and Chinese peoples. e) Single administration The desire of Tibetans to be governed within one autonomous region is fully in keeping with the principles on autonomy of the Constitution. The rationale for the need to respect the integrity of the Tibetan nationality is clearly stated in the Memorandum and does not mean “Greater or Smaller Tibet”. In fact, as pointed out in the Memorandum, the Law on Regional National Autonomy itself allows for this kind of modification of administrative boundaries if proper procedures are followed. Thus the proposal in no way violates the Constitution. 198


As the Envoys pointed out in earlier rounds of talks, many Chinese leaders, including Premier Zhou Enlai, Vice Premier Chen Yi and Party Secretary Hu Yaobang, supported the consideration of bringing all Tibetan areas under a single administration. Some of the most senior Tibetan leaders in the PRC, including the 10th Panchen Lama, Ngapo Ngawang Jigme and Bapa Phuntsok Wangyal have also called for this and affirming that doing so would be in accordance with the PRCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Constitution and its laws. In 1956 a special committee, which included senior Communist Party member Sangye Yeshi (Tian Bao), was appointed by the Chinese Central Government to make a detailed plan for the integration of the Tibetan areas into a single autonomous region, but the work was later stopped on account of ultraleftist elements. The fundamental reason for the need to integrate the Tibetan areas under one administrative region is to address the deeply-felt desire of Tibetans to exercise their autonomy as a people and to protect and develop their culture and spiritual values in this context. This is also the fundamental premise and purpose of the Constitutional principles on regional national autonomy as reflected in Article 4 of the Constitution. Tibetans are concerned about the integrity of the Tibetan nationality, which the proposal respects and which the continuation of the present system does not. Their common historical heritage, spiritual and cultural identity, language and even their particular affinity to the unique Tibetan plateau environment is what binds Tibetans as one nationality. Within the PRC, Tibetans are recognized as one nationality and not several nationalities. Those Tibetans presently living in Tibet autonomous prefectures and counties incorporated into other provinces also belong to the same Tibetan nationality. Tibetans, including His Holiness the Dalai Lama, are primarily concerned about the protection and development of Tibetan culture, spiritual values, national identity and the environment. Tibetans are not asking for the expansion of Tibetan autonomous areas. They are only demanding that those areas already recognised as Tibetan autonomous areas come under a single administration, as is the case in the other autonomous regions of the PRC. So long as Tibetans do not have the opportunity to govern themselves under a single administration, preservation of Tibetan culture and way of life cannot be done effectively. Today more than half of the Tibetan population is subjected to the priorities and interests first and foremost of different provincial governments in which they have no significant role. As explained in the Memorandum, the Tibetan people can only genuinely exercise regional national autonomy if they can have their own autonomous government, peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s congress and other organs of self-government with jurisdiction over the Tibetan nationality as a whole. This principle is reflected in the Constitution, which recognises the right of minority nationalities to practice regional autonomy â&#x20AC;&#x153;in areas 199


where they live in concentrated communities” and to “set up organs of selfgovernment for the exercise of the power of autonomy,” (Article 4). If the “state’s full respect for and guarantee of the right of the minority nationalities to administer their internal affairs” solemnly declared in the preamble of the Law on Regional National Autonomy is interpreted not to include the right to choose to form an autonomous region that encompasses the whole people in the contiguous areas where its members live in concentrated communities, the Constitutional principles on autonomy are themselves undermined. Keeping Tibetans divided and subject to different laws and regulations denies the people the exercise of genuine autonomy and makes it difficult for them to maintain their distinct cultural identity. It is not impossible for the Central Government to make the necessary administrative adjustment when elsewhere in the PRC, notably in the case of Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Guangxi Autonomous Regions, it has done just that. f) Political, social and economic system His Holiness the Dalai Lama has repeatedly and consistently stated that no one, least of all he, has any intention to restore the old political, social and economic system that existed in Tibet prior to 1959. It would be the intention of a future autonomous Tibet to further improve the social, economic and political situation of Tibetans, not to return to the past. It is disturbing and puzzling that the Chinese government persists, despite all evidence to the contrary, to accuse His Holiness the Dalai Lama and his Administration of the intention to restore the old system. All countries and societies in the world, including China, have had political systems in the past that would be entirely unacceptable today. The old Tibetan system is no exception. The world has evolved socially and politically and has made enormous strides in terms of the recognition of human rights and standards of living. Tibetans in exile have developed their own modern democratic system as well as education and health systems and institutions. In this way, Tibetans have become citizens of the world at par with those of other countries. It is obvious that Tibetans in the PRC have also advanced under Chinese rule and improved their social, education, health and economic situation. However, the standard of living of the Tibetan people remains the most backward in the PRC and Tibetan human rights are not being respected.

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4. Recognising the core issue His Holiness the Dalai Lama and other members of the exiled leadership have no personal demands to make. His Holiness the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s concern is with the rights and welfare of the Tibetan people. Therefore, the fundamental issue that needs to be resolved is the faithful implementation of genuine autonomy that will enable the Tibetan people to govern themselves in accordance with their own genius and needs. His Holiness the Dalai Lama speaks on behalf of the Tibetan people, with whom he has a deep and historical relationship and one based on full trust. In fact, on no issue are Tibetans as completely in agreement as on their demand for the return of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Tibet. It cannot be disputed that His Holiness the Dalai Lama legitimately represents the Tibetan people, and he is certainly viewed as their true representative and spokesperson by them. It is indeed only by means of dialogue with His Holiness the Dalai Lama that the Tibetan issue can be resolved. The recognition of this reality is important. This emphasises the point, often made by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, that his engagement for the cause of Tibet is not for the purpose of claiming certain personal rights or political position for him, nor attempting to stake claims for the Tibetan administration in exile. Once an agreement is reached, the Tibetan Government-inExile will be dissolved and the Tibetans working in Tibet should carry on the main responsibility of administering Tibet. His Holiness the Dalai Lama made it clear on numerous occasions that he will not hold any political position in Tibet. 7. His Holiness the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s co-operation His Holiness the Dalai Lama has offered, and remains prepared, to formally issue a statement that would serve to allay the Chinese Central Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s doubts and concerns as to his position and intentions on matters that have been identified above. The formulation of the statement should be done after ample consultations between representatives of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Chinese Central Government, respectively, to ensure that such a statement would satisfy the fundamental needs of the Chinese Central Government as well as those of the Tibetan people.It is important that both parties address any concern directly with their counterparts, and not use those issues as ways to block the dialogue process as has occurred in the past. His Holiness the Dalai Lama is taking this initiative in the belief that it is possible to find common ground with the People's Republic of China consistent with the principles on autonomy contained in PRC's Constitution and with the interests of the 201


Tibetan people. In that spirit, it is the expectation and hope of His Holiness the Dalai Lama that the representatives of the PRC will use the opportunity presented by the Memorandum and this Note to deepen discussion and make substantive progress in order to develop mutual understanding. ****************************

[1] The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;three adherencesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as stipulated by the Central Government are: (1) the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party; (2) the socialism with Chinese characteristics; and (3) the Regional National Autonomy system. Note on the Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People was formally presented by the Envoys of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to their Chinese counterparts during the ninth round of dialogue in Beijing, PRC. Posted by Information and International Relations, CTA on Thursday, 18 February 2010

Please read Introduction to the Nature, Evolution and Achievement of the Middle-Way Policy published by CTA Dharamsala, India

Special Envoy of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Kasur Lodi Gyari, with Envoy Kelsang Gyaltsen during their meeting with Vice Chairman of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Du Qinglin during their meeting on 30 January 2010 afternoon. (Photo credit DIIR/CTA)

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His Holiness the Dalai Lama's Envoys Kasur Lodi Gyari and Kelsang Gyaltsen and their team in discussion with executive Vice Minister Zhu Weiqun and Vice Minister Sithar with their team on 31 January 2010. (Photo credit DIIR/CTA)

Special Envoy of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Kasur Lodi Gyari (5th from the left) with (from his right) Envoy Kelsang Gyaltsen, Tenzin P. Atisha, Bhuchung K Tsering and Jigmey Passang with Vice Chairman of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Du Qinglin and (from his left) Executive Vice-Minister Zhu Weiqun, Vice-Minister Sithar, Vice-Chairman of Tibet Autonomous Region People's Congress Nyima Tsering, Secretary General of the United Front Chang Rongjun and Deputy Secretary of the United Front An Qi Yi following session on 30 January 2010 afternoon/Photo:DIIR/CTA

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Suggested readings for details

Why the Dalai Lama Matters His Act of Truth as the Solution for China, Tibet, and the World Synopsis: His Holiness the Dalai Lama is an extraordinary example of a life dedicated to peace, non-violence, and unity. Why the Dalai Lama Matters explores just why he has earned the world's love and respect, and how restoring Tibet's autonomy within China is not only possible, but highly reasonable, and absolutely necessary. In the few decades since the illegal Chinese invasion of Tibet, Tibetans have seen their ecosystem destroyed, their religion, language, and culture repressed, and systematic violence against anyone who dares acknowledge Tibetan sovereignty. Yet, above it all, the Dalai Lama has been a consistent voice for peace. His inter-religious dialogues, honest, humble demeanor, and sense of compassionate justice sets him apart in a world at war with itself.

Samdhong Rinpoche Uncompromising Truth for a Compromised World By Robert, Donovan

Synopsis: This book presents the views of the first elected prime minister of the Tibetan government in exile, a Tibetan Lama who is deeply committed to non-violence and to bringing spiritual values to politics.

Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Tibet Policy Author(s): Dawa Norbu Synopsis: An important new study by a leading Tibetan scholar of the historical Sino-Tibetan relationship, analyzing the question in a wider international context, and examining possible avenues of solution.

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Tibet Unconquered An Epic Struggle for Freedom Author(s): Wolff, Diane The author explores the status of Tibet over eight hundred years of history. From the Mongol invasion, to the emergence of the Dalai Lama, Wolff investigates the history of political and economic relations between China and Tibet. She creates a forward-thinking blueprint for resolving the China and Tibet problem, grounded in the history of the region and the reality of today's political environment that could guide both countries to peace.

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GOVERNMENT RESOLUTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS ON TIBET (UP TO 1989) The Nobel Peace Prize Norwegian Nobel Committee, Oct.5, 1989 United States Congress, Oct. 5, 1989

His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s Peace Proposals Five Point Peace Plan, Sept. 21, 1987 Strasbourg Proposal, June 15, 1988

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1353 (XIV), Oct. 21, 1959 Resolution 1723 (XVI), Dec. 20, 1961 Resolution 2079 (XX), 1965

Parliamentary Resolutions European Parliament, Oct. 14, 1987 Council of Europe, Oct. 5, 1988 European Parliament, March 15, 1989

United States United States Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Dec. 22, 1987 United States Congress, Sept. 16, 1988 United States Congress, March 15, 1989 United States Congress, May 16, 1989

West Germany and Italy Bundestag, Oct. 15, 1987 Parliament, April 12, 1989

International Commission of Jurists The Question of Tibet and Rule of Law, 1959 Tibet and Chinese People’s Republic, 1960

U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 U.N. Declaration of the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and People, 1960 List of U.N. Conventions Signed by the People’s Republic of China Please read Government Resolutions and International Documents on Tibet by Office of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, published in December 1989. 206


MAJOR TIBETAN NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Tibetan Youth Congress (TYC) www.tibetanyouthcongress.org Tibetan Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Association (WTA) www.tibetanwomen.org National Democratic Party of Tibet (NDPT) www.ndp4tibet.org Gu-Chu-Sum Movement www.tibet.org/Resources/TSG/Groups/guchusum.html

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List of Global Tibet Support Groups Please visit www.tibet.org/Resources/TSG for Tibet Support Groups Global Directory: Africa, Asia, Australia/South Specific/Europe/North America/ South America. The list can be viewed in different world languages.

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ENVIRONMENTAL DEVASTATION IN TIBET AS A RESULT OF CHINESE OCCUPATION In 1949/1950, the Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Republic of China invaded and has occupied Tibet in violation of international laws and norms. The ensuing cycle of resistance and repression culminated in a national uprising against the Chinese on March 10, 1959. Over an 18 month period, troops brutally killed over 87,000 Tibetans in the central part of Tibet alone. His Holiness the Dalai Lama and 80,000 Tibetans were forced into exile. Well over half of Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s original territory has been incorporated into the contiguous Chinese provinces with only Central Tibet (U-Tsang) and parts of Eastern Tibet (Kham) remaining as the so-called Tibet Autonomous Region. WILDLIFE DECIMATION: Prior to the Chinese invasion, there existed a strict ban on the hunting of wild animals in Tibet. The Chinese have not enforced such restrictions. Indeed, the trophy hunting of endangered species has been actively encouraged. Rare Tibetan animals, such as the snow leopard are hunted for their fur and sold for large sums of money in the international market. A permit to hunt a rare Tibetan antelope is US$35,000 and an argali sheep US$23,000. Deer antlers, musk, bones and other parts of the wild animals are used in Chinese medicine. A large number of antelope, gazelle, blue sheep and wild yak are being poached by hunters to supply meat to markets in China, Hong Kong and Europe. China is monopolizing international attention and using the giant panda to earn hard cash as well as to gain political leverage from influential countries, even as the species is threatened with extinction. China announced on 17 August 1995 that it will give two giant pandas to Hong Kong in 1997 to mark the change of sovereignty. Earlier, China gave two pandas to the then British Prime Minister, Edward Heath and a pair to the US President Richard Nixon. There are now only about 1,000 giant pandas left in the wild. According to a Chinese researcher, there are eighty-one endangered species on the Tibetan Plateau, which includes 39 mammals, 37 birds, 4 amphibians and 1 reptile. Only after the last tree has been cut down, only after the last rivers has been poisoned, only after the last fish has been caught, only then will we realize that money can not be eaten. Cree Indian Prophecy DEFORESTATION: Parts of southern and eastern Tibet boast some of the best quality forest reserves in the world. Large fertile forest belts contain trees with an average height of 90 feet and average girth of 5 feet or more. Although they took hundreds of years to mature, they are now indiscriminately destroyed in the name of

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?development?. An estimated 70,000 Chinese work in this industry. Similar conditions prevail in other regions of Tibet such as Markham, Gyarong, Nyarong and other areas in the Eastern and Kongpo regions of Tibet. Tibet had 25.2 million hectares of forests in 1959, but only 13.57 million hectares in 1985; a 46 percent drop. Regrettably, this figure grows each day. By Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own estimate, up to 80 percent of the forests in Tibet have been destroyed. The Chinese have removed over US$54 billion worth of timber from Tibet between 1959-1985 and, due to mismanagement; much of the wood has been simply left to rot on riverbanks or in logjams. Reforestation is minimal and is often unsuccessful. Massive deforestation, mining and intensified agricultural patterns in Tibet contribute to increased soil erosion. Deposition of silt in rivers that flow from the Plateau causes siltation downstream throughout the continent raises riverbeds to cause major floods and increases the chances for landslides. The Yangtze flood in 1998, which claimed the lives of thousands and resulted in an economic loss of US$37 billion, was blamed by President Jiang Zemin on the rampant deforestation on the Tibetan Plateau. Additionally, scientists associate frequent floods that devastate Bangladesh as being directly associated with deforestation in Tibet. The impact of the Tibetan Plateau on the global climatic pattern is significant. Scientists have observed that there is a correlation between natural vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau and the stability of the monsoon. Monsoon rain is indispensable for the bread-baskets of south Asia. However, strong monsoon rain causes havoc in these regions in the form of floods, erosions and landslides. Scientists have shown that the environment of the Tibetan Plateau affects the global jet streams that blow over it. This in turn may cause Pacific typhoons and the ?El Nino? (warm ocean current) phenomenon, which stirs up ocean water and disrupts ecosystems in North and South America, Australia and Africa. AGRICULTURAL MISMANAGEMENT: During the 1960s, the Chinese imposed agricultural reforms on Tibetans in Tibet, which led to widespread famine throughout the country. High altitude overgrazing and intensive agricultural production has resulted in the loss of many medicinal herbs and food plants, and has destroyed much of the winter food supply. These programs have also caused wind and water erosions, which leads to desertification. According to Chinese estimates, approximately 120,000 square kilometers in China and Tibet have become desert as a result of human activity. Of the available rangeland in Tibet, at least 30 percent is considered degraded.

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Chinese authorities reportedly are forcing Tibetan farmers to buy and use chemical fertilizers and insecticides. Tibetan farmers claim that these fertilizers are highly harmful to the crops as well as to the environment. We are at war with Nature and if by chance we win the war, we shall be the losers. E.F. Schumacher, Author of Small is Beautiful. POPULATION TRANSFER PROGRAMMES: One of the greatest threats to Tibetan people, culture and environment is the massive influx of Chinese civilians and military personnel into Tibet, especially through population transfer programs. In 1949, the Tibetan capital, Lhasa, had approximately 1,000 Chinese inhabitants, however today their population has skyrocketed to 200,000 and Chinese in Lhasa outnumber Tibetans 3:1. Throughout Tibet itself, the 6 million Tibetans are outnumbered in their own country by the 7.5 million Chinese. As a result of this population transfer, Tibetans have been marginalized in economic, educational, political and social spheres and the rich cultural tradition of the Tibetan people is rapidly disappearing. In 2000, China had hoped to receive a US$40 million loan from the World Bank to resettle 60,000 ethnic Chinese into northeastern Tibet. A swelling of world-wide support educated many on Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population transfer programs and persuaded the World Bank to drop the project. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports of Development projects, a common assessment required in other countries are non-existent under the totalitarian Chinese regime. On top of this, these development projects serve to benefit the Chinese immigrants and encourage their immigration further into Tibet, thus reducing Tibetans to second-class citizens in their own country and violating the fundamental rights of the Tibetan people. HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS: About 100 kilometers southwest of Lhasa is one of Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most unsustainable and environmentally catastrophic development projects?. The hydroelectric station at Yamdrok Tso (Yamdrok Lake) will cause this lake, which is sacred to Tibetan Buddhists, to dry up. In 1993, the fresh water springs in the area became dry and Tibetan villagers were forced to drink the water from Yamdrok Tso. This resulted in health problems such as diarrhea, loss of hair and skin diseases. Tibetans living in the area lost 16% of their agricultural land permanently to the project. It has been estimated that the lake will be drained completely within 20 years. This project is a clear example of the top down totalitarian Chinese approach, which

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displays a blatant disregard for the welfare of Tibetan people, their environment and their cultural and religious convictions. This project is a clear example of the top down totalitarian Chinese approach, which displays a blatant disregard for the welfare of Tibetan people, their environment and their cultural and religious convictions.

NUCLEARIZATION AND MILITARIZATION The existence of nuclear waste in Tibet was denounced by His Holiness the Dalai Lama at a press conference in Bangalore, India, in 1992. Beijing as usual, denied the existence of any nuclear waste dumping in Tibet. However, recently China had admitted to dumping of nuclear waste in Tibet. Chinese official news agency, Xinhua reported on 19 July 1995 that there is a "20 square meter dump for radioactive pollutants" in Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture near the shores of lake Kokonor, the largest lake on the Tibetan Plateau. In 1984, China Nuclear Industry Corporation offered Western countries nuclear waste disposal facilities at US $ 1500 per kilogram. The reports suggested that around 4000 tones of such nuclear waste would be sent to China by the end of the 20th century (Nucleonic Week 1984). The "Ninth Academy" or "Factory 211" or "North Nuclear Weapons Research and Design Academy" is China's top secret nuclear city adjacent to the town of Haiyan in the Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Amdo (Qinghai Province). Dr. Tashi Dolma worked at the Chabcha Hospital, directly south of the nuclear city and reported that seven children of nomads whose cattle grazed near the academy developed cancer that caused their white-blood-cell count to rise uncontrollably. An American doctor conducting research at the same hospital reported that these symptoms were similar to cancers caused by radiation after Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings in 1945. In the year 1989-1990, 50 people died in Thewo, Amdo all from mysterious causes. Twelve women gave birth in summer 1990 and every child was dead or died during birth. A Tibetan woman named Tsering Doma, aged 30, has given birth 7 times and not a single child has survived. All of China's openly documented nuclear tests have been carried out at Lopnor in Xinjiang province, northwest of Tibet. These tests have been linked to the increase in cancer and birth defects, but no medical investigations have been carried out. 212


According to International Campaign for Tibet (ICT), the first nuclear weapon was brought onto the Tibetan Plateau in 1971 and stationed in the Tsaidam (Ch:Qaidam) Basin, north Amdo. Several reports have claimed that nuclear missiles are stationed at Nagchuka,150 miles north of Lhasa. It was also confirmed there are three nuclear missile deployment sites in Amdo which are at Large Taidam, Small Tsaidam and Terlingkha (Ch:Delingha) which house Dong Feng Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (DF- ICBMs )with a range of 7,000 km. Tsaidam basin is known to be one of the most advantageous deployment sites for China because of its high altitude and isolation. A new missile production centre is located at Drotsang (Ch: Ledu), 63 km east of Siling (Ch: Xining). It has been producing anti- frigate missiles which are being tested in Lake Kokonor and the secret code number of this Centre is 430 (Chutter 1998). It was stated that 20 intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBM) and 70 medium range (MRBM) were stationed in Nagchuka. It is reported to have the largest airforce unit stationed at any secluded site. The sophisticated underground storage complex of Dhoti Phu, 3.5 km northwest of Drapchi Prison reported contains missiles known as di due kong (ground to air) and di dui di (surface to surface). A large underground missile storage centre is located at Payi town in Kongpo Nyingtri, TAR and the secret code number is 809 (Ch: Pa Ling Jue). During mock military exercise, a large number of such missiles are taken out of the complex which is mounted on 20 trucks and some of which had fins. During these exercises, missiles were launched vertically and horizontally to hit pre-arranged targets (chutter, 1998). Once a peaceful buffer state between India and China, Tibet has been militarized to the point of holding at least 300,000 Chinese troops and up to 1/4 of China's nuclear missile force. The militarization of the Tibetan Plateau profoundly affects the geopolitical balance of the region and cause serious international tension. The Chinese military presence includes: • • • •

An estimated 300,000 to 500,000 troops of which 200,000 are permanently stationed in the so called Tibet Autonomous Region. 17 secret radar stations and 14 military airfields. 8 missiles bases (Nyingtri in Kongpo, Lhasa, Drotsang, Siling,Terlingkha, Small Tsaidam, Large Tsaidam, Golmud and Nagchuka) At least 81 ICBMs, 70 medium- range missiles and 20 intermediate range missiles

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WHY SAVE TIBETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S ENVIRONMENT? Tibet, popularly known as the "Roof of the World", existed for over 2,000 years as a sovereign nation, with its three administrative regions, Kham, Amdo and U-Tsang, spanning 2.5 million sq. km. Communist China invaded the country in 1949. And today Beijing refers only to the so-called Tibet Autonomous Region (1.2 million sq. km) created in 1965 as "Tibet". The Tibetan Plateau is the highest and largest plateau on earth and towers over the continent of Eurasia. It is home to over 5,000 higher plant species and over 12,000 species of vascular plants, 532 different species of birds, 126 identified minerals and has rich old growth forests. It is also the source of many of Asia's major rivers whose tributaries are the lifeblood of millions of people in the Asian continent. Our research figures show that rivers originating from Tibet sustain the lives of 47 per cent of the world's population. Thus, the environmental issue of Tibet is not an inconsequential regional issue; it has a huge global significance warranting international attention. Scientists have shown that the environment of the Tibetan Plateau affects the global jet streams that blow over it. This in turn causes Pacific typhoons and the El Nino (warm ocean current) phenomenon, which stirs up ocean water causing disruption to marine food chains, affecting the weather patterns and the economy of Peru, Ecuador and the California coastline of USA, while New Zealand, Australia, India and Southern Africa reel under dreadful drought. It also has an important influence on the monsoon, which provides essential rainfall for the breadbaskets of South Asia to meet the food needs of millions of people. The monsoon contributes 70 per cent to India's annual rainfall. But excessive rain leads to flooding while little or no rain causes drought and famine in South Asia. Ever since the Chinese occupation of Tibet, widespread environmental destruction has taken place due to logging of virgin forests, uncontrolled mining, water pollution and nuclear waste dumping, which has resulted in the degradation of grasslands, extinction of wildlife, desertification, floods, soil erosion and landslides. Also, the transfer of huge numbers of Chinese settlers into Tibet demonstrates the colonial nature of Chinese rule. Under such a system, Tibetans have been marginalized in the economic, educational, political and social spheres and Tibet's rich culture and traditions are rapidly disappearing.

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Given the high altitude and the extreme climatic conditions of Tibet, the damage caused to the environment and the fragile mountain ecosystem is becoming irreversible. This is a cause of great concern not only for the Tibetan people; it has much larger ramifications. More than ever before, the need to save the Tibetan Plateau from ecological devastation is urgent because it is not a question of the survival of Tibetans, but half of humanity is at stake. It is for this reason that His Holiness the Dalai Lama included the protection of Tibet's environment as one of the points in his Five-Point Peace Plan for Tibet, and spoke of Tibet becoming an oasis of peace and non-violence where man and nature will coexist harmoniously. Through extensive research this report details the destruction of Tibet's environment and the inherent dangers to our planet today. We hope this publication will fill a knowledge gap and help increase ecological awareness about Tibet to save its unique and fragile environment. Source: Department of Information and International Relations, Dharamsala, India

Please go to page 13, Environmental Conditions to know the environmental conditions in Tibet before the Chinese in invasion 1949 and occupation in 1959.

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/ë+-,$-#Ü-+-P7Ü-#,<-Y$<Ê THE CURRENT SITUATION IN TIBET

Please visit the following websites for information on current situation of Tibet Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala Tibetonline.tv Tibet.net Tibetan Parliament in Exile, Dharamsala Chithu.org International Campaign for Tibet, Washington D.C. USA www.savetibet.org

Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy, Dharamsala, India www.tchrd.org

Students for a Free Tibet, New York, USA www.studentsforafreetibet.org

International Tibet Network www.tibetnetwork.org Phayul.com

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Suggested readings for details

Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Last Stand? The Tibetan Uprising of 2008 and China's Response Author(s): Smith, Warren Synopsis: This deeply knowledgeable book offers the first sustained analysis of the 2008 uprising in Tibet, which revealed much about Tibetan nationalism and even more about Chinese nationalism. Retracing the complex history between China and Tibet, noted and respected expert Warren Smith describes the uprising itself and explores its broader significance for Chinese-Tibetan relations. He sharply criticizes China's use of heavy-handed propaganda to recast the uprising and obscure its origins and significance. The book convincingly shows that far from becoming more lenient in response to Tibetan discontent, China has determined to eradicate Tibetan opposition internally and coerce the international community to conform to China's version of Tibetan history and reality.

Hostile Elements A Study of Political Imprisonment in Tibet: 1987-1998 Author(s): Marshall, Steven D and Tibet Information Network Synopsis: A thorough treatment, with data, charts and statistical analysis.

Freeing Tibet 50 Years of Struggle, Resilience, and Hope Author(s): Roberts, John B and Elizabeth A. Roberts Synopsis: This is the story of the fifty-year long struggle for the Tibetan cause, from its Cold War beginnings to the present.

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Suppressing Dissent: Hostile Elements II Political Imprisonment in Tibet, 1987-2000 Author(s): Tibet Information Network and Marshall, Steven D Synopsis: This report describes how the trend of declining numbers of political prisoners in Tibet is shaped by hardline political campaigns, severity of punishment in prisons and stringent security policies in Tibetan regions.

Tibet's War of Peace: A Nation's Nonviolent Struggle for Freedom By Dennis Cusack -------------------In Tibet's War of Peace, Dennis Cusack tells the story of the people and events behind the world's best-known but least understood contemporary nonviolent campaign. Cusack describes its evolution, its philosophical foundation, and its political realities. He concludes with a provocative vision of its possible future.

Tibet and China in the Treaty from Century John Heath's overview lends perspective to this conflict through an impartial examination of the situation as it stands, as well as to how it has arrived at the present state of affairs. Heath enquires into the origin of Mao Zedong's influences, rise to power and eventual decision to invade Tibet and examines Chinese policy towards the country from Mao's time right up to the recent change of administration headed by Hu Jintao. Simultaneously, Heath reports on the various changes Tibetans have faced in modern times, from eroding cultural traditions and ecology to economic development. The second part of the book addresses the contentious human-rights aspect to China's actions in Tibet, and explores the very real, and realistic, question of how to actually negotiate with China.

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SELF-IMMOLATIONS BY TIBETANS Last Updated: April 16, 2014, 14:47 EST (Source: International Campaign for Tibet, Washington DC, USA) This list provides summary details of the self-immolations by Tibetans in the PRC since February, 2009 (all except one, by a Tibetan woman in Beijing, have taken place in Tibet). A list below provides details of self-immolations by Tibetans in exile. The Chinese authorities in Tibet have intensified measures to prevent information reaching the outside world about the self-immolations. This has been combined with a more aggressive and formalized response to the self-immolations, involving harsh sentencing and torture for those suspected of involvement, even if that is simply bearing witness. Due to this climate, it is impossible for this list to be fully comprehensive, and it is indicated on the list where circumstances of the selfimmolations are not fully known. A map marking the locations of the self-immolations in Tibet can be viewed here. For further information and details of the lives of a number of those who self-immolated and the statements they left behind. (ICT report, Storm in the Grasslands: Selfimmolations in Tibet and Chinese policy) The first self-immolation in Tibetan society in the modern era took place in exile in Delhi, India, on April 27, 1998, when Thubten Ngodrup set himself on fire â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and later died â&#x20AC;&#x201C; as a Tibetan Youth Congress hunger strike was broken up by Indian police. Since then, five more Tibetans have set fire to themselves in exile, detailed in the enclosed list. Thinley Namgyal Kunchok Tsering Dickyi Choezom Dolma Wangyal Ngawang Norphel Lobsang Palden Sangay Dolma Tenzin Khedup Unknown Tamdrin Kyab Tamdin Thar Lobsang Dorje Tamdrin Dorjee Rikyo Phagmo Samdup Lubhum Gyal Dargye Tsultrim Gyatso Tsering Dundrup Dorje Tseten Kunchok Tseten Wangchen Norbu Choepak Kyap Tsering Gyal Sangdag Tsering Sonam Shichung Chagmo Kyi Thubten Nyandak Kunchok Sonam Khabum Gyal Rinpoche & Atse* Wangchen Dolma Tenzin Dolma Chimey Palden Tenzin Sherab Nyangchag Bum Tenpa Darjey Losang Dawa Nyangkar Tashi Lobsang Sherab Konchok Woeser Gonpo Tsering Sonam Dargye Chugtso Jinpa Gyatso Lobsang Tsultrim Unknown (female) Dorjee Jamyang Palden 219


Konchok Tenzin Lhamo Kyab Kalkyi Lobsang Thogme Kunchok Wangmo* Sangdag Tsesung Kyab Phagmo Dundrup Rinchen Sonam Dhargye NamlhaTsering Drugpa Khar Lobsang Namgyal Konchok Kyab Tsering Tsering Tashi Wangchen Kyi Kunchok Pelgye Pema Dorjee Lobsang Geleg Sungdue Kyab Kunchok Kyab Tsering Namgyal Wande Khar Sanggye Tashi Kelsang Kyab Gonpo Tsering

Samdrup Dorjee Kyab Tamding Tso Tsegyal Dorjee Lhundrup Tsewang Kyab Lhamo Tseten Tsepo Tenzin Dorje Rinchen Dhondup Lhamo Kyab Tamdin Dorje Sangay Gyatso Gudrub Yangdang Passang Lhamo Lobsang Damchoe Lobsang Kelsang Lungtok Tashi Chopa Dolkar Tso Lobsang Tsultrim Losang Lozin Tsewang Dorjee

Gepey Dorjee Rinchen Tsering Kyi Nangdrol Damchoe Sangpo Lobsang Gyatso Tenzin Choedron Sonam Rabyang Rinzin Dorje Losang Jamyang Sonam Wangyal Tsultrim Tennyi Tenzin Phuntsog Palden Choetso Dawa Tsering Tenzin Wangmo Norbu Damdrul Choepel Kayang Kelsang Wangchuk Lobsang Kelsang Lobsang Kunchok Tsewang Norbu Phuntsog Tapey

131 Tibetans have self-immolated in Tibet and China since February 27, 2009. A Rinpoche and his niece, died in a fire â&#x20AC;&#x201C; according to information from the Tibetan government in exile and Woeser, this may have been a self-immolation that was later erroneously described as a house fire. See details below on Thubten Nyandak Rinpoche and his niece Atse. 110 men, 21 women 107 of the 131 are known to have died following their protest 24 of the Tibetans who self-immolated were 18 or under 44 of the 131 are from Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province 13 of the 131 were monks at Kirti monastery in Ngaba 11 of the 131 are former monks at Kirti monastery in Ngaba (It is currently 220


not known who of the nine chose to disrobe, or were expelled from the monastery by government authorities) Two of the 131 were nuns from Mame Dechen Chokorling nunnery in Ngaba 130 of the self-immolations have occurred since March 16, 2011 Six self-immolations by Tibetans have occurred in exile, detailed below in a separate section of this list Âť

Thinley Namgyal

Date: April 15, 2014 Protest location: Kardze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: 32 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan man burned himself to death Tuesday in Sichuan provinceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s restive Kardze prefecture to protest Chinese rule, triggering a security alert and a clampdown on information flow, according to sources. Thinley Namgyal, 32, self-immolated at noon in Khangsar township in Tawu (in Chinese, Daofu) county in Kardze (Ganzi) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, the sources said. Source: [ RFA ] Tibetan Man Dies in Self-Immolation Protest in Kardze (15 April 2014) ^ TOP

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Dolma

Date: March 29, 2014 Protest location: Bathang county, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Kham) Age: 31 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: A Tibetan, reported to be 31-years-old, called Dolma set fire to herself outside a monastery on March 29, the first self-immolation in Bathang county, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Kham). When Tibetans who were circumbulating the Ba Choede monastery, a traditional religious practice, witnessed the self-immolation, they managed to extinguish the flames and take Dolma to hospital. ICT Report: Tibetan nun sets fire to herself outside monastery in first self-immolation in Bathang (31 March 2014) ^ TOP Lobsang Palden

Date: March 16, 2014 Monastery: Kirti monastery Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county town Age: 20 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown

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Info: [ RFA ] “The monks, citing local contacts, said Palden self-immolated to protest “against the violent crackdown on the Tibetans” on March 16, 2008 in Ngaba when Chinese police opened fire on a crowd of Tibetans, killing at least 10, including one monk.” Source: RFA: Two Tibetan Monks Self-Immolate on Crackdown Anniversary (16 March 2014) ^ TOP Date: March 16, 2014 Protest location: Tsekhog (Zeku) county in Qinghai province’s Malho (Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Age: Unknown Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: [ RFA ] “In the other self-immolation on Sunday, a monk set himself on fire outside the Sonag monastery in Tsekhog county’s Jador township, exile sources said.” Source: RFA: Two Tibetan Monks Self-Immolate on Crackdown Anniversary (16 March 2014) ^ TOP Lobsang Dorje Date: February 13, 2014 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county town Age: 25 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: A former Kirti monk set fire to himself on February 13, on the main road near the monastery in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county town, after attending a monastic mask dance that morning. Twenty-five year old Lobsang Dorje was still alive when he was taken away by police. Kirti monks in exile said: “As they were driving him away in the back of a pickup van covered with black canvas, he sat up and joined his palms, but the policemen pushed him back down. At present it is not known whether he is alive or dead, or where he has been taken.” Lobsang Dorje, from Chukle Gongma nomadic area in Cha Ruwa, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) set fire to himself in the same street as Kirti monk Tapey, who was the first Tibetan in Tibet to self-immolate five years ago this month in February 2009. ICT Report: Security intensified in Ngaba after former Kirti monk self-immolates (14 February 2014) ^ TOP

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Phagmo Samdup

Date: February 6, 2014 Protest location: Dokarmo town in Tsekhog (Chinese: Zeku) in Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, the Tibetan area of Amdo Age: Late twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Phagmo Samdup set fire to himself at around 9:30pm in the evening. It appears that not many people were outside to witness the self-immolation. Police on patrol extinguished the fire and took Phagmo Samdup away, and it is not known if he survived, Tibetan sources said, adding he had been taken to Tsekhog county town. ICT Report: Self-immolation of Tibetan father of two in Tsekhog (7 February 2014) ^ TOP Tsultrim Gyatso

Date: December 19, 2013 Protest location: Amchok town in Sangchu (Xiahe) county Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Age: 41 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: [ TCHRD ] A Tibetan monk from Amchok Monastery died of self-immolation protest on December 19, 2013 calling for unity among Tibetans and the return of the

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Tibetan spiritual leader His Holiness the Dalai Lama. He died instantly and soon local Tibetans and monks took his charred body to his monastery. Sources told TCHRD that over 400 monks have gathered at to recite prayers and conduct rituals at the deceased’s residence at the monastery. In his last note, Tsultrim Gyatso wrote that the reasons for his self-immolation protest are to call for the return of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Tibet, release the 11th Panchen Lama Gedun Choekyi Nyima, and for the welfare of the six million Tibetans. ICT Report: Monks gather to pray after self-immolation of respected Tibetan monk in Amchok (20 December 2013) ^ TOP Kunchok Tseten

Date: December 4, 2013 Protest location: Meruma township in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: A Tibetan father of two called Kunchok Tseten set fire to himself yesterday (December 3) in Meruma township in Ngaba, sparking protests as local people tried to stop police taking him away after he collapsed in the road in flames. Kunchok Tseten’s wife and some relatives have disappeared and are believed to have been taken into custody, according to Tibetan exile sources. Kunchok Tseten was heard shouting loudly as he ran down the road ablaze, calling for the long life of the Dalai Lama, for His Holiness to return to Tibet and for Tibetans to be reunited both inside Tibet and in exile. A Tibetan with contacts in the area told Radio Free Asia: “Even after he collapsed on the ground, he was seen by local witnesses folding his hands together in prayer and uttering some words that were not audible.” ICT Report: Tibetan father of two sets fire to himself in Ngaba (4 December 2013) ^ TOP

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Tsering Gyal

Date: November 11, 2013 Protest location: Pema (Chinese: Baima) county in Golok Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 20 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: A monk, named as Tsering Gyal by various sources from the area speaking to Tibetans in exile, set fire to himself in Pema (Chinese: Baima) county in Golok Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai (the Tibetan area of Amdo). He was taken to a hospital nearby after police extinguished the flames and it is not known if he is still alive. Tsering Gyal was a monk from Akyong monastery, which follows the Jonang tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, according to the same sources, including a Tibetan who spoke to an eyewitness. ICT Report: Tibetans gather at monastery in Golok after self-immolation of young monk (11 November 2013) ^ TOP

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Shichung

Date: September 28, 2013 Protest location: Gomang village, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county Age: 40 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan father of two set fire to himself and died on September 28 in Gomang village, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county, according to exile Tibetan sources. When Tibetans gathered around his body, police aimed their guns at the crowd. Village elders averted tensions by appealing to both local Tibetans and police for calm. Forty-year old Shichung set himself on fire outside his house and ran along the road shouting in protest against the Chinese authorities before he collapsed to the ground in flames and died, according to Kirti monks in exile in Dharamsala. The monks said before he self-immolated, he lit a butter-lamp before an image of the Dalai Lama. A few days earlier, he had said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Chinese will never leave us in peaceâ&#x20AC;?, according to the same sources. ICT Report: Tibetan father of two sets fire to himself and dies in Ngaba (29 September 2013) ^ TOP Kunchok Sonam

Date: July 20, 2013 Protest location: Dzoege, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous

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Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 18 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: An 18-year old monk called Kunchok Sonam set himself on fire on July 20 and died outside his monastery in Dzoege, Ngaba, where the crackdown has been among the most intense in Tibetan areas. Kunchok Sonam was regarded as ‘exceptional’ in his studies. He had told friends that living under Chinese rule in Tibet had brought too much suffering. A heavy troop presence has now deployed in Thangkor (Ch: Tangke) town and at the Soktsang (Tashi Thekchokling) Gelugpa monastery in Dzoege (Chinese: Ruo’ergai) in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) where Kunchok Sonam was a monk. Another Tibetan monk, Tangdzin, was detained, according to one Tibetan source. Radio Free Asia reported that hundreds of Tibetans have gathered at the monastery in support of monks who prevented Chinese authorities from taking away his body. ICT Report: Teenage Tibetan monk dies after self-immolation in Dzoege (22 July 2013) ^ TOP Wangchen Dolma

Date: June 11, 2013 Protest location: Near Nyatso monastery in Tawu, Kardze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: Early thirties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan nun has died after setting fire to herself on June 11 near a monastery in Tawu, eastern Tibet, during a gathering of several thousand monks for a religious debate and teaching. Wangchen Dolma chose to self-immolate not at her own mountain retreat, Barshab Dragkar, but near Nyatso monastery in Tawu (Chinese: Daofu) in Kardze (Chinese: Ganzi) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Kham) at the

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time of a major inter-monastic debate and teaching. More than 3,000 monks from at least 50 monasteries representing all of the Buddhist schools are attending the teachings. After the self-immolation, communications were restricted in the area and surveillance of monks at Nyatso monastery was intensified. ICT Report: Tibetan nun dies after self-immolation near monastery hosting major religious teaching (18 June 2013) ^ TOP

Tenzin Sherab

Date: May 27, 2013 Protest location: Gyaring area of Yushu in Qinghai province Age: Early thirties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan nomad in his early thirties called Tenzin Sherab set fire to himself and died on May 27 in the Gyaring area of Yushu in Qinghai province, according to exile Tibetan sources. Police took Tenzin Sherabâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body from the site of his self-immolation, but according to the same sources, they later released it to the family. The family were questioned on why they thought Tenzin Sherab had self-immolated. ICT Report: Tibetan nomad self-immolates and dies in Yushu (29 May 2013) ^ TOP

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Losang Dawa

Date: April 24, 2013 Monastery: Taktsang Lhamo Kirti monastery Protest location: Dzoege county, Sichuan Age: 20 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: [ Kirti monks in-exile ] At around 6:40 pm on April 24 2013, two monks of the Taktsang Lhamo Kirti monastery, Losang Dawa, 20, and Konchok Woeser, 23, set themselves on fire in the monasteryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s assembly hall. They shouted slogans of protest against the Chinese government and its policies in Tibet, and died immediately. The monks took their bodies to their rooms and said prayers for them. Local authorities have indicated that their remains must be cremated tomorrow. ^ TOP Konchok Woeser

Date: April 24, 2013 Monastery: Taktsang Lhamo Kirti monastery Protest location: Dzoege county, Sichuan Age: 23 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: [ Kirti monks in-exile ] At around 6:40 pm on April 24 2013, two monks of the Taktsang Lhamo Kirti monastery, Losang Dawa, 20, and Konchok Woeser, 23, set themselves on fire in the monasteryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s assembly hall. They shouted slogans of protest

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against the Chinese government and its policies in Tibet, and died immediately. The monks took their bodies to their rooms and said prayers for them. Local authorities have indicated that their remains must be cremated tomorrow. ^ TOP Chugtso Date: April 16, 2013 Protest location: Tibetan area of Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang) county, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 20 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Source: RFA: Thousands Gather After Young Tibetan Mother Self-Immolates (16 April 2013) ^ TOP Unknown (female) Date: Late March/early April, 2013 Protest location: Kyegudo (Chinese: Yushu) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province Age: Unknown Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: An unidentified Tibetan woman self-immolated in late March/early April in protest over the planned destruction of her home in Kyegudo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province, according to Radio Free Asia’s Tibetan service. On April 14, 2010, a 6.9-magnitude earthquake struck the area, killing 2,698 and leaving 100,000 homeless according to the official count. The subsequent reconstruction process has been fraught with opaque government planning and scant local consultation. The woman’s condition is believed to not be life-threatening, according to RFA, citing sources in the region. (RFA, April 4, 2013) The unidentified woman is the third Tibetan from Kyegudo to self-immolate over land-rights issues involved in the reconstruction following the 2010 earthquake. Dickyi Choezom, a Tibetan woman in her forties, reportedly survived her June 27, 2012 self-immolation protest and was taken to hospital in the prefectural capital of Xining. According to Tibetan sources in exile, authorities arrested two of Dickyi Choezom’s relatives, only to release them later the same day after local Tibetans protested, though the two were reported to have been beaten and injured while in detention. Passang Lhamo, a 62-year old Tibetan woman, traveled to Beijing and self-immolated on September 13, 2012, after authorities refused to allow her to retain her home. Passang Lhamo set fire to herself after repeated appeals to the central authorities in 231


Beijing failed to yield any concrete results. She was taken to hospital and treated for her burns, though her current condition and whereabouts remain unknown. Source: RFA: Tibetan Evictee Self-Immolates (4 April 2013) ^ TOP Konchok Tenzin

Date: March 26, 2013 Protest location: Near Mokri monastery in Luchu (Chinese: Luqu) County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu province Age: 28 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Konchok Tenzin was a monk at Mokri monastery, which he joined at a young age. Konchok died in the course of the protest, and his body was taken back to the monastery. In fear that the remains would be confiscated by the authorities, they were cremated the same night, according to Kirti monks in exile, in Dharamsala, India. Following the incident, security forces were deployed around the monastery and nearby villages in large numbers, and a strict crackdown imposed. This is the sixth self -immolation protest in Luchu county so far, and all the protesters involved have died as a result. ^ TOP Lhamo Kyab Date: March 25, 2013 Protest location: Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe), Gannan Age: 43 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan forest guard set fire to himself and died on March 25 in Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe), Gannan. The circumstances of his death remain unclear, but due to unofficial information received from the area, ICT includes this death on the list of self-immolations.

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In contrast to other self-immolators, Lhamo Kyab, a Tibetan man in his early forties, appears to have set fire to himself by pouring petrol over a pile of logs, setting them alight and placing himself amidst the flames, according to Tibetan sources in exile. He died in a rural area near his home in Meshul township, Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe), Gannan in Gansu Province. An image received from Tibet depicts what can barely be discerned as human remains on bare earth, near a pile of wood, with denuded steep hillsides beyond. By the time he was found little remained of his body. ICT Report: Self-immolations of a Tibetan forest guard and mother of four in eastern Tibet (26 March 2013) ^ TOP Kalkyi

Date: March 24, 2013 Protest location: Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang), Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 30 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A 30-year old Tibetan woman called Kalkyi set fire to herself close to Jonang Gonchen monastery in Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang), Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo). Kalkyi died immediately afterwards, according to Tibetan exile sources, and local people took her body to the monastery for prayers. ICT Report: Self-immolations of a Tibetan forest guard and mother of four in eastern Tibet (26 March 2013) ^ TOP

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Lobsang Thogme

Date: March 16, 2013 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 28 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A 28-year old Kirti monk called Lobsang Thogme set fire to himself and died on Saturday, March 16, the fifth anniversary of a protest in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba), eastern Tibet, in which armed police fired into an unarmed crowd. He is the third Kirti monk to set fire to himself on the anniversary of the crackdown in 2008. In a translation from the Tibetan, the Kirti monks in exile said: “Before reaching the gate, he fell to the ground. By that time, many monks and laypeople reached the spot, and he was taken to the county hospital, but passed away soon after. It is not known what he shouted during his protest. On arrival at the hospital, a large force of police and soldiers came there and forcibly took possession of his remains, which they then took to the prefecture headquarters at Barkham (Chinese: Markam).” ICT Report: Two self-immolations in Tibet: Kirti monk on crackdown anniversary and woman in Dzoge (18 March 2013) ^ TOP Kunchok Wangmo Date: March 13, 2013 (Note – Xinhua reported the date of Kunchok Wangmo’s death to be March 11, not March 13. Some Tibetan sources believe the date to be March 13.) Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 31 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased. Details of the circumstances of the selfimmolation remain unclear. It is not known if Kunchok Wangmo did self-immolate or not, due to restrictions on information and the oppressive political climate.

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Info: The Chinese state media Xinhua reported on August 16, 2013, that the Intermediate People’s Court in Ngaba (Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture had sentenced a Tibetan man, 32-year old Dolma Kyab (Chinese transliteration: Drolma Gya) to death for ‘killing his wife and burning her body to make it look as if she had self-immolated.’ Full details of the circumstances of Kunchok Wangmo’s death are not known. The imposition of the death penalty is rare in Tibet and there are concerns that the verdict may have been influenced by political circumstances. ICT Report: Death penalty for Tibetan after death of wife in Ngaba (21 August 2013) ^ TOP Date: February 25, 2013 Protest location: On a road which is to the south of Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: Unknown Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: On February 25, 2013, a monk called Sangdag set fire to himself around 10:00am on a road which is to the south of Ngaba town. Sangdag was from Dowa village in Drotsig Shang, Ngaba Dzong, Ngaba prefecture in Sichuan province and was a monk from the Diphu monastery (Sakya school) in Ngaba Dzong. ^ TOP Tsesung Kyab Date: February 25, 2013 Protest location: Shitsang Gonsar monastery in Luchu County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu province Age: Late twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tsesung Kyab set fire to himself on February 25 in front of the main temple of Shitsang Gonsar monastery in Luchu. Harrowing images received from inside Tibet today depict Tsesung Kyab ablaze outside the temple as pilgrims look on. Many Tibetans were at the monastery for a prayer ceremony and ritual in which monks carry the Buddha’s statue and circumambulate the monastery. The images do not depict police attempting to extinguish the flames although, according to Tibetan exile sources, there was a police presence at the monastery. According to the same sources, his body was taken to his home in Choekhor village for prayers. ICT Report: Two Tibetans self-immolate at monasteries during prayer ceremonies in Amdo (25 February 2013) 235


^ TOP Phagmo Dundrup Date: February 24, 2013 Protest location: Chachung monastery in Tsoshar Prefecture in Qinghai province Age: Early twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Phagmo Dundrup self-immolated on February 24 evening when hundreds of Tibetans were present at the Chachung monastery, an important and ancient Gelugpa monastery, for a traditional prayer ceremony and presentation of butter-lamps of the Buddha and other deities. According to information from Tibetan sources in exile, monks tried to extinguish the flames after Phagmo Dondrup set himself ablaze. The monks took him to the hospital but he passed away last night in a hospital in Xining. ICT Report: Two Tibetans self-immolate at monasteries during prayer ceremonies in Amdo (25 February 2013) ^ TOP Rinchen

Date: February 19, 2013 Protest location: Dzoege township, Ngaba county, eastern Tibet Age: 17 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Rinchen, 17 years old Tibetan, died February 19 after setting himself on fire in Ngaba. He was accompanied by Sonam Dhargye, 18 years, who also set himself on fire in protest against the Chinese government in Dzoege township, Ngaba county, eastern Tibet around 9.30pm (local time). According to the same sources, the families were able to recover their bodies. Rinchen and Sonam both went primary school in Kyangtsa township. Rinchen had been working away from home and returned for the Tibetan New Year (Losar) holiday. ^ TOP

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Sonam Dhargye Date: February 19, 2013 Protest location: Dzoege township, Ngaba county, eastern Tibet Age: 18 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: Rinchen, 17 years old Tibetan, died February 19 after setting himself on fire in Ngaba. He was accompanied by Sonam Dhargye, 18 years, who also set himself on fire in protest against the Chinese government in Dzoege township, Ngaba county, eastern Tibet around 9:30pm (local time). According to the same sources, the families were able to recover their bodies. Rinchen and Sonam both went primary school in Kyangtsa township. Rinchen had been working away from home and returned for the Tibetan New Year (Losar) holiday. ^ TOP Namlha Tsering Date: February 17, 2013 Protest location: Labrang, Gansu (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 49 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: A 49-year old Tibetan man called Namlha Tsering set himself on fire today in the main street of Labrang, Gansu (the Tibetan area of Amdo), which is not far from Labrang monastery. Images emerged showing a man huddled on the road amidst traffic with his body ablaze. Chinese police and paramilitary arrived quickly on the scene and removed Namlha Tsering. It is not yet known whether he is still alive. ICT Report: Tibetan farmer from nomadic area sets fire to himself in Labrang (17 February 2013) ^ TOP Drugpa Khar Date: February 13, 2013 Protest location: Amchok town in Sangchu (Xiahe) county in Kanlho (Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Age: Twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Drugpa Khar, who was in his twenties, doused himself in gasoline and set himself on fire in Amchok town in Sangchu (Xiahe) county in Kanlho (Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu, on the third day of Tibetan New Year (February 13), according to Tibetan sources in exile and Radio Free Asiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Tibetan language service. 237


Drugpa Khar was a father of three children aged between one year old and six. He was born in Lushu Kyi village in Tsoe, Kanlho, theTibetan area of Amdo. ICT Report: Further self-immolation in Tibet despite harsh legal measures to deter protests; Tibetan who set fire to himself in Nepal dies (14 February 2013) ^ TOP Lobsang Namgyal

Date: February 3, 2013 Protest location: Outside the Public Security Bureau of Dzoege (Chinese: Ruergai/Zoige) County in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province Age: Mid-thirties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Lobsang Namgyal had been a monk at Kirti monastery in Ngaba, his ashes have not been returned to his family, according to the monks. Lobsang Namgyal was known as an exceptional student at Kirti monastery who had been tipped to study for the highest qualification in Tibetan Buddhism, a Geshe degree. â&#x20AC;&#x153;He was regarded as a model for a new generation of students at Kirti,â&#x20AC;? the Kirti monks in exile said in a statement in Tibetan. ICT Report: Tibetan sets fire to himself in Kathmandu; in Tibet, 100th self-immolation (13 February 2013) Further self-immolation in Tibet despite harsh legal measures to deter protests; Tibetan who set fire to himself in Nepal dies (14 February 2013) ^ TOP

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Konchok Kyab

Date: January 22, 2013 Protest location: Bora, Sangchu county, Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu province Age: 26 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Konchok Kyab [also known as Konba], age 26 set fire to himself around noon on January 22 to protest China’s policy on Tibet and he passed away after the incident. Konchok Kyab set fire to himself between the local moanstery and Bora Shang, Konchok Kyab was from the Gyara village in Bogtsa unit in Bora Shang, Sangchu Dzong, Gannan prefecture in Gansu province. ^ TOP Tsering Date: January 18, 2013 Protest location: Drachen village, Marthong county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province Age: Twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A man in his twenties who has been named as Tsering set himself on fire in Drachen village, Marthong county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province. He passed away at the scene and his body was taken away by Chinese police, according to Tibetan exile sources. He is survived by his wife and two children. ICT Report: Chinese state media blame “Dalai clique” and announce detentions in aggressive security drive against Tibetan self-immolations (18 January 2013) ^ TOP

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Tsering Tashi

Date: January 12, 2013 Protest location: Main street of Amchok township, Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe) county, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province (the traditional Kham area of Tibet) Age: 22 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Following Tsering Tashi’s self-immolation in the main street of Amchok township on January 12, Chinese police and Public Security Bureau officials arrived in several vehicles. They barred the monks of Amchok monastery and local lay Tibetans from offering prayers and ordered Tsering Tashi’s family members to cremate the body as soon as possible. When the family initially said that they needed to perform the customary religious rituals for a death, they were threatened and told that they would be responsible for the consequences if they refused. Tsering Tashi was married to Yumtso Kyi and is survived by his wife, parents and two sisters. He was described by Tibetans who knew him as “good-natured and polite” with a keen passion for horses and horse racing. ICT Report: Authorities bar customary religious rituals to enforce quick cremation of Tibetan who self-immolated in Amchok (15 January 2013) ^ TOP Wangchen Kyi Date: December 9, 2012 Protest location: Dokarmo nomadic area of Tsekhog (Chinese: Zeku) county in Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 17 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased

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Info: Seventeen year old student Wangchen Kyi died after setting fire to herself at around 8 pm in the evening on December 9 in the Dokarmo nomadic area of Tsekhog (Chinese: Zeku) county in Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (the Tibetan area of Amdo. Wangchen Kyi called for the long life of the Dalai Lama and of the Tibetan people as she set herself ablaze, according to reports from exile Tibetans in contact with people in the area. ICT Report: Three Tibetans self-immolate in two days during important Buddhist anniversary: images of troops in Lhasa as Tibetans pray (10 December 2012) ^ TOP Kunchok Pelgye Date: December 8, 2012 Protest location: Taktsang Lhamo Kirti monastery in Dzoege, in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 24 Monastery: Taktsang Lhamo monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: 24-year old monk Kunchok Pelgye set himself on fire outside the main assembly hall of the Taktsang Lhamo Kirti monastery in Dzoege, in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo). Kirti monks in exile told ICT: “As he self-immolated, monks present gathered around him in shock and began to recite a prayer that is usually said in Kirti Rinpoche’s honor. His remains were carried back to his room in the monastery, and the hundreds of monks present continued to chant prayers dedicated to him.” ICT Report: Three Tibetans self-immolate in two days during important Buddhist anniversary: images of troops in Lhasa as Tibetans pray (10 December 2012) ^ TOP

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Pema Dorjee

Date: December 8, 2012 Protest location: Close to the main assembly hall of Shitsang Garser monastery in Luchu (Chinese: Luqu) in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province. Age: 23 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Pema Dorjee lived around 30 kilometers from the monastery and had gone there to pray at the time of the anniversary of Tsongkhapaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s passing. At the time of his selfimmolation there were many people at the monastery. Pema Dorjee shouted that the Dalai Lama should be allowed to return to Tibet, and called for the unity of the Tibetan people. According to Tibetan exile sources, Pema Dorjee left his photos and identity card with his motorbike before his self-immolation. ICT Report: Three Tibetans self-immolate in two days during important Buddhist anniversary: images of troops in Lhasa as Tibetans pray (10 December 2012) ^ TOP Lobsang Geleg

Date: December 3, 2012 Protest location: Pema county town, Golog prefecture, Qinghai province Age: 29 Monastery: Penag Kadak Troedreling Monastery

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Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Lobsang Geleg, aged 29, set fire to himself on December 3 at the main intersection in Pema county town and died at the scene. Before his death Lobsang Geleg shouted slogans and looked to bring his hands together in prayer, according to a local Tibetan who spoke with Tibetans in exile. In what has become an increasingly common response, state security personnel attempted to remove Lobsang Gelegâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body, but were stopped by a gathering of local Tibetans, who took the body to the local monastery for prayers. Lobsang Geleg (informally known as Loge) was a monk at Pema Gonka Dagtroe Lin monastery, in Pema (Chinese: Padma) county, Golog (Chinese: Guoluo) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province. Source: Tibet.net: Tibetan Monk Dies after Setting Self on Fire, Total Self-Immolation Rises to 92 (4 December 2012) RFA: Burning Monk Walks 300 Steps (3 December 2012) ^ TOP Sungdue Kyab

Date: December 2, 2012 Protest location: Bora Age: 17 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A young Tibetan man set fire to himself along the road to Bora monatery, in Sangchu county, on December 2, according to Tibetans in exile in contact with Tibetans in Tibet. Sungdue Kyab, 17-years old, is married with a 2-year old son. Sungdue Kyab survived his protest and was taken away by police, reportedly to the hospital in the city of Tsoe in Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province. Local Tibetans and monks from Bora monastery gathered at the site of the protest, when the scene became very tense, according to the same Tibetan sources. Source: Tibet.net: Tibetan Immolates in Bora, Toll Reaches 91 (3 December 2012)

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^ TOP Kunchok Kyab Date: November 30, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 29 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Presumed deceased Info: [ VOA Tibetan ] Kunchok Kyab, a 29 year old man, carried out a self-immolation protest on November 30, 2012 in Ngaba. Kyab was taken away by security forces and his condition is unknown at present. A number of Tibetans who approached the security forces to demand the return of Kunchok Kyab are missing and presumed to be detained. Source: VOA Tibetan: Burning Monk Walks 300 Steps (3 December 2012) VOA Tibetan: Self-Immolation and Missing Townspeople in Ngaba (30 November 2012) ^ TOP Tsering Namgyal

Date: November 29, 2012 Protest location: Luchu region of eastern Tibet Age: 31 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: [ Phayul ] Sources have identified the Tibetan as Tsering Namgyal, 31, a father of two, from Zamtsa Lotso Dewa region of Luchu. “Tsering Namgyal set himself on fire near the local Chinese government office in Luchu earlier today for the cause of Tibet,” Sonam, a Tibetan monk living in south India told Phayul, citing sources in the region. “Tsering Namgyal passed in his fiery protest.” Source:

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Phayul: Breaking: Tibetan man burns self to death, Toll climbs to 89 (29 November 2012) ^ TOP Wande Khar Date: November 28, 2012 Protest location: Tsoe region of Kanlho, eastern Tibet Age: 21 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: [ Phayul ] According to eyewitnesses, Wande Khar raised slogans calling for the return of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Tibet, the release of Panchen Lama, freedom for Tibet, and the protection of Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environment. Source: Phayul: Breaking: Young Tibetan burns self to death, Mass prayer service for selfimmolators in eastern Tibet (29 November 2012) ^ TOP Sanggye Tashi

Date: November 27, 2012 Protest location: Sang Khog, Labrang [Tib:Sangchu Zdong Ch: Xiahe Xian], Gannan prefecture in Gansu province Age: 18 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Details are still emerging. ^ TOP Kelsang Kyab Date: November 27, 2012 Protest location: Kyangtsa township, Ngaba Age: 24

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Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: During the early evening hours of November 27, Keslang Kyab self-immolated in protest outside a government office building in Kyangtsa township in Ngaba, according to Tibetan monks living in exile who are in contact with Tibetans in the area. As Kelsang Kyab neared the government office building, he doused himself with petrol and shouted slogans, including, â&#x20AC;&#x153;May the Dalai Lama live for 100 aeons! May Kirti Rinpoche live for 100 aeons!â&#x20AC;? He set himself alight as he approached the front of the building and died at the scene. Following the protest, armed security forces were deployed and blocked off the town of Kyangtsa. The 24-year old Kelsang Kyab was the third of six children and grew-up a herdsman. Following his self-immolation, local Tibetans returned his body to his home near Kyangtsa township in Dzoege (Chinese: Ruanggui) county, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province. ^ TOP

Gonpo Tsering

Date: November 26, 2012 Protest location: Luchu county, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province Age: 24 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: Details are still emerging. Source: RFA: Four Tibetans Self-Immolate (26 November 2012) ^ TOP

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Kunchok Tsering

Date: November 26, 2012 Protest location: Labrang, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province (Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 18 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: [ Phayul ] Kunchok Tsering, 18, passed away in his self-immolation protest today in Amchok region of Labrang, eastern Tibet. He carried out his protest near a mining site in the region, the same place where Tsering Dhondup, 35, father of three, passed away in his fiery protest on November 20. Kunchok Tsering is survived by his wife, Sangay Tso, 19 and parents Phagkyab, 40 and Gonpo Tso, 37, and an elder brother. Source: Phayul: Breaking: 18-year-old sets self on fire, Third self-immolation in two days (26 November 2012) ^ TOP Wangyal Date: November 26, 2012 Protest location: Serthar, north-eastern Tibet Age: Twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: [ Tibet.net ] Wangyal, a Tibetan man in his 20s, have set himself on fire in protest against the Chinese government in Serthar, north-eastern Tibet. Wangyal set himself on fire in front of the golden-horse statue at the local ground in Serthar. Chinese authorities immediately arrived at the immolation site and took away Wangyalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body, eyewitnesses said. His current whereabouts and status is unavailable. Source: Tibet.net: Another Tibetan Immolates in Serthar, Toll Reaches 82 (26 November 2012) ^ TOP

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Sangay Dolma Date: November 25, 2012 Protest location: In front of the Chinese government office in Dokarmo town of Tsekhog, Malho, eastern Tibet Age: Unknown Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: [ Phayul ] a Tibetan nun set herself on fire in an apparent protest against Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s occupation of Tibet on Sunday, November 25. Sources tell Phayul that Sangay Dolma, a nun, passed away in her self-immolation protest in front of the Chinese government office in Dokarmo town of Tsekhog, Malho, eastern Tibet. The exact time of her self-immolation protest could not be ascertained immediately. Source: Phayul: Breaking: Tibetan nun passes away in fiery protest, Toll jumps to 83 (26 November 2012) ^ TOP Tamdrin Kyab

Date: November 23, 2012 Protest location: Luchu township, Gansu province Age: 23 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tamdrin Kyab, 23-years old, was formerly a monk at Shitsang monastery. He disrobed in 2007 to help his nomadic family. Tamdrin Kyab set fire to himself at around 10 p.m. near the Luchu river. According to exile Tibetan sources, local people did not know about his self-immolation because it happened at night, and it was only in the morning that people found his body and took it back to his home. Local Tibetans and monks from Shitsang monastery gathered at his home to pray and offer their condolences. ICT Report:

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Three self-immolations in two days as total in Tibet reaches 81 (24 November 2012) ^ TOP Tamdrin Dorjee Date: November 23, 2012 Protest location: In front of a government building in Dokarmo in the Tsekhog area of Rebkong, Qinghai province Age: 29 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tamdrin Dorjee, self-immolated on November 23. He was from Makor village in Dokarmo township, in the Tsekhog area of Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province. According to a Tibetan exile source, “As the flames blazed higher, he could be seen putting his hands together in prayer, shouting long life to the Dalai Lama.” ICT Report: Three self-immolations in two days as total in Tibet reaches 81 (24 November 2012) ^ TOP Lubhum Gyal Date: November 22, 2012 Protest location: Dowa township, Rebkong Age: 18 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: On November 22, Lubhum Gyal, age 18, died after setting himself ablaze in the main street of Dowa township in Rebkong. Tibetans gathered at the scene of Lubhum Gyal’s self-immolation. Then, disregarding official warnings, they took his body for cremation near Dowa monastery where monks conducted prayer rituals. ICT Report: Three self-immolations in two days as total in Tibet reaches 81 (24 November 2012) ^ TOP

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Tsering Dundrup

Date: November 20, 2012 Protest location: Labrang, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province (Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 24 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: Tsering Dundrup set fire to himself around 9:00am and he was in his thirties. Tsering Dundrup was both a farmer and nomad and he is from Chungan village in Amchok Shang, Labrang [Chinese: Xiahe county], Ganlho prefecture, Gansu province. ^ TOP Wangchen Norbu

Date: November 19, 2012 Protest location: Kangsta, Qinghai (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 25 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: VOA Wangchen Norbu, 25, died after burning himself on November 19, 2012 around 8 pm in Kangtsa (Chinese: Gangca), an area adjacent to the hometown of the late Panchen Lama in Tsoshar (Chinese: Haidong) region in Yazi (Chinese: Xunhua) county, Amdo (Chinese: Qinghai).

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Sources in the region say that Norbu set himself ablaze near Kangtsa Gaden Choephelling Monastery and shouted slogans calling for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, release of the Panchen Lama and freedom for Tibet. VOA Tibetan: Tibetan Self-Immolations Continue, 25-Year-Old Dies in Protest (19 November 2012) ^ TOP

Sangdag Tsering Date: November 17, 2012 Protest location: A township in Tsekhog, Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Qinghai Age: 24 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A 24-year old Tibetan, Sangdag Tsering, set fire to himself and died on November 17 in a township in Tsekhog in Rebkong, Qinghai. He was the second Tibetan to self-immolate on November 17, following the death of mother of two Chagmo Kyi. Sangdag Tsering self-immolated at around 7 p.m. on November 17 outside a government building in Dokar Mo township in Tsekhog (Chinese: Zeku/Zekog) county, which neighbors Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), in Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (the Tibetan area of Amdo). Security personnel at the scene attempted to douse the flames with water but failed. Sangdag Tsering was married with a three-year old son. A Tibetan in exile said that Sangdag Tsering frequently spoke about the Dalai Lama not being allowed to be in Tibet, that Tibetans have no rights, and that the Panchen Lama is still in prison, referring to the young man recognised by the Dalai Lama as the 11th Panchen Lama who disappeared into Chinese custody at the age of six in 1995. ICT Report: Young Tibetan father self-immolates in Tsekhog; officials warn Tibetans not to gather at cremations (19 November 2012) ^ TOP Chagmo Kyi Date: November 17, 2012 Protest location: Dolma Square, Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Qinghai Age: Unknown Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan mother of two, Chagmo Kyi, self-immolated on November 17 at around 4 pm and died in Dolma Square, Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Qinghai.

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Local lay Tibetans and monks gathered to mark Chagmo Kyiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s death despite an intense military buildup in the area following peaceful protests and other selfimmolations over the past week. According to Tibetan sources hundreds of Tibetans attended her cremation, at a site normally used for the cremation of monks and lamas. They were surrounded by troops. ICT Report: Tibetan self-immolation in Rebkong (17 November 2012) ^ TOP Khabum Gyal

Date: November 15, 2012 Protest location: Rebkong, Qinghai province Age: 18 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: On the morning of November 15, 18-year old Khabum Gyal self-immolated near the town of Rebkong and passed away. Following the incident, local people and monks from nearby Gartse monastery took Khabum Gyalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body to the monastery for prayers and cremation. The teenaged Khabum Gyal, from the nearby village of Chukya, was the second youngest of seven children. Source: Phayul: Breaking: Tibetan woman self-immolates, Two fiery deaths in a day (15 November 2012) ^ TOP Tenzin Dolma Date: November 15, 2012 Protest location: Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Qinghai Age: 23 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Phayul Tangzin Dolma, 23, set herself ablaze at around 12 pm (local time) [November 15] in Tsemo region of Rebkong, eastern Tibet.

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Exile sources are saying that Tibetans from around the region started gathering in Tsemo upon hearing news of the self-immolation protest. Source: Phayul: Breaking: Tibetan woman self-immolates, Two fiery deaths in a day (15 November 2012) ^ TOP Nyangchag Bum Date: November 12, 2012 Protest location: Dowa township in Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Qinghai Age: 20 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Twenty-year old Nyangchag Bum, the oldest of three brothers in his family, selfimmolated and died early in the evening of November 12 in Dowa township, Rebkong. Local people took his corpse to the monastery and prayed there. According to Tibetans in exile, “A few thousand people gathered, saying long life prayers for the Dalai Lama and chanting the Mani mantra [associated with the Dalai Lama].” ICT Report: Thousands of Tibetans mobilize in reaction to self-immolations despite security build up (14 November 2012) ^ TOP

Nyangkar Tashi Date: November 12, 2012 Protest location: Dowa township in Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Qinghai Age: 24 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Twenty-four year old Nyangkar Tashi set fire to himself while Tibetans were gathering to pray for a young Tibetan mother, Tamdrin Tso, who self-immolated and died on November 7 in Dowa township in Rebkong county, Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province (the Tibetan area of Amdo). It was after the official visit, at around 3:15 p.m. on November 12 at Kadmar Thang in Dowa, that Nyangkar Tashi set fire to himself, calling for the long life of the Dalai Lama and a free Tibet. The same sources said: “At that time, there were lot of people there who were praying and paying their respects to Tamdrin Tso and Jinpa Gyatso. People did not allow Chinese police to take Nyangkar Tashi’s remains but brought his corpse back to his village, Drotsang in Dowa.” ICT Report: 253


Thousands of Tibetans mobilize in reaction to self-immolations despite security build up (14 November 2012) ^ TOP Gonpo Tsering Date: November 10, 2012 Protest location: Front of a monastery in Tsoe (Chinese: Hezuo) in the Kanlho (Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Age: 19 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A 19-year old Tibetan who was known as one of the brightest students at his school died after self-immolating in front of a monastery in Tsoe (Chinese: Hezuo) in the Kanlho (Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu on Saturday (November 10). The death was quickly confirmed by the Chinese state media. Gonpo Tsering, who had married last year, called for freedom for Tibetans, the protection of the Tibetan language, and for the Dalai Lama to be brought back to Tibet. According to Tibetan sources in exile, monks gathered at the scene and tried to extinguish the flames but failed. They took his body back to his village and prayed for him there. ICT Report: Death of popular, educated young Tibetan after self-immolation confirmed by Chinese media (13 November 2012) ^ TOP Jinpa Gyatso Date: November 8, 2012 Protest location: Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren) in Qinghai province, the Tibetan area of Amdo Age: Unknown Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: As Jinpa Gyatso set himself ablaze, he could be heard shouting for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, according to a Tibetan source in exile. His body was taken by local Tibetans to an area where high lamas are cremated. According to other exile sources, following the cremation, Tibetans began to gather at the square where Jinpa had died, and some shouted slogans calling for the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s long life and his return to Tibet. The situation remains tense. ICT Report: Tibetan self-immolations escalate in number on eve of Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Party Congress; Tibetans gather en masse in Rebkong (8 November 2012) ^ TOP 254


Dorjee

Date: November 7, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 15 Monastery: Ngoshul monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Three young monks from Ngoshul monastery in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) set themselves on fire; one died, while two were believed to have survived and to have been taken away by the authorities. According to Tibetan monks in exile from Kirti monastery, the three monks set fire to themselves at around 3 pm November 7 calling out for the Dalai Lama to return to Tibet and for a free Tibet. One of the monks, 15-year old Dorjee, died immediately while 16-year old Samdrup and 16-year old Dorjee Kyab survived and were taken away by the authorities. ICT Report: Tibetan self-immolations escalate in number on eve of Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Party Congress; Tibetans gather en masse in Rebkong (8 November 2012) ^ TOP Samdrup

Date: November 7, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture,

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Sichuan Age: 16 Monastery: Ngoshul monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Hospitalized Info: Three young monks from Ngoshul monastery in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) set themselves on fire; one died, while two were believed to have survived and to have been taken away by the authorities. According to Tibetan monks in exile from Kirti monastery, the three monks set fire to themselves at around 3 pm November 7 calling out for the Dalai Lama to return to Tibet and for a free Tibet. One of the monks, 15-year old Dorjee, died immediately while 16-year old Samdrup and 16-year old Dorjee Kyab survived and were taken away by the authorities. ICT Report: Tibetan self-immolations escalate in number on eve of Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Party Congress; Tibetans gather en masse in Rebkong (8 November 2012) ^ TOP Dorjee Kyab

Date: November 7, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 16 Monastery: Ngoshul monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Hospitalized Info: Three young monks from Ngoshul monastery in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) set themselves on fire; one died, while two were believed to have survived and to have been taken away by the authorities. According to Tibetan monks in exile from Kirti monastery, the three monks set fire to themselves at around 3 pm November 7 calling out for the Dalai Lama to return to Tibet and for a free Tibet. One

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of the monks, 15-year old Dorjee, died immediately while 16-year old Samdrup and 16-year old Dorjee Kyab survived and were taken away by the authorities. ICT Report: Tibetan self-immolations escalate in number on eve of China’s Party Congress; Tibetans gather en masse in Rebkong (8 November 2012) ^ TOP Tamding Tso

Date: November 7, 2012 Protest location: Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren) in Qinghai province, the Tibetan area of Amdo Age: 23 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tamdrin Tso, a 23-year old mother of a six-year old boy, set herself on fire and died in the center of the Drorong Po village in Dowa township in Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren). According to Tibetans sources in exile, local Tibetans had noticed Tamdrin Tso praying for Tibetans who had self-immolated: “She said Mani mantra [mantras associated with the Dalai Lama] and took vows about fasting and not drinking. Also she prayed and offered butter lamps in the monastery. Local people said that even though Tamdrin Tso did all of these things, in the end she could not bear it. And she set fire to herself.” Sources: Tibetan self-immolations escalate in number on eve of China’s Party Congress; Tibetans gather en masse in Rebkong (8 November 2012) ^ TOP Tsegyal Date: November 7, 2012 Protest location: Bankar village, Driru County, Tibet Autonomous Region Age: 27 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased

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Info: [ TCHRD ] Tsegyal, 27, was taken into police custody after he set himself on fire in Tingser Village of Bekar Township in Diru County. For less than two weeks, from 7 to 18 November, Tsegyal received no treatment for his burns while being held at the local police station in Nagchu town, sources told TCHRD. Tsegyal died in the evening of 18 November in police custody. Sources: TCHRD: Tibetan dies of untreated burns in police custody in Nagchu (28 November 2012) VOA: Five Tibetans Self-Immolate Today Across Tibetan Regions (7 November 2012) RFA: Five Tibetans Self-Immolate (7 November 2012) ^ TOP Dorjee Lhundrup Date: November 4, 2012 Protest location: Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren) in Qinghai province, the Tibetan area of Amdo Age: Mid-twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A young Tibetan man called Dorjee Lhundrup set fire to himself today in Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren) in Qinghai province, the Tibetan area of Amdo. Dorjee Lhundrup was a farmer in his mid-twenties from Chuma village in Rebkong. He had two children, a two-year old daughter and a four-year old son. Dorjee Lhundrup self-immolated on the morning of November 4 on Taglung South Street, some kilometers west of Rongwo monastery. He died immediately afterwards. ICT Report: Tibetan farmer self-immolates in Rebkong (4 November 2012) ^ TOP Tsewang Kyab Date: October 26, 2012 Protest location: In Setri village in Sangkok township in Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe) county, Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province, in the Tibetan region of Amdo Age: Early-twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tsewang Kyab set fire to himself near the bus stand in Setri village in Sangkok township in Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe) county, Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province, in the Tibetan region of Amdo. Tsewang Kyab died, and despite an attempt by officials to intervene, local Tibetans covered up his corpse with khatags (white blessing scarves) and took him to his home. 258


ICT Report: Second Tibetan self-immolates today in Sangchu (26 October 2012) ^ TOP Lhamo Tseten

Date: October 26, 2012 Protest location: Amchok township in Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe) county, Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: Mid-twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Lhamo Tseten self-immolated in front of the local military base and township administration in Amchok, which is in Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe) county, Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu province (the Tibetan area of Amdo). He was married to a local Tibetan woman, Tsering, and they have a two year old daughter. He is the fourth Tibetan from Sangchu county to self-immolate in the past week, following the deaths of Lhamo Kyab near Bora monastery on October 20, Dhondup outside Labrang Tashikyil monastery on October 22, and Dorje Rinchen outside a military base in Labrang town on October 23. ICT Report: Self-immolation of Tibetan nomad in twenties in restive area of Amchok (26 October 2012) ^ TOP Tsepo Date: October 25, 2012 Protest location: Near a government building in Nagchu (Chinese: Naqu), Tibet Autonomous Region Age: 20 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased

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Info: Two Tibetans in their twenties set fire to themselves in a double self-immolation near a government building in Nagchu (Chinese: Naqu), Tibet Autonomous Region, on Thursday, October 25. Some Tibetan sources reported that the Tibetans were cousins. Both of them were from Bankar monastery and Bankar village in Driru (Chinese: Briru) in Nagchu. ^ TOP Tenzin Date: October 25, 2012 Protest location: Near a government building in Nagchu (Chinese: Naqu), Tibet Autonomous Region Age: 25 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: Two Tibetans in their twenties set fire to themselves in a double self-immolation near a government building in Nagchu (Chinese: Naqu), Tibet Autonomous Region, on Thursday, October 25. Some Tibetan sources reported that the Tibetans were cousins. Both of them were from Bankar monastery and Bankar village in Driru (Chinese: Briru) in Nagchu. ^ TOP Dorje Rinchen

Date: October 23, 2012 Protest location: Near the military camp and in front of the Gyugya market on the main street of Labrang (Chinese: Xiahe) in Kanlho (Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: Late fifties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: According to Tibetans in exile, Dorje Rinchen did not die immediately but has now passed away. The same sources said that local people did not allow his body to

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be taken away by troops. Instead his body was taken home to his village, Sayi, which is around two kilometers east of Labrang monastery. Monks from Labrang were initially not allowed to go to his home to pray. ICT Report: Tibetan farmer self-immolates in Labrang (23 October 2012) ^ TOP Dhondup

Date: October 22, 2012 Protest location: At the side of a temple called Serkhang in Labrang Tashikyil (Chinese: Xiahe) monastery in Kanlho (Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: Sixties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan man called Dhondup set fire to himself this morning (October 22) at the side of a temple called Serkhang (meaning golden house or temple) in Labrang Tashikyil (Chinese: Xiahe) monastery in Kanlho (Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province (the Tibetan area of Amdo). Graphic images that reached Tibetans in exile depict his burning body near the pilgrimage circuit of the monastery, and one photograph shows a khatag (white blessing scarf) placed at the spot after his body was removed. According to reports from exile Tibetans, Dhondup died after his self-immolation and troops took away his body. A Tibetan in exile from Labrang told ICT: “We heard that the flames surrounding the body were so intense. Troops arrived soon afterwards and put the remains in a large bag and took it away. Local monks then tried to hold prayers for Dhondup but police and monastic officials tried to prevent this happening.” ICT Report: Self-immolation at Tibet’s Labrang monastery (22 October 2012) ^ TOP

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Lhamo Kyab Date: October 20, 2012 Protest location: Near Bora monastery in Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe) county, Kanlho (Gannan) prefecture in Gansu province Age: Late twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan in his late twenties called Lhamo Kyab set fire to himself and died today near Bora monastery in Sangchu (Chinese: Xiahe) county, Kanlho (Gannan) prefecture in Gansu province. Lhamo Kyab leaves a wife and two children, aged 10 and 7. According to Tibetans in exile, Lhamo Kyab was seen running along the road in flames, and calling for the Dalai Lama to come home to Tibet. The same sources said that police tried to put out the flames, and a local man took off his shirt and tried to fling it over Lhamo Kyab but the blaze was too strong. ICT Report: Tibetan dies after self-immolating in Gansu (20 October 2012) ^ TOP Tamdin Dorje

Date: October 13, 2012 Protest location: Near a white stupa beside Tsoe Gaden Choeling monastery in Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province (Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: Early fifties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tamdin Dorje, the grandfather of a prominent young Tibetan reincarnate lama at Labrang Tashikyil monastery, died after setting fire to himself in the same place as mother of two Dolkar Tso, who self-immolated on August 7, near a white stupa beside Tsoe Gaden Choeling monastery in Kanlho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province (see ICT report, 7 August 2012).

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The self-immolation is likely to be noted with concern by the authorities due to the connection to the young lama recognised as the 7th Gungthang Rinpoche, Lobsang Geleg Tenpe Khenchen, who was born in 2002 in the village of Dzoege, east of Tsoe city, the seat of Kanlho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the southern part of Gansu Province. Tamdin Dorje was the father of the young lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mother. ICT Report: Grandfather of Tibetan reincarnate lama dies after self-immolation today (13 October2012) ^ TOP Sangay Gyatso

Date: October 6, 2012 Protest location: Tsoe, Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province (Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 27 Occupation: Layperson Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: According to a report by Voice of America, Sangay Gyatso, 27-years old, set fire to himself on October 6, 2012 near the local monastery in the town of Tsoe in the northeastern Tibetan area of Amdo. Sangay Gyatso called for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet and the right of Tibetans to freely express their language and religion. He is believed to have died as a result of his protest. Initial reports from the area tell of heightened tensions in the area and possibly hundreds of security personnel being deployed around the local monastery. ^ TOP

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Gudrub

Date: October 4, 2012 Protest location: Nagchu county, Nagchu prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region Age: 43 Occupation: Writer Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Gudrub, a 43-year old writer from neighboring Driru county, set fire to himself and called for freedom in Tibet and for the return of the Dalai Lama. VOA reported that a group of Tibetans transported Gudrubâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body to hospital, where authorities took him into their custody. A doctor later told the group that Gudrub had died, but authorities would not release his body. ICT Report: Second Tibetan dies in less than a week as self-immolations continue in Tibet (5 October2012) ^ TOP Yangdang Date: September 29, 2012 Protest location: Dzatoe County, Yulshul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province Age: 27 Occupation: Layperson Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: According to Tibetans in exile in contact with Tibetans in the area, Yangdang set fire to himself along the main road in Dzato county town at around 7 pm, and shouted slogans calling for freedom in Tibet and for the return of the Dalai Lama and the Karmapa (a prominent Tibetan lama). After onlookers, including local Chinese shop owners, were able to put out the flames with buckets of water, security forces cordoned off the area and took Yangdangâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body to the local hospital. The following day local authorities informed family members that Yangdang would be transferred to a hospital outside the Tibetan area

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due to his serious condition. However, local authorities later informed family members that Yangdang died while in transport. Authorities have yet to release Yangdangâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body to his family, according to the same sources. ICT Report: Second Tibetan dies in less than a week as self-immolations continue in Tibet (5 October2012) ^ TOP Passang Lhamo Date: September 13, 2012 Protest location: Beijing Age: 62 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown, survived self-immolation Info: On September 13, 2012 Passang Lhamo from Kyegudo (Chinese: Yushu) in Qinghai, set fire to herself in Beijing, according to Tibetan sources. Passang Lhamo travelled to Beijing to appeal to the central government after local authorities refused toallow her to retain her home. An image from the area depicts her home in the process of destruction, according to Tibetan sources from the area. News of Passang Lhamoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s self-immolation only emerged recently due to security restrictions. Yushu was devastated by a magnitude 6.9 earthquake in 2010, killing 2,698 and leaving 100,000 homeless, according to official sources. The town of Kyegu was leveled by the quake, and the subsequent rebuilding process has been fraught with opaque government planning and scant local consultation. (ICT report, Bold protests in earthquake-hit area over government reconstruction plans) According to the Tibetan government in exile (Land Grabbing Persists in Kyegudo, A Tibetan Woman Burned Self in Protest), Passang Lhamo set fire to herself after repeated appeals to the central authorities in Beijing failed to yield any concrete results. The 62-year old was taken to hospital and treated for her burns following her protest, according to the same sources. No more is known about her current condition or whereabouts. Passang Lhamo is the second Tibetan from Kyegudo known to have self-immolated in protest of government policies of evictions and land seizures. Dickyi Choezom a 40year old mother of two, set fire to herself on June 27, 2012 in response to government land seizures and forced evictions. It has recently been reported that fire extinguishers are now located in Tiananmen Square, Beijingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most prominent public space. (New Yorker: Fire Extinguishers, Tibet, and Tiananmen Square)

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A severely burned Passang Lhamo in This image illustrates the demolition of Passang Lhamoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s home in Kyegudo. hospital.

^ TOP

Lobsang Damchoe Date: August 27, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 17 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Two teenage Tibetans, a monk and a layperson who are believed to have been cousins, set themselves on fire on August 27 in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba). The selfimmolations took place near the eastern gate of Kirti monastery. Lobsang Damchoe, 17, a former monk, was seen walking with flames shooting from his body before he collapsed to the ground, according to Kirti monks in exile in Dharamsala, India. It is not known what he shouted or said as he set himself on fire. Chinese security personnel extinguished the flames and took both men initially to the hospital in Ngaba town, but later moved them to a hospital in Barkham. According to the Kirti monks in exile, both young men died in hospital. ICT Report: Two Tibetan teenage relatives self-immolate in Ngaba (28 August 2012) ^ TOP Lobsang Kelsang Date: August 27, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 18

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Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Two teenage Tibetans, a monk and a layperson who are believed to have been cousins, set themselves on fire on August 27 in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba). The selfimmolations took place near the eastern gate of Kirti monastery. Lobsang Kelsang, 18, was seen walking with flames shooting from his body before he collapsed to the ground, according to Kirti monks in exile in Dharamsala, India. It is not known what he shouted or said as he set himself on fire. Chinese security personnel extinguished the flames and took both men initially to the hospital in Ngaba town, but later moved them to a hospital in Barkham. According to the Kirti monks in exile, both young men died in hospital. ICT Report: Two Tibetan teenage relatives self-immolate in Ngaba (28 August 2012) ^ TOP Lungtok Date: August 13, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: About 20 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Sources from the Kirti monastery in exile: At around 6:50pm on August 13th, a 21 year old layman named Tashi from the Soruma pastoral area in Choejema township, and the monk Lungtok, aged about 20, also from Soruma and a student in Kirti monastery’s medical college, set fire to themselves in a prayer wheel enclosure on the monastery’s perimeter, and then emerged shouting protest slogans onto the ‘Heroes’ road’ leading into town from the monastery. As Lungtok approached the junction with the central street, a group of policemen surrounded him, put out the flames and took him away. It is unclear whether he was still alive at that time. Both were taken initially to the county hospital, and then within half an hour they were taken to the Prefecture hospital in Barkham, but according to witnesses, their burns were so severe that there is little hope of survival. ICT Report: Local Tibetans beaten following three more self-immolations in Tibet (15 August 2012) ^ TOP Tashi Date: August 13, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 21 267


Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Sources from the Kirti monastery in exile: At around 6:50pm on August 13th, a 21 year old layman named Tashi from the Soruma pastoral area in Choejema township, and the monk Lungtok, aged about 20, also from Soruma and a student in Kirti monastery’s medical college, set fire to themselves in a prayer wheel enclosure on the monastery’s perimeter, and then emerged shouting protest slogans onto the ‘Heroes’ road’ leading into town from the monastery. As Lungtok approached the junction with the central street, a group of policemen surrounded him, put out the flames and took him away. It is unclear whether he was still alive at that time. Both were taken initially to the county hospital, and then within half an hour they were taken to the Prefecture hospital in Barkham, but according to witnesses, their burns were so severe that there is little hope of survival. It has been learned that Lungtok passed away on 13th, but as he had been taken to Barkham, it is not known whether his body would be returned to family members. ICT Report: Local Tibetans beaten following three more self-immolations in Tibet (15 August 2012) ^ TOP Chopa Date: August 10, 2012 Protest location: Me’uruma township, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 24 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Sources from the Kirti monastery in exile: On August 10 at about 10:15 am, 24 year old Chopa set himself on fire in Me’uruma township, Ngaba county, shouting slogans of protest against the Chinese government. Within a few minutes, local security forces arrived at the scene, doused the still fierce flames, and took him away. According to witnesses, it was not clear at that point whether he was still alive. It has since been confirmed that Chopa passed away just after 3pm on August 10, shortly before reaching Barkham prefecture hospital. The authorities cremated his body there, and returned just a part of the ashes to his family members. ICT Report: Local Tibetans beaten following three more self-immolations in Tibet (15 August 2012) ^ TOP

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Dolkar Tso

Date: August 7, 2012 Protest location: Near Tsoe Gaden Choeling monastery in Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture) in Gansu Province (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: Twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Dolkar Tso, who is in her mid-twenties and from a farming family, set fire to herself early this afternoon near a white stupa (reliquary building) at Tsoe Gaden Choeling monastery in Tsoe City (Chinese: Hezuo). According to Tibetan sources in exile from her home area, she called out for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, and shouted that there was no freedom in Tibet. ICT Report: Tibetan mother in her twenties dies after self-immolation today; monk taken away after self-immolation yesterday (7 August 2012) ^ TOP

Lobsang Tsultrim

Date: August 6, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) town in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 21

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Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased According to the exile Kirti monks, Lobsang Tsultrim attempted to walk along the main street towards the office building of the Forestry Department before he fell to the ground, and armed police emerged and extinguished the flames. A local Tibetan told the Kirti monks in Dharamsala that Lobsang Tsultrim was still alive when police took him away. He is believed to have been taken to the local government hospital, and then removed elsewhere. His current whereabouts and welfare is not known. Lobsang Tsultrim was born in Ryiwa village, Cha Township in Ngaba, and he joined Kirti monastery when he was very young. He was a classmate of Phuntsog, who selfimmolated on March 16, 2011, and is said to have loved playing basketball. Lobsang Tsultrim is said to have suffered a great deal and may have been detained following the crackdown in Ngaba from March 16, 2008, when at least ten Tibetans were killed by Chinese troops after peaceful protest. He is the 27th Tibetan from Ngaba to selfimmolate since February, 2009, and the eighth Kirti monk to do so. ICT Report: Tibetan mother in her twenties dies after self-immolation today; monk taken away after self-immolation yesterday (7 August 2012) ^ TOP Losang Lozin

Date: July 17, 2012 Protest location: North of Barkham county, Sichuan province Age: 18 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased The self-immolation and death today of an 18-year old Tibetan monk from Ngaba is being marked by Tibetans at his monastery, Gedhen Tashi Choeling, an affiliate of Kirti monastery. Losang Lozin set fire to himself in front of the monasteryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main assembly hall today and then attempted to start walking towards the township government office, according to monks from Kirti monastery in Dharamsala, India.

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ICT Report: Teenage monk and model student self-immolates in Tibet (17 July 2012) ^ TOP Tsewang Dorjee Date: July 7, 2012 Protest location: Damshung, Tibet Autonomous Region Age: 22 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Phayul: The Tibetan man who set himself on fire on July 7 has now been identified as Tsewang Dorjee, a 22-year-old nomad from Damshung, central Tibet. Tsewang Dorjee raised slogans and called for the long life of His Holiness, but barely three minutes into his protest, Chinese security forces arrived at the scene, doused the flames and took him to a hospital. In a press release, the Tibetan Parliament-in-exile noted that the entire Damshung region is currently under lockdown and people who witnessed the self-immolation have since been arrested. Source: Phayul: Self-immolating youth identified as Tsewang Dorjee, All witnesses arrested (10 July 2012) ^ TOP

Dickyi Choezom Date: June 27, 2012 Protest location: Kyegudo Age: Forties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Phayul: A Tibetan woman in her 40s, identified as Dickyi Choezom, a mother of two, set herself on fire on June 27, at around 2pm (local time) in Keygu town near the Dhondupling Monastery. Chinese security personnel at the scene of the protest doused the flames and took her away, reportedly to a hospital in Siling, but no further information is available. An exile monk with contacts in the region told Tibetan media that police arrested two of her relatives but many Tibetans gathered and started demanding their release and threatening to set themselves on fire if the two were not released, and they were reportedly released later in the day but carried injuries from severe beatings. Tibetans from Kyegudo have been protesting Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s redevelopment plans in the region following the devastating earthquake in April 2010. (ICT Report â&#x20AC;&#x201C; April 9, 2011) Source: Phayul: Land seizure protest in Kyegudo prompts self-immolation (4 July 2012) 271


^ TOP Ngawang Norphel

Date: June 20, 2012 Protest location: Trindu, Qinghai province Age: 22 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Believed to have died on July 30 Radio Free Asia: Carrying Tibetan flags and shouting pro-independence slogans, former monk Tenzin Khedup, 24, and Ngawang Norphel, 22, torched themselves in Dzatoe (in Chinese, Zaduo) township, Tridu (Chenduo) county, in the Yulshul (Yushu) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, the exile sources said. Tenzin Khedup died on the spot while his colleague, Ngawang Norphel was badly burned and is in serious condition at a hospital, according to Lobsang Sangay, a monk in India who is from the Zekar monastery in Yushul, quoting eyewitnesses. ^ TOP Tenzin Khedup

Date: June 20, 2012 Protest location: Trindu, Qinghai province Age: 24 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased

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Radio Free Asia: Carrying Tibetan flags and shouting pro-independence slogans, former monk Tenzin Khedup, 24, and Ngawang Norphel, 22, torched themselves in Dzatoe (in Chinese, Zaduo) township, Tridu (Chenduo) county, in the Yulshul (Yushu) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, the exile sources said. Tenzin Khedup died on the spot while his colleague, Ngawang Norphel was badly burned and is in serious condition at a hospital, according to Lobsang Sangay, a monk in India who is from the Zekar monastery in Yushul, quoting eyewitnesses. ^ TOP Tamdin Thar Date: June 15, 2012 Protest location: Chentsa (Chinese: Jianza) county town in Qinghai (the eastern Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: Fifties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tibetans in eastern Tibet gathered today to mark the self-immolation of a Tibetan from a nomadic family who set fire to himself and died in Chentsa (Chinese: Jianza) county town in Qinghai (the eastern Tibetan area of Amdo). Images posted online by Tibetans in exile showed crowds gathering to pile khatags (Tibetan blessing scarves) on the body of Tamdin Thar, who was in his forties or fifties, while massed ranks of armed police gather at the roadside nearby. Tamdin Thar set himself on fire early this morning in front of the Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Armed Police base in Chentsa, Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, according to Tibetan sources in exile. Armed police were seen extinguishing the flames as Tamdin Thar lay on the ground, still moving slightly, and he was then taken away in a vehicle by security forces. According to Tibetan sources in exile in touch with Tibetans in the area, he died within hours, and local people gathered in the town calling for the return of his body, despite an increasing number of armed police being deployed. The body was returned to local people at around mid-day today, according to various sources. The Chinese state media confirmed the self-immolation and death but did not name Tamdin Thar. ICT Report: Hundreds of Tibetans face down police to gather for cremation of Tibetan who selfimmolated today (15 June 2012) ^ TOP Rikyo Date: May 30, 2012 Protest location: Tibetan area of Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang) county, Ngaba 273


(Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 33 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Rikyo was in her mid-thirties and from a nomadic family. She set herself on fire near to Jonang Dzamthang Gonchen Monastery. The flames around her body were so intense that police on the scene were beaten back by the fire and attempts to extinguish it failed. Following her self-immolation, her body was taken to the Jonang Dzamthang Monastery and kept there, according to Tibetans in exile who are from the area. Chinese government officials came to the monastery and sought to impose an immediate cremation. Rikyo was cremated the same day, and a large number of Tibetans converged at a special cremation prayer service near the monastery. According to a Tibetan in exile in contact with Tibetans from Dzamthang, “Although it was raining and a heavy storm, people did not move from the cremation area near the monastery until around 3 a.m.” ICT Report: Detentions, fear after Lhasa self-immolations; prayer gathering in Dzamthang (1 June 2012) ^ TOP Dargye

Date: May 27, 2012 Protest location: Outside of the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region Age: Believed to be 25 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Two young Tibetan men set fire to themselves on May 27 outside one of Tibet’s holiest shrines, the Jokhang Temple, in the first self-immolation in Lhasa, Tibet’s historic capital. According to monks from Kirti Monastery in exile, 25-year old Dargye had entered Kirti monastery as a boy and disrobed a few years ago. Voice of America Tibetan language service has reported that the two Tibetans, who self-immolated

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together, worked in a restaurant in Lhasa. Dargye was reportedly from Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) in Sichuan (where most of the self-immolations have taken place). The self-immolations took place during Saga Dawa, an important religious period for Tibetan Buddhists that commemorates the Buddha’s birth, enlightenment and death. The self-immolations are the first in Lhasa where Chinese security has been tight since March 2008 when protests occurred across Tibet and rocked the capital city. The official media reported today that Lhasa’s Public Security Bureau has set up a special task force to investigate the case. ICT Report: Protest by self-immolation spreads to Tibet’s capital (28 May 2012) Detentions, fear after Lhasa self-immolations; prayer gathering in Dzamthang (1 June 2012) ^ TOP Dorje Tseten

Date: May 27, 2012 Protest location: Outside of the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region Age: 19 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Two young Tibetan men set fire to themselves on May 27 outside one of Tibet’s holiest shrines, the Jokhang Temple, in the first self-immolation in Lhasa, Tibet’s historic capital. Nineteen-year old Dorje Tseten had left home after high school and had been renting a room in a house in Lhasa. The entire household was detained soon after his self-immolation. Voice of America Tibetan language service has reported that the two Tibetans, who self-immolated together, worked in a restaurant in Lhasa. Dorje Tseten was reportedly from Labrang (Chinese: Xiahe) in Gansu, the Tibetan area of Amdo. The self-immolations took place during Saga Dawa, an important religious period for Tibetan Buddhists that commemorates the Buddha’s birth, enlightenment and death. The self-immolations are the first in Lhasa where Chinese security has been tight since March 2008 when protests occurred across Tibet and rocked the capital city. The

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official media reported today that Lhasaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Public Security Bureau has set up a special task force to investigate the case. Dorje Tseten is referred to in Xinhua sources as Tobgye Tseten. ICT Report: Protest by self-immolation spreads to Tibetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capital (28 May 2012) Detentions, fear after Lhasa self-immolations; prayer gathering in Dzamthang (1 June 2012) ^ TOP Choepak Kyap Date: April 19, 2012 Protest location: Close to a local government office in Barma township near Jonang Dzamthang Gonchen monastery in the Tibetan area of Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang) county, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: Twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Two Tibetan men in their twenties set fire to themselves today close to a local government office in Barma township near Jonang Dzamthang Gonchen monastery in the Tibetan area of Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang) county, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan. The two Tibetans who self-immolated today were named by two exile Tibetan sources as Choepak Kyap and Sonam. Although paramilitary troops were deployed immediately, local people managed to prevent them from taking away the bodies of the two Tibetans, who had died following the self-immolation, according to the same two sources. According to the exile Tibetans, who are in contact with Tibetans in the area, the bodies were taken to the monastery in order to carry out prayers, and many other Tibetans are gathering there. It is expected that a cremation and funeral services will be held soon. ICT Report: Two young Tibetan men die after self-immolation protest in Ngaba region (19 April 2012) ^ TOP Sonam Date: April 19, 2012 Protest location: Close to a local government office in Barma township near Jonang Dzamthang Gonchen monastery in the Tibetan area of Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang) county, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture,

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Sichuan Age: Twenties Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Two Tibetan men in their twenties set fire to themselves today close to a local government office in Barma township near Jonang Dzamthang Gonchen monastery in the Tibetan area of Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang) county, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan. The two Tibetans who self-immolated today were named by two exile Tibetan sources as Choepak Kyap and Sonam. Although paramilitary troops were deployed immediately, local people managed to prevent them from taking away the bodies of the two Tibetans, who had died following the self-immolation, according to the same two sources. According to the exile Tibetans, who are in contact with Tibetans in the area, the bodies were taken to the monastery in order to carry out prayers, and many other Tibetans are gathering there. It is expected that a cremation and funeral services will be held soon. ICT Report: Two young Tibetan men die after self-immolation protest in Ngaba region (19 April 2012) ^ TOP Thubten Nyandak Rinpoche and his niece Atse

Date: April 6, 2012 Ages: 45 and 23 Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Both deceased, full circumstances of their deaths remain unclear Info: Circumstances around the deaths of a Tibetan religious figure and his niece in Kardze who died in a fire remain unclear. Thubten Nyandak, 45, and his niece Atse, 23 died on April 6, 2012, in their residence at a monastery. New information from the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) in Dharamsala, India, indicates that their deaths were due to self-immolation. Tibetan writer Woeser also states that this was a case of self-immolation.

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The CTA in Dharamsala reported: “On the day of his immolation, he told his family on phone: ‘Today I feel at ease and ending my life by offering butter lamps for all those Tibetans who have set themselves on fire for the cause of Tibet’. Immediately after making the call, he and his niece set themselves on fire.” (Tibet.net, New report confirms self-immolation of Tulku Athup and his niece – March 27, 2013). The Beijing-based Tibetan writer Woeser published a photograph on her blog on August 2, 2012 of the small wooden building which had caught fire resulting in the deaths of Thubten Nyandak Rinpoche and Atse. The image shows scorch marks around one of the windows, but Woeser contends that both people would have had time to escape the fire, if they chose to do so. (Invisible Tibet, Why are the numbers used for Tibetans who have self-immolated inside Tibet inconsistent? (in Chinese) – August 2, 2012) Tulku Athup joined Lhakang Dragkhar monastery in Minyak, Kham at a young age and later studied at Drepung monastery in Lhasa and Kirti monastery in Ngaba, according to the CTA. He was also the former abbot of Dzamthang Monastery in Dzamthang (Ch: Rangtang) County, Ngaba (Ch: Aba) Prefecture, the site of one self-immolation before his own death, on February 19, 2012, and three more after his death, those of Choepak Kyap and Sonam who jointly self-immolated on April 19, 2012, and Rikyo who selfimmolated on May 30, 2012. (RFA, Lama, nun die in fire – April 6, 2012). It is not known when or under what circumstances he left Dzamthang Monastery. Both Thubten Nyandak Rinpoche and Atse were known to be staunch advocates of Tibetan culture and religion and of unity among Tibetans. Before their deaths, Thubten Nyandak Rinpoche had called family members asking them to bring butter to fuel the lamps he said he was lighting for all of the self-immolators. The same CTA report said: “Chinese police from Dartsedo immediately arrived at Dzogchen monastery. Fearing closure of the monastery, the monastery officials told the police that Tulku Athup and his niece died due to accidental fire in the house rather than self-immolation. Chinese police then withdrew from the monastery. Since then the authorities have imposed severe restrictions across the region and cracked down on local Tibetans leaving many of them severely injured.” A Tibetan in the area quoted a monastery administrator as saying that Tulku Athub and his niece Atse died in an accidental fire, but said the local Tibetan community believes they may have self-immolated “for the cause of Tibet.” A Tibetan source told RFA: “On April 6, Tulku Athub told his family in a phone call that ‘I have lighted many butter lamps for the benefit of those who have set themselves on fire for the cause of Tibet.’ Soon afterward, the residence was seen ablaze, and the Tulku and his niece were both found dead.” ^ TOP

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Chimey Palden

Date: March 30, 2012 Protest location: Barkham (Chinese: Maâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;erkang), Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 21 Monastery: Tsodun monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Chimey Palden, a 21-year old monk from Tsodun monastery in Ngaba, set fire to himself, along with fellow monk Tenpa Darjey, aged 22, on March 30, 2012 outside the prefectureal government offices in Barkham, Ngaba. The area is now under lockdown by armed troops and no further information is known about the two monksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; survival or current whereabouts, according to the Kirti monks in exile. Chimey Palden went to Kirti monastery in Ngaba as a philosophy student in 2009, but stayed only a few months. In 2010, on a visit to Lhasa, he was searched by Public Security personnel, who found a photo of the Dalai Lama, a picture of the Tibetan national flag and a Tibetan song on his mobile phone. He was detained for more than a month. ICT Report: Self-immolation of two Tibetan monks from Tsodun monastery, Ngaba (30 March 2012) ^ TOP

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Tenpa Darjey

Date: March 30, 2012 Protest location: Barkham (Chinese: Maâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;erkang), Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 22 Monastery: Tsodun monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tenpa Darjey, a 22-year old monk from Tsodun monastery in Ngaba, set fire to himself, along with fellow monk Chimey Palden, aged 21, on March 30, 2012 outside the prefectureal government offices in Barkham, Ngaba. The area is now under lockdown by armed troops and no further information is known about the two monksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; survival or current whereabouts, according to the Kirti monks in exile. Tenpa Darjey studied philosophy at Kirti monastery in Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, from 2003-2009. He then returned to Tsodun where he was regarded as one of the best students in the logic and debating class. He was the youngest of four brothers and sisters. ICT Report: Self-immolation of two Tibetan monks from Tsodun monastery, Ngaba (30 March 2012) ^ TOP Lobsang Sherab Date: March 28, 2012 Protest location: Cha township, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 20 Monastery: Ganden Tenpeling monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Lobsang Sherab was a 20-year old monk at Ganden Tenpeling monastery in Rasuwa, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province (Tibetan area of

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Amdo). According to monks from Kirti monastery now living in exile in Dharamsala, India, paramilitary police in Ngaba removed Sherab’s body immediately following his self-immolation, ignoring pleas for his body to be handed over to his family. Sherab had been a monk at the small Ganden Tenpeling monastery in Raruwa since the age of nine. Last October he went to study at Kirti monastery in Ngaba, but had returned home on March 26, 2012. According to a Kirti monk in exile, “These days some 300 Chinese government officials of various positions and rank are stationed at Kirti monastery, and throughout Ngaba armed police and special police forces maintain a security clampdown.” ICT Report: Tibetan self-immolations and their impact expand (29 March 2012) ^ TOP Sonam Dargye

Date: March 17, 2012 Protest location: Northeastern Qinghai province Age: 44 Occupation: Farmer Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Sonam Dargye, a 44-year old father of three from the town of Rongpo, is the second Tibetan in the Rebkong area to set fire to himself. Images and footage that emerged almost immediately from Tibet shows thousands of Tibetans in Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Auonomous Prefecture, Qinghai (Tibetan area of Amdo) gathering to mark the passing of Sonam Dargye, a Tibetan farmer who died after self-immolating near the center of Rongpo town on Saturday (March 17) (VOA, 19 March 2012). A video released by VOA and shared by Tibetans on Facebook shows the body of Sonam Dargye still aflame in the middle of the street in Rongpo town, as hundreds of Tibetans gather around. Footage can be viewed at Voice of America’s Tibetan service here. ICT Report:

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Tibetans in Rebkong continue prayer vigils, protests, despite heavy security presence (22 March 2012) ^ TOP Lobsang Tsultrim

Date: March 16, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba county town in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 20 Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Lobsang Tsultrim set himself on fire and proceeded to march along the main road in the upper part of Ngaba county town, shouting slogans of protest against the Chinese government. As he walked on from the site of his self-immolation, armed police personnel came running to intercept him, at which he turned and ran back in the other direction, continuing to shout. He was then knocked to the ground by a police officer, and the police extinguished the flames, and threw him into the back of a pickup vehicle. He was held down by police officers, but was seen to raise his arms while continuing to shout, showing that he was still alive. Lobsang Tsultrim was from the Yeshe Tsang household in Soruma village, Choejema township, Ngaba county. His father’s name is Yeshe and his mother is Tsedron. He was the eldest of four brothers and sisters. He joined Kirti monastery at the age of eight, and studied at the ‘Buddhist youth academy’ or monastery school. Once that institution was closed down in 2003, he entered the monastery’s Tantric college. ICT Report: Kirti monk who self-immolated on March 16 dies in custody; 18-year old monk dies on March 10 in self-immolation protest (20 March 2012) ^ TOP

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Jamyang Palden

Date: March 14, 2012 Protest location: Rebkong, Qinghai Age: Thirties Monastery: Rongpo (Rongwo) Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Jamyang Palden, a monk in his thirties from Rongpo monastery in Rebkong (Chinese: Tongren), Qinghai (the Tibetan area of Amdo), set fire to himself this morning. It is the first self-immolation in Rebkong, and the 28th in Tibet since February, 2009. Jamyang Palden survived the self-immolation, but his condition is serious, according to Tibetans in exile in contact with those in the area. Jamyang Palden set fire to himself in Dolma square, near Rongpo monastery, which is the main monastery in Rebkong. Monks and local people took him to hospital, but it seems that he has since been moved back to the monastery. Despite the buildup of troops, images from Rebkong today show local people gathered at the scene of his self-immolation, quietly praying for him. The gathering led to a peaceful protest, with Tibetans calling for the Dalai Lama to return to Tibet. There are fears for the safety of Tibetans in Rebkong due to the military buildup following the self-immolation. ICT Report: Tensions escalate in Qinghai: Rebkong self-immolation, student protest, monks commemorate March 10 (14 March 2012) ^ TOP

Gepey Date: March 10, 2012 Protest location: Near a Chinese military camp location 1.5 kilometers from Kirti monastery in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan

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Age: 18 Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: VOA: “Chinese authorities took Gepey’s body and forced cremation of his body the same night, according to UK-based advocacy group Free Tibet. Lobsang Yeshi, spokesperson of Kirti monastery in India told VOA Tibetan that Gepey is survived by his mother and two brothers, who are also monks at the Kirti monastery in Ngaba.” ICT Report: Kirti monk who self-immolated on March 16 dies in custody; 18-year old monk dies on March 10 in self-immolation protest (20 March 2012) ^ TOP

Dorjee Date: March 5, 2012 Protest location: Cha (Chinese: Jia) township, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province Age: 18 Occupation: Unknown Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: An 18-year old male named Dorjee set fire to himself today at around 6:30 p.m. local time and walked towards the local government office in Cha (Chinese: Jia) township, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province. According to the same sources, Kirti monks in contact with Tibetans in the region, Dorjee shouted slogans against the Chinese government’s policies on Tibet. It is believed that he died at the scene, and that authorities took away his body. ICT Report: Third Tibetan self-immolation in three days (5 March 2012) ^ TOP

Rinchen Date: March 4, 2012 Protest location: Near a military camp in the vicinity of Kirti monastery in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) town in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: Early thirties> Occupation: Unknown 284


Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan mother named Rinchen self-immolated near a military camp in the vicinity of Kirti monastery in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) town in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo). Rinchen was in her early thirties, and was married to a Tibetan man who had died (details of when he died and the circumstances are not clear). It could not be immediately confirmed whether she had three or four children; the youngest was several months old, and the oldest in their early teens. According to Tibetan monks from Kirti who are now in exile, as she set herself ablaze, Rinchen shouted “Return His Holiness to Tibet” and “We need freedom”. She died soon afterwards, according to the same sources. Rinchen was the eldest of eight siblings in her family, from Jiashang township in Ngaba. ICT Report: Tibetan student and widowed mother self-immolate in Tibet (5 March 2012) ^ TOP Tsering Kyi

Date: March 3, 2012 Protest location: Machu town (Chinese: Maqu) in Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture), Gansu Age: 19 Occupation: Student Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Teenager Tsering Kyi, a pupil at the Tibetan Middle School in Machu who was aged 19, set fire to herself on Saturday afternoon (March 3) in the vegetable market of Machu town (Chinese: Maqu) in Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture), Gansu. Authorities have blockaded the school Tsering Kyi attended in Machu (Chinese: Maqu) county, Kanlho (Chinese: Gannan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province (Tibetan area of Amdo), and have imposed a tight military lockdown in the area following the incident, with people’s cellphones being investigated in an attempt

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to prevent dissemination of any images or footage that may have been taken of the self-immolation. ICT Report: Tibetan student and widowed mother self-immolate in Tibet (5 March 2012) ^ TOP Nangdrol Date: February 19, 2012 Protest location: Dzamthang (Chinese: Rangtang) county, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Age: 18 Occupation: Unknown Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Nangdrol was the fourth of eight children, and is from Choeje village, Barma township, Dzamthang, the Tibetan area of Amdo. The same sources reported that he died, and his body was taken back to the monastery where traditional Buddhist rituals were carried out for him. According to the same sources, monks did not comply with police orders to hand over the body, and this evening (February 19), more than 1000 people had gathered to hold vigil. It has been confirmed that 18-year old Nangdrol, who set himself on fire on February 19 in Dzamthang, Sichuan, was a layperson and not a monk as previously reported, according to Tibetan sources. According to Tibetans in the area who are in contact with Tibetans in exile, Nangdrol cared passionately about Tibetan culture and language and had urged fellow Tibetans to be united, and to preserve their cultural and religious identity. ICT Report: Tibetans gather in Dzamthang for vigil after self-immolation: Lhasa crackdown deepens in buildup to Tibetan New Year (19 February 2012) Tibetan student and widowed mother self-immolate in Tibet (5 March 2012) ^ TOP

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Damchoe Sangpo

Date: February 17, 2012 Protest location: Themchen county town, Themchen county, Tsonub Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province Age: 38 Monastery: Bongthak Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: For the first time, a monastic official self-immolated on Friday (February 17) in Themchen (Chinese: Tianjun) county in Tsonub (Chinese: Haixi ) Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province. Thirty-eight year old Tibetan monk Damchoe Sangpo was a member of Bongthak monastery’s Democratic Management Committee, the government-established body that runs the monastery, according to Tibetan exile sources. Voice of America Tibetan Service, which published a picture of Damchoe Sangpo here, reported that he died after setting himself ablaze after monks were banned from marking a religious ceremony, while other sources reported that he had objected to a rigorous “patriotic education” campaign at his monastery. ICT Report: Tibetans gather in Dzamthang for vigil after self-immolation: Lhasa crackdown deepens in buildup to Tibetan New Year (19 February 2012) ^ TOP

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Lobsang Gyatso

Date: February 13, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba Age: 19 Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: At about 2:30pm on February 13th, Kirti monk Lobsang Gyatso, age 19, of the Badzritsang house in Naktsangma of Cha township, set himself on fire at the top of the main street of Ngaba town shouting slogans ofprotest against the Chinese government. In the same moment, armed police and special police officers came and extinguished the fire and took him away while beating him. His present condition and whereabouts are not known. ICT Report: Nineteen year old Kirti monk sets fire to himself in Ngaba (13 February 2012) ^ TOP Tenzin Choedron

Date: February 11, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba Age: 18 Nunnery: Mame Dechen Chokorling (also known as Mame nunnery)

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Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tenzin Choedron set herself on fire early in the evening on February 11, shouting slogans against the Chinese government, according to monks from Kirti monastery in exile (sister monastery to Kirti in Ngaba). She chose the same place as nun Tenzin Wangmo, the Sumdo bridge area below the nunnery, which is around three kilometers from Ngaba county town (Tibetan nun dies following selfimmolation protest). Tenzin Choedron did not die immediately, but was taken away by soldiers and police. According to new information today, she died soon afterwards and her funeral ceremony is being arranged. ICT Report: Eighteen year old nun who self-immolated in Ngaba dies (12 February 2012) ^ TOP Sonam Rabyang Date: February 9, 2012 Protest location: Triwang (Chinese: Chen wen) Town, the Capital of Tridu County Age: Mid thirties Monastery: Lab monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Taken to a hospital; condition is unclear Info: Sonam Rabyang was a monk from Yuthung village, Lab township, Tridu (Chi: Chenduo) County, Yulshul (Chi: Yu shu) in Yulshul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province (the Tibetan area of Kham). He was at Lab monastery, and set fire to himsef in Tridu town. It is thought that he survived, but it is not clear. ^ TOP

Rinzin Dorje Date: February 8, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba county town in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province (the Tibetan area of Amdo) Age: 19 Monastery: Former monk at Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: According to two Tibetan monks from Kirti monastery in Dharamsala, India (associated with Kirti monastery in Ngaba), the Tibetan set himself on fire at a primary school early in the evening in Ngaba county town in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province (the Tibetan area of Amdo). Sources said that the Tibetan seemed to be a monk, but his name and place of origin are not known. He was taken away by police, and it is not known whether he is still alive. Two monks were also detained from the vicinity. 289


Radio Free Asia has since reported that Rinzin Dorje was formerly a monk at Kirti monastery (RFA, 9 February 2012). ICT Reports: Tibetan who self-immolated in Ngaba was 19-year old former monk (10 February 2012) Tibetan man self-immolates today in Ngaba (8 February 2012) ^ TOP Losang Jamyang

Date: January 14, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: Twenties Monastery: Formerly of Andu monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: *On April 17, ICT released a 45-second film clip that was shot and sent into exile at great risk to those involved. The clip can be viewed here. According to exiled Tibetan sources, at around 1:30 pm he doused himself in petrol and set himself on fire. He walked into the street calling for the long life of the Dalai Lama and for freedom in Tibet, according to the same sources. Police began to kick and beat him with clubs spiked with nails rather than immediately focusing on putting out the flames. According to two Kirti monks in Dharamsala, India, who have spoken to several individuals in the area: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Unable to bear this sight, local Tibetans on the scene stood up to the armed security personnel without regard for their own lives, and shouting that the body should be handed over to them, tried their best to block their path as they tried to take him away.â&#x20AC;? Losang Jamyang died after his self-immolation but reports about the time of his death differ. He was taken away by police, and one of the most reliable reports suggest that he may have survived until Monday (January 16) when he died. Losang Jamyang became a monk at the local Andu monastery (of the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism) as a child, but later joined a primary school (Bontse school) in

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Ngaba county and completed his education there. In 2011 he was a leading member of a popular association for the promotion of Tibetan language in his village, and as a result had faced pressure from the local authorities. ICT Report: Escalation in Ngaba following self-immolation: Two Tibetans shot (UPDATED Jan. 16) (14 January 2012) New information on latest self-immolation, Tibetans critically injured by police (18 January 2012) Vivid new footage shows young Tibetan being beaten by police while on fire (17 April 2012) ^ TOP Sonam Wangyal

Date: January 8, 2012 Protest location: Darlag county, Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province Age: Forties Monastery: Dungkyob monastery Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Sonam Wangyal (also referred to as Lama Sobha), a respected religious figure in his local area, drank kerosene and set himself on fire on January 8 early in the morning in Darlag county, Golog (Chinese: Guoluo) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai (the Tibetan area of Amdo), according to the Tibetan government in exile. His self-immolation was said to be linked to lack of religious freedoms in the area. Radio Free Asia reported that before he set himself ablaze, he climbed a local hill to burn incense and pray before distributing leaflets saying he would act â&#x20AC;&#x153;not for his personal glory but for Tibet and the happiness of Tibetans.â&#x20AC;? ICT Reports: Harrowing images and last message from Tibet of first lama to self-immolate (1 February 2012) Tibetan self-immolations continue and spread in Tibet into 2012 (9 January 2012)

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^ TOP Tsultrim Date: January 6, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: Around twenty Monastery: Formerly of Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: According to information from exiled Tibetan sources, two Tibetans, both aged around 20, called Tsultrim and Tennyi, set themselves on fire in the courtyard of a hotel in the center of Ngaba town, and ran into the street shouting “His Holiness the Dalai Lama must return to Tibet” and “May His Holiness the Dalai Lama live for 10,000 years!” Tennyi died on the same day, and Tsultrim died on January 7, according to the same sources. ICT Report: Tibetan self-immolations continue and spread in Tibet into 2012 (9 January 2012) ^ TOP Tennyi Date: January 6, 2012 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: Around twenty Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: According to information from exiled Tibetan sources, two Tibetans, both aged around 20, called Tsultrim and Tennyi, set themselves on fire in the courtyard of a hotel in the center of Ngaba town, and ran into the street shouting “His Holiness the Dalai Lama must return to Tibet” and “May His Holiness the Dalai Lama live for 10,000 years!” Tennyi died on the same day, and Tsultrim died on January 7, according to the same sources. ICT Report: Tibetan self-immolations continue and spread in Tibet into 2012 (9 January 2012) ^ TOP

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Tenzin Phuntsog

Date: December 1, 2011 Protest location: Chamdo (Chinese: Changdu or Qamdo) prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region Age: Forties Monastery: former monk at Karma monastery in Chamdo township Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased. Info: This the first self-immolation to occur in the Tibet Autonomous Region, and the 13th since Kirti monk Tapey set himself on fire on February 27, 2009. The selfimmolations have mainly occurred in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan (the Tibetan area of Amdo), with three in neighbouring Kardze (Chinese: Ganzi) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (the Tibetan area of Kham). Radio Free Asia reported that the former monk set himself ablaze in Khamar township in Chamdo, that his wifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name is Dolma, and that he has two sons and a daughter. (Radio Free Asia Tibetan service in English, December 1). According to the Tibetan Center for Human Rights and Democracy, Tenzin Phuntsog died at Chamdo Hospital on December 6, 2011 (TCHRD, 9 December 2011). ICT Report: First self-immolation in Tibet Autonomous Region; former monk sets himself on fire (1 December 2011) ^ TOP

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Palden Choetso

Date: November 3, 2011 Protest location: Tawu (also known as Dawu) county in Kardze, TAP, Sichuan Age: 35 Nunnery: Ganden Jangchup Choeling Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: A Tibetan, Palden Choetso set fire to herself November 3, 2011 and is believed to have died in Kardze (Chinese: Ganzi) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan, the Tibetan area of Kham. The state news agency Xinhua confirmed the self-immolation and reported that the nun died after setting herself on fire near her nunnery in Tawu (also known as Dawu, Chinese: Daofu) county in Kardze. According to one source in exile, “After Palden Choetso’s self-immolation the nuns took her to the nunnery, and she died soon afterwards. Nuns began to pray for her. The local authorities have locked down the area, closing a major road in Tawu, and deploying troops to the nunnery.” ICT Report: Tibetan nun self-immolates in Kardze: continued resistance despite Chinese crackdown (4 November 2011) ^ TOP Dawa Tsering

Date: October 25, 2011 Protest location: Kardze county, Kardze TAP, Sichuan

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Age: 38 Monastery: Kardze Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: Dawa Tsering, 38, became the 11th Tibetan to self-immolate as a form of political protest against Chinese rule when he set fire to himself on the morning of October 25 in Kardze Monastery in eastern Tibet. Dawa Tsering was reportedly participating in a religious ritual inside the monastery attended by hundreds of local people when he set himself on fire. His current condition and whereabouts are not known, and Chinese police have reportedly surrounded the monastery. ICT Report: 11th self-immolation in Tibet; Kardze monk sets fire to himself during religious ceremony (28 October 2011) ^ TOP Tenzin Wangmo

Date: October 17, 2011 Protest location: Sumdo bridge, located below Mame nunnery, approximately three kilometers outside of Ngaba county town, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: 20 Nunnery: Mame Dechen Chokorling (also known as Mame nunnery) Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tenzin Wangmo, a 20 year-old Tibetan nun from Mame Dechen Chokorling nunnery (also known as Mame nunnery) in Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province (Tibetan region of Amdo), died after self-immolating at the Sumdo bridge, located below Mame nunnery, approximately three kilometers outside of Ngaba county town. According to the same sources, Tenzin Wangmo called for the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s return to Tibet and for religious freedom, during a protest that lasted approximately 10 minutes. Tenzin Wangmoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body was taken back to the nunnery before police arrived, whereupon the authorities demanded that her body be turned over or buried the same day, according to the same exile sources. The nuns of

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Mame nunnery refused, after which soldiers and police cordoned off the nunnery and surrounding villages. Details are still emerging, however, according to the same exile sources, Tenzin Wangmo’s body was cremated on the evening of October 17, by order of the authorities. ICT Report: Tibetan nun dies following self-immolation protest (21 October 2011) ^ TOP Norbu Damdrul

Date: October 15, 2011 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: 19 Monastery: Formerly of Kirti (It is not known whether Norbu Damdrul chose to disrobe, or was expelled from the monastery by government authorities.) Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased. Info: Norbu Damdrul, 19, a former Kirti monk, set fire to himself in a protest on the main street in Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) county town just before noon on October 15. According to exiled Tibetan sources he shouted “We need freedom and independence for Tibet,” and called for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet as his body was burning, according to the same sources. Norbu’s body was badly burned, but according to the same sources he was still alive when police stationed on the street extinguished the flames and kicked Norbu before taking him away. A large crowd of Tibetans who had gathered at the scene was dispersed at gunpoint by security personnel, according to the same sources. ICT Report: Self-immolations continue in Tibet; 8th young Tibetan man sets fire to himself in Ngaba (16 October 2011) Tibetan self-immolations continue and spread in Tibet into 2012 (9 January 2012) ^ TOP

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Choepel

Date: October 7, 2011 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: 19 Monastery: Formerly of Kirti (It is not known whether Choepel chose to disrobe, or was expelled from the monastery by government authorities.) Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Choepel and Kayang, both former monks at Kirti monastery who may have been expelled, set fire to themselves along the main road of Ngaba county town. The two young men clasped their hands together and set fire to themselves before security personnel extinguished the flames and took the two to the county’s government-run hospital. Both young men died following the protest. The Chinese state media reported the self-immolation in a Xinhua report on October 8, saying that two Tibetans were “slightly injured” after a “self-immolation attempt.” ICT Reports: Two Tibetan teenagers set fire to themselves in latest protest in Ngaba; ICT calls for urgent actions by governments (7 October 2011) Kirti Rinpoche speaks of self-immolations; death of two former Tibetan monks after immolation (11 October 2011) ^ TOP

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Kayang

Date: October 7, 2011 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: 18 Monastery: Formerly of Kirti (It is not known whether Kayang chose to disrobe, or was expelled from the monastery by government authorities.) Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Choepel and Kayang, both former monks at Kirti monastery who may have been expelled, set fire to themselves along the main road of Ngaba county town. The two young men clasped their hands together and set fire to themselves before security personnel extinguished the flames and took the two to the county’s government-run hospital. Both young men died following the protest. Kayang’s cousin, a Tibetan named Tashi, was one of the Tibetans killed in the Chinese government crackdown in Ngaba in 2008. The Chinese state media reported the self-immolation in a Xinhua report on October 8, saying that two Tibetans were “slightly injured” after a “self-immolation attempt.” ICT Reports: Two Tibetan teenagers set fire to themselves in latest protest in Ngaba; ICT calls for urgent actions by governments (7 October 2011) Kirti Rinpoche speaks of self-immolations; death of two former Tibetan monks after immolation (11 October 2011) ^ TOP

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Kelsang Wangchuk

Date: October 3, 2011 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: 17 Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Tibetan exile sources indicate that he is in a ward of the county hospital under strict surveillance. The same sources said that he had sustained a head injury as a result of the beatings from police at the time of his detention. Info: A 17-year old monk from Kirti monastery immolated himself in Ngaba county town at approximately 2:00 pm local time on October 3, according to Tibetans in exile in contact with Tibetans in the area. The monk, Kelsang Wangchuk, carried a photo of the Dalai Lama and was shouting slogans against the Chinese government when he set fire to himself along the main street in Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province. Full details of the incident have yet to emerge, but some exiled sources say that he was immediately surrounded by security personnel, who extinguished the fire and beat Kelsang Wangchuk before taking him away. Kelsangâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current wellbeing and whereabouts are unknown. Shortly after the immolation, additional security forces were deployed in Ngaba county town and at Kirti monastery. According to monks from the re-established Kirti monastery in exile in Dharamsala, India, pamphlets were distributed and posted around Kirti monastery and the market place in Ngaba county town a few days ago, stating that if the current security crackdown in the area were to continue, â&#x20AC;&#x153;many more people were prepared to give up their livesâ&#x20AC;? in protest. ICT Report: 17 year old Tibetan monk from Kirti monastery self-immolates in new protest (3 October 2011) ^ TOP

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Lobsang Kelsang

Date: September 26, 2011 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: Believed to be 18 Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: In a hospital, according to exile Tibetan sources. Lobsang Kelsang was featured on Chinese state television from hospital. Info: On September 26 Lobsang Kelsang and Lobsang Kunchok, both believed to be approximately 18-years old, set fire to themselves while shouting â&#x20AC;&#x153;Long live His Holiness the Dalai Lama,â&#x20AC;? in a protest also held in Ngaba county town. After extinguishing the flames, police took the two young monks into custody. ICT Report: Two more Tibetan monks from Kirti monastery set themselves on fire calling for religious freedom (26 September 2011) ^ TOP

Lobsang Kunchok

Date: September 26, 2011 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province

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Age: Believed to be 18 Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: In a hospital, according to exile Tibetan sources. Info: On September 26 Lobsang Kelsang and Lobsang Kunchok, both believed to be approximately 18-years old, set fire to themselves while shouting “Long live His Holiness the Dalai Lama,” in a protest also held in Ngaba county town. After extinguishing the flames, police took the two young monks into custody. A video was posted on YouTube showing Lobsang Kunchok in the street after he selfimmolated. (Warning: graphic content) ICT Report: Two more Tibetan monks from Kirti monastery set themselves on fire calling for religious freedom (26 September 2011) ^ TOP Tsewang Norbu

Date: August 15, 2011 Protest location: Tawu county, Kardze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: 29 Monastery: Nyitso Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Tsewang Norbu died after setting fire to himself and calling for freedom and the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet. Tsewang Norbu drank petrol before immolating himself and died soon afterwards, according to Tibetan exiles in contact with the area. In a rare instance of prompt reporting on such an incident, the Chinese state media confirmed the death of a Buddhist monk shortly afterwards, with Xinhua stating: “it was unclear why he had burnt himself”, and that the local government had launched an investigation. (Xinhua, August 15). A hotel receptionist near the scene of Tsewang Norbu’s death told AFP that the monk had been distributing leaflets, saying: “I saw a monk lying on the ground and burning, he died right in front of the county government building.” (AFP, August 15).

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The state media confirmed that Tsewang Norbu had been swiftly cremated on Wednesday, August 17, evidence that the Kardze Party Secretary’s instructions for a prompt cremation were followed. Xinhua reported that Nyitso monk Tsewang Norbu (Chinese transliteration: Tsongwon Norbu) had been “cremated Wednesday in accordance with Tibetan rituals”, according to the local government. (Xinhua in English, August 17). ICT Report: Troops surround monastery as Tibetan monk dies after setting himself on fire and calling for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet (16 August 2011) ^ TOP Phuntsog

Date: March 16, 2011 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: 20 Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Deceased Info: Phuntsog, a 20-year old monk, immolated himself on March 16, the 3rd anniversary of a protest at Kirti in 2008 during which at least 10 Tibetans were shot dead. Police extinguished the flames and were seen beating Phuntsog before he died, according to Tibetan exiles in contact with Tibetans in the area. According to Tibetan exiles who spoke to a witness of the protest, before he was stopped by police Phuntsog shouted slogans including “May His Holiness the Dalai Lama live for 10,000 years!” According to the same sources, protests then broke out against the Chinese authorities involving hundreds of monks and laypeople. After an attempted peaceful march from the monastery, police broke up the protests, detaining an unknown number of monks and beating Tibetans involved. An account of the aftermath of the self-immolation: Kirti monks intervened when police were beating Phuntsog and took him back to the monastery before ensuring he

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received medical treatment. The Chinese authorities’ official statement included the false claim that the monks “forcibly took [Phuntsog] out of the hospital.” Two sources from Kirti monastery in exile told ICT: “When Phuntsog was taken back to the monastery, there was little hope of his surviving, but as he was not yet dead, there was still a chance. Without government permission, they knew the hospital would not take him. So the monks decided to give into the government so that he could be admitted to hospital. He passed away there at around 3 am local time today (March 17).” The official state media account not only gave misleading information about Phuntsog’s identify, but also claims: “Shortly after he set himself on fire, a policeman on patrol found him, put out the flames and rushed him to a nearby hospital…But a group of monks from the Kirti Monastery forcibly took him out of the hospital later in the afternoon and hid him inside the monastery, regardless of his injuries.” Kirti was soon placed under lockdown and monks subjected to a stringent patriotic education campaign as part of a wide-spread crackdown in Ngaba that included several hundred security personnel posted to Kirti monastery. Around 300 monks were taken away from the monastery in large trucks to unknown locations for the purpose of “legal education,” and two elderly Tibetans were beaten to death by police while they were participating in a vigil at the gates of the monastery in an attempt to protect the monks during a security raid on the monastery. In an official statement released on April 29 in English, the Chinese state media claimed that the reports by the international media citing ICT on the deaths of the two Tibetans were “fictitious” and that an “86-year-old female herder died of lung disease at her home in Aba Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture.” Exiled sources from the area reported that contrary to the official report, the two people who died in their attempt to prevent monks from being moved from the monastery by armed police on April 21 were Dongko (male), aged 60, and 65-year old Sherkyi (female). The two Tibetans died after severe beatings. Dramatic footage from Ngaba was released on April 19, a month after it was taken, which refutes the Chinese government’s assertions on April 19 that the situation is “normal” and “harmonious.” Kirti monk Losang Tenzin, age 22, was sentenced to 13 years imprisonment, and a Kirti monk also called Losang Tenzin (known too as Nak Ten) was sentenced to 10 years in prison by the Barkham (Chinese: Ma’erkang) County People’s Court, Ngaba (Chinese: Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province on August 30. On Monday, August 29, 46-year old Kirti monk Losang Tsondru (named in the state media as Drongdru), who was detained on April 12, was sentenced to 11 years imprisonment by the same court. All three sentences were reported in the Chinese state media, with Xinhua reporting on August 31 that the two monks sentenced on August 30 “plotted, instigated and assisted in the self-immolation of 303


fellow monk Rigzin Phuntsog, causing his death” (Xinhua, August 31, 2011). The same article stated: “Drongdru was given the sentence because he hid the injured monk and prevented emergency treatment, causing delayed treatment and the subsequent death for his disciple and nephew, according to the verdict.” On around May 2, 31-year old Kirti monk Losang Dargye of Me’uruma township was sentenced to three years in prison by the Ngaba county People’s Court. Losang Dargye became a monk at a young age, and in 2003 he travelled to Lhasa to begin higher Buddhist studies at Drepung monastery, which he completed with distinction. He is believed to have been among a group of Drepung monks who peacefully protested on March 10, 2008, and was detained for some months before being allowed to return to Ngaba. He was detained on April 11 this year in a raid by police and soldiers on his quarters in the monastery. Kirti monk Konchok Tsultrim, age 33, from the rural area of Tawa Gongma was arrested after March 16. He was sentenced around the beginning of May to three years in prison by the Ngaba county People’s Court, and is now likely to serve his sentence outside Ngaba county. Konchok Tsultrim was serving as the monastery storekeeper. Details of the exact charges against him are not known. State Department Acting Deputy Spokesman Mark Toner, in response to a question at a daily press briefing on April 14, said: “We have seen that Chinese security forces have cordoned off the Kirti monastery in Sichuan province. They’ve also imposed onerous restrictions on the monks and the general public. And we believe these are inconsistent with internationally-recognized principles of religious freedom and human right. We continue to monitor the situation closely, and are obviously concerned by it.” Asked if the US has raised this matter with China, Toner said: “Yes, I believe we raised it with the Chinese, as we would raise any human rights concerns.” On June 8, the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances (WGEID) of the UN Human Rights Council called upon the Chinese authorities “to disclose the fate and whereabouts of all those who have been subject to enforced disappearances in China, including a group of Tibetan monks whose fate or whereabouts still remain unknown.” ICT Reports: Monk immolates himself; major protests at Tibetan monastery violently suppressed (16 March 2011) Chinese authorities confirm death of monk after self-immolation; military crackdown at Kirti (17 March 2011) Amidst heavy security presence, thousands of Tibetans attend funeral of monk who set fire to himself in Ngaba (18 March 2011) Protests, tensions escalate in Ngaba following self-immolation of monk: Kirti monastery under lockdown (11 April 2011) 304


Crisis at Kirti monastery intensifies: rare public statements by lama in exile (13 April 2011) List of prisoners and “disappeared”; Tibetans in Ngaba crackdown: situation provokes U.S. government concern (15 April 2011) Dramatic new footage reveals Ngaba crackdown, refutes Chinese claims of “normal life” (20 April 2011) Two elderly Tibetans killed as hundreds of monks detained from Kirti; crackdown deepens (22 April 2011) Crackdown continues at Kirti as Chinese authorities maintain pretence of ‘normality’ (29 April 2011) Ngaba students protest crackdown, authorities respond; new information on deaths of Tibetans who tried to protect monks (9 May 2011) Crackdown in Ngaba: monks detained for giving wrong answers in ‘patriotic education’ (26 May 2011) UN Human Rights Experts to China: Disclose the fate and whereabouts of Kirti monks (9 June 2011) Fears for future of Kirti monastery; UN seeks answers (14 June 2011) New developments at Kirti monastery; crackdown shows no sign of easing (28 June 2011) Monks imprisoned for 10-13 years following self-immolation by Kirti monk (31 August 2011) ^ TOP

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Tapey

Date: February 27, 2009 Protest location: Ngaba county town, Ngaba county, Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province Age: Twenties Monastery: Kirti Current whereabouts/wellbeing: Unknown Info: Tapey, a Kirti monk in his mid-twenties, was shot by security personnel when he set himself on fire as a form of protest after prayer ceremonies at his monastery were cancelled. Early in the afternoon, according to at least two sources including one who spoke to an eyewitness, Tapey walked alone to a nearby crossroads in the market area of the town. He had already doused himself with oil by the time he reached the crossroads. He then set himself on fire and raised a home-made Tibetan flag that had at its center a photograph of the Dalai Lama. When Tapey began to shout slogans (no details are yet known of what he said), Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Armed Police (PAP) personnel stationed nearby opened fire, and Tapey fell to the ground. Reports indicate that the PAP extinguished the fire after Tapey was shot and he was immediately taken away by police. ICT Report: Monk in Tibet sets himself on fire; shot by police during protest (27 February 2009)

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^ TOP Self-immolations by Tibetans in exile Karma Ngedon Gyatso

Date: August 6, 2013 Protest location: Kathmandu, Nepal Age: 38 Info: A 38-year old monk called Karma Ngedon Gyatso died after setting himself on fire at the Boudha stupa in Kathmandu, Nepal, on August 6. Karma Ngedon Gyatso, who was unable to walk due to a severe disability, had arrived in exile from Tibet in October, 2011. Tibetans who knew him describe him as deeply religious. It is the second fatal self-immolation by a Tibetan monk in Kathmandu this year after Drupchen Tsering set himself on fire in February, also at the Boudha stupa. Before setting himself on fire, Karma Ngedon Gyatso lit butter-lamps in a traditional form of prayer offering. One of the last people to speak to him alive was an employee at a shop selling butter-lamps near the stupa. Lila Maya Moktan from the Butter Lamp House told the Himalayan Times: “’He paid me Rs 1,500 ($15) for the lamps. The Tibetan was alone and was calm. […] About 10 minutes after he visited my shop, I came to know that the man had immolated self.’” (Himalayan Times, August 7, 2013). ICT Report: New information on Tibetan monk who self-immolated in Nepal (19 August 2013) Tibetan monk dies after self-immolation in Kathmandu, Nepal (7 August 2013) Drupchen Tsering (Druptse) Date: February 13, 2013 Protest location: Kathmandu, Nepal Age: 25 Info: A Tibetan set fire to himself by the Boudha stupa in Kathmandu, Nepal, on February 13, 2013, the third day of the Tibetan New Year (Losar). Images show flames blazing from his entire body as he stands upright before Nepalese police extinguished the fire and took him to hospital. He is said to have suffered from burns over more than 95% of his body and died in hospital.

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The Tibetan was identified by exile Tibetan sources as a 25-year old monk called Drongchen Tsering (or Drongtse) who recently arrived in Nepal from Tibet. The same sources said that he was the son of a reincarnate lama and was from Kardze (Chinese: Ganze) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province, the Tibetan area of Kham. Drupchen Tsering wrapped his body in cotton held together with wire and doused his body in petrol before setting himself on fire. His body was cremated in Kathmandu late at night at the instruction of the Nepalese authorities without Buddhist or any religious rituals being carried out, despite appeals from the Tibetan community for monks to be in attendance to offer prayers. (ICT report, Dismay over hasty secret cremation of Tibetan monk who self-immolated in Nepal – March 28, 2013). Jampa Yeshe Date: March 26, 2012 Protest location: New Delhi, India Age: 27 Info: Jampa Yeshe, 27, set himself alight on March 26, 2012 in New Delhi amidst several hundred protestors representing numerous causes who had gathered to mark an up-coming international summit which was to be attended by Chinese President Hu Jintao. Images of Jampa Yeshe’s self-immolation showed him running with flames enveloping his entire body and his face contorted with pain and the effort of shouting slogans. He was reportedly on flames for almost two minutes before falling to the ground, when other protestors gathered at the scene put the flames out and he was taken to hospital. Jampa Yeshe, who is from Kardze in eastern Tibet (Kham), and who had been in India since 2006, died in hospital on March 28, 2012. Jampa Yeshe was from Tawu (Ch: Daofu) County in Kardze (Ch: Ganzi) Prefecture, the same area where Tsewang Norbu had self-immolated on August 15, 2011, and Palden Choetso on November 3, 2011. Jampa Yeshe fled Tibet for India in 2006. Jampa Yeshe left a hand-written testimony in his room in New Delhi before self immolating. A translation by the Central Tibetan Administration can be read here: Central Tibetan Administration, “Thousands attend funeral of Jampa Yeshe in Dharamsala” – March 30, 2012. Jampa Yeshe’s story was told in detail in a National Geographic article by Jeff Barthelet published November 30, 2012 (Tibet’s Man on Fire). Bhutuk Date: November 10, 2011 Protest location: Kathmandu, Nepal 308


Info: On November 10, 2011, a Tibetan monk – later revealed to be named Bhutok – wrapped a Tibetan flag around himself, doused himself in kerosene while shouting slogans calling for a free Tibet, then set himself alight at the Boudhanath Buddhist stupa (a reliquary) in central Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and home to a large community of Tibetans. Buddhist pilgrims at the stupa managed to quickly put out the flames and he survived. Bhutuk left Nepal for India where he received medical treatment for 15-20% burns. Tibetans live a precarious existence in Nepal, particularly in Kathmandu, where the Nepalese authorities are under intense pressure from the Chinese government to curb Tibetan nationalist activities. It appears that after Bhutuk’s self-immolation, there may have been a considerable effort within the Tibetan community to hide Bhutok’s identity and whereabouts to allow him to evade arrest. Bhutuk is originally from Kardze (Chinese: Ganzi) in Sichuan Province, the Tibetan region of Kham, and had he been detained in Nepal there were fears that he may have been deported back into Chinese custody. Sherab Tsedor Date: November 4, 2011 Protest location: New Delhi, India Age: 25 Info: On November 4, 2011, Sherap Tsedor, 25, stepped from a public bus outside the Chinese embassy in New Delhi, poured fuel over himself and started shouting slogans against the Chinese presence in Tibet after setting himself alight. Police on the scene intervened immediately and managed to put out the flames before they could take hold, leaving Sherap Tsedor with only minor burns on his legs and waist. He told The Guardian newspaper in the UK: “For me, it was a failure because I’m still alive… I would be ready to do it again. That is how strongly I feel about the situation there in Tibet.” (The Guardian, Protesters’ stories: Sherab Tsedor and Tibet – January 13, 2012). Thubten Ngodrup Date: April 27, 1998 Protest location: Delhi, India Info: The first self-immolation in Tibetan society took place in exile in Delhi, India, on April 27, 1998, when Thubten Ngodrup set himself on fire as a Tibetan Youth Congress hunger strike was broken up by Indian police. A shocking video of his selfimmolation caused great distress among Tibetans in exile, and a statue stands in his memory by the Dalai Lama’s temple in Dharamsala, India. Thubten Ngodrup died in hospital in Delhi. Tibetan writer Jamyang Norbu described the scene in an article written in 1998: “We see him charging out to the area before the hunger-strikers tent, causing chaos in the 309


ranks of the police as well as the Tibetans there. […] The burning man then appears to pause and hold up both hands together in the position of prayer. At this point the fire seems terribly intense and the cameraman later remarked that he could distinctly hear popping sounds as bits of flesh burst from Thupten Ngodup’s body. The cameraman was so shaken he found it difficult to hold his camera steady. Then policemen and Tibetans beat at the flames with rugs and sacks, and finally pushing Thupten Ngodup to the ground, stifled the blaze.” (Shadow Tibet blog, Remembering Thupten Ngodup – May 12, 2008) ^ TOP - See more at: http://www.savetibet.org/resources/fact-sheets/self-immolations-bytibetans/#sthash.ZAaWGTIP.dpuf

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Conclusion This compilation of Tibet and Its People â&#x20AC;&#x201C; An Essence of True History has attempted to show that Tibet was historically, culturally, and politically a sovereign country before the Communist Chinese invasion in 1949 and then its occupation in 1959. The Legal Inquiry Committee on Tibet, established in 1959, reported to the International Commission of Jurists in 1960: The view of the Committee was that Tibet was at the very least a de facto independent State when the Agreement on Peaceful Measures in Tibet was signed in 1951, and the repudiation of this agreement by the Tibetan Government in 1959 was found to be fully justified â&#x20AC;Ś..Tibet demonstrated from 1913 to 1950 the conditions of statehood as generally accepted under international law. The atrocities and repressions, or for that matter the cultural genocide in Tibet, are being committed by a few political leaders and officials of Communist China. The Chinese people as a whole are not to be blamed. Historically there has never been any racial tension between the Tibetan and Chinese people. However, the Communist Chinese government continues, to this day, to disseminate oppressive practices in Tibet. Although the Chinese have engaged in heavy propaganda claiming that Tibet has always been a part of China, this book shows that until 1959 Tibet was an independent country with its own military, postal service, currency and not to mention its own language and cultural traditions. Tibet and Tibetans want to live harmoniously with their neighbors and the world community and enjoy the rights that all human beings deserve. It is now more than 65 years since the Chinese Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Liberation Army (PLA) invaded Tibet in 1949 and gained complete control in 1959. The unwavering respect and trust of Tibetan people inside Tibet, in all the three traditional Provinces, U-tsang, Kham and Amdo to His Holiness the Dalai Lama and to the Tibetan cause, have remained a steadfast inspiration for the Tibetans in exile. The exile Tibetan community with a complete democratic administration strives to keep its religious, cultural and political aspirations alive with His Holiness the Dalai Lama as the Protector and Symbol of Tibet and Tibetan People along with a strong global support. Tibet today is a large prison. It is the prime responsibility of every Tibetan to strive towards freeing the Tibetans inside Tibet from inhuman repressive policy of the Chinese Government. The truth is our weapon and nonviolence and dialogue are our methods.

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Bibliography TIBET A Political History: My Land and My People: Official Website of Tibet at a Glance:

Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, India Tibet Museum, Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, Inida Tibet and China Two Distinct Nations: Dakpa Tender Bhallen Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy, Dharamsala, India International Campaign for Tibet, Washington DC, USA Photo Credits: Various Tibet related web-sites Apart from the books listed under each section you are also suggested to read the following books: Art of Happiness by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama Ethics for the New Millennium by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama The Path to Enlightenment by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama Kindness, Clarity, and Insight by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama The Power of Compassion by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama The Heart of Compassion: A Practical Approach to a Meaningful Life by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama Important Websites on Tibet: www.dalailama.com His Holiness the Dalai Lamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s teachings www.tibetonline.tv Tibet Online www.otny@igc.org The Office of Tibet, New York www.phayul.com Phayul News & Views www.voanews.com/tibetan Voice of America, Tibetan Service www.rfa.org/tibetan Radio Free Asia, Tibetan Service

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Copyright Permissions 1. Over all contents of the book and The Middle-Way Approach in particular E-mail on April 11, 2010 Dear Kalsang Gyatso la I returned from my official tour a day before yesterday and hence the delay in responding to you. I have gone through your proposed contents and found it interesting. As for the section of the middle way approach, I do not see it necessary to seek approval to publish it so long as you mention the source of these documents. I wish you good luck in your commendable efforts to bring out this book. Yours sincerely Lobsang Nyandak sent from my iPhone (Mr. Lobsang Nyandak is the Representative of His Holiness the Dalai Lama for North America, at the Office of Tibet in New York) 2. TIBET A Political History by W.D. Shakabpa E-mail January, 2010 Dear Gyatso la, First of all congrats in your efforts to write on Tibet. Please understand that I do not hold the copyrights to late Pola's book. I believe it is my aunt in NY who holds it. However, Idon't see a problem why you couldn't reference it. As far as I am concerned, you certainly may cite his book since your works are purely educational with no profit motive. With all my best and wish you complete success in your book. Sincerely, Jigme Shakabpa

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3. Tibet and China, Two Distinct Nations by Dakpa Tender Bhallen (Published in 2002) â&#x20AC;&#x153;I welcome all to reproduce or quote freely from this for your works for the cause of Tibet and peaceâ&#x20AC;? 4. Apart from the copyright permissions given in the above list, I would like to mention the other important sources of materials that I have taken for this book. The following are the major website sources: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Dharamsala Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala International Campaign for Tibet, USA Many other websites in Tibetan and English languages on Tibet and Tibetan culture and their sources are acknowleged at the end of each document.

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About the compiler: Kalsang Gyatso Kunor escaped to India in 1961 with his parents after the Communist Chinese occupation of Tibet in 1959. He was educated in India and served with the Central Tibetan Administration in India for 19 years. He later moved to the United States of America in 1996 as a part of the Family Reunification Project. He is currently a Tibetan Bilingual Resource Specialist for the Madison Metropolitan School District and the Coordinator and a teacher at the Wisconsin Tibetan Associationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Saturday Tibetan Language and Culture School in Madison. He has also taught Intensive Tibetan language during the summer at the Center for South Asia, University of Wisconsin-Madison. He currently resides with his wife and two sons in Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Four Harmonious Friends

September 24, 2011 Updated July 2, 2014 Copyright: Kalsang Gyatso Kunor

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Tibet and its people an essence of true history  
Tibet and its people an essence of true history  

Compiled by: Kalsang Gyatso Kunor

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