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MAY / JUNE 2011

VOL.1, NO. 1




Calculate AFV Cost of Ownership Refuse Fleets Expand CNG Use Green Fleet Conference Follows ‘Green’ Theme Cutting Costs with Propane Autogas

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GREENER. At Ford Fleet, we believe in getting the most out of green technology. We’re continually working to improve vehicle performance while decreasing negative environmental impact. Our proprietary EcoBoost™ engine* can do just that for your fleet. It combines turbocharging and direct-injection technologies to provide the performance of a V8 with the fuel economy of a V6.** Our ultimate goal is to go beyond producing a more powerful and greener fleet — to ensuring every mile your fleet drives barely leaves an impression at all. Ford Fleet. Get More. *Optional, available on select models. **EPA-estimated 17 city/25 hwy/20 combined mpg (Taurus SHO/MKS); 16 city/22 hwy/18 combined mpg (Flex/MKT), EcoBoost AWD.

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features 6 How to Find Available Money for Your Fleet A record amount of grant and incentive funding for clean air vehicles is available, but fleet managers must be able to identify and successfully seek out these funding sources.

12 How Much Green Does It Take to Go Green? Preparing & Understanding AFV Lifecycle Costs


By comparing the TCO of diesel, E-85, CNG, hybrid, and electric vehicle options with similar gasoline-fueled vehicles, fleet managers can determine the total cost of integrating alt-fuel vehicles into the fleet.

16 How Infinity Insurance Created a Green Fleet Policy An effective “fleet-greening” policy requires planning and research. Fleet Operations Supervisor Chuck Kukal describes the basic steps he used in developing a green fleet policy for Infinity Insurance Company.

20 Natural Gas a Hit with Refuse Fleets


Reduced fuel prices, maintenance costs, and harmful emissions are just some reasons refuse fleets are increasing their compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle purchases.

24 Green Fleet Conference Living Up to Its Name Conference attendees and exhibitors won’t be the only ones showing off their environmentally friendly images at the 2011 Green Fleet Conference. The “green” theme will be spread throughout the event.

26 Ferrellgas Cuts Costs Using Propane Autogas Almost one-third of Ferrellgas’ nearly 4,000 vehicles are propane-powered. The units are significantly less costly to operate and generate 60-70 percent less smog-producing hydrocarbons than their gasoline counterparts.

28 Encana to Convert Majority of Fleet to CNG Encana operates a fleet of 700 vehicles in the U.S. The company is dovetailing its efforts to build new natural gas fueling stations with its process of converting its fleet to CNG.

30 GM to Offer Single-Source LPG Option for Chevrolet & GMC Cutaway Vans The automaker expects to ship the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cutaway vans by fourth quarter 2011.



departments 4

Industry News


Green Vehicle Showcase


Transit Showcase




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INDUSTRY NEWS WYOMING STATE FLEETS GET GREEN LIGHT TO IMPLEMENT NATURAL GAS CHEYENNE, WY – The State of Wyoming has channeled $200,000 from the general fund to convert vehicles in the State’s Department of Transportation and Department of Administration and Information to run on natural gas. The State legislature passed House Bill 235, which directs State agency directors to change their fleets to run on natural gas, or a combination of natural gas and another form of fuel, either via retrofit or through purchasing new vehicles by July 1, 2012.

Frito-Lay Adds Propane to Fleet DALLAS – Frito-Lay has partnered with ROUSH CleanTech to develop a liquid propane autogas (LPG) conversion system for Ford E-350 dual rear-wheel cutaway chassis vehicles. According to Joe Gold, fleet asset and engineering manager at Frito-Lay North America, the company sees the potential to convert up to 2,000 of Frito-Lay’s gasoline-powered vehicles to propane autogas across the U.S. within the next several years. The E-350 dual rear-wheel cutaway demonstration vehicle with this system will be based on the Ford 5.4L, two-valve V-8 engine and planned for first quarter 2011 production, according to Frito-Lay and ROUSH. When compared to the emissions baseline of typical gasoline vehicles, the system will cut engine-out emissions for NOx by 50 percent and particulate matter by 25 percent. Each propane autogas Ford E-350 vehicle is expected to displace almost 1,667 gallons of gasoline per year. Annually, a fleet of 1,225 vehicles would displace 2 million gallons of gasoline each year and 20 million gallons over a 10-year lifetime, according to ROUSH.

Minneapolis Implements Green Fleet Policy AUTO CLUB TESTING EVS LOS ANGELES – Automobile Club of Southern California has received 20 smart fortwo electric drive cars as part of a research project it is conducting to test the utility and benefits of electric vehicles (EVs). Auto Club intends to test these vehicles in light-duty roadside, insurance, and consumer activities. According to the Auto Club, the smart fortwo EVs will be driven by employees in roadside assistance, automotive services and insurance claims fleets, the Automotive Research Center, and publications and public affairs groups. It plans to publish results of this study in its Westways member magazine. Auto Club said it also plans to sponsor a hydrogen vehicle fueling station at Cal State Los Angeles, which the company said will open in the spring.

Auto Club is testing 20 smart fortwo EVs in its fleet. It plans to publish the results. 4

MINNEAPOLIS – On March 7, the Minneapolis City Council approved a Green Fleet Policy more than a year in the making. The policy aims to reduce and inventory fleet vehicle emissions, optimize fleet size, and ensure low-emission vehicle procurement. John Scharffbillig, director of Fleet Services, and the Fleet Services team wrote the policy. The City operates about 2,000 units, about 1,300 of which are on-road vehicles. Scharffbillig said about 550 units of the vehicle fleet already utilize some form of alternative fuel. The City of Minneapolis currently operates 383 flex-fuel vehicles. The policy states that the City will establish and maintain a vehicle inventory list, which will be used for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction initiatives and emissions monitoring. The policy is just the latest in Minneapolis’ green efforts. From 2008 to 2010, the City lowered fleet fuel consumption by 6 percent, reduced the fleet by 75 vehicles since 2008, purchased 324 alt-fuel vehicles since 2008, and switched many departments to a car sharing program for City business. More details on the Minneapolis Green Fleet Policy are available in the online Web Xclusive story at Under the Magazine header, click on “Web Xclusive.”

Proposed Fuel Economy and GHG Standards to be Announced by September WASHINGTON – The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of California are working on a single timeframe, with a deadline of Sept. 1, for proposing fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) standards for 2017-2025 model-year cars and light-duty trucks. According to the EPA, proposing the new standards on the same timeframe signals continued collaboration that could lead to an extension of the current National Clean Car Program. In April 2010, DOT and EPA established GHG emission and fuel economy standards for 20122016 model-year light-duty cars and trucks. In fall 2010, California accepted compliance with these federal GHG standards as meeting similar state standards adopted in 2004, resulting in the first coordinated national program. The standards require these vehicles to meet an estimated combined average emissions level of 250 grams of carbon dioxide per mile in model-year 2016, which is equivalent to 35.5 miles per gallon.


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Daimler Trucks Builds 1,000th HybridElectric Vehicle

Editor and Publisher Ed Bobit

Vice President Group Publisher, Auto Group

MT. HOLLY, NC – Daimler Trucks North

Sherb Brown

America (DTNA) marked the production of its 1,000th hybrid-electric vehicle — a Freightliner Business Class M2 106 Hybrid truck — with a celebration at its Mt. Holly, N.C. plant. The Freightliner Business Class M2 106 Hybrid provides the same features of the Freightliner Business Class M2, such as improved visibility and maneuverability, Daimler Trucks North America (DTNA) marked with the added efficiency and environment- the production of its 1,000th hybrid-electric vehicle with a celebration at its Mt. Holly, N.C. plant. The friendly features of hybrid power. The 1,000th vehicle — a Freightliner Business Class Business Class M2 106 Hybrid can also M2 106 Hybrid truck — is manufactured at the Mt. be easily configured for a wide variety of Holly location. bodies for different applications, such as beverage, dump, government, landscape, towing, utility vehicles, and emergency. In addition to the Business Class M2 106 Hybrid, Freightliner Custom Chassis Corporation (FCCC), a subsidiary of DTNA, manufactures hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) chassis, hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) chassis, and all-electric chassis for walk-in vans. All DTNA hybrid products are equipped with EPA 2010-compliant engines utilizing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology and the Eaton Hybrid Electric Drivetrain System, a parallel hybrid system that enables the truck to operate using the diesel engine alone or in combination with the hybrid-electric motor.

Editor and Associate Publisher Mike Antich (310) 533-2467

Managing Editor Lauren Fletcher (310) 533-2415

Senior Editor

Grace L. Suizo (310) 533-2414

Associate Editor Thi Dao (310) 533-2544

Web Editor

Greg Basich (310) 533-2572

Field Editors

Bob Cavalli, Al Cavalli

Production Director Kelly Bracken

Production Manager Brian Peach (310) 533-2548

Art Director

Armie Bautista

Subscription Inquiries

(888) 239-2455

National Sales Manager Sherb Brown (310) 533-2451

ROUSH Launches Ford F-450 & F-550 Propane Autogas Fuel System

District Advertising Managers

Regional Sales Manager

INDIANAPOLIS – ROUSH CleanTech announced its newest liquid propane autogas product of-

fering at the 2011 National Truck Equipment Association’s Work Truck Show at the Indianapolis Convention Center in March. The new 6.8L V-10 propane autogas-powered Ford F-550 super duty chassis cab is designed to suit a wide range of uses including dump, landscape, flatbed, construction, waste, utility, freight, and more. A prototype of the vehicle was on display at the show. The propane autogas fuel system will be available for 2012 and later models of the Ford F-450 and F-550 truck series, and is expected to ship beginning in October. The system, equipped with a 5-speed automatic transmission, will work on all cab and wheelbase configurations, as well as 4x2 or 4x4 vehicles. ROUSH CleanTech is still finalizing the details on tank capacity and options. It plans to offer up to three tank configurations for the Ford F-450 and F-550 propane autogas fuel system — an in-bed tank and two under-bed tanks. The fuel tank choices will be able to be combined to conform to various body configurations and to meet the range requirements of their customers, another first for The propane autogas fuel system will be available for 2012 and later models of the Ford F-450 and F-550 truck series. ROUSH CleanTech.

Eric Bearly (310) 533-2579

West Coast Sales Manager/ Associate Publisher Joni Owens (310) 533-2530

Great Lakes

Robert Brown Jr. 1000 W. University Dr., Ste. 209 Rochester, MI 48307 (248) 601-2005 • Fax (248) 601-2004

Sales & Marketing Coordinator Tracey Tremblay


Edward J. Bobit


Ty F. Bobit


Richard E. Johnson

Editorial Consultant Howard Rauch

Business and Editorial Office

Bobit Business Media

3520 Challenger St. Torrance, CA 90503-1640 Fax: (310) 533-2503 Printed in U.S.A. Au

otive Fle et tom


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How to Find

Available Money for Your Fleet A record amount of grant and incentive funding for clean air vehicles is available, but fleet managers must be able to identify and successfully seek out these funding sources.


ith the surge of interest in greenhouse gas emissions, carbon footprints, and mitigating the environmental impacts of fleet operations, the use of alternative-fuel and advanced technology vehicles, such as hybrid-electric (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV), has become much more prevalent. In fact, for some fleet operations (such as those falling under EPAct regulations), the purchase of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in specific percentages is mandated by the federal government. Recent surveys have also confirmed that fleets are voluntarily purchasing clean air alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles in record quantities.

AT A GLANCE A number of funding opportunities are available for fleets seeking to add clean vehicles to their operations. A few sources include: ●

Federal grant funding through agencies such as the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Transportation, and the Environmental Protection Agency.

State grant funding through State Energy Offices.


Local grant funding through Metropolitan Planning Organizations and Pollution Control Districts.

Unfortunately, with very few exceptions, such as flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) capable of operating on gasoline or E-85 ethanol, alternative-fuel and advanced technology vehicles require a larger capital outlay to procure. Simply put, clean air vehicles cost more than their gasoline-powered counterparts. Determining how to pay for these typically more expensive clean air vehicles has also consistently been identified as a growing concern for fleet managers overseeing cash-strapped fleet operations. But there is a silver lining contained within the current economic cloud. Despite the floundering economy and budget woes in general, a record amount of grant and incentive funding for clean air vehicles has also been made available. For example, in 2009 the federal Department of Energy (DOE) made nearly $300 million of American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding available through the Clean Cities program. This single grant funding opportunity is responsible for putting more than 9,000 alternative-fuel and energy-efficient vehicles on the road and establishing 542 refueling stations across the country.

Become Familiar with the Process Now more than ever, it is essential for fleet managers to be able to identify and successfully seek out all available funding sources for vehicle acquisitions. It can be


By Richard Battersby

challenging to remain abreast of all current clean air vehicle grant funding opportunities, but with a little effort and some networking, the undertaking may be greatly simplified. The objective is to become aware of emerging grant funding opportunities early in the process in order to have time to produce a quality proposal. A good strategy is to focus only on those grants that will definitely benefit your organization and also offer a reasonable opportunity for success. In order to do all of this efficiently, fleet managers must become familiar with grants in general. There are two main types of grant funding awarded: competitive and formulaic. A competitive grant is a grant for which multiple applications are solicited, which then compete against each other for award. Typically, competitive grants will have specific criteria that allow proposals to be compared to each other and evaluated in order to select the most qualified application(s) for the award. Formulaic grants, also known as block grants, are not competitively evaluated but are distributed proportionally amongst applicants based upon an established formu-


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ey la or criteria. Under a formulaic grant program, all qualified applicants receive a percentage of the total award. A commonly used criterion for award of formulaic grants is population size. Fleets have historically concentrated on applying for competitive grants, but there has been a trend lately of fleets accessing formulaic/block grant funds awarded to their community. While the lion’s share of fleet grant funding will be provided through competitive grants, a savvy fleet manager will also learn about any formulaic/block grants coming into their organization to be ready when opportunities arise to take advantage of them. This article will focus on competitive grant funding sources.

Finding Funds There are three main categories of funding sources for clean air and advanced technology vehicles: federal, state, and local. Federal Grant Funding. When it comes to grant opportunities, the federal government is by far and away the largest and most consistent source of funding. This holds true for alternative-fuel and advanced technology vehicles, fuel, and infrastructure projects. Many federal agencies offer funding opportunities, but the majority of funding for clean air vehicle and transportation related projects comes from a handful of federal agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), De-

partment of Transportation (DOT), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) all offer ongoing funding opportunities for clean air vehicle and transportation projects. Each of these agencies has information on their clean air vehicle funding opportunities available on their respective Web pages. DOE ( Provides clean air vehicle and fuels grants from programs and offices such as Clean Cities, Vehicle Technologies Program, State Energy Program, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program, etc. DOT ( Provides grant funding for lowering vehicle emissions and reducing greenhouse gas emissions through programs and offices such as the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Transportation, Community, and System Preservation Program (TCSP). Of particular note is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) program administered by the FTA and FHWA through state DOTs and Metropolitan Transportation Organizations (MPO). EPA ( Provides clean air vehicle grant funding through its National Clean Diesel Campaign and Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) programs. These are typically oriented toward heavyduty and off-road diesel equipment projects. The EPA also provides innovative financing options to fleet customers through its SmartWay Clean Diesel Finance program. The EPA may have additional funding and incentive options at the state or regional level. USDA ( While not historically considered a source of vehicle or transportation funding, the USDA has recently become a consistent source of certain types of clean air vehicle and fuel grant funding. The USDA provides funding opportunities for agriculture-related transportation projects such as those involving biofuels. Biofuels include ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas, including biomethane. Biomethane is natural gas derived from organic sources such as cow manure or decomposing landfill waste materials. State Grant Funding. The federal govern-

ment may reign supreme as the champion source for clean air vehicle grant funding, but many states have developed aggressive grant funding programs over the past few years. While each state has different grant funding sources, the designated State Energy Office (SEO) is typically the largest clean air vehicle grant funding source in each state. To make it easy to identify each state’s SEO, the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) publishes a directory of State Energy Offices online. The federal DOE’s Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) also publishes a Web-based map that allows users to click on any state in the country to get information on alternative and clean air vehicle incentives and funding sources. There is a multitude of state-level funding programs for clean air vehicle and transportation projects, but visiting these two websites will provide the starting points for any fleet manager interested state-level funding programs. (See sidebar “Locate Information on the Web” on page 12 for links to websites mentioned.) Keep in mind some states may have formal incentive and funding programs established in addition to the SEO. An example is found in the State of California, where the Energy Commission is the designated SEO, but the Air Resources Board is also an established and consistent source of clean air and advanced technology vehicle funding. And finally, at the state level there may also be additional EPA funding activity from individual EPA regions. Beyond the nationwide EPA clean vehicle funding programs, EPA offers regional and targeted funding opportunities through its 10 regional offices. The best bet to ensure that no funding opportunities are missed is to monitor EPA funding opportunities through your local EPA region. Local Grant Funding. Local grant funding sources typically offer the widest variety of funding opportunities and normally enjoy streamlined application and review processes when compared to the state and federal funding programs. Local agencies usually offer less complex and more straightforward reporting requirements. Consequently, many fleets choose to apply MAY / JUNE 2011 ■ GREEN FLEET

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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides clean air vehicle and fuel grants through programs such as Clean Cities, created by the DOE in 1994 to assist fleets and other interested parties in reducing, replacing, and eliminating petroleum consumption at the local level. More than 90 Clean Cities Coalitions exist nationwide, ready to provide assistance on possible funding opportunities.

for clean air vehicle funding only from local agencies. This makes sense from a practical standpoint because the local agency staff tends to live and work in your community and can be more inclined to support and fund your projects. However, each locality will have varying numbers of grant funding sources, and the funding may be made available at much smaller levels than from state or federal sources. The two primary clean air vehicle and transportation project funding sources at the local level are Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) and Pollution Control Districts. MPOs are federally mandated transportation policy-making organizations. MPOs will be found in any urbanized area with a population base greater than 50,000 residents. Federal funding for transportation projects and programs are channeled through these organizations to the local area. An easy way to identify an MPO is to visit 8

the website directory published by the Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (AMPO). At the AMPO website, each state’s respective MPO is identified, neatly organized, and contact information is provided. (See “Locate Information on the Web” sidebar.) In addition to falling under the jurisdiction of an MPO, many localities will also have a designated Pollution Control entity. The names range widely, from titles such as Pollution Control Agency, Air Pollution District, or even Air Quality Management District, but the intent and purpose are similar. These local Pollution Control entities are consistent sources of clean air vehicle funding. The best way to identify your local Pollution Control authority is to do an Internet search or query state level agencies. For example, in California, the Air Resources Board maintains a local air district directory that identifies the various Air

Quality Management Districts and Pollution Control Districts and the territories for which they are responsible. Additional Funding Sources. In addition to the standard federal, state, and local funding sources, clean air vehicle and transportation projects may also be eligible for funding from other less traditional sources such as corporate philanthropic initiatives, and entities dealing in carbon/ pollution offsets. Meaning literally “as near as possible,” cy-pres grant funding is becoming more prevalent these days. These funds are derived from legal settlements such as class action lawsuits where it may not be feasible or practical to distribute the settlements to the class members. Cy-pres funding made available for clean air projects typically comes from cases where a party has been found liable for damages to the environment, such as an oil or chemical spill. Beyond the dam-


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The Audi A3 TDI®

The Audi Q7 TDI®

As you well know, the decisions you make say everything about you and your company. Take Audi TDI clean diesel, for example. It says a lot of things (all positive, of course). Like how smart you are. Just look at the astonishing fuel-efficiency numbers for both the A3 TDI (42 mpg hwy) and Q7 TDI (25 mpg hwy)*. Not to mention the uncompromising power and torque both possess. And of course, maybe most important, it says how progressively minded you are. Both the A3 TDI and Q7 TDI deliver 20% fewer emissions than gasoline engines.** So as far as decisions go, this will make quite a statement.

Contact for more information.

*EPA estimates 42mpg hwy/ 30mpg city for the 2011 Audi A3 TDI clean diesel with automatic transmission, and 25mpg hwy/ 17mpg city for the 2011 Audi Q7 TDI clean diesel with automatic transmission. Your mileage will vary. **CO2 emissions claim based on comparison to gasoline engine. “Audi,” “Q7,” “A3,” “Truth in Engineering,” the Audi Singleframe grille design, and the four rings and Audi emblems are registered trademarks of AUDI AG. “TDI” is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG. ©2011 Audi of America, Inc.

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ages caused to those directly affected by the actual act, the government sometimes also recovers punitive damages from the plaintiff. The punitive damage award may then be made available for projects that can help offset damage to the environment. These are the most difficult types of grants to become aware of because the source and frequency cannot be predicted. Many corporations and private parties are interested in preserving the environment and may also offer funding for clean air vehicle projects. These sources are typically very interested in maintaining and promoting their image as “good” corporate citizens. You may be surprised at the scope and magnitude of funding available from these sources. Some examples of recent corporate clean air vehicle philanthropic opportunities include AAA’s Greenlight Initiative and Google’s RechargeIT and programs. While not yet mainstream, a growing industry of businesses sell carbon and pollution offsets to fleets and consumers. The business model is built around the concept that organizations or individuals desiring to reduce their carbon impact on the environment may purchase offsets to cancel out their carbon use. The money used to purchase these offsets is then made available to fund carbon reduction projects. While fleet-specific projects have not yet become commonplace under this practice, it is def-



The Environmental Protection Agency ( offers regional and targeted funding opportunities through its 10 regional offices. The best bet to ensure no funding opportunities are missed is to monitor EPA funding opportunities through your local EPA region.

initely a burgeoning industry with unlimited growth opportunities. It would be wise to monitor fast-moving companies in this industry such as TerraPass and to see if and when opportunities for funding of clean air vehicle and fuels projects develop in your area.

Stay Informed As discussed, several types of grant funding are available from a multitude of dif-

LOCATE INFORMATION ON THE WEB An abundance of resources for finding available grants and funding is available online. The following are just a few websites to explore:


Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (State Incentives and Laws):

Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO Directory):

Bureau of Transportation Statistics: government/metropolitan_planning_organizations.html

Clean Cities Coalitions:

Federal Business Opportunities:

National Association of State Energy Officials: members/states

U.S. Department of Energy (Funding Opportunities): recovery/funding.htm

ferent sources. Remaining apprised of and informed on clean air vehicle funding opportunities can be intimidating and confusing to even the most experienced fleet manager due to the dizzying array of funding sources. However, simple techniques can be employed to stay informed of 90 percent of the grant opportunities out there. By connecting with just a handful of organizations, a fleet manager can avoid having to identify and monitor each of the individual organizations offering specific clean air vehicle funding and incentives. In fact, with a small amount of participation and signing up for e-mail notifications, electronic newsletters, and RSS feeds to some of the organizations discussed, it is possible to have notices of the vast majority of funding opportunities conveniently delivered via e-mail. The federal DOE is well aware of the challenges faced by fleets seeking to explore alternative-fuel and advanced technology vehicle options. To assist fleets and other interested parties in reducing, replacing, and eliminating petroleum consumption at the local level, DOE created the Clean Cities program in 1994. This organization is directly in the forefront of the alternative fuel and advanced technology industry. With more than 90 coalitions nationwide, there


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is likely a local Clean Cities Coalition nearby that may be tapped for assistance. Clean Cities provides updated information of vehicle, fuel, and infrastructure options as well as any possible funding opportunities that may become available. Most Coalitions offer an e-mail subscription service. Some Coalitions, such as the East Bay Clean Cities Coalition, have detailed clean air vehicle funding Web pages. This particular coalition separately identifies each federal, state, and local funding source available in its region and makes this information available in a single location. Each agency typically publishes advance notice of upcoming funding opportunities and also posts the solicitations on their respective websites. Most grant-providing agencies also conduct grant workshops or webinars designed to inform interested parties and potential applicants about the grant opportunity and also to assist with preparation of proposals where permissible. If a grant-providing agency holds a

workshop or seminar, rest assured it will be the best source of information available on that particular grant. It is also important to become familiar with the specific staff responsible for the incentive programs within these organizations as these individuals will have some of the most pertinent and current information on the grants and incentives available. It is helpful to develop these local agency contacts not just as resources for questions related to their specific proposals, but also for assistance with larger issues such as identifying likely partners for joint proposals, providing supporting data for proposals, or even reviewing a proposal that is being submitted to another agency. With numerous alternative-fuel vehicles and fuels, as well as hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and other advanced technology clean air vehicles on the market today, a correlating funding source is bound to exist or be in the works. While the grant funding or incentives may not completely offset the

entire incremental cost versus purchasing a standard vehicle, the sting of purchasing higher-priced clean air vehicles may be alleviated by pursuing grant funding and incentives. The numerous types and sources of clean air vehicle grant funding can at first seem intimidating or bewildering, but rest assured there is plenty of advice and guidance out there to assist fleet managers through the purchase of new and unfamiliar technology. The guidelines presented here should provide the basic resources needed to get any fleet manager started down the path toward submitting a winning clean air vehicle grant proposal. About the Author Richard Battersby is director of fleet services at the University of California Davis. He can be reached at rebattersby@

When it comes to alternative fuels, propane is far and away the best alternative. More than 14 million vehicles worldwide run on propane autogas, and momentum behind this powerful, clean-burning fuel is beginning to build here in the U.S. as well. To help you better understand the economic and environmental benefits available to fleets that use autogas, we’ve launched

Call us today to learn how easy it is to incorporate propane-powered vehicles into your fleet.


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How Much Green Does It Take to Go Green? Preparing & Understanding AFV Lifecycle Costs By comparing the TCO of diesel, E-85, CNG, hybrid, and electric vehicle options with similar gasolinefueled vehicles, fleet managers can determine the total cost of integrating alt-fuel vehicles into the fleet.



By David Wurster


AT A GLANCE A look at total lifecycle cost for various alternative-fuel vehicles finds: ● E-85

vehicles may have higher lifecycle cost due to higher fuel prices.

● With

a middling TCO, a hybrid vehicle may be ideal for some fleet applications.

● Despite

the higher cost of diesel fuel, a comparison of vehicles show diesel results in lower lifecycle cost.


has higher TCO even factoring in lower fuel costs and tax incentives.


large federal tax credit lowers the TCO of an electric vehicle.



Chart 1

hether it’s due to concern for the environment, America’s reliance on foreign oil, corporate mandates, or any other reason, it is important for those in the fleet industry to understand and consider alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) as a potential fleet vehicle. As with any business decision, the financial impact needs to be part of the decision process. To help with that process, Vincentric evaluated the lifecycle costs of the more commonly used alt-fuel choices, including E-85 (85-percent ethanol, 15-percent gasoline), hybrid, diesel,

Vehicle Description Engine MPG City/Hwy Fuel Type Vincentric Fleet Price Depreciation Fees and Taxes Finance Fuel Insurance Maintenance Opportunity Costs Repairs Total Cost of Ownership

2011 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 LS (Crew Cab 2WD) 4.8L V-8 SFI 16-valve Flex Vortec VVT OHV (L20) 14/19 10/14 Regular E-85 $26,729 $26,729 $12,304 $12,304 $1,882 $1,882 $2,977 $2,977 $13,630 $17,035 $3,398 $3,398 $1,637 $1,637 $305 $332 $817 $817 $36,950 $40,382

The Chevrolet Silverado’s fuel costs were significantly higher when running on E-85 versus running on gasoline (nearly $4,000 over three years). Although E-85 fueling costs are lower, reduced fuel economy led to higher fuel costs.

compressed natural gas (CNG), and mainstream electric vehicles. These were evaluated with a comparable set of gasolinepowered vehicles. All comparisons assume 20,000 miles per year over three years. The results may be surprising.

E-85 May Mean Higher Fuel Costs E-85 has been an available alternative for those concerned about America’s dependence on foreign oil. It is produced domestically from corn and other crops. An

additional advantage is the reduced amount of greenhouse gas emissions it produces compared to conventional fuels. Recent pricing for E-85 across the U.S. was $2.80 per gallon versus the cost of regular grade gasoline of $3.427 per gallon. E-85, however, is not without its disadvantages. A key drawback to E-85 is that ethanol contains less energy per volume than gasoline, resulting in reduced fuel economy for flexible fuel vehicles compared to their gasoline counterparts. In addition, some are concerned that use of a


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Chart 2

Engine MPG City/Hwy Fuel Type Vincentric Fleet Price Depreciation Fees and Taxes Finance Fuel Insurance Maintenance Opportunity Costs Repairs Total Cost of Ownership

2011 Toyota Prius II (4D Hatchback) 1.8L Inline 4-cyl EFI DOHC 16-valve Hybrid ETCS-i VVT-i (2ZR-FXE) 51/48 Gas $22,127 $11,827 $1,538 $2,465 $3,938 $3,361 $1,816 $184 $720 $25,849

2011 Toyota Corolla LE (4D Sedan) 1.8L Inline 4-cyl EFI DOHC 16-valve Dual VVT-i 26/34 Gas $15,793 $8,793 $1,144 $1,759 $6,716 $3,331 $1,449 $182 $720 $24,094

2011 Toyota Camry LE (4D Sedan) 2.5L Inline 4-cyl EFI DOHC 16-valve Dual VVT-i 22/32 Gas $20,386 $10,986 $1,434 $2,271 $7,629 $3,070 $1,504 $209 $720 $27,823

The total cost of ownership (TCO) for a Toyota Prius hybrid is less than that of the Camry, but the Corolla’s lower acquisition cost caused it to have the lowest TCO of the three vehicles.

Chart 3


2011 Mercedes-Benz E Class E350 (4D Luxury Sedan)


3.5L V-6 SFI DOHC 24-valve Naturally Aspirated

MPG City/Hwy Fuel Type Vincentric Fleet Price Depreciation Fees and Taxes Finance Fuel Insurance Maintenance Opportunity Costs Repairs Total Cost of Ownership

17/24 Gas $44,817 $21,617 $2,964 $4,992 $10,894 $4,650 $3,973 $383 $552 $50,025

2011 Mercedes-Benz E Class Diesel E350 (4D Luxury Sedan CDI) 3.0L V-6 Direct injection DOHC 24-valve Turbocharged Intercooled Diesel 24/33 Diesel $46,212 $20,612 $1,500 $5,147 $7,941 $4,662 $3,973 $359 $599 $44,793

Despite a higher purchase cost, the Mercedes-Benz 350 diesel vehicle has a 10-percent lower total cost of ownership than the gasoline-powered 350.

food source as fuel is not appropriate. In the comparison in Chart 1, the 2011 Chevrolet Silverado’s fuel costs were significantly higher when running on E-85 versus running on gasoline, resulting in an overall lifecycle cost that was about 10 percent higher for the E-85 vehicle.

Hybrid TCO Hovers in the Middle The top-selling hybrid vehicle in the U.S., the Toyota Prius, has been sold in this country since 2000. By most accounts, if its form and function meet the needs of the fleet, it’s an excellent vehicle. At 51 miles per gallon, it has impressive fuel economy. However, as fleet managers know, fuel is only one component of total cost of own-

ership (TCO). Whether or not the hybrid is a better financial choice depends largely on what it is compared to. Keeping this comparison in the Toyota family, Chart 2 looks at lifecycle costs for the Prius versus both the Corolla and Camry. In spite of having a Vincentric fleet price more than $6,000 greater than the Corolla, the TCO for the Prius is only $1,700 greater. Although its superior fuel economy helped close the TCO gap, the Corolla still has 7-percent TCO advantage over the Prius. On the other hand, in comparing the Prius with the Camry, it is shown that in spite of the Prius having a higher acquisition price, its TCO is actually 7 percent less than the Camry. Although Toyota, Lexus, Honda, and

Ford hybrids no longer receive tax credit, hybrid customers can still receive tax credits for purchasing hybrids from other brands. Oftentimes, these credits can help make the hybrid a financial winner.

More Expensive Diesel Fuel Still Results in Lower Vehicle TCO Clean diesels have been gaining popularity among some consumers thanks to offerings from Audi, BMW, Volkswagen, and Mercedes-Benz. Additionally, the U.S. government has been helping this market segment by providing generous tax credits to diesel buyers. The new clean diesels have much to offer: They hold their value better than gas vehicles, have good track records for durability, and burn cleaner than previous generation diesels. When these benefits are combined with tax credits, we’d expect their popularity to soar, but at this point, that would be an overstatement. The major obstacles are incorrect perceptions of clean diesels as dirty and foul-smelling, and more importantly, the price of diesel fuel in the U.S. Recent prices peg diesel fuel at $3.776 per gallon versus $3.427 per gallon for regular grade gasoline. However, the key is to identify the difference in overall lifecycle cost of diesel compared to a similar non-diesel vehicle. (See Chart 3.) In spite of a higher Vincentric fleet price, the Mercedes-Benz E350 diesel vehicle has a 10-percent lower TCO than the gasoline-powered E350. This is primarily due to the stronger residual values for the E350 diesel, resulting in lower depreciation, better fuel economy that offsets the higher-priced diesel fuel, and a $1,550 tax credit from the federal government.

CNG Has Higher TCO Despite Lower Fuel Costs & Tax Incentives CNG is an attractive alternative fuel because it is abundant in the U.S. and generates fewer air pollutants and greenhouse gases than gasoline. Therefore, it has the benefit of reducing U.S. oil imports, and it is environmentally friendlier than gasoline. MAY / JUNE 2011 ■ GREEN FLEET

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Chart 4

Engine MPG City/Hwy Fuel Type Vincentric Fleet Price Depreciation Fees and Taxes Finance Fuel Insurance Maintenance Opportunity Costs Repairs Total Cost of Ownership

2010 Honda Civic LX (4D Sedan) 1.8L Inline 4-cyl MPI SOHC 16-valve i-VTEC 25 Gas $17,041 $9,991 $1,220 $1,899 $6,738 $3,241 $1,558 $189 $720 $25,556

2010 Honda Civic CNG GX (4D Sedan) 1.8L Inline 4-cyl MFI SOHC 16-valve CNG i-VTEC 24 CNG $24,323 $16,623 ($2,330) $2,709 $4,315 $3,842 $1,426 $203 $727 $27,515

The Honda Civic GX, which runs on CNG, has about a $2,000 higher total operating cost than the gasoline-powered Civic LX, mostly due to its much higher acquisition cost.


2011 Chevrolet Volt (4D Hatchback)


Chart 5

MPG City/Hwy Fuel Type Vincentric Fleet Price Depreciation Fees and Taxes Finance Fuel Insurance Maintenance Opportunity Costs Repairs Total Cost of Ownership Cost Per Mile

1.0L Electric 95/90 Gasoline 35/40 Gas/Electric $39,388 $21,838 -$4,895 $4,387 $2,076 $3,450 $1,893 $242 $720 $29,712 $0.4952

2011 Chevrolet Malibu LT (4D Sedan) 2.4L Inline 4-cyl MFI DOHC 16-valve ECOTEC VVT (LE5) 22/33 Gas $21,443 $12,943 $1,497 $2,388 $7,546 $3,452 $1,831 $220 $762 $30,639 $0.5107

While the acquisition cost of a Chevrolet Volt is nearly double that of the Chevrolet Malibu, its TCO is shown to be lower (without considering possible charging station costs).

The downside is that the vehicle’s CNG storage tank takes up a considerable amount of room, reducing the cargo and cabin space often important to fleet buyers. Additionally, with only about 900 CNG filling stations across the country, it’s not always convenient to fuel these vehicles. What is the financial impact of the choice to move to CNG? The data in Chart 4 looks at the only mass-produced CNG passenger vehicle, the Honda Civic GX, and compares it to the gas-powered Honda Civic LX. Although the CNG vehicle starts out with one strike against it due to a Vincentric fleet price about $7,000 higher than the Civic LX, its TCO is only $2,000 14

higher. Much of the difference is made up in its lower fuel expense, as CNG, at $1.93 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE), is a less expensive fuel than gasoline. Additionally, the Civic GX benefits from a large $4,000 tax credit. In spite of this, the gasoline-powered Civic LX still has a 7-percent lower TCO than the Civic GX.

Tax Credit Lowers Electric Vehicle TCO The Chevrolet Volt and other electricpowered vehicles have generated more interest in alternative-fuel vehicles than this industry has seen in a long time. As has been well documented, the Volt extends

its range with a gas-powered generator providing the advantages of a pure electric vehicle while eliminating the “range anxiety” drivers may feel with pure electric vehicles. A comparison of the Volt’s lifecycle cost with the Chevrolet Malibu found some surprising results (See Chart 5). The Vincentric Fleet Price for the Volt is nearly double that of the Malibu; however, its TCO is actually lower than the Malibu. These savings are primarily due to a $7,500 tax credit offered by the U.S. government and tremendous savings in fuel costs. Another notable factor associated with the Volt is the potential desire to purchase a charging station. The charging station can dramatically speed up the charging process for electric vehicles, but it comes at an additional cost for the unit and installation, which would also need to be included in a vehicle’s total lifecycle cost analysis.

AFV Options Will Increase There is no shortage of choices in today’s market for alternative-fuel vehicles, and in the coming years, the choices will become even greater. Most major manufacturers have electrified vehicles in their product pipeline and are testing other alternatives. By performing a lifecycle cost analysis on these current and future vehicles, fleet managers will understand the expected cost impact of these AFVs and can then determine if the environmental benefits, public relations benefits, and other factors warrant the price differential for an AFV. The main consideration of any fleet manager is to obtain the right vehicle for right application. After all, a high mileage, low emissions vehicle that doesn’t get the job done is seldom — if ever — a good investment. About the Author David Wurster is the president of Vincentric LLC, an automotive data compilation and analysis firm. He can be reached at david.wurster@


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How Infinity

Insurance Created a Green Fleet Policy An effective “fleet-greening” policy requires planning and research. Fleet Operations Supervisor Chuck Kukal describes the basic steps he used in developing a green fleet policy for Infinity Insurance Company. By Cindy Brauer


The Infinity Insurance fleet totals 427 vehicles, primarily Jeep Compass models provided to the company’s adjustors, business development and marketing personnel, and special investigative units. A green fleet policy has been in place for the past five years.

ike all successful fleet policies, developing an effective green fleet policy requires planning, analysis, communication, implementation, and evaluation. A Integrating with Corporate critical understanding is that a “one-sizeGoals fits-all” approach to greening a fleet is not The Infinity Insurance fleet totals 427 the best fit for most. A green fleet policy vehicles, primarily Jeep Compass models is as individual as the company fleet, cusprovided to the company’s adjustors, busitomized to corporate needs, functions, ness development and marketing personand culture. nel, and special investigative units. Five years ago, Chuck Kukal Kukal emphasized the fleet’s green built a green fleet policy for Inpolicy “must be seen in the light of finity Insurance Company. Kukal, its overall Corporate Green Initiafleet operations supervisor for the tives.” The green fleet policy does Birmingham, Ala.-based companot stand alone, but is an important ny, created a workable and effecfactor in a corporate culture of entive policy to green the company’s vironmental responsibility and susKUKAL fleet in five basic steps. tainability established in 2006 and backed by top executive support and endorsement. AT A GLANCE Infinity’s Corporate Green Initiatives Developing a green fleet policy includes include a comprehensive recycling prothe following steps: gram in which employees recycle paper, ● Create a green fleet mission statement. plastic, cardboard, aluminum cans, cell ● Develop tactics to achieve goals. phones, and toner cartridges at all com● Quantify goals. pany locations. ● Communicate. Electricity-consuming lighting is di● Record progress and evaluate minished with reduced lighting wattag16

es and motion switches in Infinity offices. Many company processes are now paperless, and its new 35,000-square-foot call center in McAllen, Texas, with 236 employees, is fully LEED certified. “We actively partner with vendors in our purchasing department who offer recycled products and also have corporate goals that incorporate environmentally friendly initiatives,” noted Kukal. Within this overall corporate commitment to sustainability, Kukal took the following steps to develop a green fleet policy.



Develop a fleet mission statement that recognizes the need to implement policy and action toward achieving corporate green goals and initiatives. The Infinity Insurance fleet mission statement declares, “Recognizing its global responsibility, Infinity Insurance Company is always seeking better ways of conserving our natural resources and improving


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our environment by reducing the greenhouse gasses of our fleet.” The statement continues, “Our priority has been to provide a vehicle that will not only accomplish our corporate goals, but also provide a vehicle that gets better miles per gallon.”



To achieve policy-stated goals, identify and implement a broad array of tactics, such as: ● Review the vehicle selector to carefully match vehicle model and size to function. ● Choose an EPA SmartWaycertified vehicle. ● Whenever possible, select fourcylinder versus six-cylinder vehicles. ● Research fuel type, considering alternative fuels, such as propane, natural gas, or biodiesel. ● Determine the feasibility of utilizing pool cars. ● Investigate the value of telematics to reduce fuel consumption and idle time, and improve driver behavior. Infinity Insurance employs Donlen’s

GreenDriver program to train employees in smart driving skills. ● Recognize and reward drivers with accident-free records and those who have completed driver training programs. ● Consider carbon offsets. Infinity Insurance has partnered with the Environmental Defense Fund and to purchase offset credits in renewable and energysaving projects to render its fleet climate-neutral.

3 QUANTIFY Calculate fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With a baseline measure, emissions can be managed. Attainable GHGreduction goals and effective strategies can be determined and implemented.

4 COMMUNICATE Deploy all available resources to publicize, internally and externally, the green fleet policy, its goals, and implementation. Use the corporate website and Intranet, blog announcements, newsletters, and community activities to heighten awareness and spread the word. For example, the back of each Infinity Insurance Jeep Compass dis-

plays a “Climate Neutral” sticker. Whenever appropriate in these materials, highlight all green initiative partnerships.

5 RECORD PROGRESS AND EVALUATE Benchmarking progress also helps achieve green fleet policy goals. Keep statistics and data on GHG reductions, improved mpgs, recycling amounts, and green initiative results. Tracking progress can pinpoint areas that need refining or updating.

Keeping Efforts Transparent Kukal noted, “Transparency is the ‘buzzword,’ and everyone from stakeholders, investors, the EPA, and vendors want to know what you are doing in your company and with your fleet to be green.” The Infinity Insurance green fleet policy has produced significant results. Since 2006, fleet mpg has increased from 16 to more than 23, Kukal reported. GHG are reduced from 5,223 metric tons to 2,223 due to lower fuel use and better fuel mileage. Fuel consumption has dropped by 115,033 gallons, saving $225,000. With new local, state, and federal government guidelines and regulations likely, “Now is the time to get our ‘ducks in a row’ by planning for what is ahead,” Kukal said.



he Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) SmartWay Transport Partnership program is a valuable resource for green fleet policy development. The SmartWay brand identifies products and services that reduce transportation-related emissions. The program’s website — — offers a variety of useful tools and information, including the Green Vehicle Guide to compare vehicle emissions and fuel economy. The site provides details on specific steps to reduce emissions, fuel use, and improves a fleet’s overall mpg. Tony Maietta, an EPA environmental protection specialist, suggested several green fleet policy guidelines, particularly with truck fleets. “A successful green fleet policy comprehensively covers vehicles, fuel, and driver habits. A green fleet will utilize the newest, cleanest, on-road diesel vehicles,” said Maietta. He noted that with EPA’s emission standards for 2007 and 2010 model-years, today’s trucks are the cleanest on the road. Older vehicles can be retrofitted with pollution reduction devices such as diesel oxidation catalysts and particulate matter filters that help minimize pollution while maximizing the vehicle life, said Maietta. In addition, idle reduction devices such as auxiliary power units,


direct-fired heaters, and battery air conditioning systems allow a driver to shut off the main engine while enjoying creature comforts during rest or queuing periods. Cab and trailer aerodynamics and low-rolling resistance tires can improve fuel economy on long hauls, saving fuel costs and emissions. Fleet-wide and location-based idle policies can be instituted to avoid needless and expensive fuel consumption, added Maietta. He recommended fleet managers choose a path that improves their fleet’s environmental footprint and reduces unnecessary fuel use, but also makes sense for the company. “Each company has unique needs and operations, so some approaches may not work as well as others. For example, a company whose trucks perform primarily long-haul activities may benefit more from idle reduction devices as their drivers rest each night,” said Maietta. Through the EPA’s SmartWay Transport Partnership, the agency has gained valuable insight into how fleets across the country are improving their environmental footprint using recommended techniques, Maietta pointed out. “We have tools that allow a fleet manager to get a baseline of their current operations and then can provide emissions and fuel savings calculations to show the benefit of taking specific actions on your fleet.”


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Natural Gas a Hit With

Refuse Fleets Reduced fuel prices, maintenance costs, and harmful emissions are just some reasons refuse fleets are increasing their compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle purchases. By Thi Dao


roponents cite numerous fleet applications for natural gas, including use in refuse or collection fleets. Many refuse truck fleets are currently powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), and as emissions standards become more stringent, alternative fuels have become increasingly popular. Clean Energy, a provider of natural gas fuel for transportation, lists lower fuel costs, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions standards compliance, improved air quality, quieter streets, and increased U.S. energy independence as benefits of using natural gas-powered refuse trucks.

Emissions Regulations Induce Fleets to Switch from Diesel Emissions mandates play a significant role in refuse fleets deciding to switch to natural gas. Waste Management (WM), a Houstonbased provider of waste management services, began incorporating natural gas into its collection fleet more than a decade ago.

AT A GLANCE Fleets cited the following benefits of fueling refuse vehicles with natural gas: ● Lower

emissions. operation and maintenance. ● Significantly reduced fuel costs. ● Reduced dependence on foreign oil. ● Simpler


About 1,000 Waste Management collection trucks currently run on CNG, and the company is purchasing 500 additional CNG trucks this year.

The company operates a collection fleet of tions to be completed within the next 12 18,000 units, about 1,000 of which run on months. The fueling stations will be locatnatural gas, according to Eric Woods, vice ed in areas where at least 75 trucks operpresident of fleet and logistics. ate, although most targeted areas have more The company began using both CNG and than 100 trucks in operation. liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicles mainly Woods noted that “2010 was a landmark in California due to stricter environmental year for diesel.” Emissions regulations reregulations. WM decided CNG was a betsulted in the installation of heavy catalytter fit for its fleet application and is moving ic converters and costly DPF filters and forward with CNG vehicle purchases. With urea injection. He estimated new technola corporate sustainability goal of reogy added an additional 3,000 lbs. ducing emissions by 15 percent and per vehicle, decreasing payload. In improving fuel efficiency by 15 peraddition, acquisition cost has incent by 2020 from a 2007 baseline, creased by up to $50,000 per vehiWM is not only purchasing 500 CNG cle over the past six years. replacement vehicles this year (out Woods said the emissions profile of an approximate 750 total collecof WM’s natural gas trucks, using the WOODS tion vehicle purchases), but is also SmartWay model for its road speed, looking to more than double its fueling inare lower than the 2010 mandates. frastructure across its national fleet. The company utilizes 17 fueling stations, Lowering Fuel & Maintenance 13 of which are in California. According to Expenses Woods, WM is currently looking to install CleanScapes, a Seattle-based solid waste 20 additional stations throughout the councollection agency, utilizes 42 CNG-fueled try, more than 15 of which will be outside collection vehicles out of a fleet of approxithe West Coast. Woods expects these stamately 100, according to John Taylor, gov-


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CleanScapes operates 42 CNG-fueled collection vehicles dedicated to residential collection in the City of Seattle. It has an on-site fueling facility with a 40-truck slow-fill fueling line.

ernment affairs manager. While the company performs services for various cities, “Our CNG fleet is dedicated to residential collection in the City of Seattle,” he said. The company has a fueling facility on site with a 40-truck slow-fill fueling line. It can also fast-fill individual trucks as needed. While exact costs were not available, Taylor reported “CNG fuel is significantly less expensive than diesel, [and] the price is less volatile.” Woods at WM said the company budgets $1.25 per diesel gallon equivalent for CNG, which is much higher than actual fuel costs. He said the company pays as little as 40 cents per gallon in some locations. With a March 7 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) diesel cost estimate of $3.87 per gallon average across the nation (up 97 cents per gallon from a year ago), the cost difference is significant. Urea costs can also be avoided with CNG, he said. “The economics get more favorable by the day, and that’s without regulations or tax benefits,” Woods explained. Additionally, CNG refuse fleets are seeing decreased maintenance costs. “Maintenance on CNG is less costly, and they are easier and much cleaner to maintain,” Taylor said. Woods attributes this to a simpler engine that doesn’t need add-ons for emissions control. “Maintenance is less complex because we don’t have the complexity of DPF (diesel particulate filter), EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), and urea-based selective cat22

alytic reduction systems,” he said. He said it’s also easier for operators because they don’t have to worry about regeneration as they would with diesel trucks.

Seeing a Return on Investment There’s no denying CNG vehicle acquisition



attery solutions provider Dow Kokam and vehicle manufacturer PVI announced in December 2010 a partnership to test the first-ever fully electric refuse trucks, expected to offer the same performance levels as conventional utility vehicles. The trucks are designed to achieve 70 km (43.5 miles) per hour at full payload and will have 100-percent starting torque. Benefits cited include reduced noise pollution and no idling during inactive periods. The 26-ton trucks are expected to eliminate 130 tons of CO2 per truck per year, according to the companies. The first deployment will be just outside Paris, France, and the companies expect a fleet of 11 vehicles operating daily by the end of 2011. In the U.S., the City of Chicago has expressed interest in battery-electric collection vehicles.

cost is higher. However, both CleanScapes and WM have seen a return on investment (ROI) with their CNG refuse fleets. “While the initial outlay for vehicles is more expensive than diesel trucks, these costs are offset by lower and more predicable fuel costs,” Taylor said. Lower maintenance costs have also contributed to the ROI. WM’s plans to increase its CNG fleet and infrastructure clearly prove it thinks CNG is economically feasible. Woods said in the past, the cost difference between CNG and diesel collection trucks ran about $90,000. Add-ons to diesel engines have increased vehicle cost, lowering cost difference to about $30,000. Taking into consideration maintenance and fuel costs, he estimated payback for vehicle acquisition is less than two years, and less than three years if he includes infrastructure costs, under WM’s current plan of deploying CNG in areas with large fleets. Temporary disruption of fuel supply is a concern for some fleets deciding whether to switch to CNG, but having a CNG fleet neighbor nearby can prove to be advantageous. “CleanScapes is currently assisting Pierce County (Wash.) Transit with fueling their CNG buses,” Taylor said. The transit agency’s fueling station “was lost to a fire on Feb. 28, and CleanScapes is assisting them with fueling until the facility is repaired.”


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Green Fleet Conference

Living Up to Its Name Conference attendees and exhibitors won’t be the only ones showing off their environmentally friendly images at the 2011 Green Fleet Conference. The “green” theme will be spread throughout the event. By Grace L. Suizo


he 2011 Green Fleet Conference, scheduled for Oct. 3-4 at the Gaylord Texan Resort & Convention Center in Grapevine, Texas, promises to be the “greenest” it’s ever been. From marketing and promotions to materials used on-site, show organizers have been ramping up efforts to be more environmentally friendly, according to Irene Gruen, event marketing manager for Bobit Business Media (BBM). “We are working to have a really relevant show. Last year was extremely wellreceived. Since then, we’ve spent time rethinking our planning. When you’re thinking green, you have to make changes to the operational process on so many

AT A GLANCE The 2011 Green Fleet Conference has ramped up its efforts to stick to an environmentally friendly theme, including: ●

Choosing an ecological venue recognized by the EPA.

Cutting back on paper mailings, promotions, and on-site handouts.

Using silverware for meals instead of disposable items.


General and breakout sessions at the 2010 Green Fleet Conference attracted large crowds. Seats filled fast, leaving “standing room only” for late arrivers.

levels, and we have focused our efforts to accomplish that,” Gruen said. The third annual conference in 2010 achieved record attendance, bringing together approximately 450 fleet professionals from both the private and public sectors. Attendees gathered for information-packed conference sessions, many of which were standing-room only. The 2010 Green Fleet Conference was sponsored in part by TerraPass, a carbon offset provider and the event’s first-ever carbon-balanced sponsor. TerraPass conducted a calculation of the carbon footprint for the conference, based on travel to San Diego from attendee locations, hotel nights, and on-site energy usage. After gathering and calculating the figures, TerraPass retired 100 metric tons of carbon offsets for the Green Fleet Conference — the equivalent of removing a fleet of 22 vehicles (averaging 10,000 miles annually) off the road. “We hope to improve the calculation for 2011 with our green efforts,” Gruen added.

All About Location Choosing the right venue was the start to improving green efforts for this year’s event. The Gaylord Texan is an ecological hotel, featuring four and a half acres of indoor gardens that reflect its commitment to taking care of the environment, which is also demonstrated by several environmental accolades. In May 2008, the Gaylord Texan received the Sylvania Ecologic Certification Award for transitioning at least 75 percent of all its lighting to environmentally friendly products — more than 7,500 lamps in all. The Gaylord Texan was also recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2008 with a Membership Award in the EPA’s National Partnership for Environmental Priorities (NPEP). With its efforts to reduce mercury throughout the facility by implementing low-mercury light bulbs, Gaylord Texan became the first hotel in a five-state area to join the NPEP. The hotel is currently working to attain “Silver” certification from the U.S. Green


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The Gaylord Texan is an eco-logical hotel, featuring four and a half acres of indoor gardens. The hotel has received several accolades for its eco-conscious practices.

Building Council’s LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) program. In addition, the Gaylord Texan strives to conserve water and minimize use of air conditioning.

Staying Lean & Green From start to finish, the 2011 Green Fleet Conference should exceed its green quotient from previous years. Areas being improved include: ● Marketing. Marketing and promotions for the event will be distributed pri-

marily via electronic means versus direct mail. “Fortunately, technology allows for this type of communication,” Gruen said, adding anything mailed will be on ecofriendly paper. Attendees who aren’t already signed up from last year can opt in for e-mail updates regarding the conference. Updates will also be available in the weekly Green Fleet eNewsletter. ● Handouts. Paper handouts distributed at the show will be limited. Flash drives of presentations will be available. On top of its own eco-conscious efforts, the Gaylord Texan will be also be able to accommodate BBM’s initiatives to ensure all aspects of the event stick to its green theme. ● Meals. All meals will be served with china and silverware to reduce the use of conventional disposable materials such

BOBIT BUSINESS MEDIA GREEN EFFORTS Bobit Business Media (BBM), founded in 1961 with the launch of Automotive Fleet, is doing its share to maintain a “green” working environment. Finding new and innovative ways to reduce its carbon footprint is always a priority for BBM. ● Recycling. BBM recycles paper (5,000 lbs. per month); cans and bottles (40 lbs. per month); and toner cartridges and batteries. ● Window tinting. Reduces energy loss by 75 percent. ● Variable speed control on HVAC Units. Saves 7500 kWh per month. ● Retrofitting old T-12 flourescents to new T-8S. Saves 3,400 kWh per month. ● Efficient boiler/heater. Saves 3,000 therms per month. ● Minimizing printer resources. Partnered with printer to develop a “green” game plan, saving paper, ink, and energy. BBM now uses soy ink. ● Digital editions. The annual Business Driver issue and several special supplements are now distributed digitally, also reducing paper and ink.

Presentation proposals for the 2011 Green Fleet Conference are currently being accepted. Proposal submissions should follow these guidelines: ● An abstract of 100-200 words. ● A brief biography of the presenter or each panel member (50-100 words). ● Presenter contact information. ● Presentations must be completely unbiased and brand/product neutral. Please submit your presentations to Adriana Michaels by April 18. E-mail:

as paper and Styrofoam. In addition, the hotel has a “market-inspired” philosophy in menu planning, including organic and sustainable foods bought locally. All Gaylord hotel properties also work with local food banks to donate excess prepared food to local soup kitchens, further helping to reduce waste. ● Recycling. Recycling services will be available during the event, with the hotel providing recycling bins for glass, plastic, and aluminum waste. In addition, cardboard, newspaper, slick paper, and white paper from back-of-house areas and the convention center exhibit hall are all recycled. ● Fuel/transportation. “With fuel costs on the rise, the main focus will be on using less fuel in general. We are finding ways to cope,” Gruen said, noting the conference venue is “like its own city,” reducing the need for attendees to travel off-site during the two-day event. “This year’s sessions will focus on reducing fuel use in general, in addition to alternative fuels. Software, technologies, and practices exist that support fuel reduction efforts and those will be discussed and exhibited at the event.” Exhibitors will include a number of alternativefuel suppliers, with representatives from the diesel, propane, and natural gas industries on-site. Additional information on the 2011 Green Fleet Conference, its speakers and sessions, as well as registration and travel information, can be found online at or by calling (800) 576-8788. MAY / JUNE 2011 ■ GREEN FLEET

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Ferrellgas Cuts Costs Using Propane Autogas

Almost one-third of Ferrellgas’ nearly 4,000 vehicles are propane-powered. The units are significantly less costly to operate and generate 60-70 percent less smog-producing hydrocarbons than their gasoline counterparts.

By Cheryl Knight


t Ferrellgas, conserving and protecting natural resources is more than something the company just talks about. It’s the way they do business. With one of the biggest propane-operated fleets in the United States, Ferrellgas has tremendous experience with alternativefuel vehicles (AFVs). As a national retail propane company, Ferrellgas serves approximately 1 million customers in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Being a propane provider for more than 70 years, Ferrellgas has unique insight into the benefits of propane autogas, and leveraging that knowledge allows the company to maximize its propane-operated vehicle fleet. Robin Lewis, vice president of

AT A GLANCE Using propane-powered vehicles has helped Ferrellgas: ● Reduce ● Lower

its environmental impact.

fuel consumption.

● Maximize ● Cut


fuel economy.

operating costs.

Ferrellgas currently operates nearly 30 F-250 models and looks to add the F-550 as soon as it’s readily available.

Procurement, Fleet, and Asset Management what’s right.” at Ferrellgas, develops and executes a variety Headquartered in Overland, Kan., of comprehensive corporate purchasing Ferrellgas operates a wide range of Class and fleet strategies for the company’s nearly 2-7 AFVs, including Ford, Chevrolet, GMC, 4,000 vehicles. She also provides effective and Impco bifuel vehicles. The company resource planning and ensures assets are is most excited about new opportunities accounted for and provide desired returns, in buying Ford and ROUSH CleanTech all while maximizing utilization. dedicated systems. “We are an eco-conscious comThe company’s sales force drives pany,” Lewis said. “Like many, we’re propane-powered vehicles in an concerned about the environment effort to show prospective clients and seek to proactively comply that these types of vehicles have no with EPA and CARB regulations, loss of power. Drivers and service not because we’re told to but beworkers also drive alt-fuel vehicles cause we believe it’s better to do to perform their duties. LEWIS


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Reducing Environmental Impact Propane autogas powers more than 15 million vehicles in more than 40 countries. This type of fuel provides fleet managers with a costeffective, clean, safe, and reliable alternative fuel. Plus, more than 90 percent of all propane used in the United States is produced domestically, reducing the country’s dependence on foreign fuel. “For us, there is an economic advantage to using propane autogas, and not just because we are a propane company,” Lewis said, pointing out that the cost to upfit trucks to utilize propane autogas is quickly offset by fuel reduction savings. “We believe propane offers significant advantages — infrastructure costs are dramatically lower than other options, and we can set up a propane-dispensing station for a fraction of the cost when compared to other alt-fuels.” Lewis is extremely excited about current advances in propane technologies. “Today’s technology allows us to become better stewards of our environment and also allows us to take advantage of a low-cost and widely available fuel source,” she said. One vehicle Lewis will continue to add

to Ferrellgas’ propane-operated fleet is the ROUSH CleanTech liquid propane-injected (LPI) Ford F-250 pickup truck. The company currently operates nearly 30 F-250 models and looks to add the F-550 as soon as it’s readily available. “ROUSH is a respected name from a performance perspective,” Lewis said. “And incorporating these vehicles into our fleet has virtually no impact from a time perspective, and the upfit costs associated with conversion are quickly offset by reduced fuel cost.” Lewis also pointed out these particular ROUSH CleanTech vehicles completely meet EPA and CARB requirements, and that the manufacturer’s warranty provides extra peace of mind. The most important element to keep in mind when implementing, assessing, and maintaining an alt-vehicle fleet is to look at all options, find the best fit, and ensure the program’s sustainability, according to Lewis. “Fleet managers don’t want to be short-term thinkers, so they need to push these initiatives even when gas prices come back in line. They also want to make sure it’s something the company fully stands behind,” she said. For those looking for more informa-

tion on propane and its advantages, Lewis recommended visiting www.ferrellautogas. com, a comprehensive new website developed by Ferrellgas earlier this year.

Reducing Fuel Consumption Ferrellgas is currently finalizing a comprehensive fleet approach that seeks to further maximize results on several fronts. In addition to using alt-fuel vehicles, the fleet team is working hard to ensure proper utilization and that the right trucks are on the road. “The more efficient we become, the fewer miles we drive,” Lewis pointed out. “We are also focusing on ensuring good driving habits and safety because it significantly impacts our fuel economy,” she said. The company is also using different technologies to decrease its environmental impact, such as the implementation of propane injection systems and APUs, which have also helped offset fuel consumption. Moving forward, the Ferrellgas fleet is looking to buy additional propanepowered vehicles whenever and wherever possible. “From our perspective, the future is very bright for propane autogas,” Lewis said. MAY / JUNE 2011 ■ GREEN FLEET

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to Convert Majority of Fleet to CNG Encana operates a fleet of 700 vehicles in the U.S. The company is dovetailing its efforts to build new natural gas fueling stations with its process of converting its fleet to CNG. By Greg Basich


s with many companies in the energy sector, Encana is converting its fleet of light-duty vehicles to run on its preferred fuel source, in this case natural gas. The company is considered one of North America’s leading natural gas producers. In the United States, Encana operates a fleet of 700 vehicles, primarily light-duty ¾-ton trucks, which it uses for the maintenance of its facilities, such as well pads, tank batteries, and compressors used in extraction and production. Green Fleet spoke with David Hill, vice president of operations for Encana’s Natural Gas Economy division, about the company’s plans to convert its fleet to bi-fuel CNG vehicles and its progress toward this goal. “We have converted about 60 vehicles in our fleet. Our goal is to be at 200 by the end of 2011,” Hill said. “I think our intent is to convert as many vehicles as possible. Over the next three years, we plan to convert the majority of our fleet over.

AT A GLANCE Encana plans to convert 200 vehicles to CNG by the end of 2011. Steps include: • Obtaining CARB-certified kits. Encana uses a CNG bi-fuel kit with a 20-gallon equivalent tank on its ¾-ton extended cab trucks. • A driver training program for operating its CNG-fueled vehicles. • An employee award program for reducing petroleum usage.


I can’t say 100 percent, because there are some areas that are so remote that there is no infrastructure. Because of limitations on infrastructure, we’re going with bi-fuel vehicles.” To deal with the infrastructure issue, the company is dovetailing its efforts to build new natural gas fueling stations with its efforts to convert its fleet to CNG. “Here in Denver, we have several public stations available to our fleet. We are working where we have existing infrastructure. Encana’s approach has been three-fold to support fueling station development,” Hill said. “First, we support stations with our fleet volume. Second, we support them with the contribution of capital. Finally, if no one steps forward [in an area without a station], we build one.” The strategy for this conversion is slow, but steady. “We’re not prematurely milingout our vehicles,” he said “As they reach the end of their lease, we replace them with a new vehicle that is targeted for CNG conversion.”

Converting Vehicles The company is primarily using ¾-ton pickup trucks such as the Chevrolet 2500, Ford F-250, and Ram 2500 in its fleet and targets these vehicles for conversion. “On a ¾-ton extended cab, we typically install a CNG bi-fuel kit with a 20-gallon equivalent tank for CNG. We leave the gasoline system intact and put [the CNG tank] on the bed against the cab,” Hill said. He added that the company uses kits

from IMPCO Technologies due to product reliability and availability. According to Hill, the company’s drivers typically travel 100 miles per day, six days per week. The duty cycle for these vehicles is around 25,000 miles per year. “Our employees’ vehicles consume 1012 gallons of natural gas per day,” he said. “Each probably consumes about 2,000 gallons per year.” To address a lack of vehicle selection, Encana is working directly with the automakers to bring more CNG-powered vehicles to the marketplace. “GM announced their CNG van late last year,” Hill said. “We’re hoping that a couple of [the OEMs] will bring to market a bi-fuel ¾-ton pickup. We want to see them bring an OEM-supported vehicle directly to the market in 2012.” Hill said that although the company is


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Encana’s converted trucks are early in their lifecycles. The first group of vehicles the company converted has reached nearly 36,000 miles.

to go faster and get them out there, but that’s been one of the hurdles.” Hill said the vehicles the company has converted are still early in their lifecycles, but Encana hasn’t encountered problems or complaints from personnel using the vehicles. He said the first converted vehicles have reached nearly 36,000 miles. When asked about how dealing with multiple fuel types will impact fleet management, Hill said he believes there is a new reality today for fleet managers. “The new reality is that we need multiple fuels, which is a challenge for fleet managers, for different duty cycles,” Hill said. “We’re a natural gas company and even for us, change is difficult,” Hill said.

According to David Hill, vice president of operations for Encana’s Natural Gas Economy division, the company is converting ¾ton pickup trucks to CNG, such as Chevrolet 2500, Ford F-250, and Ram 2500 models.

in the process of converting its vehicles, it encounters the same challenges that many others run into, specifically the lag time between late-model vehicle release dates and conversion kit approval. “Some of the frustrations we have when converting our fleet is the same challenge that anybody has,” Hill said. “There is no vehicle anybody can buy — I have to use a conversion kit. For those kits, we’re in 2011, and there are no certified kits for the 2011 model-year even though we’ve bought 2011 model-year vehicles. “It’s quite a process,” Hill said. “Kit manufacturers have to jump through a lot of hoops to get one certified. We’d like them

through a training program about natural gas that explains how it works, how to refuel, and how to answer questions from consumers. That’s been quite successful, and we’re working on other programs, for example an employee benefits program, to encourage adoption. Some of our peer companies have employee incentive programs to adopt natural gas vehicles.” Hill said the company is working on an award program that involves gift cards and company recognition for drivers displacing the most petroleum. “We want to incentivize good practices and good behavior, doing the right thing for the company and environment,” Hill said “Drivers can qualify as many times as they earn it. It becomes a badge of honor.” HILL Training Mechanics and Beyond Encana, the company Drivers said a number of other energy companies Part of dealing with this new reality is involved in the natural gas market are intraining mechanics and drivers. The first terested in converting vehicles to run on challenge the company has encountered natural gas. with regard to CNG vehicles is many tech“We’re proud of what we’re doing but nicians are not familiar with CNG fueling also of what others are doing,” Hill said. systems. “That’s an area of need, increasing “Some other companies are leaders out training of mechanics on gaseous fuel systhere. It’s really our peer companies that tems. There are plenty of certified courses are progressive, companies like Apache, out there,” Hill said. Chesapeake, Newfield Energy, Anadarko, Beyond training on CNG fueling sysNoble Energy, Williams Energy, etc. Those tems, the company instituted a number of companies are taking similar approaches policies to get its fleet drivers up to speed with their fleets, converting their vehicles, on these vehicles. and are directly or indirectly supporting “We have protocols in place, which we us. We’re working together through ANGA call Management of Change,” Hill explained. (the American Natural Gas Alliance). They “Any time we change a process, we go through have an NGV task group. We have been the Management of Change process. Our working with the Natural Gas Vehicle Asdrivers receive training on the fuel system sociation and the American Natural Gas Association. The key thing is to advocate and are educated about where to get fuel. Employees can check out and drive natuand talk about it, but we ought to walk the ral gas vehicles overnight. They have to go talk ourselves.” MAY / JUNE 2011 ■ GREEN FLEET

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GM to Offer SingleSource LPG Option

for Chevrolet & GMC Cutaway Vans The automaker expects to ship the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cutaway vans by fourth quarter 2011. Customers can convert the cutaway into a variety of commercial requirements. Pictured is the 2011 Chevrolet Express cutaway with a cargo application.


eneral Motors will offer a singlesource liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) option for the 2012 Chevrolet Express and GMC Savana 159-inch wheelbase cutaway vans, making GM the only automaker to offer LPG, compressed natural gas (CNG), E-85 ethanol, and B-20 biodiesel alternative-fuel options for U.S. customers, according to GM. Expected to ship fourth quarter 2011, the vans are built with a hardened Vortec 6.0L engine that includes hardened exhaust valves with hardened intake and exhaust valve seats. The engine features a dedicated fuel delivery system with unique engine controller calibrations for LPG.

Fueling Infrastructure Expected to Grow “LPG infrastructure has progressed rapidly, so it’s easier for our customers to refuel in convenient locations across the country,” according to Brian Small, general manager, GM Fleet and Commercial Operations. “When our customers order the LPG option, they’re getting a sensible fuel alternative, with the convenience of a one-stop ordering process.” U.S. customers will have the opportunity to choose from more than 2,600 LPG fueling stations across the country, a number that is expected to grow, according to GM. The LPG fuel storage systems available include a four-tank version with a 50 useable gasoline gallon equivalent capacity and a three-tank version with a 31 useable gasoline gallon equivalent capacity. Fuel tanks are manufactured by Sleegers 30

in Canada to last 10 years and feature an all-steel, manifolded construction. All underbody tanks will have substantial shielding to protect against road debris, curbing, and exhaust and external heat sources. The fuel gauge is calibrated to accurately measure LPG level. When the remaining fuel range reaches 30 to 40 miles, a low fuel warning automatically displays in the driver information center, just as it would with the standard gasoline-fueled van.

GM Partners with Other Manufacturers For the production process, GM partnered with Knapheide Manufacturing Co. as its Tier 1 manufacturer for the LPG systems. The under-hood fuel systems are provided by CleanFUEL USA and Bi-Phase Technologies, both working closely with GM engineering on engine calibration. The van will meet all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources

Board (CARB) emission certification requirements. Van production will begin at GM’s Wentzville, Mo., plant and continue at Knapheide’s nearby St. Peters, Mo., facility, where they will undergo fuel storage and delivery system installation. Once completed, the new cutaway vans will then be sent to the upfitter of the customer’s choice for body installation and final certification. Customers have the option to convert their cutaways to a variety of commercial, school bus, shuttle bus, and box truck requirements. “Through GM’s unique manufacturing process, our fleet customers know they’re getting quality, reliability, and convenience,” said Joyce Mattman, director, commercial product and specialty vehicles. Chevrolet Express and GMC Savana LPG cutaway vans will be covered by GM’s three-year, 36,000-mile new vehicle limited warranty and five-year, 100,000-mile limited powertrain warranty.


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You can feel confident that within our magazines, websites and trade shows, Bobit Business Media is doing our share to maintain a “green” working environment. As individuals and as a company, we are dedicated to maintaining green initiatives and strive to be good citizens of this planet. Finding new and innovative ways to reduce our carbon footprint is always a priority for Bobit Business Media.

Here H ere are are a ffew ew o off tthe he w ways ays p g GR REE EN: we’re keeping GREEN: • RECYCLED PAPER PROGRAM: 5 5,000 ,0 000 lbs lbs per month


40 lbs per month • WINDOW TINTING: reduces energy ene ergy loss losss by 75%

• VARIABLE SPEED CONTROLL ON N HVAC UNITS: 7500 kWh saved d per month

• RETROFITTING OLD T-12 FFLUORESCENTS LUO ORESCENT TS TO NEW T-8S: 3400 kWh ssaved aved d per month mon nth

• EFFICIENT BOILER/HEATER: BOILER/HEATE ER: 30 3000 000 therms the erms saved per month

• PARTNERING WITH OUR OU PRINTER: PRIN NTER: developed develloped a “green” game me plan, saving pap paper, per, ink and ene energy y



Digital Digit ital Editions We care about the environment and are setting a positive example.

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Twelve vehicles covering the gamut of fuel options can help fleets improve fuel efficiency, lower operating costs, and reduce dependence on foreign oil.




2011 AUDI A3 TDI CLEAN DIESEL With the potent combination of direct diesel injection and turbocharging, the 2.0L TDI clean diesel engine delivers 236 lb.-ft. of torque and produces 140 hp. The power and performance is complemented with EPA-estimated 30 mpg city and 42 mpg highway ratings. Producing 30-percent fewer CO2 emissions than a comparable gasoline engine, the 2.0L TDI clean diesel also meets or exceeds the 50 state emissions requirements. According to Audi, the A3 TDI clean diesel offers well-known diesel technology and higher residual value than its gasoline-powered peers, making it an excellent alternative to conventional hybrid vehicles. Further, the company noted there are no “unknown costs” as-


(VVT), TFSI direct injection, and turbocharging for more power and increased fuel economy. The 2.0L TFSI was the first engine to combine gasoline direct injection with turbocharging in large-scale production. Producing 200 hp and 207 lb.-ft. of torque, it has been the engine of choice for more than 1.3 million Audi drivers worldwide.

Duty. For the 2011-MY, the following offerings were introduced: ● 6.2L base gasoline engine offered on pickups and F-350 Chassis cabs is FFV/E-85 capable. ● Optional 6.8L CNG/LPG Prep engine offered on F-450 and F-550 Chassis cabs to

support CNG or LPG alternative-fuel upfits. ● The all-new 6.7L Power Stroke Diesel engine is B-20 capable (up to 20-percent biodiesel can be used). For the 2012 model-year, a bi-fuel and dedicated CNG/LPG Prep Engine option will also be available on the 6.2L engine.


Super Duty is a leader in the truck Class 2-5 segment with class-exclusive technologies such as live-drive PTO & factory-installed fifth-wheel/gooseneck hitches, best-in-class towing/payload capability, and class-leading fuel economy. For the 2011-MY, fuel economy has been improved up to 15 percent on the base 6.2L gasoline engine, up to 20 percent on the diesel engine pickups, and 24 percent on the diesel engine Chassis Cabs with the all-new 6.7L Power Stroke Diesel engine mated to the 6-speed TorqShift transmission. The fuel economy increases for 2011MY result in significantly reduced levels of greenhouse gas/CO2 emissions emitted into the atmosphere. In addition to the fuel economy and emissions benefits, there is a continuous effort toward expanding the alternative-fuel offerings on the Super 32

sociated with diesel power. Additionally, the Audi A3 TDI achieves 50-percent better fuel economy than a comparable gasoline engine. TDI delivers both classleading efficiency and power, making it the ideal efficient, performance-oriented solution. The Audi 2.0L turbocharged DOHC engine combines variable valve timing


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CODA Automotive is a privately-held company headquartered in Santa Monica, Calif., that designs, manufactures, and sells electric vehicles and lithium-ion battery systems purpose-built for transportation and a range of utility applications. It has focused on developing a safe, affordable battery system and other electric drive components that serve as the foundation for electric vehicles. The CODA sedan is a four-door, five-passenger all-electric vehicle (EV) with more than 20 cubic feet of trunk space and fold-down seats. The car is powered by a best-inclass 34kWh lithium-ion battery system with active thermal management to provide a dependable, all-season range of up to 120 miles per charge (like all electric vehicles, range may vary). Charging is fast and easy with the 6.6kWh onboard charger, which provides about 20 miles of range per hour of charge time. From depletion, the CODA will charge in about six hours from a 220v outlet.


Safety upgrades have been made for NAFTA markets, including component redesigns; pretensioners, and force-limited front seat belts; and material upgrades. The CODA has six air bags, anti-lock brakes, electronic-stability control, Bluetooth connectivity for hands-free calling, and an 8-inch touch-screen navigation system with GPS. The vehicle is backed with a threeyear/36,000-mile limited warranty and eightyear/100,000-mile limited battery warranty. Anticipated options for the CODA

include seven external paint choices, seats with leather or an eco-friendly cloth, and four different wheels. Over 100,000 miles of use, each CODA will result in an average CO2 savings of up to 21.8 tons relative to a 25 mpg internal combustion engine-based car, according to CODA. Combined, a 100-car fleet will effectively eliminate the carbon equivalent of approximately 224,742 gallons of gasoline from being emitted into the atmosphere.

weight distribution. The LEAF rides on a 106.3-inch wheelbase, with a 175-inch overall length, 69.7-inch width, and 61inch height. The Nissan LEAF can be charged up to 80 percent of its full capacity in 30 minutes

when equipped with a quick charge port and using a DC fast charger. Charging through a 240v outlet is estimated to take approximately seven hours. The advanced lithium-ion battery pack carries a warranty of eight years or 100,000 miles.


The all-electric, 2011 Nissan LEAF is a zero-emission car designed specifically for a lithium-ion battery-powered chassis. The medium-size hatchback comfortably seats five adults and has a range of 100 miles on one full charge. The LEAF is powered by 48 laminated compact lithium-ion battery modules and a high-response 80kW AC synchronous motor that generates 107 hp and 207 lb.-ft. of torque. Unlike internal-combustion engine-equipped vehicles, the LEAF’s powertrain has no tailpipe and thus no emission of CO2 or other greenhouse gases while being driven. The front-wheel drive vehicle utilizes an all-new dedicated EV platform with batteries housed in the floor for optimum vehicle packaging and


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smart fortwo ELECTRIC DRIVE The smart fortwo electric drive is a zero-emission vehicle. It is powered by a 30 kW magneto-electric motor and 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery. According to the U.S. EPA LA4 test cycle, the smart fortwo electric drive can travel up to 98 miles on a full charge. In combined city and highway driving, the U.S. EPA estimated the range on the smart fortwo electric drive to be 63 miles. Using a 220v outlet, it takes only three and a half hours to charge the battery from 20 to 80 percent of its capacity and about eight hours to reach full charge from a depleted battery. For 2011, smart USA is strategically placing 250 smart fortwo electric drive vehicles across the United States with companies, municipalities, organizations, and individuals interested in making a passionate statement on conservation and environmental awareness. smart USA delivered the first smart

fortwo electric drive to a retail customer in the U.S. in January 2010. Series production on next-generation vehicles for retail sale through smart USA’s dealer network is expected in 2012. The smart fortwo electric drive is a natural evolution of the smart brand

and amplifies its environmental leadership. With an unparalleled eco-heritage, smart developed the electric drive as the next logical extension of the fortwo platform, which continues to be a trendsetter in addressing issues facing urban mobility and conservation.

car is plugged in on a 240v service, it will be fully charged in about eight hours. THINK City has been put through extensive testing and validation, including hundreds of computer simulations and

correlations, more than 50 sled tests, and more than 20 real crash tests. It meets all applicable U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and is EPA and CARBcertified for sale throughout the U.S.


THE 100-PERCENT ELECTRIC THINK CITY THINK City is a 100-percent electric, zero-emission modern city car designed for fleet customers and urban commuters who want to make a bold statement about protecting the environment and reducing dependency on imported oil. Powered by an advanced lithium-ion battery and electric motor, THINK City is four times more energy-efficient than a conventional vehicle and creates fewer greenhouse gas emissions in any operating scenario, according to the manufacturer. THINK City makes switching to an all-electric car an easy choice. Not only is it easy to drive, park, and recharge, but it’s also inexpensive to fuel and maintain. Recharging only costs about 2-3 cents per mile, or less than the cost of a gallon of gas, to recharge it from 0-100 percent state-of-charge (SOC). When the 34


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Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc., unveiled the Prius family of vehicles at the 2011 North American International Auto Show. In addition to the current third-generation Prius and Prius Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV), the new Prius v midsize hybrid-electric vehicle and the Prius c Concept vehicle joined the hybrid brand. With the expansion of the Prius family, a new evolution of vehicles will further increase the acceptance of hybrids with the same core values of high fuel economy, low emissions, proven technology, and environmental stewardship. The Prius midsize liftback has accounted for more than 955,000 sales in the U.S. since it was introduced in 2000. The third-generation Prius, which reached dealerships in June 2009, has continued the hybrid’s heritage of exceptional fuel economy and low emissions, while becoming the third-best


selling Toyota passenger car in the U.S. The Prius has also been a technological flagship vehicle, offering new features to the Toyota brand, such as Touch Tracer Display, solar-powered ventilation, Smart Key System with

push-button start, Lane Keep Assist, an Advanced Parking Guidance System, and LED headlamps. The Toyota Prius achieves an estimated EPA fuel economy of 51 mpg city/48 mpg highway/50 mpg combined.

engineers focused on aerodynamic performance, mass optimization, and powertrain enhancements. The refinements in each area paid big dividends toward the car’s overall efficiency, while providing engineers with valuable information to help enhance the efficiency of future Chevrolet models.

“We left no stone unturned or piece of sheet metal un-weighed,” said Russell. “Our engineers were comprehensive and thorough when it came to evaluating and modifying the aspects of the car’s performance that contribute to fuel economy.”



CHEVROLET CRUZE ECO The Chevrolet Cruze, which went on sale in January, delivers an EPAestimated 42 mpg on the highway for its manual transmission models, with city fuel economy of 28 mpg. “Chevrolet Cruze continues to redefine the compact segment, offering class-leading standard safety features, upscale amenities, as well as hybrid-like fuel economy without the price,” said Chuck Russell, vehicle line director. “The Cruze Eco is in a league of its own and will challenge perceptions of the efficiency available in a more affordable non-hybrid.” The Cruze Eco carries an MSRP of $18,895 (including destination charge). To achieve its fuel economy, Cruze’s


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FIAT 500

The new 2012 Fiat 500 was adapted for American roads and offers engaging driving dynamics, high quality, and advanced technology. The Fiat 500 comes equipped with the new 1.4L engine with state-of-theart MultiAir technology, invented and patented by Fiat. Three models, 14 exterior colors, and 14 unique seat color and material combinations will allow customers to configure “their own” Fiat 500 at Standard are a four-year/50,000mile bumper-to-bumper warranty and four years of unlimited roadside assistance. This modern-generation Fiat 500 offers high levels of safety, fuel economy, quality, and advanced technology. The vehicle features an all-new fuel-efficient 1.4L MultiAir engine with eco:Drive Application, state-of-the-art TomTom Navigation with BLUE&ME Handsfree Communication technology, and seven standard air bags. This package is further enhanced with new quality and refinement adaptations for the U.S. market, including an all-new 6-speed

automatic transmission. Fiat’s new 1.4L engine with state-of-theart MultiAir technology powers the 2012 Fiat 500 and reduces emissions while improving fuel economy and power, providing 101 hp at 6,500 rpm and 98 lb.-ft. of torque at 4,000 rpm. When paired with the 5-speed manual transmission, the Fiat 500 delivers up to 38 mpg highway and 30 mpg city. With the all-new 6-speed automatic transmission with Auto Stick, the new Fiat 500 delivers 27 mpg city/34 mpg highway.

Helping the new Fiat 500 achieve 10-percent greater fuel efficiency and power while decreasing CO2 emissions up to 10 percent compared to engines without the system is the world’s first Fully Variable Valve Actuation (FVVA) system on a production engine. Also known as MultiAir, this innovative intake valve system replaces a traditional overhead cam with four hydraulic solenoids for instantaneous air-fuel adjustment at any time in the engine cycle for maximum efficiency and power.

certified, was modified for 2010 to improve performance, responsiveness, and fuel economy up to 31 mpg highway. The engine delivers 170 hp at 5,600 rpm and 170 lb.-ft. of peak torque at 4,000 rpm. The i-Active Valve Lift System (AVLS) ensures

a broad torque curve and smooth response at all engine speeds, while also helping to improve fuel efficiency. All Legacy models for 2011 feature a larger fuel tank, now 18.5 gallons versus 16.9 gallons in the previous model, to extend driving range.


SUBARU LEGACY 2.5i AWD PZEV The fifth-generation Subaru Legacy was all-new for the 2010 model-year. The mid-size sedan was built on an all-new platform, featured a longer wheelbase, approximately 4 inches of extra rear seat legroom, and a new powertrain lineup featuring the Subaru Lineatronic CVT. Every Legacy is equipped as standard with symmetrical all-wheel drive and a performance- and safety-enhancing system. The 2010 Legacy 2.5i models are powered by a revised 2.5L four-cylinder Boxer engine, mated to a new 6-speed manual transmission or the available new Lineartronic CVT. The CVT is standard in the Legacy 2.5i automatic models, where it is also equipped with a manual mode and steering wheel paddle shifters. The 2.5L engine, available as PZEV36


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KENWORTH T800 LNG TRUCK The Kenworth T800 liquefied natural gas (LNG) truck is one of the leaders in the marketplace. The T800 LNG truck offers outstanding performance and efficiency for port, heavy-duty freight, and vocational applications. Several hundred Kenworth T800 LNG trucks are in service. Most of those serve the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, Calif. Kenworth was the first truck manufacturer to offer an LNG fuel system as a factory-installed option. The T800 LNG truck offers an operating range of at least 300 to 500 miles and has a large dashmounted display to monitor the LNG fuel level. Kenworth LNG vehicles use 95 percent liquefied natural gas and 5 percent diesel to power the vehicle. The T800 LNG is equipped with the 15.0L Westport GX engine, which offers low emissions performance while main-


taining equal horsepower, torque, and efficiency to diesel-fueled engines. The Westport GX engine is certified to 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards. A typical Class 8 truck using the

cleaner burning LNG fuel may reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to an estimated 27 percent, compared to a diesel-fueled truck equipped with a 2010 emission-compliant engine. LNG fuel also may cost from $1 to $1.50 per gallon less than the equivalent diesel fuel.

when compared to gasoline. More than 97 percent of the propane currently used in the U.S. comes from domestic supplies, making it a stable fuel source and reducing dependence on foreign oil. The ROUSH CleanTech fuel system for the Ford E-450 DRW Cutaway is EPA and CARB certified, maintains

the factory Ford warranty, and can be purchased as a Ford ship-thru system to install on new vehicles or as a retrofit for vehicles already in service. Converting a Ford E-450 cutaway to run on propane autogas with a ROUSH CleanTech fuel system results in no loss of horsepower, torque, or towing capacity.



ROUSH CLEANTECH LPG FORD E-450 DRW CUTAWAY ROUSH CleanTech announced the availability of its liquid propane autogas fuel system for the 2010 and newer Ford E-450 DRW cutaway, equipped with the 6.8L V-10 gasoline engine and 5-speed automatic transmission. The system will work on the 158-inch and 176-inch wheelbase configurations. Propane autogas has a number of advantages over gasoline when used as an automotive fuel. Fleet managers using propane autogas typically see operating costs drop by 40 percent or more, due to the lower cost of fuel and less frequent maintenance requirements. Propane autogas reduces carbon monoxide emissions by 60 percent, greenhouse gas emissions by 24 percent, nitrogen oxide emissions by 20 percent, as well as particulate emissions


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SHO WCASE TRANSIT GILLIG HYBRID ELECTRIC TRANSIT BUS Hayward, Calif.-based Gillig LLC manufactures the Hybrid Electric transit bus, built on a stainless steel low-floor chassis in 29-foot, 35-foot, and 40-foot options. Made with a recyclable aluminum body structure, the bus comes with a Cummins ISB engine with particulate filter, Allison EP40 drive system, and DINEX I/O multiplex electrical system. Some advantages of hybrid buses include significantly less fuel use and reduced emissions (98.4 percent cleaner than the buses they replace), and quieter operation, according to the company. For the stop-andgo duty cycle of transit applications, hybrid engines are effective because electric motors develop maximum torque at slow speeds and are suited for frequent quick starts. In addition, the drive system can recapture lost braking energy and store its electrical power in the batteries. The hybrid bus blends power sources to

optimize efficiency, and variable gear ratios help adapt it to both stop-and-go driving and high-speed operation, according to Gillig. Gillig vehicles use standard-size tires that last longer, ensuring fewer tire carcasses go

to landfills, the company stated. Quick-change skirt panels enable less repair material to be used during damage repair. The buses can also run on B-20 biodiesel.

an all-steel inner cage structure as well as other steel features and includes a sounddeadening package. Bus exterior features include disc wheels, aluminum rub rail, side directional lights for vehicles 31-feet or longer, rust inhibitor, and full body undercoating. According to IC Bus, the bus is able to reach up to a 32-percent improvement in fuel economy, up to 35-percent reduction in NOx emissions, and up to 85-percent reduction of particulate matter.

The diesel powertrain remains fully operational in the event the hybrid drive unit goes offline. It is also approved for biodiesel fuel use.

IC BUS HC HYBRID SERIES The HC Hybrid Series by IC Bus, a Navistar company, is powered by a MaxxForce DT diesel engine in combination with a factoryinstalled Eaton Electric Parallel Drive hybrid system with lithium-ion battery pack and built with heavy-duty frame and axles. The HC Series hybrid-electric bus has 660-860 lb.-ft. torque capacity, as well as a 44kW electric motor located between the engine and the automated manual 6-speed transmission. It also features soft-ride parabolic front supension, air-ride rear suspension, and air brakes with anti-lock braking system (ABS) and air dryer. The bus utilizes a LeeceNeville 270-amp alternator and features tilt steering and cruise control. Regenerative braking recharges batteries and leads to reduced braking and engine wear, according to the company. The bus seats up to 41 passengers. With a 96-in. wide body, the bus body features 38


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SE June 6-8, 2011

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3/25/11 2:20:04 PM 12/28/10 9:23:07 AM


Time to Add a New Component in Calculating Total Cost of Ownership


he U.S. fleet industry can learn much from its European counterparts. Vehicle asset management in the European Union (EU) is very sophisticated and, in many cases, on the cutting edge of best practices in fleet management. I enjoy staying abreast of European asset management trends, and my favorite publication is Fleet Europe, which does an excellent job in covering the pan-European fleet market. There are many similarities between the U.S. and European fleet markets. However, there are also key differences. While green fleet initiatives are common to both markets, the concept originated with European fleets. One early reason sustainability was embraced by European fleets is because the EU was a signatory of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which set binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Embracing Green Fleet Initiatives As European corporations scrambled to quantify their carbon footprints, it was discovered that fleet vehicles were often the key contributors to corporate CO2 emissions. Many European-headquartered companies established benchmarks to reduce their carbon footprint. One example, among many, is the Danish-headquartered healthcare company Novo Nordisk, which is using its calculated carbon footprint as a baseline from which to reduce its future fleet emissions. The company set a goal in 2007 to reduce emissions by 5 percent per year annually through 2012. Another example is Schindler, a Swissheadquartered multinational operating a worldwide fleet of more than 17,000 vehicles. Early on, Schindler discovered its vehicle fleet was responsible for 64 percent of its global carbon footprint. This realization prompted it to calculate 40

total cost of ownership (TCO) in an entirely different way. As with all fleets, Schindler had TCO targets to reduce the cost of operating its fleet; however, it modified its TCO calculations by adding an “ecology target.” In addition to specific reductions in CO2 emissions, Schindler also targeted NOx emission reductions. As a global fleet, Schindler implemented a worldwide program to reduce fleet CO2 emissions on a country-by-country basis. Each country operation is given a goal of 10-percent per-year reduction for the next three years. The current 10-percent reduction program, which is the minimum goal, will continue until 2013. As Schindler attains each goal, a new target is set to lower annual carbon emissions even further. Assisting European fleets in quantifying their carbon footprint are European domestic OEMs, which include GM, Ford, and Toyota. All European OEMs publish the grams of CO2 emitted by their vehicles per kilometer in their spec guides. Fleets factor this data in their acquisition decisions and TCO calculations. Another fleet incorporating CO2 emissions as a criterion in vehicle selector decisions is Philips Electronics North America. “CO2 emissions must have independent weight beyond fuel economy inclusions within TCO,” said Gage Wagoner, senior manager NA fleet for Philips Electronics North America.

Turning Point Fast Approaching with U.S. Fleets Senior management at many U.S. companies continue to support corporate sustainability and green fleet initiatives despite the slow economy. The number of fleet managers who are measuring fleet emissions has soared — from 28 percent


in 2008 to 49 percent in 2010, according to a study by PHH Arval. There are a many U.S. fleets implementing world-class sustainability programs, such as AT&T, PepsiCo, Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, FedEx, Johnson Controls, and UPS, to name but a few. Globally, one of the fleet sustainability leaders is Abbott, which over the past six years has been striving to become a carbon-neutral fleet. Abbott has reduced emissions by using hybrids and more fuel-efficient vehicles. Abbott is the “poster child” illustrating that going “green” can result in significant fleet cost savings. In the past, “green” was difficult to “pencil out” when calculating vehicle lifecycle costs, but those days appear to be ending. Here’s what a fleet manager of a U.S. Fortune 50 company said: “The green initiatives (in the U.S.) are approaching a turning point. Past environmental progress always needed to be cost neutral, or to encompass savings, in order to proceed. We are rapidly approaching a point where the roadblock of cost-neutral options may not hold sway as they have in the past. A reduction in GHG may be its own reward. We are not there yet, but I believe it is fast approaching.” To calculate the true cost of ownership, you also need to calculate your fleet’s environmental impact. The time has come to incorporate a sustainability criterion in lifecycle costing. Critics may view cost reduction goals and sustainability goals as contradictory targets. However, European fleet managers will tell you a green fleet program lowers TCO by decreasing fuel consumption. They’ve proven it works and have been doing so for years. Let me know what you think.


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The Choice Is Clear — And Clean. Your fleet can get the same horsepower and torque performance as gasoline for 30% less in fuel costs – and with 60% fewer emissions — thanks to ROUSH CleanTech Liquid Propane Injection fuel systems. Propane autogas fuel systems by ROUSH CleanTech let you operate on a price-stable, North Americansourced fuel with no engine modifications required. That means you’ll get all the benefits of propane autogas, with no compromises in your vehicle’s factory warranty protection.


2007.5 – 2008 Ford F-150 (5.4L V8)

2009 – 2010 Ford F-250 / F-350 (5.4L V8)

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2009 – Newer Ford E-150 / E-250 / E-350 (5.4L V8)

2009 – Newer Ford E-350 DRW Cutaway (5.4L V8)

2009 – Newer Ford E-450 DRW Cutaway (6.8L V10) 3/25/11 2:20:38 PM 12/13/10 12:58:16 PM


| 2011 GMC YUKON HYBRID1 EPA-est. MPG 20 city/23 hwy.

| 2011 CHEVROLET CRUZE EPA-est. MPG 24 city/36 hwy.

Whether it’s meeting companywide environmental initiatives or government standards, fleet managers face many challenges. GM offers a wide range of solutions, including fuel-efficient vehicles, hybrids,1 biofuel vehicles2 and the revolutionary Chevrolet Volt.3 Our environmental commitment goes beyond vehicles—it includes how we operate our factories and offices around the world. For more solutions, visit Available to order at participating dealers. E85 is 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline. To see if there is an E85 station near you, visit Available to order at participating dealers in CA, TX, MI, NY, NJ, CT and DC. Quantities limited. ©2011 General Motors LLC 1



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Green Fleet Magazine May/June 2011  

Magazine for the alternative fuel automotive fleet industry

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