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CAFE INCREASES TO 54.5 MPG p8

A BOBIT PUBLICATION

KRYSTAL INFINITY’S EVOLUTION p26

WWW.GREENFLEETMAGAZINE.COM

‘THE LAST MILE’ ECO-DRIVING p36

SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

VOL.1, NO. 3

SUSTAINABILITY

SLUGGERS ACHIEVE ALL-STAR FAME Digging out From the Data Avalanche Why Medium-Duty Trucks are Prime Candidates for All-Electric Models Sprint/Nextel Greens Fleet the ‘SmartWay’

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HIGHER QUALITY. At Ford Fleet, we believe higher quality is in the details. When your employees are in our vehicles, you can be confident we’ve left no stone unturned to ensure those vehicles are reliable, durable and sustainable. We’re committed to continuous improvement and dedicate ourselves every day to creating cars and trucks that are greener, safer and smarter. When it comes to quality, hard work and higher standards are all we know. Because our fleet is your fleet. Ford Fleet. Get More.

fleet.ford.com

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CONTENTS S E P T E M B E R

/

O C T O B E R

2 0 1 1

V O L U M E

1

N O. . 3

features 10 40 Sustainability Sluggers Join Green Fleet magazine in acknowledging the inaugural 40 Sustainability AllStars for all they do to help green fleets and sustain the environment.

16 Using Data to Green Your Fleet

20

Key to making informed decisions, data is available in abundance and can help guide fleet managers toward effective solutions.

20 Sprint/Nextel ‘Greens’ its Fleet the ‘SmartWay’ The communications and wireless provider has found a way to transition its fleet to “greener” vehicles without added costs.

22 What is the Future of All-Electric

22

Medium-Duty Trucks? As heavy users of fuel with frequent recurring routes, medium-duty trucks are prime candidates for all-electric models.

departments

26 EVolution of a Green Vehicle

4 Letters

Krystal Infinity’s EVolution all-electric mini-bus promises big rewards for fleets looking to go green and maximize their return on investment (ROI).

6 Industry News 30 Green Vehicle Showcase

28 Keeping Yellowstone ‘Green’ Yellowstone-Teton Clean Energy Coalition is teaming up with the National Park Service to reduce emissions in some of America’s most treasured places.

34 Transit Showcase 36 Editorial

26 2

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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LETTERS www.greenfleetmagazine.com

Fuel to be a Game Changer Fuel efficiency will be a major player once again. The fact is, it is always a consideration, but its impact on our decision making increases in direct proportion to the increase in fuel costs. For MY-2012, fuel efficiency may not just be a major player — it may be a game changer in some segments. Jim McCarthy Director Vehicle Management Service Siemens Global Shared Services Iselin, N.J.

Realities of Managing Fuel I’ve just read your article, “The Best Green Fleet Strategy is to Reduce Fuel Consumption,” and felt that at last I wasn’t quite alone! (See July/August 2011 issue.) Here in the UK (and much off Europe) we are going mad throw-ing money at all kinds of R&D D (both in-vehicle and back-office technologies), the very best off which will still take at least one whole cycle to become remotely effective — yet very little on optimizing what we already have in operation. By ignoring the vital aspects of policy, corporate expectations, occasional discipline, and proper effective measurement and monitoring of fuel volume and costs today, we fail to prepare the ground to exploit future technologies properly. A driver who refuses to be told to drive leaner (in a business that doesn’t think it can manage and improve delivered fuel performance) seems quite unlikely to get anything like the best out of a newtechnology vehicle the next time around. Perhaps even worse, he or she might try to drive it to get the same on-the-road performance — taking these technologies out of their optimum performance window and totally negating the potential benefits. And then, when someone does a quick measurement of mpg, it’s not much better, so “all that technology and expense was a waste of time,” undermining the core objectives of the strategy. You are absolutely right to feature the cost driver at the top of your piece. You might recall that’s what we’ve always tried to do — cut costs/help the business first — the green halo 4

comes for free. Still “more similarities than differences” across the markets. Stewart Whyte Director Fleet Audits Petersfield, UK

Vice President Group Publisher, Auto Group Sherb Brown

Editor

Mike Antich (310) 533-2467

Managing Editor Lauren Fletcher (310) 533-2415

Senior Editor

Thanks for Your Green Strategies I used parts of your editorial on “The Best Green Fleet Strategy is to Reduce Fuel Consumption” (July/August 2011 issue) and sent it in an e-mail to all of my city’s employees with the addition that this is a philosophy they can apply to their personal vehicles as well. Thanks for the thoughts and keep up the good work. As Henry Ford said, “Whether you think you can or think you can’t, you’re right.” Terry Neumann Fleet Maintenance Coordinator City of Lakewood, Calif.

Finding Eco-Driving Info F I really liked your article on green driving (“Using Technology to Impact dr Driver Behavior,” July/August 2011 D issue). Do you have a link to the EPA iss study about the link between driver st behavior and fuel efficiency? be E-mail from Ben Smith The author quoted information from two federal studies linking driver behavior and fuel efficiency. Below are quotes from the studies that appeared in the article and links to the studies from which they were taken: “Up to 30 percent of a vehicle’s fuel efficiency is impacted by driver behavior.” – Source: EPA www.fs.fed.us/sustainableoperations/ documents/TheEcoDriversManual.pdf “Every gallon of gasoline burned creates 19.5 lbs. of CO2; every gallon of diesel fuel burned creates 22.1 lbs. of CO2.” – Source: EPA www.epa.gov/oms/climate/420f05001.htm – Editor COMMENTS? THOUGHTS? OPINIONS? Green Fleet wants to hear from you! E-mail Mike.Antich@bobit.com with your letters, thoughts, story ideas, and more.

Grace L. Suizo (310) 533-2414

Contributing Editor Chris Wolski (310) 533-2544

Web Editor

Greg Basich (310) 533-2572

Field Editor Al Cavalli

Production Director Kelly Bracken

Production Manager Brian Peach (310) 533-2548

Art Director

Armie Bautista

Subscription Inquiries (310) 533-2440

www.GreenFleetMagazine.com/ Subscription Subscriptions@GreenFleetMagazine.com

National Sales Manager Sherb Brown (310) 533-2451

District Advertising Managers

Regional Sales Manager Eric Bearly (310) 533-2579 eric.bearly@bobit.com

West Coast Sales Manager/ Associate Publisher Joni Owens (310) 533-2530 joni.owens@bobit.com

Great Lakes

Robert Brown Jr. 1000 W. University Dr., Ste. 209 Rochester, MI 48307 (248) 601-2005 • Fax (248) 601-2004 rbrown8799@aol.com

Sales & Marketing Coordinator Tracey Tremblay

Chairman

Edward J. Bobit

CEO

Ty F. Bobit

CFO

Richard E. Johnson

Editorial Consultant Howard Rauch

Business and Editorial Office

Bobit Business Media

3520 Challenger St. Torrance, CA 90503-1640 Fax: (310) 533-2503 Printed in U.S.A.

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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9/7/11 7:00:21 AM


INDUSTRY NEWS DOE AWARDS MORE THAN $175 MILLION FOR ADVANCED VEHICLE R&D WASHINGTON – Recently, Steven Chu, U.S. Secretary of Energy for the Department of Energy (DOE), announced more than $175 million in grants over the next three to five years to accelerate development and deployment of advanced vehicle technologies. Among the grant recipients are Ford Motor Co., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, General Motors, General Electric, and Azure Dynamics Inc. The funding will support 40 projects across 15 states to help improve the fuel efficiency of next-generation vehicles. The projects will target new innovations throughout the vehicle, including better fuels and lubricants, lighter-weight materials, longer-lasting and cheaper electric vehicle batteries and components, and more efficient engine technologies. This broad approach to vehicle efficiency research and development will help ensure the technologies are available to help automakers meet recently announced fuel-efficiency standards, according to the DOE. The funds will leverage additional investments by the grantees for projects totaling more than $300 million.

FORD AND TOYOTA TO JOINTLY DEVELOP HYBRID SYSTEM FOR LIGHT TRUCKS AND SUVS

CAFE to Increase to 54.5 MPG by 2025 WASHINGTON – President Barack Obama announced an agreement

with 13 automakers to increase the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard to 54.5 miles per gallon for cars and light-duty trucks by model-year 2025. The new program would increase the passenger car fuel-economy standard by 5 percent each year, from 2017 to 2025. The standard for pickup trucks and other light-duty trucks would increase by 3.5 percent per year for the first five years and 5 percent for the last four model-years. Although the agreement specifies 54.5 mpg as the goal, the actual wording states “performance equivalent to 54.5 mpg or 163 grams/mile of CO2.” The Obama administration claims Americans will save $1.7 PRESIDENT OBAMA trillion dollars in fuel costs. Average fuel savings claimed will be more than $8,000 per vehicle by 2025. The administration also stated these new standards would cut more than 6 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases emitted during this program. Due to the timeframe, the EPA and NHTSA will propose a mid-term evaluation in 2018 of how these standards impact manufacturers’ costs, technology, and sales, according to the administration. Also, the EPA and NHTSA are considering incentive programs to encourage adoption of fuel-saving and emissions-reduction technologies, including the following: ● Incentives for electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles. ● Incentives for advanced technology packages for large pickups, such as hybridization. ● Credits for technologies with potential to achieve CO2 reductions and fuel-economy improvements not captured by standard test procedures. In addition, the EPA said it plans to propose provisions for: ● Credits for improvements in air conditioning (A/C) systems. ● Treatment of compressed natural gas (CNG). ● Continued credit banking and trading, including a one-time carry-forward of unused MY-2010-2016 credits through MY-2021. Companies and organizations involved in the development of the proposed standard include Ford, GM, Chrysler, BMW, Honda, Hyundai, Jaguar/Land Rover, KIA, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Toyota, and Volvo, the United Auto Workers Union, and the State of California.

DEARBORN, MI – Ford and Toyota announced a joint plan to collaborate on the development of an advanced hybrid system for light trucks and SUVs. The two companies also agreed to work together on “enablers” to complement each other’s existing telematics platform standards. The automakers signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) agreement that specifies the companies will jointly develop, as equal partners, a new rear-wheel-drive hybrid system and component technology for light trucks and SUVs. It also states they will independently integrate the new hybrid system in their respective future vehicles separately. The news release from Ford said this rearwheel-drive hybrid system will be based on an all-new vehicle architecture. For the telematics collaboration, both companies stated it relates only to standards and technologies. Each company will continue to separately develop its own in-vehicle products and features.

6

Balqon Introduces Mule M100 Electric Truck HARBOR CITY, CA – Balqon Corp. announced

the availability of its new Mule M100 Class 7 zero-emissions, all-electric truck designed for use in city deliveries and cargo transportation. The truck has a top speed of 70 miles per hour and can travel up to 100 miles before having to recharge, Balqon said. The Mule M100 represents the expansion of Balqon’s product portfolio into the Class 7 on-road market. The truck was developed using Balqon’s proprietary heavy-duty electric vehicle drive system that includes complete power management, propulsion, and power conversion systems. In addition, the Mule M100 features a 24-foot deck and 4-ton capacity to accommodate the pickup and delivery of beverages, packages, and shipment of cargo. The Mule M100 is equipped with an air ride suspension and cab air conditioner. The truck fully recharges in three hours.

Balqon Corp.’s Mule M100 Class 7 zero-emissions, all-electric truck has a top speed of 70 mph and a range of 100 miles.

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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INDUSTRY NEWS

The EIA Issues Report on Alt-Fuel Consumption in U.S. WASHINGTON – Recently, the Energy Information Ad-

ministration (EIA) released data on the amount of alternative transportation fuels used in 2009. The total amount used reached 431,107 gasoline-equivalent gallons. Compared to the 430,329 gasoline-equivalent gallons used in 2008, the amount consumed was only one-tenth of a percentage point higher in 2009 than in 2008. Natural gas accounted for the largest share at 52 percent of all alternative fuels consumed. Propane accounted for 30 percent and E-85 accounted for 16 percent. Electricity, hydrogen, and other

fuels accounted for the final 2 percent of alternative fuels used. Natural gas use increased in 2009 due to its use in transit buses, according to EIA data. The EIA also estimates that the total inventory of alternativefuel vehicles (AFVs) in fleets in 2009 was about 826,318, up about 7 percent from 2008. The organization also listed the top five states for alternative-fuel fleet vehicles: ● California (16 percent of ● Arizona (5 percent). all U.S. AFVs). ● Florida (4 percent). ● Texas (11 percent). ● North Carolina (4 percent).

Sacramento & San Francisco Testing Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrid AUBURN HILLS, MI – Chrysler Group LLC, working in part-

nership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), recently delivered 28 demonstration fleet Ram 1500 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pickup trucks to officials in San Francisco and Sacramento, Calif. Abdullah Bazzi, senior manager of the Chrysler Group’s advanced hybrid vehicle project, delivered 14 trucks to the City of Sacramento and 14 trucks to the City of San Francisco. The trucks are part of a national demonstration fleet of 140 vehicles that will be used during the next three years. These vehicles will help to evaluate customer usage, drive cycles, charging, thermal management, fuel economy, emissions, and impact on the region’s electric grid. In addition to San Francisco and Sacramento, 10 other partners across the United States will receive vehicles for demonstration and testing purposes. There are no plans for a production version of the Ram 1500 PHEV at this time. The Ram 1500 PHEV includes a liquid-cooled 12.9kWhr lithium-ion battery pack and a 6.6kW on-board charger. Ad-

ditional features include AC power generation of up to 6.6kW, directional charging, reverse power flow, and full regenerative braking used to capture more energy. The Chrysler Group LLC also is developing a similar fleet of 25 Town & Country minivans with plug-in hybrid technology for demonstration and evaluation. They will be allocated to select cities later this year.

Chrysler is testing a PHEV version of its Ram 1500 pickup truck in select cities and environments throughout the United States.

Cadillac to Introduce ELR Extended-Range Electric Car DETROIT – General Motors’ Cadillac brand announced it is turning a concept vehicle, the Cadillac Converj, into a production model called the Cadillac ELR. The automaker said development of the ELR is now underway, but has not yet announced details on performance, pricing, or a timeline for availability. The ELR will feature an electric propulsion system that consists of a T-shaped lithium-ion battery, an electric-drive unit, and a four-cylinder “engine-generator.” Although the vehicle is designed to run primarily on electricity, it has the gasoline-fueled, four-cylinder engine-generator to provide power when the battery’s charge gets low, similar to GM’s Chevrolet brand’s Volt. 8

GM’s Cadillac brand is transforming its Converj concept vehicle (above) into the Cadillac ELR. The ELR will feature an electric propulsion system that consists of a T-shaped lithium-ion battery, an electric drive unit, and a four-cylinder “engine generator.”

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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40 Sustainability

Sluggers Join Green Fleet magazine in acknowledging the inaugural group of 40 Sustainability All-Stars for all they do to help green fleets and sustain the environment.

✪ RICHARD

DIRECTOR OF FLEET THYSSENKRUPP ELEVATOR

By Lauren Fletcher

Goal to reduce fuel consumption 20% through 2015. ■ Utilizing propane autogas as AFVs. ■ Created “5 Cs of Analyzing AFVs.”

■ Involved in design/con struction of merous altnufuel/EV char ging stations ■ More th . an 15 years in alt-fuel ve ■ Partnere hicles. d in $11.5M clean air proj funding. ect

Fleet Stats: 3,100 units, 20% green

Fleet Stats:

T

he first-ever Sustainability AllStar award recipients will be recognized Oct. 4 at the Green Fleet Conference in Texas. Green Fleet magazine staff reviewed nominees submitted online based on professional longevity, accomplishments (significant sustainability achievements), innovation (innovative ways individuals have contributed to reducing emissions and fuel consumption), and overall industry involvement. Altogether, these fleet professionals have reduced greeenhouse gas emissions, created green fleet and sustainability policies, and have dedicated their time and energy to ensuring the path to sustainability is clear. The following are the 40 individuals, including commercial and public sector fleet managers as well as vendors/suppliers recognized for their outstanding achievements in green fleet sustainability in 2011. For additional information on each All-Star, visit www.greenfleetmagazine.com/magazine/. 10

B

ATTERSB DIRECTOR, FLEET SERV Y ✪ UNIVERSITY ICES OF CALIFO RNIA, DAVI S

✪ TOM ARMSTRONG ✪

■ Downsized to 4-cyl. engines and included hybrid and diesel options. ■ Decreased average CO emissions by 2 7.8% since 2007. ■ Increased fuel mileage by 8.4%.

Fleet Stats: 3,100 units, 65% green

% green

✪ ED BOBIT

✪ DONNA BIBBO, CAFM ✪ MANAGER, FLEET & TRAVEL NOVO NORDISK, INC.

953 units, 45

CHAIRMAN BOBIT BUSI NESS MEDIA

Operates Bob it Business Media unde a “green com r pany policy.” ■ Launch ed Green Fl ee t magazine and e-mail ne wsletter, the Green Fleet Conference, Environmen tal Leadership awards , and Sustai nability Allawards. Star

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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LAS BOND ✪

✪ DOUG ES MGR. TION SERVIC TRANSPORTA LIF. CA , TY UN ALAMEDA CO

d hybrid veg all-electric an ■ Purchasin esel units. r zing B-20 fo di hicles and utili and e, ez re tif an cycled oil, ■ Using re uid. transmission fl rtnership. er for grant pa ag an m t ■ Projec % green 1,043 units, 34 Fleet Stats:

✪ GERRY

✪ MIKE BRITT ✪

DIRECTOR, MAINT. & ENGINEERING UPS ■ Manges U.S. & international fleet sus-

tainability. ■ Led efforts in alt-fuel projects & tech-

nology, including CNG, LNG, propane, electric, hydrogen fuel cell, etc. Fleet Stats: 91,136 units, 3% green

P✪ MPBELL, CPF CTOR ✪ LARRY CA RE DI T EN AGEM FLEET MAN AYNE, IN CITY OF FT. W

in fleet. ars experience le-reduction id e at iti in to ate ■ First in st s. ne gi diesel en program with ced emisdu re e iv at iti in ty” ■ “Green Ci t. en pm ui city eq sions by 30% in % green 1,857 units, 59 Fleet Stats:

■ Has 31 ye

✪ BRUCE CHESSON ✪

ALTERNATIVE FUEL PROGRAM MGR. NASA KENNEDY SPACE CENTER ■ Efforts displaced millions of gallons of petroleum use. ■ Initiated numerous programs and outreach, coordinated ARRA, obtaining 39 EVs and 24 AFVs.

Fleet Stats: 1,500+ units, 75% green

DOUGLAS ✪

✪ ANDY SPECIALTY MARKETS MGR., NAT’L SALES UCK COMPANY KENWORTH TR

Initiatives” orth’s “Green arkets for ars, covering m for past five ye tural gas hybrid and na diesel-electric etrucks. rts of Los Ang rectly with Po on tle ■ Works di at Se d an , h, Oakland les, Long Beac rategies. clean truck st

■ Led Kenw

CALK

✪ FLEET O CITY OF A FFICER USTIN, TE XAS

■ Natio nally reco gnized for tation and implem use of altfuels and m enment of su anagestainable fleets. ■ More than 45 ye ars fleet ex ■ Exper perience. ience in fuel systems m an agement. Fleet Sta ts: 5,402 u nits, 60% g reen

✪ WE

CLEAN CIT NDY DAFOE ✪ NATIONA IES SR. PROJECT LE L RENEW ABLE ENE ADER RGY LAB.

■ Manag ed U.S. DO E Alternat and Advan ive Fuels ced Vehic les Data C past 15 ye enter for ars. ■ Helps fleets redu ce petroleum sumption conthrough to ols on web technical sites and assistance project, as connectio well as ns to local and federal funding.

✪ GREG

✪ DEB FRODL ✪

GE GLOBAL EV LEADER & CHIEF STRATEGY OFFICER GE CAPITAL FLEET SERVICES ■ Spent past six years focusing on fleet

sustainability products and services. ■ Pioneer in sustainable fleet transpor-

tation, driving adoption of EVs across industry. ■ Leading GE’s EV Experience Tour.

GLANDER GOVERNM ✪ EN TECHNOLO T SALES & ADVANCE D GIES VEHIC LE MANAG TOYOTA M ER OTOR SALE S USA, INC.

■ Part of launch of firs t-gen Toyota RAV4EV an d first-gen Pr ius. ■ Sold 35 0 first-gen Pr ius models York City. to New ■ Respons ible for Toyo ta’s Prius pl hybrid and ug-in RAV4EV flee t sales strate gy.

SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011 ■ GREEN FLEET

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D✪ ✪ DAVE HEA AGER

FLEET MAN NOMA, CALIF. COUNTY OF SO

ted to fleet 20 years dedica sustainability. vehicles and hybrid-electric ■ Promotes infrastructure. ost EV Ready cognized as “M ■ County re Bay Area.” Community in % green 1,352 units, 19 Fleet Stats:

✪ ROBERT HOWDYSHELL ✪

DIR., PURCHASING & FLEET SERVICES COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE, CALIF.

■ More than

■ Fleet has deployed alt-fuel vehicles

including methanol, NEV, CNG, hybrid, diesel-hybrid, and flex fuel. ■ Active in policy decisions such as 25mpg minimum requirement. Fleet Stats: 4,099 units, 33% green

✪ KARBOWSKI NC E ✪ GEORGE NS & MAINTENA

DIR., OPERATIO SIT FOOTHILL TRAN

e than TA move to mor eered synon pi d an s se 2,300 CNG bu ion fluids. thetic transmiss and heavy-duty truck of s ar ■ Has 43 ye nce. bus fleet experie hanol fleets. methanol and et ■ Managed green % 86 , 8 units Fleet Stats: 33

■ Assisted M

✪ GEORGE KILROY ✪ PRESIDENT & CEO PHH ARVAL

Introduced first formal environmental program for fleets, PHH GreenFleet. ■ Named “EcoCEO” by Baltimore SmartCEO in 2010. ■ Reduced PHH’s carbon footprint with a goal to reduce company-wide GHG emissions 12% by 2014. ■ PHH obtained GE Energy Star rating. ■

ERNIE IV DIRECTO Y✪ R, FLEE CITY & CO T MANAGEMENT D IV. UNTY OF DENVER ■L

eading ch arge to gre en Denver’ for 20 year s, beginnin s fleet g with dev ment of C elopity motor ce nter. ■ Led ac quisition o f hybrids in guided co 2000 and nstruction of sustain fleet main ably built tenance fa cility. Fleet Sta ts: 2,758 u nits, 45% g reen

✪ GERAL

■ Began commitm ent to sust with devel ainability opment of fleet sustai strategy in nability 2001. ■ Recei ved 2010 A F VI Industry lence Awar Exceld on behal f of Ford fo vancing u r adse of altern ative fuels, cles, and ad vehivanced te chnologie s.

ECH ✪ ✪ KEITH LEAG ER

FLEET MAN AMENTO CITY OF SACR

nsumption by fleet gasoline co ■ Reduced nchmarks. be ry st . indu 7.8% in 2010 vs ram adopted ble Fleet Prog ■ Sustaina in 2007. ns by 1,717 d GHG emissio ■ Decrease metric tons. % green 2,075 units, 17 Fleet Stats:

12

✪ SHERR Y LEWIS ✪

✪ MARK LEUENBERGER ✪

AVP, SUPPLY CHAIN SVCS & FLEET MGMT. COX ENTERPRISES ■ Leads fleet program in company’s national sustainability program, Cox Conserves. ■ Company reduced idle time up to 84% in some markets. ■ Employees with fuel-efficient vehicles receive premium parking access at HQ. Fleet Stats: 13,200 units, 90% green

D

KOSS ✪ TG. & PRO FORD MO DUCT STRATEGY MGR. TOR CO., NAFLRO

FLEET MK

■ Serve

DIRE UCLA FLE CTOR ET & TRA

NSIT

d more than 21 years at overall sust UCLA, ainable tran sportation are to redu goals ce energy consumpti transition on and to renewab le power so ■ Recei ved three urces. SCAQMD awards for Clean Air innovative transporta tion. Fleet Sta ts: 1,037 u nits, 39% g reen

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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The Audi A3 TDI®

The Audi Q7 TDI®

As you well know, the decisions you make say everything about you and your company. Take Audi TDI clean diesel, for example. It says a lot of things (all positive, of course). Like how smart you are. Just look at the astonishing fuel-efficiency numbers for both the A3 TDI (42 mpg hwy) and Q7 TDI (25 mpg hwy)*. Not to mention the uncompromising power and torque both possess. And of course, maybe most important, it says how progressively minded you are. Both the A3 TDI and Q7 TDI deliver 20% fewer emissions than gasoline engines.** So as far as decisions go, this will make quite a statement. audiusa.com/tdi

Contact corporatesales@audi.com for more information.

*EPA estimates 42mpg hwy/ 30mpg city for the 2011 Audi A3 TDI clean diesel with automatic transmission, and 25mpg hwy/ 17mpg city for the 2011 Audi Q7 TDI clean diesel with automatic transmission. Your mileage will vary. **CO2 emissions claim based on comparison to gasoline engine. “Audi,” “Q7,” “A3,” “Truth in Engineering,” the Audi Singleframe grille design, and the four rings and Audi emblems are registered trademarks of AUDI AG. “TDI” is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG. ©2011 Audi of America, Inc.

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OBART ✪ ✪ RICK LON&GSTORES MANAGER

EET FACILITIES, FL NTA ANA, CALIF. CITY OF SA

management. in green fleet azine Visionary ent Fleet mag ■ Governm r. ne in ard w Leadership aw duction and re te as w r fo ed ■ Recogniz nia Goveror lif from Ca achievements nor’s Office. green 990 units, 2% Fleet Stats:

✪ DICK MALCOM ✪

FLEET ADMINISTRATOR STATE FARM MUTUAL AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE CO.

■ 30 years

■ Acquired first Toyota Prius in 2001, im-

plementing several in fleet in 2004-2005. ■ More than 75% of purchases are

SmartWay certified for past two model-years. Fleet Stats: 12,863 units, 46% green

cKINNEY ✪ ✪ JOSEPH MIDENT

✪ DAVE MEISEL ✪

DIR., TRANSP. & AVIATION SERVICES PACIFIC GAS & ELECTRIC (PG&E)

■ Co-autho

■ Of 35 years in fleet, spent more than 15 years dedicated to alt-fuel technologies. ■ Worked on numerous CNG/LNG and biodiesel projects as well as emissions reductions calculations. ■ Transportation electrification pioneer. Fleet Stats: 8,500 units, 30% green

✪ CHELL, CPFP ✪ ALLEN MIT T MANAGER FLEE H. COUNTY, WAS SNOHOMISH

fitting with gan diesel retro ■ County be OCs) in (D s st n cataly diesel oxidatio 2009. by its un 4 13 g in 2005, complet e in 2008 us l se ie od t-wide bi ■ Began flee plementim , 10 since 2008 and utilized E. es cl hi ve el 3 flex-fu ing E-85 for 19 green % 62 , its un 3 89 Fleet Stats:

14

L McGAR

RY ✪ S MGR., A ENERGY VE LTERNATIVE GENERAL M HICLES OTORS FCO

■ Played role in introd uction of Che let Express vroand GMC Sa vana CNG va ■ McGar ry’s biofuels ns. team won C man’s Honor hairs Award in 20 08 and is m keting 19 flex ar-fuel vehicles for 2011 model-year.

✪T

PRES S, INC. OREGON ROAD

cating regionred book advo eenhouse peak oil and gr al solutions to . gas emissions of RV inr the recycling fo es at oc dv A ■ l manuca lo a to cture in dustry infrastru er for EVs. facturing cent rience. industry expe s ar ye ■ Has 28

✪ MICHAE

FLEET SALE

✪ TODD MOUW ✪

VP, SALES & MARKETING ROUSH CLEANTECH

Key player in development and marketing of propane autogas vehicles since ROUSH CleanTech’s infancy. ■ Leads the charge helping Fortune 500 companies reduce carbon footprint. ■ Deployed nearly 1,500 vehicles to fleets nationwide in past two years. ■

NAT’L EV HOMAS MILLE COM R✪ MITSUBIS MERCIAL FLEET SA HI MOTOR S NORTH LES MGR. AMERICA ■

Responsib le for devel opment of tric vehicle eleccommerci al fleet sale ducing the s, introi car at mo re than 20 ■ Devel oped and events. designed new EV co processes mmercial for fleet dept. will be resp , which onsible for 50% of Mit i sales volu subishi me.

✪ GARY R

APPEPOR T ✪

CEO DONLEN

■ Launch ed GreenD river prog prove drive ram to imr productiv ity. ■ Collab orated wit h EDF to cr Fleets for eate Change. ■ Partner ed with EPA SmartWay Sierra Club and on program s to assist fl with vehic eets le alternativ es and cert ifications.

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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HEAD

✪ JIM RUBY ✪

EET SERVICES MANAGER, FL EGO UC SAN DI

SD procured s guidance, UC cars and hybrid-electric more than 50 emissions. ro ze to of fleet converted 40% to sion B-20 el fleet conver ■ Led dies s for d develope plan biodiesel and n. io at st s el alternative-fu green 800 units, 40% s: at Fleet St

✪ MATT SANDSTROM ✪

MOBILITY DIVISION MANAGER CLEAN ENERGY COALITION

■ Under hi

Leads Michigan Green Fleets and Detroit Area Clean Cities. ■ Working with Michigan fleets to deploy more than 500 cleaner vehicles and build more than 50 alternative-fueling stations to support the vehicles. ■

EPAS ✪ ✪ CHRIS TIN G OFFICER

ET CHIEF MARK MANAGEMENT T EMKAY FLEE

proternal driven eaded all in initiatives n ee gr nd ing arou grams revolv . 08 pport 20 e nc si ogram to su goGREEN pr tion, ca ifi rt ■ Created ce , ng rbon tracki ca ith w ts flee offsetting. and carbon nce 2008. ay partner si ■ SmartW

✪ JEROM

CEO & CO-FOUNDER ALTe

Brings 29 years of engineering, program, and operations experience from GM, Toyota, Ford, and Tier 1 suppliers. ■ Led Tesla Motor’s Michigan Tech Center for three years prior to ALTe. ■ ALTe’s powertrain system will be installed in fleet vehicles in 2012. ■

✪ EIR, CAFM NER & ✪ STEVETW COMMISSIO ER ASSISTAN EET MANG ACTING FL YORK EW N F O CITY

ht-duty vehi ng 30% of lig yi bu d te ar ■ St 91. el units in 19 cles as alt-fu esel units. di in 0 -2 B -5 and ■ Uses B CNG and ed tt ofi sed and retr ■ Purcha cles. flex-fuel vehi 24% green 2,000 units, Fleet Stats:

■ Embar ked on righ t-sizing mis ing last fou sion durr years dow nsizing hal hicle replace f of vement order s. ■ Saved more than 500,000 gal fuel in last lons of three years. Fleet Stats : 3,500 unit s, 20% green

E WEBBE VP, GLOBA L FLEET OPE R ✪ RATIONS AT&T

✪ JOHN THOMAS ✪

■ Spearh

✪ PHIL

SCHRE FLEET MA NAGER, N IBER ✪ ORTH AM OTIS SERV ICE CENTE ERICA R

■ Spearh eads comm itment to al fuels, divert ternative ed more than 4,500 tires fro landfills, and m launched an ti-idling initi ■ Collect ative. ed more than 355,000 gallo used oil. ns of

Fleet Stats:

71,500+ units

, 6% green

✪ GREG ZIL

BERFARB ✪

✪ STEPHE YBORRA ✪

PRESIDENT THE SALES NETWORK

DIRECTOR NGVAMERICA

■ Responsible for market outreach, includ-

ing webinars, trade shows, and articles. ■ Created educational programs, includ-

ing Compelling Workshop Series. ■ Works with industry and OEMs to as-

sess market opportunities and challenges, helping evaluate strategies to expand NGV market.

■ Consults with PERC to provide support for prop ane-powered technology. ■ Designe d propane m ower produc studies and cr t eated and im plemented the annual Pr opane Engine Fuel Summit. ■ Created several PERC webinars.

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Green Your Fleet Key to making informed decisions, data is available in abundance and can help guide fleet managers toward effective solutions. By Chelsea Mathis

D

ata is the most powerful tool fleet managers have to help develop and implement a green fleet strategy. Meaningful data can guide you toward the most effective solution, help establish goals, and demonstrate opportunities for both fuel savings and carbon reduction. In-depth knowledge about your fleet’s current vehicle selection and corresponding lifecycle costs, robust telematics information, and accurate fuel consumption data can help you establish and reach your sustainability goals and objectives. Let’s look at several areas of opportunity to help you establish an effective strategy for your fleet:

Managed Fuel Card Program To set goals, identify opportunities, and make changes to reduce vehicle emissions, a baseline for your fleet has to be set. Managed fuel card programs provide actual vehicle consumption information, and can be one of the most important tools to understand the operations of a sustainable fleet. Knowing how many gallons a single vehicle consumes over a period of time, and being able to attribute those gallons back to mileage accumulation, allows you to have visibility in regards to fuel economy. In addition, a managed fuel card program allows you to identify seasonality in business operations and trends in historical gallon consumption, giving you a perspective about a

AT A GLANCE Data can be used to green a vehicle fleet through: ● Using

it to review and compare alternative fuels, cycling parameters, and fuel economy ratings.

● Monitoring

vehicle idling, driver behavior, and vehicle routing.

16

full cycle of usage. Without comprehensive data, decisions may be made based only on assumptions about fuel usage.

Vehicle Selection Choosing the best-in-class environmental performer for your fleet application will be easier when using data from a variety of sources. Fuel Economy Ratings. It’s important that you fit your fleet business application to the most fuel-efficient vehicle available. For example, when business demands require using an SUV to move people or goods, utilize fuel economy ratings to choose the most efficient SUV available. The U.S. Department of Energy’s source for fuel economy information — www. fueleconomy.gov — provides estimated vehicle fuel-economy ratings as determined by the Environmental Protection Agency. These ratings can be used as a baseline to help you determine the vehicle that will fit your needs with the best fuel efficiency. More efficient vehicles will lead to reduced gallon consumption, carbon emissions, and fuel spend. However, some fuel-efficient vehicles may come with an increased acquisition cost. Utilizing the data from a managed fuel card program can help clarify actual fuel economy as compared to the fuel economy as estimated by the EPA. In some situations, the estimated fuel economy is not representative of vehicle applications and/or fleet operation location, which may alter fuel economy. Using this data will help you determine whether the increased premium for a fuel-efficient vehicle can be offset by the lowered fuel spend over the life of the vehicle. Cycling Parameters. When evaluating vehicles that meet both your fleet application and sustainability goals, it’s important

PHOTO: ©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/NICO_BLUE

Using Data to

to consider your current cycling parameters. Recent increases to the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard require that vehicle manufacturers provide more efficient vehicles with each model year. Therefore, consider cycling out older, less efficient vehicles with newer, more efficient models sooner than you would have in years past to see a substantial reduction in your emissions. For example, a passenger vehicle fleet that cycles vehicles within 36 months can expect a 15- to 20- percent reduction in carbon emissions over a fiveyear period by replacing less efficient vehicles with newer models. Alternative Fuels. As alternative fuels and vehicles that can utilize them are more readily available, it may be time to consider the use of different fuel types when determining which vehicles can be used within your fleet. In some applications and locations, alternative fuel may be a better environmental performer over conventional gasoline or diesel. Alternative-fuel options are available for most major vehicle manufacturers by model. To know whether alt-fuel vehicles are appropriate for your application, evaluate the fuel economy, cost, and carbon emission variance between the use of an alternative fuel over conventional gasoline or diesel, using actual data to compare lifecycle. Resources such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s www. fueleconomy.gov and the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center provide information about the use of alternative fuels in vehicles, including emission data and tax incentive opportunities.

Telematics and Productivity Once you’ve optimized your vehicle selection and determined the proper cycling time, it’s important to understand and eval-

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THE ZERO COMPROMISE

ALTERNATIVE FUEL SOLUTION PROPANE AUTOGAS VS. GASOLINE

FUEL COSTS: 40% LESS VEHICLE WARRANTY: 5 YEAR / 60,000 MILE1 CO2 EMISSIONS: 24% LESS PERFORMANCE: IDENTICAL

2009 – Newer Ford E-150 / E-250/ E-350 (5.4L V8)

CLEAN UP YOUR FLEET, ONE GALLON AT A TIME Reducing your fleet’s greenhouse gas emissions by 24% is not only within reach, it’s only half the story. With propane autogas, you can also reduce your fuel costs by up to 40% with this American-made fuel. ROUSH CleanTech propane autogas fuel systems are available for Ford light- and medium-duty trucks and vans with GVWR ratings up to 19,500 lbs. Let us show you how easy it can be to switch to propane autogas.

OTHER APPLICATIONS Retrofits Available

2007 - 2008 Ford F-150 (5.4L V8) 1

Coming Soon

Now Available

2009 - 2010 Ford F-250 / F-350 (5.4L V8)

2012 - Newer Ford E-350 DRW Cutaway (5.4L V8)

2012 - Newer Ford E-450 DRW Cutaway (6.8L V10)

2012 - Newer Ford F-250 / F-350 (6.2L V8)

2012 - Newer Ford F-450 / F-550 Chassis Cab (6.8L V10)

See ROUSHcleantech.com for complete warranty details

800.59.ROUSH GRN0911metrics.indd 17

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HE D HEAD HEA

Average CAFE Fuel Economy Fuel Econ. (mpg)

40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990

1979

15.00

Average CAFE Fuel Economy As government-mandated manufacturer-required fuel economy ratings increase, per vehicle annual fuel spend decreases. Vehicles that operate more efficiently result in lowered gallon consumption. The figure assumes 25,000 annual miles on average.

uate how the vehicle is operated during daily usage. Using telematics data is one of the best ways to measure and benchmark your driver’s efficiency and productivity, and subsequently your fleet’s overall performance. Optimized Routing. Knowing where your vehicles are may be one of the most powerful tools you have to understand your fleet’s productivity. A telematics solution that provides options for optimized routing will provide data around mileage accumulation and driver behavior. In most instances, telematics solutions can lead to dramatic decreases in mileage accumulation through the optimization of a driver’s daily route. For example, the data provided for a service/delivery fleet

$5,500

can demonstrate when a driver frequently returns to home base instead of preparing for all necessary stops prior to the day’s departure. These frequent trips not only increase your fuel cost, but also add to the emissions produced by that vehicle. Multiply that by the number of vehicles you have on the road and the evidence of less-than-optimal daily productivity adds up quickly. Idling. A good telematics solution will also provide insight into how the vehicle is being operated, including how many minutes per hour the vehicle spends idling — one of the leading causes of emissions from the fleet sector. Knowing how long a vehicle idles gives you the information needed to establish strategies for idle reduction. This can be a signifi-

Decreasing Fuel Spend as Fuel Economy Improves

Fuel Spend ($)

$5,000 $4,500 $4,000 $3,500 $3,000 $2,500

18.00 18.50 19.00 19.50 20.00 20.50 30.00 30.50 31.00 31.50 32.00 32.50 33.00 33.50 34.00 34.50 35.00

$2,000

Fuel Economy (MPG)

Fuel Spend

As fuel economy improves, average annual fuel spend decreases. The most dramatic decrease is between 20.5 mpg and 30 mpg, dropping by $1,500 annually.

18

cant source of emissions reduction and decreased fuel spend for your fleet. Driver Behavior. According to the EPA, a driver’s behavior can impact fuel economy by as much as 33 percent. Data provided from a telematics solution gives visibility into various driving behaviors that adversely affect fuel economy, such as rapid acceleration and deceleration, aggressive driving, and speeding. These metrics allow you to look at trends both from an individual driver and fleet-wide perspective that will help you identify opportunities to improve your fleet’s performance. By optimizing routes and addressing key behaviors, you allow drivers to be more efficient in their daily routine, increasing fleet’s business productivity.

Setting Goals No amount of data will help you achieve your objective unless you have clear and achievable goals. Fleet goals vary: Do you want to lower your total fuel cost? Increase mpg across the fleet? Have a target carbon emission reduction in mind based on fleet makeup? Fortunately, no matter what goal you focus on, the benefits are cumulative: lower fuel cost and increase vehicle mpg, and you will lower vehicle emissions. Conversely, a program focused on emissions reduction can usually see an increase in mpg and lower fuel cost due to having a clear understanding of the variables that can make the most impact such as vehicle optimization and cycling, fleet productivity, route efficiency, and driver behavior. There are several existing programs to help you set your goals. For instance, “Fleets for Change” participating companies have committed to reducing their carbon emissions by 20 percent over a five-year period, and are given benchmarking tools to help them achieve their goals. Using data to establish a baseline, understand trends, and set goals will result in a true carbon emission reduction. About the Author Chelsea Mathis is manager of environmental initiatives for Donlen Corp. She can be reached at cmathis@ donlen.com.

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Why choose autogas?

Call us today to learn how easy it is to incorporate propane-autogas powered vehicles into your fleet.

Propane autogas is the best alternative fuel for fleets Propane autogas powers more than 15 million vehicles worldwide. The reason why is clear: UÊÕÌ}>ÃÊÃÊViÀÌwÊi`ÊVi>ÊLÕÀ}ÊLÞÊÌiÊ * UÊ x¯ÊvÊ>ÕÌ}>ÃÊÃÊ` iÃÌV>ÞÊ«À`ÕVi` UÊ-}wÊV>ÌÞÊÜiÀÊ«iÀ>Ì}Ê>`ÊvÀ>ÃÌÀÕVÌÕÀiÃÊVÃÌà UÊÕ`Ài`ÃÊvÊ`i`V>Ìi`Ê>`ÊVÛiÀà Ài>`ÞÊÛiViÃÊ>Û>>LiÊ UÊ ëiÃiÀÃÊ>ÀiÊiÝ«iÃÛiÊÌÊÃÌ>]Êà «iÊÌÊ«iÀ>Ìi UÊ*À}ÃÊÃiÀÛViÊviÊvÊÌiÊ>ÛiÀ>}iÊÛiViÊLÞÊÓÊÌÊÎÊÞi>Àà *À«>iÊ«ÀÛ`iÃÊyÊiiÌÃÊÜÌÊ>ÊVÃÌ ivviVÌÛi]ÊVi> LÕÀ}]ÊÃ>vi]Ê>`Ê Ài>LiÊ>ÌiÀ>ÌÛiÊvÕi°Êi>ÀÊ ÀiÊ>ÌÊ

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SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011 ■ GREEN FLEET GRN0511filler.indd 1

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Sprint/Nextel

GREENS its Fleet the ‘SmartWay’

T

here’s a common perception that in order to “go green,” a fleet must spend a lot of money on plug-in hybrids or other alternative-fuel vehicles to justify making a “green fleet” claim to the public. When considering a price premium of several thousand dollars per unit compared to conventional-powered vehicles, imagine how difficult it is to make a compelling business case to switch. However, what if you could transition a fleet to more environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient vehicles without paying the premium for hybrid and other alternativefuel technology? What if your company could legitimately promote to customers it operates a “green fleet” — and be able to do so while actually lowering vehicle acquisition and operational costs? That’s precisely what Sprint/Nextel Corp. discovered it could accomplish with the U.S.

AT A GLANCE Sprint/Nextel Corp.’s switch to SmartWay-certified vehicles led to: ● Savings

of approximately $2,000 per vehicle by transitioning from six- to four-cylinder engines.

● Ability

to still participate in fleet discounts.

● Being

named sixth in Newsweek’s 2010 Green Rankings.

20

pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The higher the score in each category, the more environmentally friendly the vehicle is considered. To earn a SmartWay designation, a vehicle must receive a combined score of at least 12, with a minimum air pollution score of five. The EPA considers these vehicles, which include a range of conventional-powered cars and SUVs, mostly equipped with four-cylinder engines, as “very good environmental performers” relative to other vehicles. SmartWay Elite certification is given to vehicles that receive a combined score of at least 17, with a minimum air pollution score of eight. This designation is primarily awarded to hybrids and other alternativefuel vehicles.

The communications and wireless provider has found a way to transition its fleet to greener vehicles without added costs. By Sean Lyden

Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) SmartWay-certified vehicle program.

What is SmartWay Certification? The federal government launched SmartWay in 2004 to promote the use of more fuel-efficient and cleaner-burning vehicles. Each model year, the EPA evaluates how vehicles stack up to stringent SmartWay criteria, with separate scores (between one and 10) issued for air

Sprint’s SmartWay Initiative Pays Off

Since early 2010, when Sprint began its SmartWay initiative, the company has transitioned more than 55 percent of its 1,500-vehicle fleet, comprised primarily of cars and small SUVs, to SmartWay-certified vehicles. The effort seems to be paying off, as Sprint recently placed sixth out of 500 publicly traded companies in WATSON Newsweek’s 2010 Green Rankings,

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based on a series of metrics that rate a company’s overall environmental impact, including greenhouse gas emissions of which fleets are a significant contributor.

SmartWay Economics What has been the incremental cost to Sprint for switching to SmartWay vehicles? “Actually, on acquisition cost, I think we’re saving about $2,000 per vehicle by transitioning from six-cylinder vehicles for our sales reps to SmartWay-certified four-cylinder cars, without much sacrifice in power,” said Bret Watson, national fleet manager for Sprint. “The SmartWay vehicles offer near zero emissions, yet we can still purchase these vehicles at a standard fleet price — at the same discount level as we buy any other vehicle.” According to Watson, the issue of fleet discounts, or lack thereof, with hybrids is what has made purchasing conventionally powered SmartWay vehicles a more attractive economic proposition. “On hybrid vehicles currently, fleets are required to pay full retail price. There are no discounts on those whatsoever,” Watson said. “What we’ve found out, particularly in the Midwest, is that with hybrid vehicles, anytime you run the A/C compressor, the gas engine turns on. So, if you’re running the hybrid on a 60- or 70-degree day or don’t need the defroster or the A/C, you can save a little bit of gas on the hybrid. However, in the Midwest, that seldom ever happens. We go from A/C to heat sometimes in the same day. When we do a fuel analysis, we’re getting worse gas mileage out of [the hybrids] than we are out of our standard SmartWay four-cylinder vehicles.” What’s the cost difference between the hybrid and comparable non-hybrid SmartWay certified vehicle? “We figured out gas would have to go over $10 per gallon before we think we could start getting a payback on hybrid vehicles [versus the SmartWay vehicles]. As we back into the lifecycle analysis, we put the price of the hybrid in, we put the price of what we’re paying for our normal four-cylinder, and over a three-year period found gas would have to go over $10

per gallon, before that hybrid started paying back,” explained Watson.

is making [driver acceptance] less of an issue to switch to the smaller, more fuelefficient engines.

Impact on Driver Acceptance With the transition from six-cylinder to the smaller four-cylinder engines that meet SmartWay certification, has Sprint encountered many complaints from employees? “The direct answer is no,” said Watson. “Of the 1,300 or so vehicles I’ve purchased in 2010 through 2011, I think I’ve received maybe three complaints. Basically, they weren’t even really complaints. They were more along the lines of, ‘We could use some more power,’ and came from people in Denver and the mountain regions. Once I explained to them Sprint is committed to being green and explained to the drivers, ‘I would love to get you the six-cylinder car but we have a goal of being green so we’re going to drive these,’ we really haven’t had an issue in terms of driver aacceptance. If you look at six-cylinders just four to five si yyears ago, today’s four cylinder eengines are putting out the ssame amount of power. The technology is awesome and te

WHAT DO SMARTWAY SCORES MEAN?

A

ir Pollution Score: This reflects vehicle tailpipe emissions that contribute to local and regional air pollution, creating problems such as smog, haze, and health issues. Vehicles that score a “10” are the cleanest, meaning they emit none of these types of pollutants.

G

reenhouse Gas Score: This reflects emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases. Scientists say that increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will change the planet’s climate. The greenhouse gas score is based on the vehicle’s fuel economy. Vehicles with higher fuel economy burn less fuel to travel the same distance. As less fuel is burned, less CO2 is emitted. Vehicles with higher fuel economy receive a higher greenhouse gas score. SOURCE: EPA.GOV

SmartWay Certification Standards Do Change A new vehicle designated SmartWaycertified for 2010 may not be certified for 2011 or 2012 model-years — and this can lead to an unpleasant surprise if you don’t confirm the vehicle’s SmartWay certification status before ordering or purchasing the vehicle. Sprint found this out the hard way. “I can tell you that in 2010, a Ford Escape was SmartWay certified. However, unbeknownst to us, when 2011 came along, we continued buying Ford Escapes, until we found out the 2011 Ford Escapes [non-hybrid] were no longer SmartWay certified. We did not find that out until after we had already ordered the vehicles. That caught us off guard,” Watson explained. How did this happen? For example, to earn a “six” for the greenhouse gas score in 2010 (which is what the Ford Escape achieved that model-year) the carbon dioxide emissions needed to fit within a range of 376-421 grams of CO2 per mile. In 2011, the EPA raised the CO2 standard (or, put another way, lowered the allowable greenhouse gas level) to 326-371 grams of CO2 per mile to score “six.” As a result, even though mechanically there was very little (if any) difference between the 2010 and 2011 Ford Escapes, the same level that earned the vehicle a “six” now reflected a “five,” which combined with a “five” score on air pollution, dropped the Escape below the “12” total score required to earn SmartWay certification. “We had several hundred 2011 Escapes on order that, if those had been SmartWay certified, our fleet would have been 80-percent SmartWay at this point,” Watson lamented. The lesson learned: “We now tell the OEMs that — before we order any vehicle — we need to know that their vehicle, for that model-year is SmartWay certified,” said Watson To learn more about the SmartWay program and the latest list of vehicles that qualify, log onto: http://epa.gov/smartway/ vehicles/smartway-certified.htm

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What is the Future of

Medium-Duty Trucks? As heavy users of fuel with frequent recurring routes, medium-duty trucks are prime candidates for all-electric models.

W

hat if one day medium-duty trucks could reduce fleet fuel costs by as much as 75-80 percent? What if these trucks didn’t require oil drains, transmission oil changes, or coolant flushes, significantly cutting preventive maintenance expenses? What if these trucks produced absolutely zero emissions, giving customers a sense that doing business with your company is good for the environment? Is this a vision of what medium-duty trucks will offer five, 10, or 15 years from now? Actually, for some “early-adopter” delivery fleets, such as Frito-Lay, Staples, FedEx, AT&T, and the U.S. Marine Corps, this vision is a reality today. Although less than 1 percent of the medium-duty trucks U.S. companies will buy in 2011 will be all-electric, according to Americas Commercial Transportation Research Co., LLC, some industry experts are predicting that the medium-duty mar-

AT A GLANCE Some of the growth drivers increasing the prevalence of all-electric mediumduty trucks include: ● Federal and state tax incentives. ● Regulatory standards. ● Federal purchase requirements based on Executive Order 13514. ● American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. 22

ket will be one of the fastest growing segments of the emerging plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market. What makes medium-duty trucks conducive to all-electric drive technology? What’s accelerating expansion of PEVs in the medium-duty market? What’s constraining growth? What does the future hold? This article explores these questions indepth to give you a sense of the state of the market for all-electric medium-duty trucks today — and what it might look like tomorrow.

Why Medium-Duty Trucks? What’s unique about Class 4-7 medium trucks, ranging from 12,000 to 26,000 lbs., that make them viable for all-electric drive technology? ● Fleet focus on total cost of ownership. “Medium-duty trucks are heavy users of fuel, which means the economics of switching to all-electric can be very favorable for a company,” said Dave Hurst, senior analyst, Pike Research. “The upfront cost premium of electric trucks can be recovered increasingly quickly as the price of diesel climbs because the cost of electricity is much lower. Since fleet managers tend to look at total cost of ownership rather than just the up-front cost, this is a positive advantage for electric, assuming it fits their route.” Genevieve Cullen, vice president, Electric

Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) agreed. “The battery-electric and plug-in hybrid medium-duty market is growing based on the advances in the technology that improves performance; the regulatory drivers that require increasingly clean and fuel-efficient vehicles; and the continuing volatility in the petroleum markets, which makes electricity an economically-attractive option for business and fleet owners,” Cullen said. ● Recurring routes with return-to-base operations. “Many medium-duty trucks are used in return-to-base type routes. These vehicles leave a central point, run a predefined route, and return to base. As long as this route fits within the range of the vehicle then electric could work very well,” said Hurst of Pike Research. ● Vehicle size conducive for carrying batteries and other PEV components. “Attributes of medium-duty trucks tend to lend themselves to electrification,” Hurst explained. “The vehicles have more space within or alongside the truck frame for the batteries. The batteries tend to take up a lot of space, which is one of the challenges in a light-duty vehicle and there just aren’t the same kind of space constraints in medium duty trucks.” ● Ideal for off-highway, stop-and-go, lower speed applications. “Trucks used within urban environments often do not need high

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PHOTO: ©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/GILLESLOUGASSI

speed, so a top speed of 45-50 mph is often plenty,” Hurst said. “Since higher speeds tend to use a lot of energy, these lower speeds help extend the range of the vehicle.” According to Cullen, “Medium-duty vehicles tend to be used in more urban delivery/duty cycles, which optimizes the value of regenerative braking.” Regenerative braking is a system that leverages the motor to slow the truck when a driver takes his or her foot off the accelerator, reducing wear on the brakes, while also restoring charge to the battery.

What Are the Growth Drivers? What’s accelerating the expansion of electric-drive technology in the medium duty market? ● American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Also known as the “Stimulus Bill,” the Recovery Act has catalyzed the PEV market with sizable federal loans and grants available to U.S. vehicle manufacturers, battery makers, and others throughout the electric-drive supply chain, for the purpose of creating new U.S. cleanenergy manufacturing jobs. Here’s a big-picture breakdown of the

$2.4 billion in federal grants, from the stimulus bill via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), awarded to companies in the plugin electric vehicle market. ■ $1.5 billion in grants to U.S.-based manufacturers to produce batteries and battery components and to expand recycling capacity. ■ $500 million in grants to U.S.-based manufacturers to produce electric drive components for vehicles, including electric motors, power electronics, and other drivetrain components. ■ $400 million in grants to purchase thousands of plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles for test demonstrations in several dozen locations, deploy them and evaluate their performance, install electric charging infrastructure, and provide education and workforce training to support the transition to advanced electric transportation systems. Among medium-duty electric truck manufacturers receiving stimulus funding are Navistar ($39.2 million) and Smith Electric ($32 million). According to Smith Electric, the DOE grant will be used to help offset its future vehicle development costs and to incen-

tivize Smith’s customers to participate in a commercial electric vehicle demonstration program. The demonstration program will gather data on vehicles placed in service in different regions of the country and in a broad range of applications. Participating customers will receive a subsidy from the program for allowing their vehicles to be part of the demonstration fleet. The federal stimulus money has also been appropriated by state and local governments to subsidize recharging stations in various cities across the country, including Chicago and Baltimore. ● Federal and State Tax Incentives. The Recovery Act established tax credits for purchasing electric vehicles ($2,500- $7,500 per vehicle, depending on battery capacity) and conversion kits to retrofit conventionally powered vehicles with electric vehicle capability ($4,000 per vehicle, maximum). For details on the federal tax incentive, visit: www.afdc. energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/US/409. Some states are also offering as much as $5,000 (in addition to federal incentives) in tax credits for electric vehicles. For more information on these state tax incentives, visit: www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/state.) ➞

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ELECTRIC VEHICLES

● Regulatory Standards. In fall 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Transportation (DOT) announced the first-ever national standards for emissions and fuel economy for large commercial vehicles, including mediumduties, set to take effect in 2014. Proponents of electric-drive technology believe that these new regulations will drive up the cost to build conventional medium-duty diesel and gasoline engines to comply with the emissions and fuel economy requirements — which will narrow the cost gap between electric drive and conventional drive vehicles. Furthermore, California has mandated that each large vehicle manufacturer offer a certain number of zero-emissions vehicles (ZEV), including electric drive, by 2016. The production volume required by this mandate should contribute to greater economies of scale, lowering electric drive technology costs and driving growth for the PEV market as a whole. ● Federal Purchase Requirements. In October 2009, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13514, which requires federal agencies to reduce annual petroleum consumption by 2-percent per year from a 2005 baseline through 2020, resulting in a 30-percent total reduction. To fulfill a requirement of the order, the U.S. DOE issued a Federal Fleet Management Guidance document in April 2010, which recommends PEVs as one strategy to achieve fuel economy and emissions mandates.

What are Limitations to PEV Growth? Despite these growth drivers, however, there are several obstacles that stand in the way of widespread adoption of PEVs in the medium-duty market. These include:

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● High Initial Cost. The cost of a mediumduty all-electric chassis, compared to a dieselpowered equivalent, can be as much as two to three times higher, before applying any of the available federal and state incentives. The biggest contributor to the price disparity is battery cost. Until battery cost decreases, acquisition prices for medium duty PEVs will continue to be a significant barrier to entry for most fleets. ● Limited Applications. Since the existing range for all-electric medium-duty trucks is approximately 100 miles, there is a narrow niche in which the trucks can feasibly operate — most prominently the urban-delivery market. Expanding the range opens new markets for medium-duty PEV growth. ● Limited Charging Infrastructure. All-electric medium-duty trucks currently work best for fleets that have return-tobase operations, where the trucks can charge overnight and then deploy on their routes the next day, without the need to recharge while away from “home.” Holding back PEV growth in the mediumduty market is the inability to charge away from home base, which would reduce “range anxiety” for drivers and extend routes beyond existing battery range limits. To overcome this challenge, federal stimulus money is being used to subsidize developing residential and commercial “quick charge” EV charging stations in select urban markets. There are also a growing number of clean energy start-ups developing technologies to address the issue. Momentum Dynamics Corporation, for example, a Malvern, Pa.-based start-up, has designed a wireless public recharging system to eliminate the constraints inherent to hard-wire cords and plugs. “Unlike plug-in systems, wireless charging offers the medium-class commercial operator the ability to readily and regularly recharge a vehicle during the normal course of operations,” said Andrew Daga, Momentum Dynamics founder and CEO. “Because [the wireless system] is automatic, the vehicle is recog-

nized when it’s parked above a charging station and the charging sequence is initiated. This frees the driver from any need to intervene, requires no work rule changes, and most importantly, allows short duration opportunity charging to occur. That’s the key to extending vehicle range.” ● Limited Service Infrastructure. Once a fleet has purchased an all-electric truck, where does it need to be taken for service and repairs? Trusted medium-duty truck service centers won’t be able to work on these vehicles. The medium-duty PEV market lacks a network of local service centers to support growth. Bryan Hansel, CEO of Smith Electric Vehicles, a manufacturer of all-electric medium-duty trucks, wrote in an Op-Ed last year on FoxNews.com entitled, “The Future is Now for Commercial Electric Trucks,” that Smith is exploring a decentralized, “build, sell, and service in one place” model that will allow the company to manage the total customer experience over the full lifetime of the vehicle. “Deploying electric vehicles in a commercial fleet is a big leap for customers used to managing traditional gas or diesel powered trucks,” wrote Hansel. “Our co-located production, sales, and service facilities will allow customers to experience the truck beforehand, watch it being built, and trust the people who assembled it for service. Smith is looking to locate these new facilities in markets where we see the greatest economic potential based on customer demand and community support for electric vehicle and manufacturing initiatives.”

PEV Predictions: What Does the Future Hold? Green Fleet magazine asked industry experts to peer into their “crystal balls” and share what they see five, 10, or even 15 years down the road. Here are their predictions. ● Dave Hurst, senior analyst, Pike Research: “By 2017, we are expecting the market to support about 5,600 trucks per year. So, by 2017, that would mean about 20,000 allelectric medium-duty trucks on the roads. Growth in the market through 2017 is expected to be strong with a 36-percent growth rate between now and 2017. That fast growth will slow once you start to look at 10 to 15

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years out as the market starts to get into vehicles that are not being used in routes that are well suited to electric such as longer distances or no defined routes.” ● Mark Aubry, VP sales and marketing, electric vehicles, Navistar: “Unlike the consumer automobile market, the electric vehicle market for business is very new so it’s still early. However, interest is high — especially in categories such as local delivery, where vehicles are in use and we are beginning to see total cost of ownership analysis that are favorable for EVs. That said, EVs will not be for everyone or every business.” ● Genevieve Cullen, vice president, Electric Drive Transportation Association: “We are bullish on this market. It is an emerging one, but we expect meaningful growth in the next decade based on the factors described above. Technology advances, regulatory demands, and increasing oil costs all reinforce the movement toward electrification in this segment. In fact, Pike Research projects that sales of medium- and heavy-duty hybrid,

plug-in hybrid, and battery-electric trucks will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 63 percent, with sales of almost 300,000 vehicles from 2010 to 2015.” ● Andrew Daga, founder and CEO of Momentum Dynamics, maker of wireless recharging systems: “We expect the commercial fleet market to develop ahead of the passenger EV market because the economic argument for cutting the cost of fuel for trucks that may get between 6 and 8 mpg by 80 percent is absolutely compelling. However, people need to have confidence in the vehicle, the power storage systems, and the charging technology. When this happens, we will see far broader use and a remarkable shift to electric. The passenger automotive market is larger than the commercial market, of course, but the faster this acceptance comes about [in the commercial market], the sooner we will have complete commitment from the auto OEMs, and this will then lead to economies of scale in vehicle manufacturing costs and profitability.”

The Bottom Line What is the future of all-electric mediumduty trucks? There are trends favorable to wider adoption of PEVs in the mediumduty market. However, critical questions still remain unanswered. Will medium-duty PEVs successfully expand beyond an urbandelivery niche? Will economies of scale kick in to drive down battery costs to make PEVs more financially viable? Will other alternative-fuel technologies win out against all-electric vehicles? When government incentives are phased out, will medium-duty PEVs sell without subsidy? Time will tell.

For a list of current all-electric medium-duty m trucks currently on the road today, check out the expanded pan version of this article online at www.greenfleetmagazine.com.

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Krystal Infinity’s EVolution all-electric mini-bus promises big rewards for fleets looking to go green and maximize their return on investment (ROI).

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nergy-conscious fleets wanting to add a zero-emission, all-electric mid-sized shuttle to their rosters have to look no further than Krystal Infinity’s EVolution. The U.S. market’s first Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)-accessible 36-passenger, 38-ft.-long plug-in electric mini bus was unveiled at FedFleet in July. Based on the Krystal KK38 bus model, the EVolution has a range of 150 miles and, at an average load, a maximum speed of 65 mph. The EVolution is built on a commercial International chassis. Before the Krystal steel roll cage body is mounted, the engine and accessory drive systems are removed and replaced with a 230-volt AC continuous primary drive and a 40Kw liquid cooled flux vector motor controller accessory drive. Using a fast charge system, the batteries can fully recover in less than one hour. The shuttle bus also has sealed electrically isolated battery modules that do not produce any gases, and a drivetrain that is free of any emissions. The shuttle was developed through a

AT A GLANCE Krystal Infinity’s EVolution mini-bus offers several potential economic advantages to fleets that want to add an electric shuttle to its rolls: ● Yearly operational savings of $20,000. ● 50-percent fuel/energy net cost savings over diesel-hybrid. ● A sticker price that promises to fall because of ever-improving battery technology for a net savings of $154,000 over the next five years. 26

strategic partnership with Winston Batteries, an affiliated manufacturer of rare earth lithium-yttrium and sulfur rechargeable batteries. The company offers a coast-to-coast technical support network for its electric and hybrid diesel electric buses through a distributor organization.

Ready for a Waiting Market Krystal Infinity has a planned production release of ten EVolution buses in anticipation of a contract from unnamed federal agencies. It is expected that the federal government clients will be able to order more shuttles beyond the first 10. “We anticipate a lot of activity,” said David Webb, president of Capitol Coachworks Inc., the exclusive distributor of the KK38 EVolution. Capitol Coachworks has sold hundreds of Krystal’s vehicles, including at least 40 diesel-hybrid electric shuttles to numerous federal agencies through contracts with the General Services Administration (GSA). Among the agencies that have purchased Krystal vehicles are the U.S. Army, Navy, and Marines; the Veterans Administration; the Department of Energy; and the National Park Service. EVolution’s launch culminates a rapid timeline that started with Krystal devising the EVolution vehicle concept and design in November 2011; promoting an initial smaller prototype electric bus version at the 2011 International LCT Show in February; and then re-adapting to the larger KK38. Krystal will likely introduce a smaller version electric shuttle in the future, Webb said.

Many of Krystal’s biggest customers may be the federal government, but that doesn’t mean the shuttle doesn’t have viable, practical commercial uses. Any commercial activity that has a set, predictable route would be an ideal use for the EVolution. “It’s not a line-haul bus and not a tour coach vehicle, but if [fleets] are interested in virtually no maintenance and fuel costs, and they have a long time horizon, and they have an environmental perspective, it’s a great opportunity,” Webb said.

Making the Most of the ROI What could be a sticking point for some green-minded fleet managers is the 38-ft.long shuttle bus’ hefty price tag. The EVolution has a base price of $459,000 and an out-the-door cost of $500,000 (compared to $200,000 out the door for a comparable diesel mid-size Krystal and $300,000 out the door for a diesel-hybrid). However, the EVolution’s return on investment (ROI) may lessen any initial hesitation about purchasing the shuttle, making going green more than worth it. Webb outlined the possible savings derived by paying more upfront. Using conservative calculations, he said, an EVolution that runs 25,000 miles per year will save about $15,000 in diesel fuel/energy costs once the cost of electricity to charge the batteries is factored in. The EVolution will save another $5,000 in maintenance costs annually since electric buses don’t need belts, hoses, filters, oil, tuneups, and myriad of mechanical parts. The total net operational savings per year will be $20,000. When operational costs of an EVolution

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are compared to the cost of a diesel bus, it would take about 15 years of operational savings to make up the cost difference, assuming it was running 25,000 miles per year, Webb said. Of course, the ROI time period would decline the more miles the bus runs in a year. Overall, a diesel-hybrid bus brings a fuel/energy net cost savings of 33 percent compared to a diesel-only bus, Webb explained. A diesel bus typically achieves 6 mpg, while a diesel-hybrid gets about 9 mpg on average. However, an all-electric bus brings an additional 50 percent in fuel/ energy net cost savings beyond a diesel-hybrid, Webb estimated. Those savings also can rise in the future if the price of diesel fuel increases due to energy market shocks and/or strong demand. “The gain on investment will go up as you get more miles out of the new generation batteries,” Webb said.

He added that among the most significant advances in EVolution’s electric technology, and, again, helping to further control costs, are the batteries. The lithium cell batteries can be configured and managed individually. This means that each cell can be charged, used, and replaced at different rates and at different intervals depending on energy demand and performance without having to remove the engine.

Falling Price One other factor that should also help the ROI is the fact that the price of the EVolution is expected to decline, according to Webb. Typically, the price of a bus increases on average about 5 percent per year in a normal vehicle. However, this is not the case with the EVolution. When the expected upgrades in battery technology are factored in along with better-scaled bus production costs, Webb projected that a Krystal EVolution

ELECTRIC BUS OUTLOOK

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he market for electric buses continues to o grow yearly and has a good outlook for the e next decade: ● The global market for electric buses is ex-pected to rise 8.7 times in the next 10 years to $60 billion annually. ● There are 480,000 non-motorcoach buses worldwide with 135,000 being bought for fleets each year. Currently, only about 12 percent of these buses are electric. ● There are 53 all-electric bus manufacturers throughout the world; Krystal Infinity is the only one in the U.S.

will cost about $431,000 in 2016 or about 6-percent below the MY-2011 sticker price of $459,000. To put the savings in perspective, if the EVolution increased at the typical 5-percentper-year rate, it would cost about $586,000 by 2016. In reality, thanks to technology and production advancements, there will be a net savings to the electric bus buyer of $154,000 over the next five years. “The initial cost [will] decrease as the battery technology gets going and gets cheaper,” Webb explained. “Volume brings economies of scale [into play]. It reduces the payback period and increases the rate of return over time.”

Looking Ahead As the nation’s electric charging infrastructure continues to grow in the future, the EVolution should become a more attractive option for a broader range of fleets looking to take advantage of green technology to serve their clients and cut costs. o Lack of vehicle range, one of the big inhibitors to the electric market’s growth, h sshould become less of an issue over time. Battery technology is expected to evolve B over the next few years to a point where o vvehicle batteries can deliver twice the currrent range, according to Webb. Of course, those who want to wait and ssee before committing to electric, but still desire to add a green shuttle to the fleet’s d rroster have other options from Krystal, inccluding its KK38, KK35, and KK31, which aare available either as hybrid-diesel electtrics or as biodiesels.

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Keeping

Yellowstone ‘Green’ Yellowstone-Teton Clean Energy Coalition is teaming up with the National Park Service to reduce emissions in some of America’s most treasured places. By Julie Sutor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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hil Cameron of Jackson Hole, Wy., has a mission and it’s gaining serious traction. He is working to reduce petroleum use and vehicle emissions. It doesn’t hurt that he’s broadcasting his message in the most stunning of settings, where jagged peaks and shaggy bison help foster a spirit of conservation. Cameron, the executive director of the Yellowstone-Teton Clean Energy Coalition (YTCEC), champions the use of alternative fuels, hybrid vehicles, and idle reduction in the Greater Yellowstone Area, including Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks. “We cover parts of three states, including two national wildlife refuges, numerous gateway communities, two national parks, and six national forests — I love the diversity,” Cameron said. “We work across a landscape rather than within a city limit, and it allows us to connect the efforts of a lot of different agencies and jurisdictions, so they can all work together and learn from one another.” Working with both national parks, YTCEC recently secured more than $500,000 in funding to support a variety of clean transportation projects that will help protect air quality and reduce fuel use. The two parks have used a portion of the funds to 28

Phil Cameron, executive director of the Yellowstone-Teton Clean Energy Coalition (YTCEC), is on a mission to reduce petroleum use and vehicle emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area, including Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks. He champions the use of alternative fuels, hybrid vehicles, and idle reduction.

purchase seven Ford Escape Hybrids. Five of them are used in Grand Teton’s highly visible Wildlife Brigade, which teaches park visitors how to avoid wildlife conflicts and manages the park’s “wildlife jams.” The hybrids will see thousands of hours of operation in this first season of use and reduce fuel consumption by an estimated 30 percent. As part of the project, Yellowstone will purchase a 36-passenger hybrid-electric transit bus, an all-electric utility vehicle, and a charging station powered by existing solar panels. Also, project stakeholders are designing an idle-reduction program that will cut fuel use in ranger vehicles and educate visitors about the downsides of idling throughout the Greater Yellowstone Area.

“We’ll be able to leverage thousands of federal employees to reach out to millions of visitors annually. It’s a great opportunity to showcase these viable alternatives and to support both parks’ commitments to sustainable transportation,” Cameron said.

Get Involved With Clean Cities For more information about YTCEC, e-mail Phil Cameron at phil@ytcleanenergy.org or visit www. ytcleanenergy.org. Through the work of nearly 100 local coalitions, Clean Cities advances the nation’s economic, environmental, and energy security by reducing petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy. Find out more at www.cleancities.energy.gov.

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VEHICLESHO GREEN

Six vehicles covering the gamut of fuel options can help fleets improve fuel efficiency, lower operating costs, and reduce dependence on foreign oil.

EXTENDEDRANGE ELECTRIC E

CHEVROLET VOLT

The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle, which offers a total driving range of up to 379 miles, based on EPA estimates. For the first 25-50 miles, the Volt can drive gasoline- and tailpipe-emissions free using a full charge of electricity. When the Volt’s battery runs low, a gasoline-powered engine seamlessly operates to extend the driving range an additional 340 miles on a full change. Propelled by an 111kW electric motor at all times, Volt delivers the benefits of a full electric drive experience. Designed for today’s infrastructure, commercial fleet drivers don’t need to modify their work schedules to meet their cars’ charging times. Unlike a pure electric car limited by EV range, the Volt can be the only car a driver requires on the job. Volt has industry-leading technology

ELECTRIC

With an EPA-estimated driving range of 379 miles, the Chevrolet Volt can drive gasoline- and tailpipe-emissions free for the first 35 miles using a full charge.

and uses a GM-designed and built 16kWh Li-ion battery. OnStar is standard for five years, and Volt mobile app by OnStar helps drivers stay connected to their Volt via Motorola Droid and Apple iPhone devices. Drivers can set or check charging and his-

tory, check EV range, access turn-by turn directions and more — all remotely. Volt drivers can view and manage vehicle systems and commands in multiple ways — from the car, the Internet and their monthly OnStar Vehicle Diagnostics e-mail.

E

E

FORD TRANSIT CONNECT ELECTRIC To create the Transit Connect Electric, Azure Dynamics integrated its proven Force Drive electric powertrain into the Ford Transit Connect. The Transit Connect Electric offers a combination of car-like driving dynamics, cargo capacity, maneuverability, low operating costs, and eco-friendliness, and is an ideal choice for the growing number of commercial fleet operators seeking the benefits of electrified transportation. Commercial vehicle fleets are increasingly seen as the logical starting point for electric vehicles due to typical drive cycles that often include travel on predictable, short-range routes with frequent stop-andgo driving in tight urban or suburban environments. Commercial vehicles generally return to a central location at the end of a drive cycle making for convenient recharg30

The Transit Connect Electric is powered by Azure Dynamics’ Force Drive electric powertrain. The vehicle can achieve a range of 50-80 miles, depending in power usage.

ing overnight. Utilizing an advanced lithium-ion battery from Johnson Controls-Saft, the Transit Connect Electric can achieve a range of 50-80 miles depending on auxiliary power usage and drive cycle and has a top speed of 75 mph. The battery is recharge-

able using either a 240-volt or standard 120-volt outlet. Select Transit Connect Electric customers include AT&T, Canada Post, DHL, FedEx Express, New York Power Authority, Post Norway, Southern California Edison, and Xcel Energy.

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ESHOWCASE E

BMW ActiveE

The all-electric BMW ActiveE marks the second phase of the BMW Group’s electromobility development strategy. The BMW ActiveE will be available for lease in select markets, including Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Sacramento, New York, and Boston as well as the state of Connecticut beginning in fall 2011. Deliveries will begin late in 2011. Following the MINI E, the BMW ActiveE is the BMW Group’s second electric vehicle made available to consumers. With output of 170 horsepower and maximum torque of 184 lb.-ft., it accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in under nine seconds (preliminary), demonstrating the dynamic characteristics typical of a BMW. At the same time, newly developed lithium-ion batteries facilitate a vehicle range of around 100 miles in everyday driving. It can be charged at virtually all public charging stations. The BMW ActiveE is based on the

E

BMW’s all-electric ActiveE is the automaker’s second electric vehicle made available to consumers and fleets, and will be available for lease in fall 2011.

body of the BMW 1-Series Coupe. It is the BMW Group’s first electric vehicle to offer four fully-fledged seats and seven cu.-ft. of luggage space. The BMW EVolve app will help drivers determine if their current transportation habits are compatible with the EV lifestyle regardless of what they drive or even their mode of transportation. Drivers also have access to real-world comparisons that put their

energy and transportation usage into context such as equating a vehicle’s CO 2 emissions to that of a home television. Ultimately, following three complete “trips” with the app, the user will be given a compatibility rating letting them know how an EV might fit into their daily life. The BMW EVolve app is available as a free download from both the Apple App Store and the Android Marketplace.

MITSUBISHI i

The all-electric 2012 Mitsubishi i is getting ready for the first U.S. deliveries starting in December 2011. The i car is powered by Mitsubishi innovative Electric Vehicle (MiEV) technology. The vehicle’s drive system features a 49 kW (66 bhp) AC synchronous electric motor and an 88 cell, 330V lithium-ion battery pack with peak storage of 16 kWh. The electric motor is capable of producing peak torque of 145 lb.-ft. and the vehicle also has a top speed of approximately 80 mph. The vehicle’s packaging makes comfortable accommodations for four adult-size passengers. The cargo area at the vehicle’s rear is more than capable of carrying numerous tools and equipment with capacity expanding to 50 cu. ft. with the 50/50 rear seats folded flat, allowing for delivery of bulkier items. The Mitsubishi i earned an EPA-rated

The all-electric Mitsubishi i FE model comes standard with three levels of charging and EPA rating of 126 MPGe city/99 MPGs highway.

126 MPGe in city driving and 99 MPGe on the highway. Additionally, the EPA has rated the vehicle’s LA4 city driving cycle range at 98 miles.

The Mitsubishi i has an MSRP of $28,690 for the FE (fleet edition) model before a federal tax credit of $7,500 and various state financial incentives.

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GREEN VEHICLE SHOWCASE GASOLINE G

G

G

The first vehicle to use Mazda’s internal Building Block Strategy, the 2012 Mazda3 SKYACTIV offers significantly improved fuel economy.

Strategy will fall under the SKYACTIV umbrella. Instead of merely representing one new feature, SKYACTIV Technology is really the optimization of all elements of a vehicle’s design and performance. This includes not only the engine and

transmission, but the body structure, platform, suspension design, and all other elements of the car are optimized for better performance. Mazda will be including SKYACTIV Technology in each new vehicle brought to market.

DODGE CHARGER SE

The 2011 Dodge Charger features an all-new 3.6L Pentastar V-6 engine, which provides the Charger SE with 63-percent more standard horsepower, 36-percent more standard torque, and increased fuel economy, when compared to the previous, entry-level 2.7L V-6 engine. The all-new 2011 Dodge Charger features more than 65 safety and security features, including standard Keyless Enter-N-Go and electronic stability control (ESC) with segment-exclusive Ready Alert Braking and Rain Brake Support safety features to improve overall vehicle handling and performance. The vehicle features electro-hydraulic power steering and a capless fuel fill with locking remote-open door. The Uconnect Touch integrates infotainment and convenience technologies, 32

Cer

MAZDA3 SKYACTIV

The Mazda3 enters 2012 offering significantly improved fuel economy, thanks to its SKYACTIV Technology. SKYACTIV Technology is a blanket term for Mazda’s next-generation technologies that are being developed under the company’s long-term vision for technology development: Sustainable Zoom-Zoom. The SKYACTIV name is intended to reflect the manufacturer’s desire to provide driving pleasure, as well as outstanding environmental and safety performance in its vehicles. To achieve this goal, Mazda has implemented an internal Building Block Strategy to be completed by 2015. The 2012 Mazda3 is the first vehicle to make use of this technology in the United States. All the technologies that are developed based on the Building Block

The 2011 Charger is powered by the all-new 3.6L Pentastar V-6 engine, increasing fuel economy when compared to the previous, entry-level 2.7L V-6 engine.

including touchscreen navigation, dualzone climate controls, ability to check fuel prices, and more. Uconnect Web turns the all-new Charger into a mobile

“hot spot,” providing instant access to websites, e-mail, and more. The wireless system provides high-speed data transfer and flexibility

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Certify Your Green Fleet Operation www.greenfleetcoalition.com

GRF09-08.11

Coalition Members

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SHO WCASE TRANSIT ENVIRO500 HYBRID DOUBLE DECK TRANSIT BUS The Enviro500 Hybrid Double Deck transit bus from Alexander Dennis Incorporated combines EPA 2010 emissions-compliant engines with the Allison Ep50 series hybrid transmission to meet stringent new standards. With seating for more than 70 passengers, the Enviro500 can still accommodate two wheelchairs and up to 15 standing passengers. Per passenger seat mile, the Enviro500 offers outstanding fuel consumption yet retains the reliability and low running costs of a diesel engine. It is fully air conditioned, includes a no-step entry, flat floor in the lower saloon, and has an aluminum body structure, which reduces weight and increases body strength. www.alexander-dennis.com

The Enviro500 Hybrid Double Deck transit bus is powered by EPA 2010 emissionscompliant engines combined with an Allison Ep50 series hybrid transmission.

MOTOR COACH INDUSTRIES D4500 CT HYBRID Based on the high-capacity, best-selling D4500, MCI’s 45-foot Hybrid uses the latest clean-diesel engine technology from Cummins along with the Allison Ep50 Electric Drive Propulsion System, delivering increased power, lower noise levels, and significantly reduced carbon emissions. At the same time, passengers sit high above traffic in plush, forward-facing, high-back reclining seats with LED reading lamps and overhead airflow controls. Options include a wheelchair lift, stainless steel exterior panels, sliding battery tray, curb lights, a hands-free PA system, energy absorbing rear bumper, rear-route sign, parcel rack air conditioning, SmarTire tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), video surveillance, and more. www.mcicoach.com

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Based on MCI’s D4500 model, the 45-foot D4500 Hybrid relies on the latest cleandiesel engine technology from Cummins along with the Allison ep50 Electric Drive Propulsion System.

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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GREEN TALK

Modifying Driver Behavior: The ‘Last Mile’ in Greening a Fleet

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ompanies have adopted a variety of strategies to achieve green fleet initiatives, such as adopting anti-idling policies, switching to smaller displacement engines, buying alt-fuel and hybrid vehicles, and downsizing to smaller vehicle segments. However, there’s a limit to how much a fleet manager can modify a fleet selector to decrease emissions and maximize fuel efficiency, especially if the majority of the vehicles are gasoline- or diesel-powered. A fleet manager can only downsize so far before beginning to impact the fleet mission. The bottom line is that you can’t change the fundamental requirements of your business. You need to move employees and cargo in a cost-efficient manner. This necessitates a minimum equipment requirement to do so. If you are constrained by equipment limitations, the “last mile” to achieving corporate sustainability objectives is modifying driver behavior. This is possibly the greatest opportunity available to fleet managers to green their fleets. Most company drivers average 20,000 miles per year and driver behavior is a major influence in fuel consumption. To be a truly green fleet, you need to change your drivers’ mindset to make them “greener” drivers. This must be a top priority. The way employees drive their vehicles can either increase or decrease fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. If you change the driving behavior of your employees, you have a direct impact on the amount of fuel consumed and the amount of emissions emitted. Even small increases in mpg can result in substantial savings when extrapolated across the entire fleet. Fleet managers, who have implemented eco-driving training programs, report a 5- to 30-percent reduction in annual fuel consumption by changing driver behavior.

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Major fleets, such as Wal-Mart, Xerox, Schindler, Veolia Transportation, and UPS have implemented eco-driving programs designed to modify driver behavior. For instance, FedEx is investigating the integration of five eco-driving practices into its online fleet management system reporting. The five eco-driving practices, which FedEx successfully tested in Japan, include: ● Minimized idling. ● Gentle acceleration. ● Maintenance of a steady speed. ● Easing off the accelerator early before braking. ● Judicious use of A/C. In fact, tests conducted by Isuzu show that a single truck, averaging 35,000 miles per year, can reduce fuel consumption by more than 1,200 gallons by simply using eco-driving techniques. At $3.92 per gallon for diesel (as of press time), that would translate into annual savings of $4,700. For a 50-truck fleet, it would be $235,000 per year. The challenge is to make eco-driving the permanent mindset of all your drivers. Unless you have an enforcement program with incentives, the danger is that drivers will drift back to old behaviors. It has been proven that by using more “carrot than stick,” you can maintain these efficiencies over the longer-term. To maintain driver motivation, you need to have an ongoing eco-driving training program for new hires and periodic refresher courses for current drivers, offering tangible incentives for employees who perform well.

Eco-Driving 101 In essence, the concept of eco-driving is changing driver behavior. Eco-driving refers to specific driving behaviors that can improve fuel economy, reduce operating expenses, decrease GHG emis-

MIKE ANTICH

sions, and promote safe driving. In fact, eco-driving practices, by default, make employees safer drivers by discouraging aggressive driving and speeding. Many fleets correctly view eco-driving and safe driving as being intertwined. Besides decreasing fuel consumption, eco-driving also helps to lower other operating costs by extending the life of wear items, such as tires and brakes. Basic eco-driving practices include knowing the proper way to accelerate and brake, using synchronized traffic lights to a driver’s advantage, driving at the optimum highway speed, and understanding when to use air conditioning. For example, aggressive driving (such as speeding, rapid acceleration, and braking) can lower fuel economy by 33 percent at highway speeds and by 5 percent on city streets. Minimizing unnecessary idling and maintaining proper tire pressure are other eco-driving practices. A typical fleet sedan consumes half a gallon of fuel for every hour spent idling. Every gallon of gasoline burned produces 19.5 lbs. of CO2 and every gallons of diesel creates 22.1 lbs. of CO2. When idling, you are achieving 0 mpg. Likewise, by monitoring and maintaining manufacturer-recommended tire inflation, you can improve fuel economy by up to 3.3 percent. Eco-driving isn’t rocket science, but it works and represents an effective way to reduce fuel consumption, lower emissions, decrease operating costs, and reduce accidents. To learn more about eco-driving, visit www.ecodrivingusa.com. If you’re serious about achieving sustainability objectives, you need to make the modification of driver behavior a primary focus. It’s not a one-time effort; it is an ongoing, never-ending process. Let me know what you think. mike.antich@bobit.com

GREEN FLEET ■ SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2011

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Green Fleet Conference & Expo, the nation’s largest, most prestigious gathering of fleet professionals and the respected authority on efficient alternative fuel and environmentally sustainable fleets wishes to say thank you 2011 sponsors!

LEAD SPONSORS

PREMIER SPONSORS

SUPPORTING ORGANIZATION

MAJOR SPONSORS

GENERAL SPONSORS

ASSOCIATION SPONSORS

MEDIA PARTNER

GFC08-91.11

MEDIA SPONSORS

Thank you for coming to the 2011 Conference! October 3-4, Gaylord Texan • Grapevine, TX

Save The Date! October 2-3, 2012 Renaissance Schaumberg Hotel & Convention Center•Schaumberg, IL

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THE CHALLENGE: MEETING COMPANY INITIATIVES OUR SOLUTION: ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHOICES

| 2011 GMC YUKON HYBRID1 EPA-est. MPG 20 city/23 hwy.

| 2011 CHEVROLET CRUZE EPA-est. MPG 24 city/36 hwy.

Whether it’s meeting companywide environmental initiatives or government standards, fleet managers face many challenges. GM offers a wide range of solutions, including fuel-efficient vehicles, hybrids,1 biofuel vehicles2 and the revolutionary Chevrolet Volt.3 Our environmental commitment goes beyond vehicles—it includes how we operate our factories and offices around the world. For more solutions, visit gmfleet.com. Available to order at participating dealers. E85 is 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline. To see if there is an E85 station near you, visit gmfleet.com/afv. Available to order at participating dealers. Quantities limited. ©2011 General Motors LLC 1

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Green Fleet Magazine September/October 2011  

Magazine for the alternative fuel automotive fleet industry

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