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English Grammar


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Index Elementary .......................................................................... 4 Indefinite article .......................................................................... 4 Definite article ............................................................................. 5 Personal pronoun ........................................................................ 7 Possessive adjective .................................................................... 8 Genitive ....................................................................................... 9 Prepositions of place ................................................................. 10 Plural ......................................................................................... 11 Much, many, a lot of ................................................................. 12 To be .......................................................................................... 13 To have ...................................................................................... 14 Short answers ............................................................................ 15 Present simple ........................................................................... 16 Present continuous ................................................................... 18 Difference 1 ............................................................................... 19 Imperative ................................................................................. 20 Intermediate ..................................................................... 21 Degrees of comparison.............................................................. 21 Genitive ..................................................................................... 23 Possessive pronouns ................................................................. 24 Reflexive pronouns .................................................................... 25 Question words ......................................................................... 26 Few / (a) little ............................................................................ 28


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Adjective / adverb ..................................................................... 29 Passive voice.............................................................................. 31 Irregular verbs ........................................................................... 32 Past simple ................................................................................ 35 Present perfect .......................................................................... 36 Difference 2 ............................................................................... 37 Future simple............................................................................. 38 To be +going to .......................................................................... 39 Difference 3 ............................................................................... 40 Passive – Use ............................................................................. 41 Basic Verb Patterns ................................................................... 44 Present Perfect vs. Past Simple ................................................. 49 The Future ................................................................................. 53 Present Simple vs. Present Continuous. .................................... 54 Passive ....................................................................................... 56 Would/Could ............................................................................. 59 Verb Tenses ............................................................................... 62 Multi-word verbs ....................................................................... 67


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Elementary Indefinite article 1. Sounds The indefinite articles are A or AN. We use A before a consonant-sound. We use AN before a vowel-sound. The difference depends on the sound of the vowels and consonants, not the spelling! 2. Examples a a a a a a a a

teacher peach woman house man useful book university European

an an an an an an an an

English teacher orange old woman hour honest man heir honour Irish person

3. Use A or AN is used before names of professions: He is a painter. It's really nice to be a student. A is used before words like couple, dozen, hundred, thousand, million, ...: A couple of years ago I was living in Britain. There were a thousand people in the stadium. A or AN means 'every' or 'each' in some expressions of time, speed, price,...: She visits me twice a year. He drives 50 miles an hour. Don't put A or AN before uncountables:


5 I don't like milk. Silence is golden.

Definite article 1. Sounds The definite article is THE. It is used for singular and plural. The pronunciation differs before a vowel or consonant. The difference depends on the sound of the vowels and consonants, not the spelling. 2. Examples THE / ð¶ /

THE / ði: /

a a a a a a a a

an an an an an an an an

teacher peach woman house man useful book university European

English teacher orange old woman hour honest man heir honour Irish person

Explanation of the symbols: these symbols help you to use the correct pronunciation. / ð¶ / You pronounce / ð / it like th in these. You pronounce the / ¶ / like e in answer / ði: / You pronounce / ð / it like th in these. You pronounce the / i: / like ee in see


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3. Use THE is used before names of instruments: I play the piano. My sisters play the violin. My teacher plays the guitar. Don't put THE before names of meals, except when we talk about a particular meal: Dinner is served. What time do you have lunch. BUT: The dinner we had yesterday was delicious. Don't put THE before names of seasons, except when we talk about a particular season: We have a long holiday in summer. Flowers bloom in spring. BUT: The winter of 1966 was the coldest in history. No THE before names of mountains: Mount Everest is 8,862 metres high. We stood on top of Etna. No THE before abstract nouns used in general use: I love nature. Life is short.


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Personal pronoun 1. Subject pronouns I you he she it we you they

refers refers refers refers refers refers refers refers

to to to to to to to to

the speaker the person spoken to a male person a female person a thing or an animal the speaker and one or more persons the people spoken to people or things

2. Object pronouns me refers you refers him refers her refers it refers us refers you refers them refers

to to to to to to to to

the speaker the person spoken to a male person a female person a thing or an animal the speaker and one or more persons the people spoken to people or things


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Possessive adjective 1. Form and examples my your his her its our your their

My name is Sean. What's your dog's name? Is this his car? Her car is a Mini. Its nest is high in the tree. Are our parents at home? Your tests are good. Their rooms are nice.


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Genitive 1. Possessive To make the genitive of nouns of people or animals we add 's My mother's hobby is surfing. The yellow one is my dad's car. To plural of nouns of people or animals ending in -s we add ' (apostrophe) The cats' food is in the kitchen. Where is the ladies' room? To proper nouns (name) ending in a sibilant (=sound like an S) we add an 's Prince Charles's wedding was in 1981. We walked through St James's park. No S sound at the end

S sound at the end

Nouns

's

'

Names

's

's


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Prepositions of place 1. Prepositions: the ball is ... the square(s)

in

on

above

under

to the left of

between

in front of

behind

against

+

to the right of


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Plural 1. Regular General rule: singular + S: girl - girls boy - boys Nouns ending in -S, -SS, -SH, -CH, -X get -ES: box - boxes bus - buses Some nouns ending in -O behind a consonant get -ES: potato - potatoes tomato - tomatoes Nouns ending in -Y behind a consonant change -Y into -IES: lady - ladies baby - babies Some nouns ending in -F or -FE change -F(E) into -VES: knife - knives wife - wives 2. Irregular: learn them by heart! man men mouse foot feet louse woman women child tooth teeth penny goose geese

mice lice children pence

3. Always singular, always plural Some nouns are always plural: clothes, jeans, trousers, shorts, people, police, glasses, scissors, mathematics Some nouns (abstract, materials, kinds of food) are always singular: bread, tea, cheese, jam, soup, soap, snow, cotton, wood, water, information, advice, knowledge, furniture Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural: Names of kind of fish: cod, herring, salmon, trout, ... Names of some animals: deer, sheep, swine, ...


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Much, many, a lot of 1. Much and many We use much and many in: - negative sentences - interrogative sentences (questions) - affirmative senteces with so, as, too 2. A lot of We use a lot of in affirmative sentences. (In spoken English much and many is often replaced by a lot of.) 3. Scheme Ask yourself these questions. Follow the arrows and you will get the right answer.


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To be 1. Affirmative sentences Full forms

Contracted forms

I am You are He is She is It is We are They are You are

I'm You're He's She's It's We 're They 're You 're

2. Negative sentences Full forms

Contracted forms

I am not You are not He is not She is not It is not We are not They are not You are not

I 'm not You aren't He isn't She isn't It isn't We aren't They aren't You aren't

3. Interrogative sentences + short answers Interrogative

Positive answers

Negative answers

Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are they?

Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

No, No, No, No, No, No, No,

I am. you are. he is. she is. it is. we are. they are.

I 'm not. you aren't. he isn't. she isn't. it isn't. we aren't. they aren't.


14 Are you?

Yes, you are.

No, you aren't.

To have Full forms I have got You have got He has got She has got It has got We have got You have got They have got

Contracted forms I 've got You 've got He 's got She 's got It 's got We 've got You 've got They 've got

Full forms I have not got You have not got He has not got She has not got It has not got We have not got You have not got They have not got

Contracted forms I haven't got You haven't got He hasn't got She hasn't got It hasn't got We haven't got You haven't got They haven't got

Interrogative

Positive answers

Have I got ? Have you got ? Has he got ? Has she got ? Has it got ? Have we got ? Have you got ? Have they got ?

Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

I have. you have. he has. she has. it has. we have. you have. they have.

Negative answers No, I haven't. No, you haven't. No, he hasn't. No, she hasn't. No, it hasn't. No, we haven't. No, you haven't. No, they haven't.


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Short answers 1. To be Interrogative

Positive answers

Negative answers

Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are they? Are you?

Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

No, No, No, No, No, No, No, No,

I am. you are. he is. she is. it is. we are. they are. you are.

I 'm not. you aren't. he isn't. she isn't. it isn't. we aren't. they aren't. you aren't.

2. To have Interrogative

Positive answers

Negative answers

Have I got ? Have you got ? Has he got ? Has she got ? Has it got ? Have we got ? Have you got ? Have they got ?

Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

No, No, No, No, No, No, No, No,

I have. you have. he has. she has. it has. we have. you have. they have.

I haven't. you haven't. he hasn't. she hasn't. it hasn't. we haven't. you haven't. they haven't.

3. To do Interrogative

Positive answers

Negative answers

Do I ? Do you ? Does he ? Does she ? Does it ? Do we ?

Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

No, No, No, No, No, No,

I do. you do. he does. she does. it does. we do.

I don't. you don't. he doesn't. she doesn't. it doesn't. we don't.


16 Do you ? Do they ?

Yes, you do. Yes, they do.

No, you don't. No, they don't.

Present simple 1. Conjugation Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I work You work He works She works It works We work You work They work

I do not work You do not work He does not work She does not work It does not work You do not work We do not work They do not work

Do I work ? Do you work ? Does he work ? Does she work ? Does it work ? Do we work ? Do you work ? Do they work ?

Contracted forms: do not = don't / does not = doesn't

2. Spelling of 3rd person singular (he, she, it) General rule: infinitive without 'to' + S to work ==> works to play ==> plays Verbs ending in O, SS, X, CH, SH : infinitive without 'to' + ES to go ==> goes to kiss ==> kisses Verbs ending in Y, preceded by a consonant: Y changes into IES to cry ==> cries


17 to fly ==> flies


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Present continuous 1. Conjugation Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am working You are working He is working She is working It is working We are working You are working They are working

I am not working You are not working He is not working She is not working It is not working We are not working You are not working They are not working

Am I working? Are you working? Is he working? Is she working? Is it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working?

Contracted forms:

am='m is ='s am not = 'm not are not = aren't

are = 're is not = isn't

2. Spelling of the ing-form (present participle) General rule: infinitive without 'to' + ING to work --> working to play --> playing Verbs ending in a silent E: the E is dropped +ING to live --> living to come --> coming Verbs ending in IE: the IE changes into Y +ING to die --> dying to lie --> lying Verbs with the stress on the last syllable, ending in a consonant, preceded by a short vowel: the end consonant is doubled + ING to stop --> stopping to begin --> beginning Verbs ending in L: the L is doubled +ING to travel --> travelling to quarrel --> quarrelling Verbs ending in IC: the C is followed by K +ING to picnic --> picnicking to panic --> panicking


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Difference 1 Use: present simple Repeated actions and habits. Britney Spears sings songs.

Use: present continuous Something happening now. Tim is singing a song.

Actions happening over a long period of time. The turtle lives in its house.

Actions happening over a short period of time. He is staying in a tent this holiday.

We use the present simple with verbs of thoughts, feelings or states. The pig thinks about its future.

The hedgehog loves the cactus.

The moon goes round the earth.


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Imperative 1. Form Infinitive without to It has the same form in singular and plural. 2. Use Orders Sit down, boys and girls. Try another pen. Instructions Go straight on. Add sugar to the milk and flour. Warnings Look out! Mind the step! Negative Imperatives (Prohibitions) Do not walk on the grass. Don't cycle here.


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Intermediate Degrees of comparison 1. Adjectives of one syllable Adjectives of one syllable add -er and -est. Adjectives ending on 'e' just add -r and -st. Some adjectives double the final consonant. Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

small warm old nice big

smaller warmer older nicer bigger

smallest warmest oldest nicest biggest

2. Adjectives of two syllables Some adjectives of two syllables add -er and -est. Adjectives ending in 'y' use -ier and -iest. Adjectives ending in -ful, -less, -ing, -ed use more and most. Some other adjectives of two syllables use more and most (modern, famous, normal, correct, ...). Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

narrow happy useful boring modern

narrower happier more useful more boring more modern

narrowest happiest most useful most boring most modern

3. Adjectives of three or more syllables Adjectives of three or more syllables use more and most. Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

beautiful dangerous

more beautiful most beautiful more dangerous most dangerous


22 exciting

more exciting

most exciting

4. Irregular adjectives You will have to learn these by heart. Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

good (well) bad little much, many far late old

better worse less more farther, further later older, elder

best worst least most farthest last, latest older, oldest


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Genitive 1. Possessive case To make the genitive of nouns of PEOPLE or ANIMALS we add 's My mother's hobby is surfing. The yellow one is my dad's car. To plural of nouns of PEOPLE or ANIMALS ending in -s we add ' (apostrophe) The cats' food is in the kitchen. Where is the ladies' room? To proper nouns (name) ending in a sibilant (=sound like an S) we add an 's Prince Charles's wedding was in 1981. We walked through St James's park. 2. Special use When THE PLACE IS UNDERSTOOD, words such as house, shop, cathedral,...are generally omitted after a genitive: The wedding took place at St Paul's. (Cathedral) Mum is at the baker's. (shop) I'm staying at my uncle's. (house) The genitive is often used in EXPRESSIONS denoting TIME or DISTANCE: Where is yesterday's newspaper? We go to Bath for a week's holiday. She lives in an hour's distance from work. Sometimes a noun is followed by OF + GENITIVE: it is called the double possessive and is used to put the stress on the person who possesses: This is a house of my sister's. These are friends of my father's.


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Possessive pronouns 1. Form and example They do not change according to the thing possessed, but according to the possessor mine yours his hers ours yours theirs

This is my chair. It's mine. These are your books. They are yours. Is this his dog? Is it his? Where are her toys? Where are hers? These are our jackets. These are ours. These are our books. These are yours Where are their plants? Where are theirs?

There is no possessive pronoun for 'it'. We use 'its own' instead: Your dog is eating my dog's bone, why can't it eat its own?


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Reflexive pronouns 1. Form and example myself yourself (singular) himself herself itself ourselves yourselves (plural) themselves

I bought myself a new T-shirt. Be careful, you will hurt yourself. He built the house himself. She taught herself to swim. The dog took the newspaper itself We enjoyed ourselves. You read the books yourselves. An and Mike took the pictures themselves.

You can use a reflexive pronoun to emphasize that the subject did the action.


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Question words 1. WH-question Where

à ask about places.

Where is he? At home.

When

à ask about times and dates.

When will you phone? At 6 o'clock

Why

à ask about a reason.

Why are they leaving? They are tired.

How

à ask in what way.

How will she get here? By taxi.

Who

à ask about people

Who are you going to visit? My sister.

What

à ask about things (many possible answers).

What's your father's job? He's a dentist.

à ask about things (small number of possible answers).

Which finger did you break? My ring finger.

Which

2. Word order Most wh-questions begin with a question word + an auxiliary verb + the subject Question word

Auxiliary Subject

Verb

What

is

Brian

doing?

Where

have

you

put

the book?

When

can

we

travel

safely?

How

does

the radio

work?

Who and What can be the subject of a question. Some examples: - Who rang you? (someone rang you) - Who is helping you? someone is helping you)


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3. Prepositions with wh-questions Prepositions (to, about, with, from, ...) usually go at the end. Here are some examples: - Where are you from? - Who do these books belong to? - What are you talking about? - Who are you going with?


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Few / (a) little 1. Countable and uncountable To use the expressions of quantity correctly, you need to understand the difference between countable and uncountable nouns. We can say: three cups, two girls, ten pounds: we can count them. We cannot say: two waters, three musics, one money: we cannot count them. 2. A few - a little A few is used with countable nouns: - There are a few biscuits in the tin. - My bus goes in a few minutes

A little is used with uncountable nouns: - There's a little whisky left. Help yourself. - There is a little sunshine.

3. Few and little with(out) a WITH A the meaning is positive: - He spoke a little English, so we could talk to him. - A few customers have come into the shop, it has been quite busy.

WITHOUT A the meaning is negative: - He spoke little English, it was difficult to talk to him. - Few customers have come into the shop, it has been quiet.


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Adjective / adverb 1. Introduction An adjective describes a noun: - It 's a nice song. - The man had a quiet voice. - She wears expensive clothes. - The runners made a slow start.

An adverb describes a verb: - She sang nicely. - The man spoke quietly. - She dresses expensively. - They started slowly.

2. Form We form many adverbs from an adjective + LY: quick polite careful

quicky politely carefully

If an adjective ends with Y, the adverbs ends with ILY: easy angry

easily angrily

If an adjective ends with BLE, the adverbs ends with BLY: comfortable probable

quicky probably

If an adjective ends with IC, the adverbs ends with ICALLY: dramatic automatic

dramatically automatically

Irregular forms good hard fast

well hard fast


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3. Adjectives after verbs We also use adjectives after some verbs (be, look, seem, appear, ...) - Mike looked angry. - Please be quiet!


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Passive voice 1. Form We form the passive like this: to be + past participle. Present simple:

Diamonds are found in South Africa.

Past simple:

The goods were delivered yesterday.

2. Use We use the passive when it is not important who does the action, or when we don't know who it is: e.g. This castle was built in the 16th century (we don't know who built it). We also use the passive because we have been talking about something, and not the person who did it. We use 'by' to say who does/did the action. e.g. This film was made in 1956. It was directed by Hitchcock. 3. Active and passive Passive verbs have the same tenses as active verbs: Active

Passive

Present simple

She cleans the room every day.

The room is cleaned every day.

Past simple

He cleaned the room yesterday.

The room was cleaned yesterday.


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Irregular verbs 1. Infinitive

2. Past simple

3. Past participle

to to to to to to to to to to

be beat become begin bite bleed blow break bring build

was/were beat became began bit bled blew broke brought built

been beaten become begun bitten bled blown broken brought built

to to to to to to to to to to

burn buy catch choose come cost cut do draw dream

burnt bought caught chose came cost cut did drew dreamt

burnt bought caught chosen come cost cut done drawn dreamt

to to to to to to to to to to

drink drive eat fall feel fight find fly forbid forget

drank drove ate fell felt fought found flew forbade forgot

drunk driven eaten fallen felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten


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to to to to to to to to to to

get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold

got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held

got given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held

to to to to to to to to to to

hurt keep know lay lean learn leave lie (be horizontal) lie (to tell untruths) light

hurt kept knew laid leant learnt left lay lied lit

hurt kept known laid leant learnt left lain lied lit

to to to to to to to to to

lose make meet pay put read ride ring run

lost made met paid put read rode rang ran

lost made met paid put read ridden rung run

said saw

said seen

to say to see


34 to to to to to to to to to

sell send set shake shine shoot show shut sing

sold sent set shook shone shot showed shut sang

sold sent set shaken shone shot shown shut sung

to to to to to to to to to to

sit sleep speak spend spill (under)stand steal stick sting stink

sat slept spoke spent spilt (under)stood stole stuck stung stank

sat slept spoken spent spilt (under)stood stolen stuck stung stunk

to to to to to to to to to to

swear swim take teach tell think throw wear win write

swore swam took taught told thought threw wore won wrote

sworn swum taken taught told thought thrown worn won written


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Past simple 1. Conjugation Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I worked You worked He worked She worked It worked We worked You worked They worked

I did not work You did not work He did not work She did not work It did not work We did not work You did not work They did not work

Did Did Did Did Did Did Did Did

Contracted forms:

did not = didn't

I work? you work? he work? she work? it work? we work? you work? they work?

2. Spelling General rule: infinitive without 'to' + ED to work --> I worked Verbs ending in E or IE: infinitive without 'to' + D to die --> He died Verbs ending in Y, preceded by a consonant: the Y changes into IED to try --> She tried Verbs ending in L, preceded by a short vowel: the L is doubled + ED to travel --> We travelled Verbs ending in IC: the C is followed by K + ED to panic --> They panicked Verbs of one syllable, ending in a single consonant, preceded by a short vowel: the end consonant is doubled + ED to plan --> You planned


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Present perfect 1. Conjugation Affirmative

Negative

I have worked You have worked He has worked She has worked It has worked We have worked You have worked They have worked

I have not worked You have not worked He has not worked She has not worked It has not worked We have not worked You have not worked They have not worked

Contracted forms:

have = 've has = 's

Interrogative Have I worked? Have you worked? Has he worked? Has she worked? Has it worked? Have we worked? Have you worked? Have they worked?

have not = haven't has not = hasn't

2. Spelling General rule: infinitive without 'to' + ED to work --> I have worked Verbs ending in E or IE: infinitive without 'to' + D to die --> He has died Verbs ending in Y, preceded by a consonant: the Y changes into IED to try --> She has tried Verbs ending in L, preceded by a short vowel: the L is doubled + ED to travel --> We have travelled Verbs ending in IC: the C is followed by K + ED to panic --> They have panicked Verbs of one syllable, ending in a single consonant, preceded by a short vowel:


37 the end consonant is doubled + ED to plan --> You have planned

Difference 2 Use: past simple

Use: present perfect

Finished action in the past Present result of past action They cut down trees to build this They have cut down trees to skyscraper. build a skyscraper.

Given time He flew a balloon in London in 2003

Time is not given He has flown balloons before.

yesterday, last summer (week, month,...), ten years (weeks, days, minutes,...) ago The family ate one hour ago.

this morning (year, month,...) just, since, for, ever, never, yet, already The cat has just eaten the cuckoo.

A past action when time is understood. Elvis wrote a lot of songs.


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Future simple 1. Conjugation Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I will work You will work He will work She will work It will work We will work You will work They will work

I will not work You will not work He will not work She will not work It will not work You will not work We will not work They will not work

Will Will Will Will Will Will Will Will

I work? you work? he work? she work? it work? we work? you work? they work?

Note: in the first persons you can also use shall instead of will Contracted forms: will = 'll / will not = won't / shall not = shan't


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To be +going to 1. Conjugation Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am going to work You are going to work He is going to work She is going to work It is going to work We are going to work You are going to work They are going to work

I am not going to work You are not going to work He is not going to work She is not going to work It is not going to work You are not going to work We are not going to work They are not going to work

Am I going to work? Are you going to work? Is he going to work? Is she going to work? Is it going to work? Are we going to work? Are you going to work? Are they going to work?

Contracted forms:

am = 'm is = 's am not = 'm not are not = aren't

are = 're is not = isn't


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Difference 3 Use: future simple: will

Use: to be + going to

Instant decision (=when we Intention decide (=the speaker has already to do something at the time of decided before). speaking). I am going to have a cup of I will have a cup of coffee. coffee.

I will operate my patient again.

I am going to operate my patient.

Prediction (= what we think will happen). He will travel to Ireland.

Prediction based on a present situation (=what we can see is going to happen). He is going to travel to Ireland.

He will hit the ball.

He is going to kick the ball.


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Passive – Use We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused the action. Example: Appointments are required in such cases. We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence. Form to be + past participle How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given: - object of the "active" sentence becomes subject in the "passive" sentence - subject of the "active" sentence becomes "object" in the "passive" sentence" (or is left out) Active:

Peter

builds

a house.

Passive: A house is built by Peter.


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Examples Active

Peter

builds

a house. Simple Present

Passive:

A house

is built

by Peter.

Active:

Peter

built

a house. Simple Past

Passive:

Active:

A house

Peter

was built

has built

by Peter.

a house. Present Perfect

Passive:

A house

Active:

Peter

has been built

will build

by Peter.

a house. Will-future

Passive:

A house

will be built

by Peter.

Active:

Peter

can build

a house. Modals

Passive:

A house

can be built

by Peter.


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Basic Verb Patterns What are ACTION verbs? An action verb is a verb that describes an action, like run, jump, kick, eat, break, cry, smile, or think.

When using action verbs, the sentence structure will be: SUBJECT --->

ACTION VERB --->

THE REST OF THE SENTENCE

(noun)

(verb)

(adjective, adverb, noun, complement, or nothing)

Here are some examples of action verbs in sentences. Greg is kicking the ball now.

The action verb is kicking. It describes what Greg is doing.

The wind blows constantly in Chicago.

The action verb is blows. It describes what the wind does.

He accepted my apology.

The action verb is accepted. It describes what 'he' did.

What are LINKING verbs? A linking verb is a verb that links (connects) the subject of the sentence to information about that subject. Linking verbs do not describe action.


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When using linking verbs, the sentence structure will be: SUBJECT --->

LINKING VERB --->

INFORMATION ABOUT THE SUBJECT

(noun)

(verb)

(adjective, noun, or complement)

Some verbs are ALWAYS linking verbs because they never describe an action. Other verbs can be linking verbs in some sentences and action verbs in other sentences. The following three verbs are ALWAYS linking verbs: to be (is, am, are, was, were, has been, have been, had been, is being, are being, was being, will have been, etc.) to become (become, becomes, became, has become, have become, had become, will become, will have become, etc.) to seem (seemed, seeming, seems, has seemed, have seemed, had seemed, is seeming, are seeming, was seeming, were seeming, will seem)

Here are some examples of linking verbs that are ALWAYS linking verbs in sentences:

―The ball is red.‖

'Is' is a linking verb that connects the subject, ball, to information about that subject (that it is red).

―The children are smart.‖

'Are' is a linking verb that connects the subject, children, to information


46 about that subject (that they are smart).

―The child will be tall five years from now.‖

'Will be' is the linking verb connecting 'child' to the fact that he will be 'tall five years from now.'

―The cat seems fine.‖

'Seems' links the subject, cat, with information about the cat (that it is fine).

―The dog became thin after his surgery.‖

'Became' links the subject, the dog, with information about him (that he became thin).

Verbs that can be both ACTION and LINKING verbs There are verbs that can be linking verbs in SOME sentences, but are action verbs in other sentences. One way to determine if the verb is functioning as an action verb or a linking verb is to substitute the word ―is‖ for the verb in question.If the sentence still makes sense, then it is probably a linking verb. If the sentence would not make sense with the word ―is,‖ then it is probably an action verb in the sentence.

The following are examples of verbs that can be linking verbs in some sentences and action verbs in other sentences: look

smell

appear

prove

sound

feel


47 remain

taste

grow

Here are some sample sentences of verbs used as linking verbs and actions verbs. Used as Linking Verbs

Explanation

Jane appeared uninjured after the accident.

You could substitute the word 'is,' for the word 'appears,' and the sentence would still make sense: "Jane is uninjured after the accident." This lets you know that appeared is a linking verb in this sentence.

The cake smells good!

This sentence describes the cake. ―Smells‖ is a linking verb in this sentence. It connects the subject, cake, with information about that subject—it smells good.

The woman grew silent.

This sentence may seem confusing. Remember that the word ―grow‖ has more than one meaning! In this sentence, ―grew‖ means BECAME. The woman became silent.


48

Used as Action Verbs

Explanation

Before I could leave, Jane appeared.

In this sentence, appeared is not linking anything. It is telling the action that Jane did. She appeared, or showed up.

Ellen smells the cake.

The word, smells is not linking anything. If you replaced smells with 'is' the sentence would not make sense. That means smells must be an action verb in this sentence. Ellen performed the action of smelling the cake.

The gardener grew some flowers.

The word, grew, is not linking two things together here. If you tried to replace grew with 'is' the sentence would not make sense. This means that grew must be an action verb. The gardener performed the action of growing some flowers.


49

Present Perfect vs. Past Simple The Present Perfect (e.g. I have done)

The Past Simple (e.g. I did)

Unlike its most obvious equivalent in Dutch (ik heb gedaan), the present perfect is a present tense. It tells us something about ―now‖.

The past simple tells us only about the past. We consider actions in the past simple to be over/ completed/ done/ dead issues/finished.

I have lost my keys means I don’t have them now.

I lost my keys means that sometime in the past I lost them. Maybe I have found them again in the meantime, maybe not.

We also use the present perfect to ….but if we continue to talk about it, give new information or to say we normally use the past simple. that, in the opinion of the speaker, the information is news…. …How did you do that? (not have you done) Ow, I have burnt my hand… …They raided a house at The police have arrested six dawn…(not have raided) men… Compare:

…and:

I am a writer. I have written five books. …so far, but I will probably write some more. Here, although the action of writing is finished, the present perfect is used to expand on the previous sentence, which is in the present tense.

Shakespeare wrote many plays. He is dead now and won’t write any more.


50

We use the present perfect with expressions that describe a period of time that continues from the past until now (e.g. today, this week, since 1995, ever, yet, already, just, recently, for 3 months*)

We use the past simple with expressions of finished time (e.g. yesterday, last week, in 1996, 10 minutes ago, when I was a child) I watched TV last night (not have watched)

I have done a lot of work today I went to America in 1996 (not have gone) Have you ever been to America? *BEWARE!!

*BUT-

I have lived in Amsterdam for 4 years = 2007 - now

I lived in Amsterdam for 4 years = (e.g.) 1995 – 1999 or any other period of 4 years that finished before now.


51 The Present Perfect (e.g. I have done)

The Past Simple (e.g. I did)

We use the present perfect to ask (and answer) questions beginning How long…? Provided that the period of time goes up to the present.

We use the past simple to ask and answer questions beginning When…?

How long have you had a cold? (you have a cold at the time of speaking)

When did you buy your car?

We use the present perfect to announce recent events, discoveries, inventions etc.

We use the past simple to describe events, discoveries etc. that we think everyone knows about already.

Scientists have discovered a cure for hiccoughs.

Columbus discovered America in 1492

Two schoolchildren have invented a machine for moving The Chinese invented printing. large objects up flights of stairs. When we use the present perfect to talk about repeated actions or events in the past, we are suggesting that they will probably happen again. Huntelaar has played for Holland ten times. (he’s pretty good and will probably get selected again)

In news reports, the headline is often in the present perfect…. The pop star, Michael Jackson,

When we use the past simple to talk about repeated actions or events in the past, we are suggesting that they probably won’t happen again. Bergkamp played for Holland eighty times. (or whatever, but he has retired from international football now)

….and the details are in the past simple.


52 has died in Los Angeles…

…He was taken to hospital etc.

FOOTNOTE: Try to remember that these tenses allow us to say exactly what we mean, so all the above are guidelines rather than rules and what you say depends on how you perceive things. For example, if you think that ―today‖ as a period of time has finished, you can use the past simple with it, if you think of it as an abbreviation for ―so far today‖, you should use the present perfect. The same applies to other time expressions e.g. recently.


53

The Future 1.

The Present Continuous

for Arrangements

“I am flying to Paris tomorrow morning” or if something feels like an arrangement “I am visiting my mother this weekend” 2.

going to + infinitive

for Intentions

“I am going to clean my balcony this weekend” for Predictions with evidence “The sky is dark. It’s going to rain” 3.

will/shall (neg. won’t/shan’t) for Spontaneous decisions “It’s hot in here.” “OK, I’ll open the window.” for Predictions without evidence “Holland will win the next World Cup.” for requests, offers promises “Will you lend me €50? I’ll pay you back next week.”

4.

The Present Simple

for timetables and programmes and things that feel like timetables

“My train leaves at 9.00am tomorrow. “What time do you finish work?” After: Before, until/till, as soon as, when, while, after, if. “I’ll call you when I arrive.” “Wait until I get there.”


54

Present Simple vs. Present Continuous. The Present Simple

The Present Continuous

(I do)

(I am doing)

We use the present simple to talk about things in general.

We use the present continuous to say that we are in the middle of doing something. Often the action is happening at the time of speaking, though this is not necessarily the case.

I play football (e.g. every Sunday)

I am playing football (I’m doing it now)

The present simple describes permanent situations

The present continuous describes temporary situations

I live in Amsterdam

I am staying with my brother until I find something permanent

Use this tense for rules. Compare…

…and

Water boils at 100° celsius

The water is boiling. Would you like some tea?

The present simple describes habits or customs

The action described by the present continuous does not have to be happening at the time of speaking

I always read for half an hour before be

I am reading a good book at the moment Here the speaker is not reading at the time of speaking, he is in the middle of doing it. He hasn’t finished reading the book yet.


55 There are some words which indicate that you should be using the present simple. These include:- usually, often, sometimes, never, normally. I usually go to work by train I often go to the cinema I never wear a tie

Indicator words for the present continuous include:- now, right now, at the moment, this week/month/year, today.

I am working in Utrecht at the moment My sister is visiting me this week


56

Passive Form to be + past participle Functions and examples We use the passive when who or what causes the action is not important or is not known, or when we want to focus on the action. The rubbish is taken out every day. (We don't know who takes the rubbish out, or maybe it's not important) The Great Wall of China was built thousands of years ago. (It's not important exactly who built it, we want to focus on the action of building) The money has been stolen. (We don't know who stole it, and we want to emphasise the action of stealing) My windows are cleaned once a month. (It's not important who cleans them. The action of cleaning is more important) More examples Present simple Active: My mother washes my clothes Passive: My clothes are washed by my mother. Present continuous Active: My mother is washing my clothes Passive: My clothes are being washed by my mother. Present perfect Active: My mother has washed my clothes Passive: My clothes have been washed by my mother. Past simple Active: My mother washed my clothes Passive: My clothes were washed by my mother.


57 Past continuous Active: My mother was washing my clothes Passive: My clothes were being washed by my mother. Past perfect Active: My mother had washed my clothes Passive: My clothes had been washed by my mother. Future 'will' Active: My mother will wash my clothes Passive: My clothes will be washed by my mother. Future 'going to' Active: My mother is going to wash my clothes Passive: My clothes are going to be washed by my mother. Future continuous Active: My mother will be washing my clothes Passive: My clothes will be being washed by my mother. Future perfect Active: My mother will have washed my clothes Passive: My clothes will have been washed by my mother. Modal verbs Active: My mother might wash my clothes Passive: My clothes might be washed by my mother. Active: My mother can wash my clothes Passive: My clothes can be washed by my mother. Active: My mother must wash my clothes Passive: My clothes must be washed by my mother.


58 Important points If there are two objects in the active sentence, two passive sentences are possible. Active: They gave me 50 dollars to do it. Passive: I was given 50 dollars to do it / 50 dollars was given to me to do it. Get is often used instead of be in informal spoken English. I got offered the promotion. The table got damaged in the fire. I got asked to present the award. The subject of the active verb (sometimes called the agent) is not usually expressed in passive sentences, because it is unknown or unimportant. However, if it is used, it is usually preceded with 'by'. The painting was done by Picasso. When we talk about a tool used by an agent, it can be preceded by 'with'. The painting was done with oils on canvas.


59

Would/Could Difference would you = do you mind, are you agreeable to, is it OK with you to could you = are you able to Examples if you could climb that tree would you rescue my cat = If you are able to climb the tree is it OK with you to climb that tree and save my cat. I would if I could = I am content to climb the tree if I were able to would If we want to talk about an unreal or unlikely situation that might arise now or in the future, we use a past tense in the if-clause and would + infinitive in the main clause. Compare the following and note that would is often abbreviated to 'd: 

How would you manage, if I wasn't here to help you? ~ I'd manage somehow. I wouldn't bother to cook. I'd go out to eat or bring home a take-away. I'd ask your mother to help me with the washing and the ironing. I know she'd help me.


60 would have If we want to refer to the past and make a statement about things that did not happen, we need to use had + past participle in the if clause and would have constructions in the main clause. Note in these sentences that we can use 'd as the abbreviation for both had in the if-clause and would in the main clause: 

If he'd taken an umbrella, he wouldn't have got wet on the way home.

If he'd taken his umbrella, he'd have stayed dry.

could Could can be used to ask for permission, to make a request and express ability in the past. Compare the following: Could I borrow your black dress for the formal dinner tomorrow? ~ Of course you can! 

Could you do me a favour and pick Pete up from the station? ~ Of course I will! 

I could already swim by the time I was three. ~ Could you really? I couldn't swim until I was eight. 


61 could have As with would have, and should have, could have is used to talk about the past and refers to things that people could have done in the past, but didn't attempt to do or succeed in doing: 

I could have gone to university, if I'd passed my exams.

If he'd trained harder, I'm sure he could have completed the swim. 

Note the difference between would have and could have in the following two examples. Would have indicates certainty that he would have won if he had tried harder, could have indicates that it is a possibility. Might have is similar in meaning to could have, although the possibility is perhaps not quite as great:   

If he'd tried a bit harder, he would have won the race. If he'd tried a bit harder, he could have won the race. If he'd tried a bit harder, he might have won the race.


62

Verb Tenses Verb tenses are an attribute of verbs that show time. Remember that verbs are words that show an action or a state of being. So, when we use different verb tenses, we are showing the different times that these actions took place. There are only six tenses for English verbs! You can learn about six tenses! It's not too hard. Three of them are called simple tenses, and three of them are called perfect tenses. One tricky thing is that each of those six tenses can be made progressive, so it almost seems like there are 12 tenses. But those progressive forms are not really different verb tenses, they are just different forms of the six verb tenses.


63 Simple Tenses There are three basic times when verbs can take place: past, present, and future. These are the easy ones to remember. In fact, they are called simple tenses. All English verbs have these three simple tense. Simple present tense verbs show actions that happen regularly or that are permanently happening. We play football in the backyard. My niece skips down the road. Simple past tense verbs are verbs that show actions that took place in the past. We played football in the backyard. My niece skipped down the road Simple future tense verbs are verbs that show actions that have not taken place yet, but that will take place in the future. We will play football in the backyard. My niece will skip down the road.


64 Perfect Tenses All English verbs also have three perfect verb tenses: present perfect tense, past perfect tense, and future perfect tense. These tenses are pretty cool, I guess, but I'm not sure that I'd call them perfect. Whoever named these guys sure thought highly of them. At any rate, all of these perfect tenses are formed with the helping verbs have, has, had, will and shall and the past participles of the verb. Present perfect tense verbs show an action that was finished recently or one that that was completed at an indefinite time in the past. These use has or have. We have played football. My niece has skipped down the road. Past perfect tense verbs show an action that that came directly before another action in the past. These use had. We had played football. My niece had skipped down the road before I came. Future perfect tense verbs show an action that will happen before another future action happens. These use will have and shall have. By tomorrow, we will have played football. By noon, my niece will have skipped down the road.


65 Progressive/Continuous Forms Both simple and perfect verb tenses can also be made into progressive verb forms. Sometimes they are also called continuous. That just means that they show an action that is in progress or that is continuing. To form this type of verb, you add one of the forms of the verb be with the present participle of the verb. (The present participle ends in ing.) We are playing. (present progressive) We were playing. (past progressive) We will be playing. (future progressive) We have been playing. (present perfect progressive) We had been playing. (past perfect progressive) We will have been playing. (future perfect progressive)


66 Regular Verbs These are not a different verb tense, but they are an important thing to learn about. You will often hear about regular verbs, so you might as well learn about them! Verbs that add d or ed to their present form to form the past tense are regular verbs. Here are some sentences with regular verbs. Notice that they end in d or ed. The dog jumped toward the squirrel. We all noticed the stain on his shirt. My grandmother knitted me this scarf.

Irregular Verbs Again, irregular verbs are not a different verb tense, but they are an important topic when it comes to studying verbs. The word irregular means not regular, so irregular verbs are those that have unpredictable forms in the past tense. They don't add d or ed to their present form to form the past tense are irregular verbs. Here are some sentences with irregular verbs written in the past tense. Notice that they don't end in d or ed. I ate my vegetables. We swam across the lake. My mother read me a bedtime story.


67

Multi-word verbs Multi-word verbs are made up of a verb, an adverb and a preposition. Because they end with a preposition, multi-word verbs always take a direct object. Also, the three words that combine to form multi-word verbs cannot be separated. We have selected 6 of those multi-word verbs. You will see that, as with many phrasal verbs, some of the multi-word verbs can have more than one meaning. Catch up on/with something to do something you did not have time to do earlier I'm hoping to catch up on some sleep. I need a couple of days in the office to catch up with my paperwork. Come up with something to think of or to suggest a plan or idea, a solution to a problem, or an answer to a question A team of advertisers is hard at work trying to come up with a slogan for the product. Experts have failed to come up with an explanation of why the explosion happened. to get or produce something which someone needs or which they have asked you for Each member of the expedition needs to come up with ÂŁ3,000 to fund their trip. We need someone to create a new software program. Can Bob come up with the goods? (= create what we want)


68 Look out for somebody/something to carefully watch the people or things around you so that you will notice a particular person or thing Remember to look out for Anna - she said she'd be there. Can you look out for a present for Ed while you're out shopping? Put up with somebody/something to accept unpleasant behaviour or an unpleasant situation, even though you do not like it He's not easy to live with - I think Jo puts up with a lot. I can put up with a house being untidy but I don't like it to be dirty. He's impossible! How do you put up with him? Stand up for something/somebody to defend something that you believe is important [e.g. principle, right], or to defend a person who is being criticized She always stands up for what she believes in. The Prime Minister has promised to stand up for British interests abroad. You've got to stand up for yourself if you want people to respect you. [often reflexive] Watch out for somebody/something to be careful to notice someone or something interesting Watch out for his latest movie which comes out next month. Tony Pritchard should be running in this race so watch out for him.


English Grammar