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Hello friends!

We will present the report we did.

Iberians and Celts Come with us! Will be a very interesting journey!

The Lusitanians were a nation of warriors. They were also an agrarian people. The mines in the Hispanic territory gave them the iron which served for his instruments of war, especially the long spears, which did not spare the enemy. So with their courage they mastered almost all the Hispanic Peninsula.

The Romans come to Iberian Peninsula For a long time the Romans, natural of the Ancient Rome, in Italy, had the power and the force. They were a very powerful nation and their people had a lot of skill in the art of war. In the third century. C., the Romans invaded the Iberian Peninsula, which was inhabited at that time by the Celts and Lusitanians. The Romans ruled the Iberian Peninsula for over four hundred years. Introducing their laws, their customs and their language. Built bridges, roads, monuments.


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The Arabs had a very evolved civilization. In now days we have in our vocabulary several words of Arabic origin: bucket, orange, Algarve, Faro, Beja ... Came from North Africa and influenced the South of the Iberian Peninsula.

When the Iberian peninsula was invaded by the Arabs in the eighth century, the Christians fled to the north, in Asturias. It was then that launched the counterattack to regain lost territory. This war, made of ​ advances and retreats, lasted eight centuries and goes by the name of Christian Reconquest.

In the eleventh century, Christians had recovered about a third of the Iberian peninsula, where they formed several kingdoms. Of these, the largest and most important was the kingdom of Le贸n. To help fight the Moors, arrived two counts from France: D. Raymond and D. Henrique.

How did they win this battle, D. Henry received the daughter of D. Alfonso VI, D. Teresa, and a bit of land by the name of Condado Portucalense. Then they had a son named D. Afonso Henriques, who years later became the first king of Portugal.

Battle of São Mamede At fourteen years of age (1125), the young Afonso Henriques - rider himself - according to the custom of kings – becomes an independent warrior. In 1128, hangs up the Battle of São Mamede (Guimarães) between supporters of Prince Afonso and his mother. This is due, D. Afonso Henriques takes the county and it will make the kingdom of Portugal.

In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors.

1249 - Conquest final of the Algarve, marking the end of Muslim occupation in Portugal. On this date were defined boundaries of the country, almost unchanged until today.

With the conquest completed and the Portuguese




Moorish occupation, D. Dinis was essentially an administrative king, not a military one. With Portugal finally recognized as an independent




neighbours, D. Dinis signed a border pact with Ferdinand IV of Castile (1297) which has endured to the present day.

The priority of government was the organization of the country. D. Dinis ordered the construction of numerous castles and created new towns. His main concern was the redevelopment and promotion of rural infrastructure. D. Dinis ordering the planting of a pine forest near Leiria. This forest still exists as one of the most important of Portugal and is known as the Pinhal de Leiria (Leiria Pinewood).

Culture was another interest of King Denis. The University of Lisbon (today's University of Coimbra) was founded by his decree Magna Charta Priveligiorum, the first Portuguese University. He was also a troubadour.

The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration, was a period starting in the early 15th century and continuing to the 17th century during which Europeans explored Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania.

Adamastor is a mythological character, famed by the Portuguese poet Luís de Camões in his epic poem “Os Lusíadas” (first printed in 1572), as a symbol of the forces of nature, that Portuguese navigators had to overcome during their discoveries.

Cabo das Tormentas

The portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama becomes the first European to reach India via the Atlantic Ocean -1498

Arrival of Pedro Alvares Cabral to Brasil. The arrival of the Portuguese to the Brazilian lands held in April 22, 1500.

Os Lusíadas usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem by Luís Vaz de Camões. Written in Homeric  fashion, the poem focuses mainly on a fantastical interpretation of the Portuguese voyages of discovery during the 15th and 16th centuries. 

The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, came about as a result of the death of young King Sebastian I of Portugal in the Battle of Alcรกcer Quibir in 1578. As Sebastian had no immediate heirs, this event prompted a dynastic crisis, with internal and external battles between several pretenders to the Portuguese throne; in addition, because Sebastian's body was never found, several impostors emerged over the next several years claiming to be the young king, further confusing the situation.

Ultimately, Philip II of Spain gained control of the country, uniting the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns in the Iberian Union, a personal union that would last for 60 years, during which time the Portuguese Empire declined.

These cuts Philip II of Spain was recognized as King of Portugal, with the title of Philip I, having been sworn by the Portuguese towns and cities.

The Portuguese Restoration War was the name given by nineteenth-century 'romantic' historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon (1668). The period from 1640 to 1668 was marked by periodic skirmishes between Portugal and Spain.

The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on Saturday, 1 November 1755, the holiday of All Saints' Day, at around 09:40 local time.

In combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, the earthquake almost totally destroyed Lisbon and adjoining areas. Estimates place the death toll in Lisbon alone between 10,000 and 100,000 people, making it one of the deadliest earthquakes in history.







epidemics, and within less than a year it was already being rebuilt. The new central area of Lisbon






earthquakes. The







Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon are one of Lisbon's main tourist attractions: they are the world's first earthquake-proof buildings.

MarquĂŞs de Pombal, was Secretary of the State of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (the equivalent to today's Prime Minister) in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

The Lisbon Regicide was the name given for the assassinations of King Carlos I of Portugal and his heir-apparent, Prince Royal Luís Filipe, by assassins sympathetic to republican interests and aided by elements within the Portuguese Carbonária. The events occurred on 1 February 1908 in the Praça do Comércio along the banks of the Tagus River in Lisbon, commonly referred to by its antiquated name: the Terreiro do Paço (or Palace Courtyard).

Dom Luís is buried next to his father and forefathers in the Royal Pantheon of the Braganza Dynasty in Lisbon. His younger brother, Manuel II of Portugal, and his mother, Queen Amélie of Orléans, are buried opposite. On 5 October 1910, the monarchy under the reign of his surviving younger brother, Manuel II, was overthrown in a military coup.

D. Manuel II was the last King of Portugal, ascending the throne after the assassination of his father, King Carlos I of Portugal, and his elder brother, LuĂ­s Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal. His reign ended with the dissolution of the monarchy with the 5 October 1910 revolution, and D. Manuel lived the rest of his life in an exile enforced by the new Portuguese First Republic.

The establishment of the Portuguese Republic  was the result of a coup d’etat organised by the Portuguese Republican Party which, on 5 October 1910, deposed the constitutional monarchy and established a republican regime in Portugal.  

Manuel Jos茅 de Arriaga was a Portuguese lawyer, he was the first Attorney-General and the first elected President of the First Portuguese Republic, following the abdication of King Manuel II of Portugal and the Republican Provisional Government headed by Te贸filo Braga (who would succeed him in the post following his resignation).

The Carnation Revolution also referred to as the 25 April, was a military coup began on 25 April 1974 in Lisbon, Portugal, and which overthrew the dictatorial regime of the Estado Novo. The revolution started as a military coup organized by the Movimento das Forรงas Armadas (Armed Forces Movement, MFA), composed of military officers who opposed the regime. This movement would lead to the fall of the Estado Novo.

The Portuguese celebrate the national holiday, on 25 April, the Freedom Day, and remember these events.

Expo '98 (1998 Lisbon World Exposition). The theme of the fair was "The Oceans, a Heritage for the Future," chosen in part to commemorate 500 years of Portuguese discoveries. The Expo received around 11 million visitors in 132 days, while 155 countries and organizations were represented.

The 2004 UEFA - European Football Championship. It was held in Portugal for the first time, after the country's bid was selected by UEFA on 12 October 1999. The tournament took place from 12 June to 4 July 2004, and matches were played in ten venues across eight cities.

And‌ we are finishing our journey througt history of Portugal. Goodbye friends!

Etwin and Ning in Portugal  

Etwin e Ning são um menino e uma menina que querem conhecer as suas origens e história.

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