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MONDAY, JUNE 24 7:30 PM Chamber Music at Porter Scott Concert Hall

BOCCHERINI Guitar Quintet No. 4 in D major (1743 – 1805) Pastorale Allegro maestoso Grave assai Fandango Celil Refik Kaya, guitar Benjamin Sung, violin Margaret Karp, violin Jennifer Snyder Kozoroz, viola Benjamin Karp, cello CASTELNUOVO-TEDESCO Sonatina for Flute and Guitar, Op. 205 (1895 – 1968) Allegretto grazioso Tempo di siciliana Scherzo. Rondo Dilshad Posnock, flute Celil Refik Kaya, guitar

ASCENCIO La Calma (1908 – 1979)

Celil Refik Kaya, guitar

INTERMISSION DOHNANYI   Piano Quintet No. 1 in C minor, Op. 1 (1877 – 1960) Allegro Scherzo. Allegro Adagio, quasi andante Finale. Allegro animato Donna Lee, piano Corinne Stillwell, violin Byron Tauchi, violin Maggie Snyder, viola Felix Wang, cello ­



LUIGI BOCCHERINI (1743-1805): Guitar Quintet No. 4 in D major

VICENTE ASENCIO (1908-1979): La Calma

The guitar quintet on tonight’s program represents many facets of Boccherini’s style. The Pastorale showcases not only the guitar as an essential partner in this chamber ensemble, but the composer’s lyrical voice is clearly heard. The second movement betrays the composer’s strong affinity to the Viennese classicism of Haydn and Mozart, and in the last movement Boccherini tipped his hat to his chosen surroundings, as the Fandango is a Spanish folk dance that was traditionally performed by couples with castanets accompanied by guitars.

ERNÖ DOHNÁNYI (1877-1960): Piano Quintet No. 1 in C minor, Op. 1

The history of the guitar is inextricably linked to Spain. It is therefore not surprising that Boccherini’s eight guitar quintets have a Spanish connection. Boccherini’s travels as cello virtuoso led him to Spain, where he was offered a good job as composer and performer. He did not include the guitar in chamber compositions, however, until he needed money after the death of his patron. Realizing the lack of repertoire for the rich amateur guitarists, Boccherini arranged several of his chamber works to include the guitar.

-- Siegwart Reichwald

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



The Sonatina is one of his last compositions, written in 1965. In the opening Rondo the flute and guitar are equal partners, switching between counterpoint and simply dialogue. The Tempo di Siciliana explores lush harmonies with slow Sicilian rhythms. The composer’s mature style can be heard in the idiomatic writing for both instruments. The Allegro grazioso returns to the neo-classical counterpoint of the opening movement.

This opus 1 is a polished composition that represents the work of an accomplished composer. At the same time, it only offers a glimpse of who this new composer is because of the young artist’s dependence on models of the previous generation. While Dohnányi’s first piano quintet is Brahmsian, we can nevertheless detect a Hungarian voice full of vitality and enthusiasm. It also points toward a harmonic language open to new directions without abandoning the rich Romantic tradition. Brahms rightly felt good about the trajectory of this young composer’s compositional path.


This Italian composer had a long and fascinating career as composer, performer, and teacher on two continents. As an up-and-coming, progressive composer, Castelnuovo-Tedesco’s career came to screeching halt during World War II because of his Jewish descent. Forced to leave Italy, the pianist and composer settled in California, teaching composition at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music. Because of his successful work for several Hollywood studios, he became a sought-after teacher of film music. His students included Henry Mancini, Jerry Goldsmith, André Previn, Nelson Riddle, and John Williams. His musical style draws from impressionism and neo-classicism.

An opus 1 is a scary and exciting milestone in the career of a composer, as it introduces a young composer’s identity to the public. In Dohnányi’s case his allegiance was to the music of Brahms. Composed in 1895, the young composer left no doubt that he wanted to follow in his idol’s footsteps. Lucky for Dohnányi, the aging Brahms—after looking over this opus—said, “I could not have written it better myself.” More importantly, however, Brahms even arranged for a public performance in Vienna with himself at the piano. The work was a great success. Dohnányi could not have dreamed of a better start to his career.


MARIO CASTELNUOVO-TEDESCO (18951968): Sonatina for Flute and Guitar, Op. 205

This Spanish composer is mainly known for his guitar music – Andrés Segovia was one of his main exponents. Asencio grew up in Valencia and returned there after studies in Barcelona, Milan, and Paris. He was a central figure in the emerging musical scene of his hometown. His style is strongly influenced by Manuel de Falla’s nationalistic style. La Calma (“Calm”) is the third movement of a collection entitled Collectici Íntim. As the title suggests, this movement invokes a deep sense of calm and serenity.

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 26 7:30 PM Night of Quintets Scott Concert Hall

BACH Selections from Art of the Fugue (arr. Sauer) (1685 – 1750) Contrapunctus I (Simple Fugue)                                                           Contrapunctus V (Stretto Fugue)                                                           Contrapunctus XII (Mirror Fugue)                                                               A. Rectus                                                               B. Inversus                                                            Contrapunctus IX (Double Fugue) Neal Berntsen, trumpet Mark Schubert, trumpet Robert Rydel, French horn David Jackson, trombone Charles Villarrubia, tuba BAX  Harp Quintet (1883 – 1953) Tempo moderato Tranquillo Tempo primo Ina Zdorovetchi, harp Marjorie Bagley, violin Rebecca Corruccini, violin Erika Eckert, viola Alistair MacRae, cello

INTERMISSION FRANCK   Piano Quintet in F minor (1822 – 1890) Molto moderato quasi lento – Allegro Lento, con molto sentimento Allegro non troppo ma con fuoco Craig Nies, piano Juliana Athayde, violin Benjamin Sung, violin Scott Rawls, viola David Premo, cello ­



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750): Selections from Art of the Fugue arranged for Brass Quintet

ARNOLD BAX (1883-1953): Harp Quintet

-- Siegwart Reichwald

The orchestral quality of this work is obvious right from the start with its emphasis on colors that focus on the sound itself as much as the thematic ideas. The constantly changing timbres through the use of a variety of string techniques create a work full of wonder that draws the listener into a rich aural and emotional experience.

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



Bax loved Ireland ever since his first visit when he was 17, and the independence movement of the 1910s only deepened his emotional attachment. The harp quintet, composed in 1919, might have been inspired by his first return to Ireland since the Easter Rebellion of 1916. The emotional depth of this “tone poem” reflects his intense reactions to familiar places and people in the aftermath of these violent conflicts.

Composed during the winter of 1878-79, Franck expressed his intense feelings in this classically conceived threemovement chamber work. The seeming simplicity of the work is actually its strength. By using simple sonata form for the first two movements, Franck places all the focus on the main themes and their constant transformations. The secondary theme of the first movement becomes the idée fixe (a theme of obsession) of the whole work. At the end of the almost 40-minute long work the recurring theme has completely taken over; Franck offers no sense of resolution— only passionate longing. . .


The opening four-part fugue introduces the listener to the theme’s expressive quality. In fugue no. 5 Bach uses the inverted theme (the direction of the intervals is inverted) together with the original theme. Bach raises the intensity level through various strettos (the voice entrances follow in close succession). No. 9 is a complex double fugue (two fugue subjects used separately and simultaneously). The fast-moving second subject alters the serene affect of the original theme, creating a movement full of excitement and joy. The appearance of the two themes together creates a beautiful sense of synthesis in the truest sense, as one theme illuminates the contrasting qualities of its counterpart.

There are few chamber pieces that can match the passion of this piano quintet: Franck’s wife flat-out refused to attend any performance of this piece; Nadia Boulanger was puzzled by the unsurpassed predominance of ƒƒƒ and ppp in this work; and the initial dedicatee Saint-Saëns walked off the stage without any acknowledgement of the audience’s applause or even the composer who had come to congratulate Saint-Saëns on his fine performance (not surprisingly, Franck withdrew his dedication). What can conjure up such intense passion in the lives of a middle-aged couple and their circle of friends? Only the intense longing for another woman! The beautiful Augusta Holmès, who was Franck’s student, had attracted the passionate admiration of not only Franck but also Wagner, d’Indy, Mallarmé, and Saint-Saëns.


This enigmatic work might be viewed as his compositional epitaph. A collection of canons and fugues on one subject, Bach left the composition incomplete. His oldest son, Carl Philip Emanuel published the 14 completed fugues and 4 canons in 1751—one year after his father’s death. Because the fugues were written in open score without any designation of instruments, the work has sometimes been viewed as a thesis on fugue writing rather than a living composition. Despite the scholarly approach of this master of fugue writing, the work espouses one of the essential tenets of baroque music—to engage the listener on an emotional level.

CÉSAR FRANCK (1822-1890): Piano Quintet in F minor

MONDAY, JULY 1 7:30 PM Chamber Music at Searcy Searcy Hall

ALDRIDGE Prisoner of Love (1954 - ) Joseph Lulloff, saxophone Deloise Lima, piano SCHNITTKE Violin Sonata No. 1 (1934 – 1998) Andante Allegretto Largo Allegretto – Allegro – Largo Carolyn Huebl, violin Douglas Weeks, piano

INTERMISSION MOZART Piano Quartet No. 1 in G minor, K. 478 (1756 – 1791) Allegro Andante Rondo. Allegro Donna Lee, piano Rebecca Corruccini, violin Maggie Snyder, viola Benjamin Karp, cello ­



ROBERT ALDRIDGE (1954 - ): Prisoner of Love Grammy winning composer Robert Livingston Aldridge is Professor and Director of Music at the Mason Gross School of the Arts at Rutgers University.  Aldridge has been composer in residence at Brevard since 2006.  The composer writes:

“Prisoner of Love was written in 1985. At the time, I had no idea that there was a song with that title, so the music from the piece is totally my own and not based on the popular tune. It was written for Fred Hersch and Jane Ira Bloom.

The opening Andante explores a twelve-tone row introduced by the violin. The short movement functions as a prelude to the ensuing Allegro. Here the piano takes on a larger role in a dialog between the two instruments. After the dialog subsides, a lyrical theme introduces the main motivic material for this movement. A piano cadenza closes the movement, leading straight into the elegiac Largo, which focuses almost entirely on the violin. The closing Scherzo is full of drive and excitement until the return of the opening theme. Closure is achieved with the piano searching for and eventually intoning a C major chord.

-- Siegwart Reichwald

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



Schnittke was a commercially successful composer, which seems like an oxymoron considering the egalitarian ideals of communist Russia. The reason for his success was his focus on film music. Between 1962 and 1984 he wrote 66 film scores working as a freelance composer (even more of a paradox). Despite his success, Schnittke felt isolated from the musical trends of the West, since many of the more progressive works by Western composers were inaccessible to him. Around the time of the composition of his first violin sonata in 1963, Schnittke was able to gain access to a variety of works that explore serial techniques. This sonata reflects his reaction to these works.

Part of the reason for the work’s progressive and demanding style is Mozart’s exposure to Haydn’s Opus 33 String Quartets, which, as Haydn explained, were composed “in an entirely new and special manner.” Beginning with an arresting opening motive, the listener is engaged in an exciting musical narrative. It is not difficult to understand the composer’s disregard of level of difficulty in his attempt to compose a work of high intensity and unprecedented length; the first movement is 15 minutes long! Mozart employs pensive lyricism in the slow movement to unfold the main theme’s latent characteristics in a simple yet refined manner. The closing Rondo showcases the difficulty in performing Mozart: what looks relatively simple on the page has a level of complexity that can only be mastered by the most accomplished of musicians.


ALFRED SCHNITTKE (1934-1998): Violin Sonata No. 1

While Mozart did not have to contend with a repressive political regime, the general public can also pronounce severe judgment. In 1785 Mozart was commissioned to write three quartets. But his first piano quartet was more than the public (and Hoffmeister) could handle. One music journal concluded that, “it could not please: everybody yawned with boredom over the incomprehensible tintamarre of 4 instruments which did not keep together for four bars on end, and whose senseless concentus never allowed any unity of feeling; but it had to please, it had to be praised! … what a difference when this much-advertised work of art is performed with the highest degree of accuracy by four skilled musicians who have studied it carefully.” Because of the work’s extreme technical demands Hoffmeister dropped the commission for the other two quartets. [Maybe the work should have been published with a warning label, “Don’t try this at home!”]


The piece is mostly notated, but contains two small sections where there is either completely free improvisation, or structured improvisation over the chords of the tune itself. It is meant to evoke jazz in both a nostalgic and a contemporary way, and attempts to blend the jazz with classical concert music. Many thanks to Joe and Deloise and to the Brevard Music Center for programming the work.”

WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756-1791): Piano Quartet No. 1 in G minor, K. 478

MONDAY, JULY 8 7:30 PM Chamber Music at Porter Scott Concert Hall

BEETHOVEN String Trio in D major, Op. 9, No. 2 (1770 – 1827) Allegretto Andante quasi allegretto Menuetto. Allegro Rondo. Allegro Carolyn Huebl, violin Jennifer Snyder Kozoroz, viola David Premo, cello BEETHOVEN  Octet for Winds in E flat major, Op. 103 (1770 – 1827) Allegro  Andante  Menuetto  Presto Eric Ohlsson and Paige Morgan, oboes Steve Cohen and Eric Ginsberg, clarinets William Ludwig and Susan Barber, bassoons Jeff Nelsen and Hazel Dean Davis, French horns

INTERMISSION BEETHOVEN Piano Trio in D major, Op. 70, No. 1, “Ghost” (1770 – 1827) Allegro vivace e con brio Largo assai ed espressivo Presto Norman Krieger, piano Marjorie Bagley, violin Felix Wang, cello



LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827): String Trio in D major, Op. 9, No. 2

Despite the high opus number, this work represents Beethoven in his early twenties while still living in Bonn. It is an example of 18th-century entertainment music— something we don’t expect from Beethoven the heroic. But just like any young composer, Beethoven had to compose whatever the occasion called for in order to be heard. Harmoniemusik—music for wind instruments—was the fashionable entertainment at dinner parties for people like Elector Maximilian Franz, Beethoven’s employer in Bonn. In this work we are introduced to the young, classical Beethoven, whose obvious talent is on display, garnering him the reputation as an up-and-coming composer.

The ominous title for this work surfaced some 15 years after Beethoven’s death when Carl Czerny, one of Beethoven’s students, wrote that the ghost of Hamlet’s father is conjured up in the second movement. As truth is always stranger than fiction, Beethoven might indeed have had Shakespeare swirling in his head, but it wasn’t Hamlet the composer had in mind. Rather, the manuscript includes allusions to Macbeth in the composer’s hand at the end of the second movement. While the nickname places the focus on the second movement, the outer movements are not just bookends. Beethoven grabs the listener’s attention with the memorable opening theme. The contrasting, lyrical second theme provides Beethoven with plenty of ammunition for an exciting plot. The eerie beginning of the “Ghost” movement, heard within the context of the outer movements, creates an atmosphere of melancholy. Sudden outbursts might be seen as expressions of painful memories—if we choose to follow Czerny’s interpretative path. Thankfully, the final movement offers a bright and joyful ending.

-- Siegwart Reichwald

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



Octet for Winds in E flat major, Op. 103

If the first two works represent the young Beethoven writing in a popular, classical style, this piano trio is diametrically opposed to that approach. Here we find the heroic Beethoven who wills a new style into existence. At the end of the 18th century the piano trio had been the genre of choice for amateur music making. Composers, including Beethoven, published piano trios with these limitations in mind. “The Ghost,” which is not Beethoven’s nickname for this trio, would have haunted Vienna’s amateur musicians with its high technical and musical demands.


Perhaps because this trio was the second in the set of three, this work is more lyrical than the outer two. The opening movement has two beautiful melodies as main themes. The subtleties and refinement of the Allegretto evidence Beethoven’s mastery of the genre. The Andante is short and light in character, creating the ambience and intimacy of a Lied (German art song). The ensuing movement is a minuet in name only. It really is a scherzo—playful with constantly shifting rhythms. The work closes with a rondo that takes folksy elements (rustic drones and syncopated accents) and elevates them to artistic expression in the high classical style.

Piano Trio in D major, Op. 70, No. 1, “Ghost”


While Beethoven is not known for his string trios, we cannot underestimate their importance in his compositional development. In late 18th-century Vienna the string trio was a popular genre alongside the string quartet. Not surprisingly, the young Beethoven composed and published several string trios to make money and get his name out. In 1794 he composed his Op. 3 String Trios and two years later the Op. 8 Serenade. His success in this genre prompted him to publish three more trios in 1798 as Op. 9. But Beethoven’s smart business sense was not limited to his choice of compositional genres. He was also very shrewd about his choice of dedicatees for his works. Dedicating his Op. 9 String Trios to Count Johann Georg von Brown-Camus might have meant something more tangible to Beethoven than warm words, since his earlier dedication to the Countess had been rewarded with the gift of a horse!

The opening Allegro has an incessant little sixteenth note motive, heard throughout the movement. This might have been Beethoven’s attempt to keep the audience’s attention within the context of dinner music. The ensuing Andante is actually a very fast-paced, fleet-footed affair with simple back-and-forth between instruments. The flowing minuet with its beautiful legato lines functions as the slow movement. The short finale uses constant call-and-response patterns to showcase the instruments and their distinct colors.

WEDNESDAY, JULY 10 7:30 PM Chamber Music at Porter Scott Concert Hall

FRANCK Sonata in A major for Flute and Piano (1822 – 1890) Allegretto ben moderato Allegro Recitativo Fantasia  Allegretto poco mosso Marianne Gedigian, flute Craig Nies, piano

INTERMISSION SHOSTAKOVICH Piano Quintet in G minor, Op. 57 (1906 – 1975) Prelude. Lento Fugue. Adagio Scherzo. Allegretto Intermezzo. Lento Finale. Allegretto Douglas Weeks, piano Noah Bendix-Balgley, violin Jay Christy, violin Erika Eckert, viola Alistair MacRae, cello



cell from the work’s opening. The structural freedom of the Recitativo-Fantasia movement allows Franck to focus on exploring the motivic cell in a very intimate fashion. The closing Allegretto poco mosso draws the music back into the more conventional context of imitative counterpoint. From there the work grows to its ultimate climax in the massive coda.

The performance history of this work is fascinating. Franck did not finish the work until the day of Ysaÿe’s wedding. The violin virtuoso and a wedding guest (the pianist Léontine Bordes-Pène) premiered the work at the wedding after a brief rehearsal. Apparently, these two musicians liked the piece, because they also gave the public premiere three months later. Composer Vincent d’Indy recorded this fascinating event:

DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH (1906-1975): Piano Quintet in G minor, Op. 57

The popularity of this violin sonata can be seen in its great number of transcriptions for various instruments. Originally composed for the wedding of his Belgian countryman, the great violinist Eugène Ysaÿe, this work quickly became a staple in the repertoire of many instrumentalists, including flute players.

This work sums up Shostakovich’s compositional ideals. He has a strong affinity to the music of the past (he followed Bach’s example and wrote 24 Preludes and Fugues) and subscribes to the concept of absolute music, yet he is at the forefront of new compositional trends. The result is an immensely engaging work both intellectually and emotionally.

-- Siegwart Reichwald

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



The success of this sonata can be found in its organicism. Unlike a typical sonata, this work opens with a pensive movement that focuses on the lyricism of the solo line. The flute introduces a theme based on a simple melodic cell. The whole work unfolds from this cell. As the second movement commences in fast and dramatic fashion, we realize that the first movement functioned as an introduction to this intense Allegro. The contrasting lyrical sections recall the motivic

I also remember some of the prewar premières of Shostakovich’s music, for instance, the first performance of his wonderful Piano Quintet Op. 57 (1940), played by the Beethoven Quartet with Shostakovich himself at the piano. Many people in the audience were taken aback at the time by the unusually sharp and contradictory thematic juxtapositions: the self-consciously “learned-style” polyphony in some movements (the Prelude, the Fugue, and the wonderful intermezzo), together with the rather frivolous, dance-hall rhythms of the finale. This unfamiliar mix of disparate topics struck some listeners as quite objectionable, despite the fact that the paradoxical contrasts such as this illustrate one of Shostakovich’s most important discoveries—a method very much in line with the creative practices of Gustav Mahler, Shostakovich’s ideal. Already at the time Shostakovich demonstrated in his music a knack for “combining the uncombinable,” an approach later to be described by Russian musicologists as “polystylistics.”


The violin and piano sonata was performed ... in one of the rooms of the Museum of Modern Painting at Brussels. The séance, which began at three o’clock, had been very long, and it was rapidly growing dark. After the first Allegretto of the sonata, the performers could scarcely read the music. Now the official regulations forbade any light whatever in rooms which contained paintings. Even the striking of a match would have been matter of offense. The public was about to be asked to leave, but the audience, already full of enthusiasm, refused to budge. Then Ysaÿe was heard to strike his music stand with his bow, exclaiming [to the pianist], “Allons! Allons!” [Let’s go] And then, unheard-of-marvel, the two artists, plunged in gloom ... performed the last three movements from memory, with a fire and passion the more astounding to the listeners in that there was an absence of all externals which could enhance the performance. Music, wondrous and alone, held sovereign sway in the darkness of night.”

On the surface this work seems absurd: It has five movements instead of four; the first two movements employ baroque genres (prelude and fugue); the fourth comes from the opera tradition (intermezzo); and the proportions are completely out of whack (the fugue is by far the longest movement). Russian music writer Irina Nikolskaya remembers the premiere:


CÉSAR FRANCK (1822-1890): Sonata in A major for Flute and Piano

MONDAY, JULY 15 7:30 PM Felix Wang in Recital Searcy Hall

BACH Suite No. 4 in E flat major for Solo Cello, BWV 1010 (1685 – 1750) Prelude Allemande Courante Sarabande Bourrée Gigue BRITTEN Cello Suite No. 1, Op. 72 (1913 – 1976) Canto primo. Sostenuto e largamente Fuga. Andante moderato Lamento. Lento rubato Canto secondo. Sostenuto Serenata. Allegretto pizzicato  Marcia. Alla marcia moderato  Canto terzo. Sostenuto  Bordone. Moderato quasi recitative Moto perpetuo e Canto quarto. Presto Felix Wang, cello

INTERMISSION BRAHMS Cello Sonata No. 1 in E minor, Op. 38 (1833 – 1897) Allegro non troppo Allegretto quasi Menuetto Allegro Felix Wang, cello Sandra Shen, piano



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750): Suite No. 4 in E flat major for Solo Cello, BWV 1010

Britten had two good reasons to compose his three Cello Suites. One, he loved Bach’s Cello Suites; and two, he was electrified by Rostropovich’s London premiere performance of Shostakovich’s Cello Concerto, causing Britten to compose six cello pieces over the course of his career for the great cellist.

The first movement is intense from the start. The piano never plays a downbeat throughout the whole theme. When the piano replays the theme the cello accompanies with a complex countermelody. The dark atmosphere lifts only momentarily with the arrival of the second theme, and the movement ends as ominously as it began. Brahms discarded an adagio movement and left the dark-hued minuet as the only inner movement. Presumably, an intense adagio movement would have made the whole work too long and heavy. The last movement opens like a fugue, and, in fact, Brahms borrowed the fugue subject from Bach’s Art of Fugue (Contrapunctus 13). The severe “church style” of the opening fugato pervades the rest of the movement, which provides an appropriate closing for this intense work.

-- Siegwart Reichwald

The first cello suite consists of nine movements, organized in groups of three. Each group begins with a canto, followed by two titled movements. The first group contains a fugue and a lament. Writing a fugue for a solo instrument is a paradox—a paradox Bach had tackled 200 years earlier. Just like Bach’s

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



BENJAMIN BRITTEN (1913-1976): Cello Suite No. 1, Op. 72

The fact that Brahms began his first cello sonata during his first stay in Vienna in 1862 is deceptive. In fact, the music tells a different story. Instead of an exuberant, hopeful tone, this sonata explores the somber sound quality of the cello. After setting the work aside for a couple of years, he finished it in 1865 under different circumstances. The death of his mother and the composition of his German Requiem had put him in a completely different frame of mind.


Written during Bach’s Cöthen years (1717-1723), the cello suites represent his compositional peak with regard to instrumental music. While Bach is often portrayed as a contrapuntal genius with a mathematical mind, pieces such as the suites remind us that Bach’s primary compositional aim was always to move the listener—which is ultimately the secret to his success. The disarming simplicity of a single line of music draws the listener into a complex emotional world—expressed through equally complex, albeit hidden counterpoint. Conceived within the plain structure of a typical suite—all six suites have the same movement structure—each work is an original. The choice of key was an essential element for Bach to explore all the affects each key had to offer. The fourth suite in E flat Major stands out for its complexity and exuberance.

JOHANNES BRAHMS (1833-1897): Cello Sonata No. 1 in E minor, Op. 38


Ever since Pablo Casals’s famous 1930s recording, the Bach cello suites have been standard fare for any budding cello virtuoso. Up until then the suites were considered merely studies for intellectual enjoyment rather than aural pleasure. Even Schumann’s attempt at providing piano accompaniments didn’t change that. Today’s unparalleled popularity of these seemingly simple works is evidenced by a plethora of performances and recordings on the violin, viola, double bass, viola da gamba, mandolin, piano, marimba, guitar, recorder, electric bass, horn, saxophone, bass clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, trombone, euphonium, tuba, and even ukulele. What is the reason for their enduring success?

implied counterpoint, Britten also creates a somewhat imaginary fugue. The ensuing lament, however, has a very real expressive quality, utilizing the dark cello timbre. After the second canto, Britten moves the listener into a different sound world with a serenade played exclusively pizzicato (plucked). The Spanish flavor of the serenade continues in the rhythmic verve of the ensuing March. The third section is the most cyclical, as each movement alludes to previously introduced material. The last movement, Moto perpetuo, brings the work to a rousing close.

WEDNESDAY, JULY 17 7:30 PM Chamber Music at Searcy Searcy Hall

IBERT Cinq Pièces en Trio (1890 – 1962) Allegro vivo Andantino Allegro assai Andante Allegro quasi marziale Eric Ohlsson, oboe Steve Cohen, clarinet William Ludwig, bassoon DZUBAY Capriccio for Violin and Piano (1964 - ) Benjamin Sung, violin Jihye Chang, piano

INTERMISSION TCHAIKOVSKY Piano Trio in A minor, Op. 50 (1840 – 1893) Pezzo elegiaco Tema con variazioni Elisabeth Pridonoff, piano Byron Tauchi, violin Jonathan Spitz, cello



JACQUES IBERT (1890-1962): Cinq Pièces en Trio

Ibert was one of those composers who marched to their own beat. Active in Paris duri ng the first half of the 20th century, Ibert never subscribed to one specific trend. Winning the prestigious Prix de Rome on his first try proved his considerable talent and outstanding craftsmanship. This chamber work exemplifies his imaginative compositional approach, as he combines Impressionism and Neoclassicism in these five exquisite miniatures.

David Dzubay is chair of the Composition Department at Indiana University Jacobs School of Music, and composer in residence at Brevard. The composer writes:

-- Siegwart Reichwald


“I have known and admired violinist Corey Cerovsek since our first meeting in a music history class in 1986. My Capriccio has many of the standard attributes of other capriccios - contrasting textures and moods, unexpected chromatic twists, repeated sections, and just a certain capricious flow. Alternating between three cadenzas and three allegros, Capriccio is built out of a rather simple theme, which is based on pitches derived from the letters in Corey Cerovsek’s name. Initially presented in the first cadenza (with some elaboration), the theme permeates all the other sections, thus the work is a loose set of variations. Despite all the chromatic twists and turns, I am going to still claim that Capriccio is in A minor.”

Perhaps because of Tchaikovsky’s ambivalent view of the piano, he approached the genre decidedly different, looking not at piano trios as models but, instead, using Beethoven’s last Piano Sonata (No. 32 in C Minor, Op. 111) as inspiration for his unusual two-movement design. The “Elegaic Piece” is a broadly conceived, highly intense sonata-form movement that expresses a deep sense of mourning, beginning with the somber opening theme. The second movement introduces a theme said to be inspired by memories of a faculty picnic many years earlier. If the opening movement mourns the loss of his friend, the ten variations and grand final variation with coda celebrate the life of this great pianist.


David Dzubay (1964 - ): Capriccio for Violin and Piano

“To my mind the piano can be effective in only three situations: 1) alone; 2) in a contest with the orchestra; and 3) as accompaniment.” This is not a ringing endorsement for Tchaikovsky’s only piano trio, composed less than a year after he had penned these doubtful words about the role of the piano in chamber music. He had good reason, however, to reconsider his judgment. His mentor, the famous Russian pianist Nikolai Rubinstein, had died, and Tchaikovsky felt compelled to honor his friend with this piano trio.


Despite its title (“Five Pieces”), Ibert clearly conceived the work as a cycle. The brief Allegro vivo wastes no time, as the three woodwinds present two contrasting themes in ternary form. The serene slow movement explores all possible combinations of two-part counterpoint. The brisk minuet packs more punch than might be expected from a movement lasting less than a minute. A second slow movement is the counterweight to the earlier andantino, before a march brings back the exuberance of the first movement.

PYOTR IL’YCH TCHAIKOVSKY (1840-1893): Piano Trio in A minor, Op. 50

2013 Summer Institute & Festival


MONDAY, JULY 22 7:30 PM Bill Preucil and Friends Scott Concert Hall


Donna Lohr

HANDEL Violin Sonata in D major, HWV 371 (1685 -1757) Affetuoso Allegro  Larghetto  Allegro DVOŘÁK  Sonatina for Violin and Piano in G major, Op. 100 (1841 – 1904) Allegro risoluto Larghetto  Molto vivace Allegro William Preucil, violin Norman Krieger, piano

INTERMISSION BRAHMS String Sextet No. 1 in B flat major, Op. 18 (1833 – 1897) Allegro, ma non troppo Andante, ma moderato Scherzo. Allegro molto Rondo. Poco allegretto e grazioso William Preucil, violin Marjorie Bagley, violin Scott Rawls, viola Erika Eckert, viola Jonathan Spitz, cello Benjamin Karp, cello



GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL (1685-1759): Violin Sonata in D major, HWV 371

While Handel is mostly known for his oratorios and some orchestral suites, he actually wrote masterworks in every genre. Having spent considerable time during his formative years as a composer in Italy, Handel was introduced to all of the newest styles, including the chamber music of Arcangelo Corelli. Handel brought everything he learned with him to England and developed his own style, producing the finest repertoire of the late Baroque.

Op. 100 was written during Dvořák’s three-year stay in America, where he was hired to help develop an “American” style. Two months after his arrival in New York in 1892, Dvořák wrote:

The following year Dvořák had composed his most famous American work, his Symphony No. 9, “From the New World.” The Sonatina was written as Dvořák prepared the

Brahms’s choice of a string sextet fits his purposes perfectly. A chamber ensemble rarely used since Boccherini’s time nearly a century earlier, Brahms did not have to worry about the shadows of Beethoven or Schumann. Rather, he was able to explore new possibilities, avoiding the expectations of the string quartet or quintet. The result is a work that is closer to Mozart’s serenades than Beethoven’s string quartets, albeit with decidedly Romantic expression. Classical form and Romantic expression are fused, as Brahms shares his contented outlook on life. -- Siegwart Reichwald

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



“The Americans expect great things of me. I am to show them the way into the Promised Land, the realm of a new, independent art, in short a national style of music! … This will certainly be a great and lofty task, and I hope that with God’s help I shall succeed in it. I have plenty of encouragement to do so.”

If you ever wondered what a relaxed and happy Brahms might sound like, this piece has the answer. Written between 1858 and 1860 in Detmold when Brahms’s life was uncomplicated, this work espouses contentment and a carefree attitude. Brahms wrote to Clara Schumann, “Passions are not natural to mankind. They are always exceptions or excrescences. The ideal, genuine man is calm in joy and calm in pain and sorrow.” Brahms’s first String Sextet clearly echoes these sentiments.


ANTONIN DVOŘÁK (1841-1904): Sonatina for Violin and Piano in G major, Op. 100

JOHANNES BRAHMS (1833-1897): String Sextet No. 1 in B flat major, Op. 18


The Violin Sonata in D Major is Handel’s last published sonata (1750), and it represents his mature style. The four movements, slow-fast-slow-fast, are a perfectly balanced unit. The soaring lines of the opening Affetuoso are full of expression and beauty. The Allegro blends counterpoint with fast passage work to create an exciting movement without empty virtuosic display. Just as the opening movement, the focus of the Larghetto is the expressive qualities of the cantabile line. The brilliant last movement closes the sonata with a “concerto” movement that showcases technical facility.

symphony for the premiere in December 1893. It represents a different side of the composer’s stay in America: He was homesick and had serious doubts about his endeavor. Written for his children, Ottilie and Antonin, the sonata is full of nostalgia and longing, while also betraying an American influence. It has been suggested that the first movement has melodic allusions to the American folk song “Oh My Darling, Clementine.” (You be the judge). The second movement is known as Indian Lament, published under that name by Fritz Kreisler. The Scherzo vacillates between American and Czech characteristics, while the last movement echoes the sound of the “New World Symphony.”

WEDNESDAY, JULY 24 7:30 PM The Six Brandenburg Concerti Scott Concert Hall

Brevard Festival Chamber Orchestra BACH Brandenburg Concerto No. 1 in F major, BWV 1046 (1685 – 1750) Allegro Adagio  Allegro  Menuet – Trio – Polonaise – Trio Marjorie Bagley, violin Eric Ohlsson, Paige Morgan, Kristin Perry*, oboes William Ludwig, bassoon Zachary Smith and Hazel Dean Davis, horns BACH  Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F major, BWV 1047 (1685 – 1750) Allegro  Andante  Allegro assai Mark Hughes, trumpet Dilshad Posnock, flute Eric Ohlsson, oboe Byron Tauchi, violin BACH  Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BWV 1048 (1685 – 1750) Allegro  Adagio  Allegro Jay Christy, Carolyn Huebl, Rebecca Corruccini, violins Scott Rawls, Jennifer Snyder Kozoroz, Maggie Snyder, violas Felix Wang, Benjamin Karp, Alistair MacRae, cellos INTERMISSION BACH  Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G major, BWV 1049 (1685 – 1750) Allegro  Andante  Presto  Jason Posnock, violin Dilshad Posnock and Emily Wespiser*, flutes BACH  Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, BWV 1050 (1685 – 1750) Allegro  Affettuoso  Allegro  Jihye Chang, harpsichord William Preucil, violin Marianne Gedigian, flute BACH  Brandenburg Concerto No. 6 in B flat major, BWV 1051 (1685 – 1750) Allegro  Adagio ma non tanto Allegro  Scott Rawls and Ericka Eckert, violas Benjamin Karp, Alistair MacRae, Felix Wang, cellos Kevin Casseday, bass Jihye Chang, harpsichord


* denotes BMC student

OVERT URE Brevard Festival Chamber Orchestra Violin



Jay Christy Rebecca Corruccini Margaret Karp Tina Raimondi Wendy Rawls Benjamin Sung

Erika Eckert Jennifer Snyder Kozoroz Maggie Snyder

Craig Brown Kevin Casseday


Jihye Chang


Benjamin Karp Alistair MacRae Felix Wang

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750): The Brandenburg Concerti, BWV 1046-1051

As is typical for any of Bach’s stupendous collections, each concerto represents a different approach, offering a summation of the concerto grosso tradition of the 1720s. The Concerto No. 1 in F major, BWV 1046 is the only concerto with four movements. The trios of the last movement feature the wind instruments. The opening movement makes fascinating use of hemiolas (three beats

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



-- Siegwart Reichwald


Bach’s attempt, however, to impress Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg by sending him these six concerti was a colossal flop, which was mostly Bach’s own fault. While these concerti represent the pinnacle of orchestral baroque music, they were based on the instrumentation at Cöthen. The Margrave of Brandenburg simply did not have the means to perform these works if he wanted to. This miscalculation led to the low point of the work’s odyssey. Not only was the score shelved for several years, but it was sold for only about $20 (in today’s currency). This might have been the steal of that century, or any other century, for that matter. At that point the score was one cold winter’s day away from going up in flames. Today, this collection represents arguably the greatest instrumental music of the baroque era. Of course, that did not change Bach’s sore disappointment over weeks of labor without anything to show for—no new job and no public performance.


Historically speaking, the six Brandenburg Concerti were complete failures. Written during Bach’s employment as Kapellmeister at the court of Prince Leopold of Anhalt in Cöthen, this collection was Bach’s feeble attempt to find greener pastures. After four satisfying years working for a true music lover and with some of the best musicians, Bach saw the writing on the wall when the count’s new wife made it clear that she had no appreciation for good music. Having endured a month of incarceration for breaking his previous contract in Weimar in order to leave for Cöthen might then have seemed less heroic.

against two). The second and third movements feature the violino piccolo as solo instrument. The Concerto No. 2 in F major, BWV 1047 is the most straight forward concerto of the set. Trumpet, recorder, oboe, and violin are the solo instruments. Bach incorporates the opening movement’s solo sections motivically with the corresponding ripieno (tutti) group. The Andante is a highly expressive solo movement for recorder, oboe, and violin (plus continuo). Since the trumpet was left out, it starts the brilliant last movement. The middle movement of the Concerto No. 3 in G major, BWV 1048 consist of only two chords intoning, strangely, a Phrygian half-cadence. Presumably, somebody would have improvised a cadence—most likely the solo violin or harpsichord, both of which could have been played by Bach, had he ever performed the piece. The other two soloists are a viola and cello. The Concerto No. 4 in G major, BWV 1049 has a very virtuosic solo violin part for the outer movements, while the two recorders are mostly used as a pair. The Concerto No. 5 in D major, BWV 1050 might be considered the most innovative, since the keyboard functions as one of the solo instruments. This is one of the earliest (if not the earliest) examples of the keyboard as a solo instrument with orchestra. Surprisingly Bach closes the set with the most traditional (if not antiquated) approach. Instead of violins he uses viole da braccio and and viole da gamba. The last movement of Concerto No. 6 in B flat major, BWV 1051 brings the set to an exciting close with constant use of syncopated (off-beat) rhythms.


Chamber Music of Johannes Brahms Searcy Hall

BRAHMS Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann for piano four-hands, Op. 23 (1833 – 1897) Douglas Weeks, piano Sandra Shen, piano

BRAHMS Sonata for Viola and Piano in F minor, Op. 120, No. 1 (1833 – 1897) Allegro appassionato Andante un poco Adagio Allegretto grazioso Vivace Scott Rawls, viola Deloise Lima, piano

INTERMISSION BRAHMS Piano Trio No. 1 in B major, Op. 8 (1833 – 1897) Allegro con brio Scherzo. Allegro molto  Adagio non troppo Finale. Allegro molto agitato Craig Nies, piano Jason Posnock, violin Alistair MacRae, cello



JOHANNES BRAHMS (1833-1897): Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann for Piano Four-Hands, Op. 23

Brahms’s compositional mastery is evident right from the start. As is so often the case in the late style of a composer, less is more. The opening unison theme introduced by the piano rather than the solo instrument presents the main material for the work. Brahms is not worried about structural

The introduction of the first theme first by the piano followed by the cello and then the violin creates an unusual climax well before the second theme is introduced. The result is an exciting sonata form movement with very broad brush strokes that allow Brahms to explore the themes in great detail. The ensuing scherzo pits the piano against the two string instruments in a very witty dialogue. The rhythmic subtlety in the piano part of the trio creates the perfect counterpoint to the lyricism of the solo lines. The slow movement is absolutely remarkable for its depth of expression through simple contrapuntal lines in the strings in dialog with a hymnal piano part. The closing movement juxtaposes two contrasting themes whose synthesis leads to an energetic close.

-- Siegwart Reichwald

2013 Summer Institute & Festival



While the first piece on this program is Brahms’s homage to a great composer at the end of his career, the second piece dates from the end of his own career. It is difficult to imagine that by the end of the 19th century there was hardly any clarinet solo repertoire—not to mention sonatas for the viola. Brahms, however, did not write his two Op. 120 sonatas in order to fill the void. Rather, he had discovered the beauty of the darker timbre of the clarinet, partly due to the artistry of solo clarinetist Richard Mühlfeld, whom the composer heard perform the Mozart and Weber clarinet concertos. Considering that Brahms had just recently retired from composing, the composition of these two sonatas has special meaning. Brahms published his Op. 120 as Sonatas for Clarinet or Viola.


Sonata for Viola and Piano in F minor, Op. 120, No. 1

Piano Trio No. 1 in B major, Op. 8

This early work closes the circle of this program, as Brahms composed his first piano trio soon after he had met Schumann for the first time. Compositionally, however, this work does not sound like the work of a young composer, which is why Schumann declared Brahms “the chosen one.” Famous violinist Joseph Joachim had also recognized Brahms’s immense talents, and he actually had written a letter of introduction for Brahms to Schumann. After two extended visits with the Schumanns, Brahms met up again with Joachim, which prompted the composition of his first piano trio.


This set of variations is one of Brahms’s most personal musical utterances, as the composer pays tribute to his friend and mentor, Robert Schumann. The theme is the last composition Schumann notated, on 17 February 1854, just 10 days before his suicide attempt. It evidences his deteriorating mental state. His wife Clara Schumann wrote that, “it was [Schumann’s] fixed belief, that angels were hovering around him offering him the most glorious revelations, all this in wonderful music; they called out to welcome us, and before the end of the year we would be united with them.” As it turns out, the theme was not newly composed; rather, Schumann merely wrote out (unknowingly) the slow movement theme of his violin concerto. Brahms’s choice of the intimate piano duet is fitting for such a personal work. He dedicated the work to Schumann’s daughter Julie to play it with her mother Clara. Brahms himself premiered the work in 1863 with his brother Fritz.

innovation, as he composes a structurally simple full work of expression and stunning beauty. The extreme economy of his style is most evident in the second movement’s “singing” viola line over plain chordal accompaniment. Nothing more is needed to create an enveloping sense of nostalgia. The ensuing Allegro grazioso explores a more gently, lilting type of scherzo that matches the second movement in subtlety of expression. The closing rondo movement showcases the equal partnership of the piano and viola, as constantly changing textures explore the possibilities of its contrasting themes.

WEDNESDAY, JULY 31 7:30 PM Chamber Music at Searcy Searcy Hall

BUSONI Violin Sonata in E minor, Op. 29 (1866 – 1924) Allegro deciso Molto sostenuto Allegro molto e decido Corinne Stillwell, violin Deloise Lima, piano

RESPIGHI (1879 – 1936)

Il tramonto

Noël Archambeault, soprano Byron Tauchi, violin Margaret Karp, violin Jennifer Snyder Kozoroz Benjamin Karp, cello

INTERMISSION ARENSKY Piano Trio No. 1 in D minor, Op. 32 (1861 -1906) Allegro moderato Scherzo. Allegro molto Elegia. Adagio Finale. Allegro non troppo Jihye Chang, piano Jun Iwasaki, violin Jonathan Spitz, cello



FERRUCCIO BUSONI (1866-1924): Violin Sonata in E minor, Op. 29

In today’s music history textbooks, Busoni is only mentioned as the author of his influential Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music. Busoni, however, was an influential pianist, composer, teacher, and writer who bridged the gap between Brahms and Schoenberg—composers he both knew. This violin sonata is the work of a 24 year-old star pianist. In fact, Busoni won the Rubinstein Prize for piano and composition with this work (and his marvelous piano playing).

Arensky wrote this piano trio in memory of Karl Davidov, who had been the principal cellist of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra for many years. The brief Andante con moto opens the work in dramatic fashion, setting the stage for an intense work full of pathos. Yet the ensuing Allegro Moderato has the lyrical character of Mendelssohn’s piano trios, as Arensky’s melodic inventiveness is at the center of this tightly composed sonata form movement. The third movement, Scherzo, comes even closer to Mendelssohn’s sound world. In the Elegia, however, Arensky’s expression becomes much more personal in this somber movement. The last movement is a true Finale, as Arensky brings back themes from the earlier movements, creating a true sense of resolution to this intense musical narrative. -- Siegwart Reichwald


OTTORINO RESPIGHI (1879-1936): Il tramonto


Known for his ability to compose music full of vivid imagery, it is not surprising that Respighi chose chamber ensembles to accompany many of his vocal compositions, offering him a richer timbral palette than just the piano. Written in 1918, this setting of Percy Bysshe Shelley’s poem, Il tramonto (“The Sunset”) focuses on the atmospheric parts of the poetry. Italian singer Renata Scotto explains: Here the sunset has two faces. It is a song of the dusk of love, which must follow love’s fulfillment, and the dusk of the sun itself. Respighi’s love and his love of nature are both in his work, with nature as the perfect frame for this portrait of love. It might have seemed banal in the musical retelling today, with Shelley’s little story perhaps a bit old-fashioned – but not at all, really. And the strings are as eloquent as the voice in retelling the story, as, for example, in the beautiful cello solo as the “gelido e morto ella trovo l’amante” (the Lady found her lover dead and cold), or in the final ensemble that accompanies the peaceful epitaph at the close.


Composed in 1890, Brahms’s influence is evident. The first movement is a tightly composed work—both thematically and texturally—with the piano and violin as equal partners. Both themes are developed extensively before the intensified return of the primary theme brings the movement to a climax. The second movement, Molto sostenuto, opens with a pensive dialog out of which grows an eloquent melody, which is continually developed throughout the movement. The last movement synthesizes the intensity of the first movement and pensive calm of the second by juxtaposing two themes that represent these opposites. This masterwork of late Romantic thought is worlds away from the progressive stance of his later Sketch of New Aesthetics of Music, underscoring Busoni’s clear understanding of the style he later disavowed.

ANTON STEPANOVICH ARENSKY (18611906): Piano Trio No. 1 in D minor, Op. 32

2013 Summer Institute & Festival


The sunset

Il tramonto

There late was One within whose subtle being, As light and wind within some delicate cloud That fades amid the blue noon’s burning sky, Genius and death contended. None may know The sweetness of the joy which made his breath Fail, like the trances of the summer air, When, with the lady of his love, who then First knew the unreserve of mingled being, He walked along the pathway of a field Which to the east a hoar wood shadowed o’er, But to the west was open to the sky. There now the sun had sunk, but lines of gold Hung on the ashen clouds, and on the points Of the far level grass and nodding flowers And the old dandelion’s hoary beard, And, mingled with the shades of twilight, lay On the brown massy woods - and in the east The broad and burning moon lingeringly rose Between the black trunks of the crowded trees, While the faint stars were gathering overhead. “Is it not strange, Isabel,” said the youth, “I never saw the sun? We will walk here To-morrow; thou shalt look on it with me.”

Già v’ebbe un uomo, nel cui tenue spirto (qual luce e vento in delicata nube che ardente ciel di mezzo-giorno stempri) la morte e il genio contendeano. Oh! quanta tenera gioia, che gli f è il respiro venir meno (così dell’aura estiva l’ansia talvolta) quando la sua dama, che allor solo conobbe l’abbandono pieno e il concorde palpitar di due creature che s’amano, egli addusse pei sentieri d’un campo, ad oriente da una foresta biancheggiante ombrato ed a ponente discoverto al cielo! Ora è sommerso il sole; ma linee d’oro pendon sovra le cineree nubi, sul verde piano sui tremanti fiori sui grigi globi dell’ antico smirnio, e i neri boschi avvolgono, del vespro mescolandosi alle ombre. Lenta sorge ad oriente l’infocata luna tra i folti rami delle piante cupe: brillan sul capo languide le stelle. E il giovine sussura: “Non è strano? Io mai non vidi il sorgere del sole, o Isabella. Domani a contemplarlo verremo insieme.”

That night the youth and lady mingled lay In love and sleep - but when the morning came The lady found her lover dead and cold. Let none believe that God in mercy gave That stroke. The lady died not, nor grew wild, But year by year lived on - in truth I think Her gentleness and patience and sad smiles, And that she did not die, but lived to tend Her agèd father, were a kind of madness, If madness ‘tis to be unlike the world. For but to see her were to read the tale Woven by some subtlest bard, to make hard hearts Dissolve away in wisdom-working grief; Her eyes were black and lustreless and wan: Her eyelashes were worn away with tears, Her lips and cheeks were like things dead - so pale; Her hands were thin, and through their wandering veins And weak articulations might be seen Day’s ruddy light. The tomb of thy dead self Which one vexed ghost inhabits, night and day, Is all, lost child, that now remains of thee!

Il giovin e la dama giacquer tra il sonno e il dolce amor congiunti ne la notte: al mattin gelido e morto ella trovò l’amante. Oh! nessun creda che, vibrando tal colpo, fu il Signore misericorde. Non morì la dama, né folle diventò: anno per anno visse ancora. Ma io penso che la queta sua pazienza, e i trepidi sorrisi, e il non morir... ma vivere a custodia del vecchio padre (se è follia dal mondo dissimigliare) fossero follia. Era, null’altro che a vederla, come leggere un canto da ingegnoso bardo intessuto a piegar gelidi cuori in un dolor pensoso. Neri gli occhi ma non fulgidi più; consunte quasi le ciglia dalle lagrime; le labbra e le gote parevan cose morte tanto eran bianche; ed esili le mani e per le erranti vene e le giunture rossa del giorno trasparia la luce. La nuda tomba, che il tuo fral racchiude, cui notte e giorno un’ombra tormentata abita, è quanto di te resta, o cara creatura perduta!

“Inheritor of more than earth can give, Passionless calm and silence unreproved, Where the dead find, oh, not sleep! but rest, And are the uncomplaining things they seem, Or live, a drop in the deep sea of Love; Oh, that like thine, mine epitaph were - Peace!” This was the only moan she ever made.

“Ho tal retaggio, che la terra non dà: calma e silenzio, senza peccato e senza passione. Sia che i morti ritrovino (non mai il sonno!) ma il riposo, imperturbati quali appaion, o vivano, o d’amore nel mar profondo scendano; oh! che il mio epitaffio, che il tuo sia: Pace!” Questo dalle sue labbra l’unico lamento.

by Percy Bysshe Shelley


Translated by Roberto Ascoli

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