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EDUCATION KIT


INTO THE BLUE BLUE MOUNTAINS WORLD HERITAGE In 2000, the Greater Blue Mountains was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in recognition of the exceptional diversity and integrity of its eucalypt forests, and their significance in the ongoing evolutionary process. Into the Blue acknowledges the traditional owners of the land on which Blue Mountains Cultural Centre stands, the Darug and Gundungurra people, and respects the rights of Indigenous people, particularly in relation to land, culture and heritage. WARNING Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are advised that this Education Kit contains images and names of deceased people.


Education Kit Outline This education kit has been written for use with primary and secondary students K-10 in reference to the Australian Curriculum. The information presented in this education kit is taken from the Blue Mountains Cultural Centre’s permanent interactive World Heritage Exhibition Into the Blue. It may be used in conjunction with a visit to the exhibition or as pre-visit or post-visit resource material.

Acknowledgements Blue Mountains City Council Blue Mountains City Library Darug Custodians Aboriginal Corporation Darug Tribal Aboriginal Corporation Deerubbin Local Aboriginal Land Council [DLALC] First Peoples Advisory Committee Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Advisory Committee Gundungurra Tribal Council Aboriginal Corporation NSW National Park and Wildlife Service The Blue Mountains Historical Society and Members of the Blue Mountains community who gave their time, ideas and stories. Produced by Naomi Baker Public Programs & Education © 2016 Blue Mountains Cultural Centre 30 Parke Street, Katoomba NSW 2780 info@bluemountainsculturalcentre.com.au (02) 4780 5410 COVER IMAGES: Top: Waratah, Kanangra National Park, 2011. Middle background image: Ian Brown. Bottom: Camera crew shooting exhibition footage for Into the Blue, Blue Gum Forest, 2011 Inner cover image: Satellite imagery ©CNES 2012, Distribution Astrium Services/ Spot Image, all rights reserved. Processed and supplied by Sinclair Knight Merz Pty Ltd.

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Contents Education Kit Outline Acknowledgements

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Into the Blue, Blue Mountains World Heritage Introduction Visit Us Syllabus Focus Further Reading

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Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Map

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Enquiry International Treasure Walk, Climb and Explore The Wild and the Fragile The Cultivated A Place Inhabited Healing and Inspiration

12 - 15 16 - 19 20 - 23 24 - 26 27 - 31 32 - 35

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INTO THE BLUE BLUE MOUNTAINS WORLD HERITAGE INTRODUCTION Located in the heart of Katoomba, Blue Mountains Cultural Centre presents the World Heritage Exhibition Into the Blue, a fantastic world-class visitor experience that creates a unique and powerful introduction to the wonderland that is the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area. In 2000 the Greater Blue Mountains area was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in recognition of the exceptional diversity and integrity of its eucalypt forest, and their significance in the ongoing evolutionary process. When you experience the Into the Blue exhibition, you’ll be taken on an interactive journey that will inspire you to discover a deeper understanding and appreciation of the rich environmental, historical and cultural significance that the entire region holds. Here you will be immersed in the spectacular landscape of the Blue Mountains, the remains of a vast plateau that has been washed away over a millennia by rivers and creeks to form this spectacular natural landform. Together with its unique plant and animal life, you will discover the richness of its history, and meet the people who make this place an extraordinary site of natural beauty and human achievement. The design of the exhibition drew inspiration from the area’s unique features; scale, vistas, colour, voices and time to create an experience like no other. The moment that you step into the exhibition space, you’re immersed in blue, connecting you with Eucalyptus species and its distinctive blue haze. A Welcome To County greets you in a range of languages as well as the botanical illustrations of over 100 Eucalyptus fruits that create the diversity and unique ecology of the Blue Mountains region.

that create a unique film that will take you on a journey to some of the most beautiful and remote locations of the Greater Blue Mountains Area. Explore amazing and beautifully diverse locations such as the Hanging Swamps of Hat Hill, Grand Canyon, Kanangra Walls and Plateau, Dunns Swamp, Gardens of Stone, Pearson’s Lookout at Capertee Valley and many more. On its own, this film and the surrounds provide a setting for reflection, similar to being in the bush itself. The floor is a large-scale satellite photograph that you can walk on top of and explore the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area’s scale and geographical relationship to Sydney. The lecterns within the main exhibition space provide cultural stories which explore how the environment has affected people and culture of the Blue Mountains over time. Two interactive touchscreen tables contain stories, videos and animation – a hit with children (and adults!). The Voices Experience presents eight contemporary audio stories that explore specific themes and reveal a glimpse of the life, experience, history and memory of people today. This creates a rich and evocative dialogue of personal connections with the Blue Mountains. There is so much more to this experience to discover for yourself and is a must for people of all ages and cultural backgrounds. IMAGE: Camera crew shooting exhibition footage for Into the Blue, Blue Gum Forest, 2011

Stepping into the main exhibition space is like stepping into another world. Your imagination will be captured instantly by the surround high-definition projector screens

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GUIDED TOURS

EDUCATION KITS & TEACHER PREVIEWS

ART MAKING WORKSHOPS BY EXHIBITING ARTISTS

WORKING AT THE CITY ART GALLERY

SKETCHING IN THE CITY ART GALLERY & VIEWING PLATFORM

YOUNG REVIEWERS PROGRAM

STAFF INSIGHTS

VISIT US

FOR ENQUIRIES OR TO MAKE A BOOKING PLEASE CONTACT:

Take your class to Blue Mountains Cultural Centre’s interactive World Heritage Exhibition: Into the Blue or the Blue Mountains City Art Gallery for a range of fun and educational activities!

Email info@bluemountainsculturalcentre.com.au Phone (02) 4780 5410 Or Visit bluemountainsculturalcentre.com.au/

Encourage your students to look and think in new ways. The skills, qualities and activities central to an artist’s practice are also essential ingredients for creative learning – creative and critical thinking, imagination, experimentation, collaboration, risk-taking and problem solving skills. Our Education Program can be tailor made to the needs of your programs and students.

education/

ADDRESS Blue Mountains Cultural Centre 30 Parke Street Katoomba NSW 2780 HOURS OF OPERATION Monday – Friday 10am – 5pm Saturday + Sunday – 10am – 4pm Public Holidays – 10am-2pm (closed Good Friday and Christmas Day)

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SYLLABUS FOCUS LEARNING AREAS This exhibition relates to the following Learning Areas:

HISTORY STAGE 1: THE PAST IN THE PRESENT • The history of a significant person, building, site or part of the natural environment in the local community and what it reveals about the past. • The importance today of an historical site of cultural or spiritual significance; for example, a community building, a landmark, a war memorial. STAGE 2: COMMUNITY AND REMEMBRANCE • The importance of Country and Place to Aboriginal...peoples who belong to a local area. • ONE important example of change and ONE important example of continuity over time in the local community, region or state/territory. FIRST CONTACTS • The diversity and longevity of Australia’s first peoples and the ways Aboriginal... peoples are connected to Country and Place (land, sea, waterways and skies) and the implications for their daily lives. • The nature of contact between Aboriginal people...and others…and the effects of these interactions on, for example, families and the environment. STAGE 3: THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES • The nature of convict or colonial presence, including the factors that influenced patterns of development, aspects of the daily life of inhabitants (including Aboriginal...peoples) and how the environment changed. AUSTRALIA AS A NATION • Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal people.

STAGE 4: THE ANCIENT WORLD DEPTH STUDY 1: INVESTIGATING THE ANCIENT PAST • The nature of the sources for ancient Australia and what they reveal about Australia’s past in the ancient period, such as the use of resources. • The importance of conserving the remains of the ancient past, including the heritage of Aboriginal...peoples. THE ANCIENT TO THE MODERN WORLD DEPTH STUDY 6: EXPANDING CONTACTS TOPIC 6D: ABORIGINAL AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, COLONISATION AND CONTACT HISTORY • The nature of British colonisation of Australia. STAGE 5: THE MAKING OF THE MODERN WORLD DEPTH STUDY 2: AUSTRALIA AND ASIA TOPIC 2A: MAKING A NATION • The extension of settlement, including the effects of contact (intended and unintended) between European settlers in Australia and Aboriginal...peoples. THE MODERN WORLD AND AUSTRALIA DEPTH STUDY 5: THE GLOBALISING WORLD TOPIC 5B: THE ENVIRONMENT MOVEMENT (1960S–PRESENT) • The intensification of environmental effects in the twentieth century as a result of population increase, urbanisation, increasing industrial production and trade. • The growth and influence of the environment movement within Australia and overseas, and developments in ideas about the environment. • Responses of governments, including the Australian government, and international organisations to environmental threats since the 1960s, including deforestation and climate change.

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GEOGRAPHY EARLY STAGE 1: PEOPLE LIVE IN PLACES • Important places • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander places • Locating places STAGE 1: FEATURES OF PLACES • Features of places • How places are organised PEOPLE AND PLACES • People’s connections to places • Local and global connections STAGE 2: PLACES ARE SIMILAR AND DIFFERENT • The Australian continent • Perception and protection of places THE EARTH’S ENVIRONMENT • Significance of environments • Perception of environments • Protection of environments

STAGE 4: LANDSCAPES AND LANDFORMS • Landscapes and landforms • Value of landscapes and landforms • Changing landscapes • Landscape management and protection INTERCONNECTIONS • Personal connections STAGE 5: SUSTAINABLE BIOMES • Biomes • Changing biomes CHANGING PLACES • Urban settlement patterns • Australia’s urban future ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND MANAGEMENT • Environments • Environmental change • Environmental management

STAGE 3: FACTORS THAT SHAPE PLACES • Factors that change environments • Environments shape places • Humans shape places

FURTHER READING Bush Trackers is a Blue Mountains environmental education initiative designed to connect children and their families with ‘the bush’ and to promote the natural spaces within our local communities as ‘child-friendly’ places. http://www.bushtrackers.com.au/maps The NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service provide numerous free educational resources for teachers. http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/education-services The research and publications provided by the NSW Government Office of Environment and Heritage includes research, data, maps and publications that provide knowledge and evidence to tackle the challenges facing NSW environment and heritage. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/research-and-publications

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GREATER BLUE MOUNTAINS WORLD HERITAGE AREA The UNESCO Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage area is made up of seven national parks including the Blue Mountains National Park, Wollemi National Park, Yengo National Park, Nattai National Park, Kanangra-Boyd National Park, Gardens of Stone National Park and Thirlmere Lakes National Park, as well as the famous Jenolan Caves Karst Conservation Reserve. Six Aboriginal language groups have connections with the Country of the Greater Blue Mountains. They are the Dharawal and Gundungurra people (in the south), the Wiradjuri (in the west and north west), and the Wanaruah, Darkinjung and Darug (in the northeast).

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INTERNATIONAL TREASURE Comprising over one million hectares of spectacular eucalypt and mountain landscapes, the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area was inscribed on the World Heritage List in November 2000. The area supports outstanding biodiversity values, with over 90 eucalypt species occurring in an extraordinarily diverse area.

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Ancient Heritage The area is one of nineteen World Heritage sites in Australia. It covers 10,300 square kilometres of ancient sandstone plateaus, escarpments and gorges, dominated by temperate eucalypt forests. Diverse ecosystems and communities of plants and animals coexist within the landscape, dating back millions of years.

Unique Diversity The Blue Mountains has a remarkable biodiversity and is home to many rare and endangered species of plants and animals. With over 100 eucalypt species, as well as plant and animal communities thriving in the undergrowth and atop the cliffs in the dry heath, the area is a magnificent natural phenomenon, and one that is still changing and evolving. View to Narrow Neck across Boars Head Rock. Image: Wyn Jones

The Eucalypt ‘The Eucalypt has evolved over millions of years, reinventing itself with every single new situation it confronts. That is why there are so many species of eucalypts, each fitting the circumstances in which they find themselves. At the time of the World Heritage nomination the scientists identified 91 species; with recent discoveries the number is now some 100.’ - Joan Domicelj, Chair of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Advisory Committee and co-author of the World Heritage nomination. Blue Gum Forest, 2011. Image: Andrew Merry

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Bringing the country to being Many creation stories from the Dreamtime describe how features in the mountains were formed. The Gundungurra people tell the story of Mirragan and Gurangatch, from a time when animals had human attributes. The story opens with Gurangatch, a giant eel, sunning himself in the shallows of a waterhole along what is now the Wollondilly River. Catching sight of him, Mirragan, a quoll, tries to poison him by throwing sheets of hickory bark into the water. When Gurangatch sees Mirragan he begins tearing up the ground along the present valley of the Wollondilly, causing the water in the lagoon to flow after him and bear him along. An epic chase begins, forming the river system of the southern Blue Mountains and part of the Great Dividing Range. Spotted Tiger Quoll. Image: Ken Stepnell, Office of Environment and Heritage

Land shaped by time The mountains as you see them today were formed over hundreds of millions of years, and are still in a process of change. The valleys have been carved out by streams, and trace the sequence of rock types. In the deepest part of the valley where the river flows, there may be some of the ancient quartzite basement rocks. Above them are the softer shales and coals, worn away into gentle slopes that are covered with trees. Then, rising abruptly out of these dense forests, you’ll see the isolated sandstone. From Govetts Leap Lookout the basalt cap of Mount Banks can be seen as the highest point in the distance. These rounded peaks are all that remains of volcanic activity from around 17 million years ago. Image: Stephen Ryan

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INTERNATIONAL TREASURE

ENQUIRY

How many square kilometres does the Greater Blue Mountains Area extend to? What could you compare its size to? .................................................................................................................................................................................. At the time of the World Heritage nomination, how many species of Eucalypt were discovered? ....................................................................................................................................................... Why are there so many different species of Eucalypt? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. The Blue Mountains is home to many rare and endangered species of animals. Using the information from the exhibition and your own research, create a fact sheet about one endangered native animal to the Blue Mountains. Make sure to include the following: • • • • •

An account of what they look like (include a sketch or photograph) Description of habitat Examples of what they eat Detailed list of threats Interesting facts What did the Blue Mountains look like 300 million years ago (MYA)?

.................................................................................................................................................................................. What else was happening in the world about 300 MYA? .................................................................................................................................................................................. How were the mountains and the valleys formed? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. What else was happening in the world about 84 MYA? .................................................................................................................................................................................. According to the evidence available, for how long have the Blue Mountains been evolving prior to human contact? ........................................................................................................... 15


WALK, CLIMB & EXPLORE The desire to explore this magnificent area has a long history, with visitors coming by road and rail, bringing with them an adventurous spirit. A spirit they take with them as they navigate their way through the historic network of tracks that wind across ridges to lookouts and passages leading down to the valley floor. Map of roads and tracks throughout the Blue Mountains, 1909. Image: Blue Mountains City Library, Local Studies Collection

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Ancient climbing tracks The local Aboriginal clans were expert trackers and knew their way through the Mountains. Climbing was one of the ways to ascend from the valleys to the plateau above. They were adept at felling and notching tree trunks and sometimes used them to scale cliffs long before rockclimbing developed as recreation. The track leading through the Devil’s Hole, was one of the routes used by the Darug and Gundungurra to get from the plateau down into the valleys. It is said that the Goburg lived here, a huge bird that could turn into a dog or a man and kill a person with a single touch. The Rock Dog, a being with an appetite for human flesh, also sat near the Devil’s Hole sniffing out its prey and attacking only at night. Track through Devil’s Hole. Image: Stephen Ryan

Walking on clouds Since the 20th Century a major tourist attraction to the Blue Mountains has been the network of walking tracks, enabling visitors to reach spectacular lookouts. The statesman, Sir Henry Parkes first initiated the walking tracks complex, which is now one of the densest networks of constructed tourist tracks in Australia. This photograph at Echo Point was taken around 1900 by Harry Phillips, a local photographer well known for his fascination with clouds and mist. ‘Harry’s happy’ was the word around Katoomba when a mist rose up from the valley or an interesting formation of clouds appeared in the sky. Image: Blue Mountains Historical Society Inc.

Left: Rising mists, Wentworth Falls, photographer unknown, around 1900. Image: Kerry & Co., Tyrrell Collection, Powerhouse Museum, Sydney. Right: Bushwalkers at Leura Falls, photographer unknown, around 1900. Image: Blue Mountains City Library, Local Studies Collection

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Getting lost The wilderness of the Blue Mountains can be confronting to a newcomer and since early settlement the area has claimed many lives. Before walking tracks were well marked, walkers would often find themselves following what looked like a faint walker’s track, only to find they were following a wombat or wallaby track as it disappeared under a shrub or bush. Walkers today are encouraged to keep to marked tracks, not only to avoid getting lost but also to reduce erosion to the natural landscape. Map of roads and tracks throughout the Blue Mountains, 1909. Image: Blue Mountains City Library, Local Studies Collection

Search and rescue

‘The Wonder Boy’ Though it was on the football field in the years following World War I where local Aboriginal man Jackie Brooks began to attract wide attention, his courage and physical stamina first came to public notice when he was a very young boy. In November 1912 he played a leading role in the rescue of two of his friends, who had fallen over a cliff on their way back from gathering wildflowers in the Megalong Valley. Known during his football years as ‘The Wonder Boy’, Brooks was awarded a medal for bravery in 1913 for the rescue. Image: courtesy John Low

Even now over 100 bushwalkers get lost per year, and often require rescuing. Most walkers are found within 24hrs, but occasionally a weekend adventure can turn to tragedy. Between 2004 and 2007 nearly 400 people were reported missing in the Blue Mountains and surrounding area, which led to 200 search and rescue operations. Images: National Library of Australia

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WALK, CLIMB & EXPLORE

ENQUIRY

How did local Aboriginal clans ascend from the valleys to the plateau above? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. What was said to live along some of these tracks? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. What was one of the dangers to bushwalkers before walking tracks were marked? .................................................................................................................................................................................. Is this still a danger today? Provide evidence: .................................................................................................................................................................................. Who was Jackie Brooks and why was he awarded a medal for bravery? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. Follow the link below and watch the trailer for Blue Mist, a short film by filmmaker Pauline Findlay and discuss with your class. https://www.facebook.com/bluemistfilm/timeline https://vimeo.com/paulinefindlay About Blue Mist: Blue Mist explores what it means to be deaf. A deaf girl Eve becomes separated from her boyfriend Tom on a bush trail in the Blue Mountains. As dusk falls Eve struggles to find her way back, unable to hear the calls of help in the distance. Tom raises the alarm with the police only to find himself the main suspect in Eve’s disappearance. In pairs or small groups, use the information provided and your own research to create a storyboard, animation or video. The aim of the project is to educate bushwalkers visiting the Blue Mountains for the first time. Some things you might like to include could be: - The ancient heritage of the Blue Mountains - Popular tracks and lookouts - What to bring & do and what not to bring & do during your stay 19


THE WILD & THE FRAGILE For the early British colonists, the Blue Mountains were both a challenging barrier to the inland and a spectacular wild country. Many have been captivated by the majesty of this place. However, if it were not for community and conservation groups that have fought to protect this landscape, it would not be the unique world heritage site it is today.

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Timeless view Recognised as the foremost landscape artist in the colonies, Viennese born artist Eugene von Guérard painted Weatherboard Creek Falls, Jamieson’s Valley, New South Wales, in 1862. Von Guérard’s fascination with the natural world is clearly evident in the specific details of the vegetation and the accurate observation of water and rock formations in the landscape. The cascading falls on the left show how water carves and shapes mountains and valleys, eroding and dividing the land relentlessly over time. Today Weatherboard Creek Falls is known as Wentworth Falls, and if you were to stand in the same spot where von Guérard once stood, you will notice little has changed from over a century ago when this painting was made. Weatherboard Creek Falls, Jamieson’s Valley, New South Wales, by Eugéne von Guérard, 1862. Image: National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

Establishment of a national park Wollemi National Park was gazetted on 14 December 1979. This followed a long history of conservation activity, beginning as early as 1932 with Myles Dunphy and the National Parks and Primitive Areas Council. In 1994 in a rainforest gorge within the 500,000 hectare Wollemi National Park one of the world’s oldest and rarest trees was discovered by David Noble, a NSW National Parks and Wildlife Officer and avid bushwalker. The Wollemi Pine is a towering 40 metres tall, and its oldest known fossil dates back 90 million years, making the discovery of this tree ‘like finding a small dinosaur still alive on Earth’. - Professor Carrick Chambers, the director of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Image: Jaime Plaza, Botanic Gardens Trust

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The father of conservation Myles Dunphy (1891–1985) was a tireless publicist for the wilderness cause. If it weren’t for his efforts, the magnificent forest of tall blue gums in the Grose Valley would not be here today. In the early 1930s, while out bush walking, Dunphy and Alan Rigby came across two men preparing to cut down the ancient gums to grow a walnut plantation. In an unprecedented move during the depression years, the bushwalkers managed to raise 130 Pounds to buy the land. Soon after it became a public recreation reserve and then in 1961 it became part of the National Park. The Grose Valley is now one of the region’s bushwalking and conservation icons. Myles Dunphy looks out from the Kanangra Walls, 1924. Image: The Colong Foundation for Wilderness collection

Into the future ‘Preserving the integrity, stability and biological diversity of this vast landscape for future generations to experience as we do is a rare challenge and a great privilege. The conservation reserve system in the Blue Mountains is a piece of the past that we share with future generations to treasure and enjoy. Our mission is to inspire and educate our visitors, our community and our children to embrace the global importance of these protected areas.’ - Geoff Luscombe, Blue Mountains Region Manager, Office of Environment and Heritage NSW, National Parks and Wildlife Service. Glenn Meade, Regional Operations Coordinator, Blue Mountains Region, overlooking Grose Wilderness, near Anvil Rock, Blue Mountains National Park, 2011. Image: Office of Environment and Heritage

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THE WILD & THE FRAGILE

ENQUIRY

List 3 reasons why the Wollemi Pine is so significant: 1. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3. .............................................................................................................................................................................. What year was the Wollemi National Park gazetted? .......................................................... What year was the Wollemi Pine discovered? ....................................................................... Who was Myles Dunphy? ............................................................................................................. Using the information provided and your own research, explain Myles Dunphy’s contribution to the conservation of the Greater Blue Mountains Area? List 4 reasons why it is important to protect our natural landscapes: 1. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4. .............................................................................................................................................................................. Are there landscapes in your local area that are being threatened? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. What is being done to protect these landscapes and what can you do as a citizen to support these efforts? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. 23


THE CULTIVATED The cultivated gardens and parks of the cool climate mountains are an important part of settled life. They were created to reassure settlers that this could be home, a place where the landscape could reflect their heritage - an attempt, perhaps, to tame the wild and foreign landscape in which they found themselves. Gardens, orchards and market gardens have all played a role in changing not only the visual landscape with new colours, but have also has affected the growth of native plants and flowers.

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The gardens During the 1930s, one of Australia’s foremost heritage gardens, Everglades in Leura was created. A blend of European-style plantings and native bush was the result of the collaboration between Henri Van de Velde, who owned the land, and Danish born landscape designer, Paul Sorensen. Everglades was Sorenson’s first opportunity to develop a large-scale garden during the depression years, men desperate for a shilling constructed walls and terraces by hand, without access to heavy machinery. The combination of Van de Velde’s enthusiasm for the energy of the new Modernism, blended with Sorensen’s mix of skills and sensitivity to the site was the start of a partnership that created one of Australia’s best-loved and most significant gardens. The studio flat at Everglades, Leura, photographer unknown, 1946. Image: Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection, Historic Houses Trust of NSW

Grow local Transition Blue Mountains is one of over 70 organisations in Australia that are preparing for the effects of peak oil and climate change by reducing consumption, growing food locally, sharing resources and planning for local energy production. The movement is based partly on the principles of permaculture: caring for the earth and its people, and designing landscapes that mimic nature and yield an abundance of food and energy.

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THE CULTIVATED

ENQUIRY

Why are the aims of Grow Local important principles for individuals, communities and the planet? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. Over the course of one year in your school or your home, plant one edible plant per month. Prior to planting, investigate what plants are suitable to the climate you live in and complete the following template for each plant selected. Selected Plant

Required exposure to sun

Required amount of water

Time to sow

Companion planting

Time to reap

January: February: March: April: May: June: July: August: September: October: November: December: 26


A PLACE INHABITED The Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage area is home to the Darug Gundungurra, Wanaruah, Wiradjuri, Darkinjung and Dharawal peoples. Their presence is ancient and enduring, with close ties to the land maintained through their stories, and a heritage of hundreds of rock art and occupation sites throughout the Mountains. As Europeans settled in the area, tourism and mining introduced people from all around the world, changing the way Aboriginal peoples lived in their traditional lands. Their story is one of endurance, where negotiation of the landscape brought both fortune and loss. Image: Ian Brown

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Circles in the stone This rock engraving of four concentric circles is one of the special sites found in the Mountains. Situated on the Woodford range at the junction of many ridgelines and close to several important art sites, it is a significant symbol used by many Aboriginal groups across the continent. Image: Stephen Ryan

Lawson engraving site This Kangaroo rock engraving lies in a small reserve in the now residential area of Lawson. This figurative style of rock art most often depicts lifesized animals and their tracks. A series of holes was probably drilled with a stone tool along the intended line and then linked as a continuous groove. In traditional times these places were used for teaching and ceremonial purposes. Image: Stephen Ryan

Hands on the wall Red Hands Cave, Glenbrook is one of the bestknown examples of Aboriginal pigment art in the Blue Mountains. The red hand stencils, believed to be created between 500 and 1600 years ago, were made by placing one hand against the cave wall and blowing a mixture of ochre and water from the mouth. Image: Ian Brown

Image below: Aborigines from the Blue Mountains, by Alphonse Pellion, 1819–1820, from ‘Voyage Autour du Monde sur les Corvettes de L’Uranie’ engraved by Forget, published 1825. Blue Mountains City Library, Local Studies collection

Kadara and Hara-o The portraits seen here are two of the first identified European portraits of the original Darug inhabitants drawn by French artist Alphonse Pellion when he visited the Blue Mountains in 1819. Pellion came across Hara-o (left) and Kadara (right) in a small hut at Springwood. Kadara was an important elder in that part of the Mountains and was recognised as one of the most dangerous Darug men to the English, many of whom had perished at his hand.

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The Gully Tradition has it that The Gully in Katoomba was an Aboriginal pre-contact meeting place, an ancient trading place and campsite. Since European settlement, non-Aboriginal peoples joined Aboriginal peoples camping in the area, and The Gully enjoyed a reputation of being a place of peaceful coexistence.

Ethel and Lily Cooper outside their Gully home around 1940. The house, built in 1917, was made by the family out of beaten out kerosene drums and tin sheets. To keep out the wind the inside was lined with hessian and painted with clay with a bark brush. Gum tree saplings were used as supports for the house. Image: courtesy of Lyn Stanger

This natural point of contact became a permanent home and safe haven for many of the Gundungurra and Darug peoples as they made their exodus along the plateaus and out of the river valleys when occupation and finally the flooding of the Megalong Valley took hold of their traditional lands. Joined by various non-Aboriginal families, the community in The Gully lived together for more than 60 years. From 1952–1957 the traditional owners were forcibly removed from The Gully to make way for a racetrack organised by a group of 83 local businessmen who were supported by the local council. The trauma caused to the land and to the community of people who were living in and around The Gully was profound — and still reverberates today. The Gully was declared an Aboriginal Place on 18 May 2002.

Connection to country In 1896 expert bushman and keeper of traditional knowledge Billy Lynch, made a significant public statement in a newspaper interview. In his testimony, he called attention to the enormous depletion of native animals in his traditional homeland, the Megalong Valley, and tells of a time when ducks, kangaroos, and shags were in large numbers, and the river and ponds were full of fish and eels. ‘Now all is changed. The old animals, birds, and fruits have gone, I suppose it is that time for my people to be replaced with another … and so all the animals, fruits, and birds they depended on vanish.’ The decrease in bush tucker availability would have been substantial throughout the Gundungurra homelands, including the Buragorang, Kanimbla, Megalong and Hartley Valleys. Billy Lynch, also known as Mawiak or Dhual, was a Gundungurra man, born near Bungonia. He lived most of his life in the Megalong Valley, but moved to The Gully in Katoomba for his last years until his death in 1913. View of Burragorang Valley from Jumpup Lookout before the flooding in 1948. This area is now part of Lake Burrangorang, behind Warragamba Dam. Image: State Records NSW

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A PLACE INHABITED

ENQUIRY

Who are the two men portrayed in Alphonse Pellion’s drawing? What do we know about them? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. Research the role of an elder. When does an Aboriginal person become an elder? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. Using the quote by Billy Lynch, explain how the environment has changed since European settlement. Why should we be concerned about his statement? .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. Following European contact the Gundungurra people were displaced from their traditional home in the Burragorang Valley and dispersed to the following locations: • • • •

The Gully (also known as Catalina Park or Frank Walford Park) Megalong Valley Picton La Perouse

On a map mark these locations to track the separation of the Gundungurra people following European contact. List 5 reasons why The Gully is a significant Aboriginal Place: 1. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5. .............................................................................................................................................................................. Fill out the table on the next page using the information provided and your own research. Discuss your findings with your class. 30


Example of rock engraving/art & location Kangaroo rock engraving Lawson, Blue Mountains NSW

Sketch or photograph What do we know about this example?

What does this tell us about Aboriginal cultural & social life?

Depicts life sized animals and their tracks. In traditional times these places were used for teaching and ceremonial purposes.

Red Hands Cave Glenbrook, Blue Mountains NSW

Circles in the stone Woodford, Blue Mountains NSW

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HEALING & INSPIRATION The Mountains have inspired people for generations, drawing artists and writers to its dramatic landscape and ancient plateaus. The remoteness and isolation of the area has made it an ideal place for retreat and creativity and a large artistic, literary and musical community exists here, with many more making the move up the Mountain for a new lifestyle. The Mountains are also known as a place of healing before and after European settlement. What is it about the Blue Mountains that heals and inspires, and how have these two elements coexisted to form a natural retreat for many? In the Grose Valley, Blue Mountains, by William Piguenit, around 1882 . Image: National Library of Australia

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Open-air treatment At the beginning of the 20th Century, the clean mountain air was thought to help those suffering from respiratory problems like tuberculosis. Sufferers spent weeks, sometimes months in purpose-built hospitals, rest homes and sanatoria. They not only had to deal with painful illness, but were also shunned because of its contagious nature. The Mountains offered respite during their dark uncertain days. The tuberculosis ward at Boddington, around 1900. It was also a refuge for diggers who were gassed during the Great War. Image: Blue Mountains Historical Society Inc.

Healing Waters The Jenolan Caves are the oldest discovered open caves in the world, at approximately 340 million years old with a cave network of over 40km of multilevel passages. Tucked away in the SouthWest Blue Mountains, the water in the cave contains natural antibiotics, and in traditional times was used to treat skin diseases and digestive problems, with people carried long distances across the Mountains to be bathed in the alkaline rich water. River Cave, Jenolan Caves. Image: Peter Beeh

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Artists and the landscape In 1875 an artists’ camp was set up by Eccleston Du Faur in the area now known as the Blue Gum Forest in the Grose Valley. Designed to accommodate 30 people, he invited any ‘gentleman interested in art or photography’ to make the journey. The landscape artist William Piguenit stayed at the camp for one month, longer than anyone else, making sketches in the field from which he later did oil paintings. A reticent and intensely private person, he tried to convey not only what he saw, but also the feelings nature evoked in him ‘love, respect and awe’. In the Grose Valley, Blue Mountains, by William Piguenit, around 1882. Image: National Library of Australia

A home for writers ‘The mountains are roughly like the backbone of a fish - one main ridge, and many subsidiary ones leading off it on either side - in this country you could walk for miles through dense undergrowth that dragged at your thighs and hid the ground so your feet stumble blindly.’ - Eleanor Dark, excerpt from the log of her Journey across the Mountains in 1940.

Varuna has a long reputation for attracting and inspiring exciting new Australian writing and providing support for a thriving writing community. Many writers come to experience the uninterrupted writing time Eleanor knew was so valuable. A selection of messages from Varuna’s visitors book: Delia Falconer, Gordon Graham and Dorothy Porter.

An independent thinker, Eleanor Dark moved to Katoomba from Sydney with her husband Dr Eric Dark in 1923. There she lived for more than 60 years, writing most of her novels and stories of the Australian bush. As a legacy to their literary and social influence, their home Varuna was given to the Eleanor Dark Foundation in 1989 by their son Michael Dark. Eleanor Dark sitting next to the manuscript of Storm of Time, Varuna, November 1947. Image: Blue Mountains City Library, Local Studies Collection

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HEALING & INSPIRATION ENQUIRY List 2 reasons why the Blue Mountains have been a place of healing: 1. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2. .............................................................................................................................................................................. Select ONE of the below artists. Research their connection to the Greater Blue Mountains Area and the influence it has had on their work. • Eugene von Guérard Refer to page 21 from THE WILD & THE FRAGILE.

• James Blackwell

http://www.lostbeargallery.com.au/artists/artists-by-name/a-h/james-blackwell-73607 http://james-blackwell.com/about/

• Kayo Yokoyama http://www.lostbeargallery.com.au/artists/glass/kayo-yokoyama-30608

• Rowen Matthews

http://lostbeargallery.com.au/artists-mobile/painters/rowen-matthews http://www.rowenmatthews.com/

• Freedom Wilson

http://laughingbird.com.au/about/ http://bluemountainsculturalcentre.com.au/blue-mountains-art-gallery/public-art-project/

What inspires you to be creative? (It could be a place, person or even an object.) .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................. Visit the Blue Mountains or an alternative landscape that inspires you. During your visit create a multimedia journal that records not only what you see, but also the feeling nature evokes in you. Here are some of ideas of what to include in your journal and what to do with it once it is complete: • Use sketches, photographs, audio or video recordings or any other media you can think of to record both the small details and broader views of the landscape. • Record your thoughts, feelings, observations and discoveries of the landscape. • Once your multimedia journal is complete use it as inspiration for an artwork that captures the essence of the landscape.

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Into the Blue Education Kit - Blue Mountains Cultural Centre, World Heritage  

This education kit has been written for use with primary and secondary students K-10 in reference to the Australian Curriculum. The informat...

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