Page 1

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Newsletters, flyers, invitations, reports Non-profit Organization

2008

Wouter d’Ailly and Murray Lonseth

Simple Solar Ltd. Business Plan

P.O. Box 530, Sandstone, MN 55072 Phone: 888-404-7743 or 320-245-2648 Fax: 320-245-5272 Email: audubon1@audubon-center.org

Audubon Center of the North Woods

U.S Postage PAID

Northwoods Audubon Center

Sandstone, MN 55072

Permit No. 2

A proud leader in environmental education and renewable energy If you would like to save resources and would prefer to receive this periodic newsletter electronically (PDF) via email instead of US mail, please send an email to audubon1@audubon-center.org

Summer 2010 Volume 36, Issue 2

Visit our website! www.audubon-center.org

A proud leader in environmental education and renewable energy

In This Issue A Change of Seasons

1

Tales from a Trainer

2

A Change of Seasons

Another Peak Experience

Becoming an Outdoor Family

3

by Bryan Wood, Co-Director

by Melonie Shipman, Co-Director

Land Mngmt Volunteer Opps

3

Alumni News

4

Volunteer Spotlight

4

Wish Lists

4

A lot has been happening at the Audubon Center of the North Woods over this winter and spring. Our January Interim class on Wolves and Predatory Ecology drew 26 students from colleges across the country and was a huge success, with many students saying it was the best class they have ever taken. Our Dinners at the Lake have been at capacity for great programs from presenters such as Lynn Rogers, Mike Link and Kate Crowley, and Bruce Giebink. Our community “Candlelight Ski, Snowshoe and Skate” evening tripled in the number of participants from our inaugural program last winter. In addition, we are pleased to welcome 5 new K-12 schools that brought their students to the Center for residential environmental learning experiences for the first time.

Recently when giving a program about sled dogs in Lakeville, MN, I shared how meaningful it can be to drive one’s own dog team. Each of the five women on our four-day trek had experienced significant adventures: tending tiger cubs in China, touring Antarctica, and more. Yet, when we arrived at our lodge exhausted, aching, and soaking from a night run in unexpected freezing drizzle, we each said, “This has been one of peak experiences of my life.” Later one of the program attendees asked what other peak experiences were on my list. In an amazingly blessed life, there were many to choose from: touching the baleen of a gray whale who positioned herself beside our tiny boat, seeing the Northern Lights dance at Denali many times, hiking the south island of New Zealand for three weeks with my best friend.

Another Peak Experience

News from the North Woods Volume 36, Issue 2—Summer 2010 Melonie Shipman and Bryan Wood, Co-Directors Laurie Fenner, editing/layout Published periodically by Audubon Center of the North Woods Mail, call or email us your inquiries and ideas.

Join Us...Become a Friend to the Audubon Center

has attended one of our programs recently.

By becoming a member of the Audubon Center of the North Woods, you provide the essential support we need to continue to provide quality environmental educations to thousands of people every year. Membership Benets ¾¾

Women’s Wellness

5

New Interns

5

Flight of the Hummingbirds

Printed with soy-based inks on carbon-neutral paper containing 100% post-consumer waste

Simple Solar Ltd. If you received this PO Box 988, Okotoks, AB newsletter T1S 1B1 in the mail, (403) 938-5803 you are already a member, or you are someone who Fax: (403) 668-7324

1

6

Concert at the Lake

7

Annual Fall Open House

7

Renewable Trail Race

7

Summer Exploritas

8

Summer Camps

9

Lowry & Schwyzer Updates

10

Thank hank You

111

Friendship Categories OWLS

$25-49

CRANES $50-99

MOOSE

$500-$749

EAGLES

$750-$999

OTTERS $100-249

OSPREY $1000+

LOONS

PLANNED $2,500+ GIVING

$250-$499

Upcoming Events Concert at the Lake June 12 Summer Exploritas June 13-18 ‘Hooked’ Family Fishing Weekend July 8-11 Forts, Fires & Fishing July 11-16

All Members receive: z z z z z z z

10% discount off merchandise in our store 10% off youth and family camps 10% off Schwyzer Lodge A gift membership to give to a friend Our periodic printed newsletter Our e-newsletter (optional) Invitations to special events

Voyageurs National Park July 18-23 Becoming an Outdoor Family July 31-August 1 Rocks, Ropes & Roughing It August 1-6 The Ways of Wildlife August 1-6

z Members at the Loon level and above also receive a gift certicate for 2 Dinners-at-the-Lake

Namekagon River Expedition August 8-12 Summer Exploritas August 29 - September 3

ACNW MISSION

To instill a connection and commitment to the environment in people of all communities through experiential learning.

Annual Open House & Renewable Trail Run October 9

Page i

— continued on page 8 —

Now I have another peak experience to add – being asked to serve, with Bryan Wood, as Co-Director of the Audubon Center of the North Woods. I know well the commute to the Audubon Center from our home on Knife Lake. Last summer, I visited the Audubon Center for the first time. I excitedly told my best friend, “What a hidden treasure! The Audubon Center shouts ‘the talk’ of environmental stewardship: wind turbine — continued on page 10 —

2002 EDITION

Women’s Wellness Weekend October 1-3

This spring has been one for the record books weather-wise. The snow cover was gone by the end of the first week of March. Across the state, this marked the first time in 130 years that snow did not fall in the month of March. The ice out on Grindstone Lake occurred on April 2nd (the second earliest since 1970), and we were done tapping maple trees before April, the first time that has ever happened in our decades of maple syrup making. These occurrences remind us that we are living in a time of environmental change. The early onset of spring has implications for all species that live in the North Woods. One example is the migration of birds, who over thousands of years have timed

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Brochures

On April 29, 2010, they will begin the biggest adventure of their lives when they start their 1829 mile Walk Around Lake Superior. Over 3 years in the planning, this journey has many facets and goals:  Attention to freshwater: Lake Superior contains

1/10th the world fresh water.

 A scientific record future generations can use to

determine changes in flora and fauna along the shores of the Lake.

 To emphasize the benefits of walking for all ages, but

especially for older people.

 To set an example: adventure and making

contributions to the world can be done at any point in our lives.

 To involve school children in the process of planning

and executing a large expedition through on-line connections.

 To meet the people who live around the Lake and

learn its significance and impact on their lives and their knowledge about it.

 To document physical changes in their own bodies

and contribute information to those studying or practicing geriatric medicine.

 To experience a once in a lifetime adventure.

3/29/01

10:55 AM

Page 1

WAYS TO SUPPORT THIS ADVENTURE Warranty

This Walk is not being funded by any one organization, but is seeking support – both in-kind and financial – from a broad array of businesses, organizations and individuals. A support vehicle (Sag wagon) will accompany us on the trip, with one individual serving as our support and liaison. We are currently looking for a Class C RV to use in this capacity. Organizations currently supporting this effort are listed below, but many more are needed, as well as financial support. We anticipate a goal of $30,000 to cover all the costs if we can get a vehicle donated.

The SmartMagnet is covered for one year by Medtronic’s Limited Warranty on parts and labor. (Refer to warranty card for complete warranty information.)

Disclosure Intended Use: The SmartMagnet is a device designed to keep Medtronic ICDs from delivering inappropriate therapy, such as shocks, to patients during surgical procedures that require cautery or other electrically noisy devices. Cautery, and similar electrically noisy devices, may cause the ICD to misinterpret the noise as a tachyarrhythmia and deliver inappropriate therapy. Contraindications: The SmartMagnet is contraindicated for use with other manufacturer’s ICDs and may permanently disable the detection and therapy features of other manufacturer’s ICDs.

If you would like more information or would like to provide support for this expedition, please call, write, or check out our website and be part of this great adventure..

– The magnet in the SmartMagnet is always able to deactivate the ICD, regardless of whether or not the LEDs are turned on or the batteries are installed. – The SmartMagnet may not properly show the optimal location if the ICD’s Holter telemetry feature is turned on.

Current Sponsors

Precautions: – Inspect the SmartMagnet for damage before use. Return damaged devices to Medtronic.

 Lake Superior Magazine  Audubon Center of the North Woods, Sandstone, MN  North House Folk School, Grand Marias, MN  Great Lakes Aquarium, Duluth, MN  Piragis Northwoods Company, Ely, MN  Lake Superior Trading Post  Jennifer Johansen Photography  Blacklock Galleries  Bugbaffler gear

Participating Schools

– Do not expose the SmartMagnet to storage temperatures above 65 °C (150 °F) or below -40 °C (-40 °F). – Avoid proximity to magnetic recording tape and disks, or any device or material that could be damaged by the SmartMagnet’s magnetic field. – The SmartMagnet cannot be sterilized. If the SmartMagnet needs to be used in the sterile field, place it in a sterile bag. – Do not immerse the SmartMagnet. – Do not use the SmartMagnet in an MRI scanner.

Why

– Dispose of the batteries in accordance with local environmental requirements.

are

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Note: The SmartMagnet may cause Medtronic bradycardia devices (pacemakers) to pace asynchronously. Federal law (USA) restricts this device to sale by or on the order of a physician or properly licensed practitioner.

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World Headquarters Medtronic, Inc. 7000 Central Avenue NE Minneapolis, MN 55432-3576 USA Internet: www.medtronic.com Telephone: (763) 514-4000 FAX: (763) 514-4879 Toll-free: 1-800-723-4636 (Tachy) Toll-free: 1-800-505-4636 (Brady) (24-hour consultation for physicians and medical professionals)

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SMARTMAGNET™ 9322 ICD Tachyarrhythmia Detection and Therapy Deactivation Magnet

Warnings: – Remove the SmartMagnet from the patient if patient exhibits an atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmia that requires detection and therapy by the ICD.

Full Circle is a 501c3 nonprofit and all contributions are tax deductible.

Photo by Craig Blacklock

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Feathered Friends Day Camp, June 21

Entering 1st - 4th grades

PAID

U.SPostage

Permit No. 2

Sandstone, MN 55072

Are you ready for adventure? Early bird registration discounts until May 1 Don’t delay… space is limited! Becoming an Outdoor Family, June 10-12 Families of any size Mix & Match Day Camp, June 20 Entering 4th - 8th grades

Non-profit Organization

612

Forts, Fires & Fishing, July 5-8 Entering 4th - 7th grades The Ways of Wildlife, July 10-15

Entering 5th - 8th grades

State Park Sampler, July 23-24 Entering 7th - 9th grades

Registration must be postmarked by May 1 to receive Early Bird price Need based partial and full scholarships available—please inquire

Camper Name

Age

Parent/Guardian’s Name Address City

State

Becoming an Outdoor Family... June 10-12

Zip

Phone

For families of all sizes; $85/person or $315/family of four ($75 each additional person) - 10% early bird discount if register by May 1st

Email Do you have a roommate preference? (Name)

Take a 10% discount if registering 2 or more campers or are a past Audubon Center camper Payment Information Check

Check # enclosed _______________ Make checks payable to ACNW

Credit card

Name on card ____________________

Amount to charge _________

Exp. Date _________

Credit Card # Signature A non-refundable deposit of $100.00 is due at time of registration. Balance due 30 days prior to first day of camp. No refunds for cancellations less than 30 days prior to the first day of camp.

Please return form to: Audubon Center , PO Box 530, Sandstone, MN 55072

Or call 1-888-404-7743 to register

PO Box 530 Sandstone, MN 55072 320-245-2648 888-404-7743 audubon1@audubon-center.org www.audubon-center.org

Photo by Jennifer Johansen

SmartMagnet broch-revised final

Kate Crowley and Mike Link are Environmental Educators who believe life is an adventure and learning experience no matter what your age. Mike was Director of the Audubon Center of the North Woods for 38 years and Kate worked there for 18 years. Both are writers who live in the forest near Willow River, Minnesota. They share a love of nature, a passion for Lake Superior and a desire to leave a legacy for the future.

A weekend focused on bringing families and the outdoors together. Expert instructors from both our staff and MN DNR will teach variety of outdoor skills, sports and recreational activities. Each class begins with the basics, providing hands-on experience and encourages all participants to ask questions and try the skill. Classes are geared towards families that have children ages 6-18. Younger children are welcomed to attend the weekend but will not be able to participate in classes. (Upon registration, you will be sent a class selection form for your family).

Day Camps

Overnight (residential) Camps Forts, Fires & Fishing...........July 5-8

For kids entering 4th to 7th grades; Early bird $225 (before May 1) or Regular $240 Come spend a week learning how to survive in the woods. You’ll start the off the week learning the basics of fire-building, how to construct shelters for people and animals, and where to find food in the wild. Throughout the week, you’ll perfect fort and firemaking skills, cook some over a fire, look for wild edibles, catch some fish, and spend a night under the stars. The week finishes with a fish fry for you and your family! l Spin-cast fishing on Grindstone Lake & fly fishing at Kettle River l Build and sleep in outdoor shelter one night l Learn fire building and outdoor cooking skills

For kids entering 5th to 8th grades; Early bird $340 (before May 1) or Regular $355

Mix & Match Day Camp...June 20

Explore the lives of animals at the Audubon Center and around Minnesota. Help care for and learn handling of educational animals at the Audubon Center including frogs, snakes, turtle, and birds of prey! Experience the basics of wildlife rehab and visit a veterinary clinic/wildlife rehabilitation center. Learn the basics of animal training. Discover how and why telemetry and GPS are used in tracking wildlife. And to add even more fun to your week, enjoy swimming in Grindstone Lake and experiencing our high ropes course. Enjoy a variety of field trips and behind the scenes experiences at: a zoo, an overnight at the Great Lakes aquarium, the Wildlife Science Center, AND a veterinary clinic/wildlife rehabilitation center

9 a.m. to 3 p.m.

For kids entering 4th to 8th grades Early bird $35 (before May 1) or Regular $40 Pick your mix of exciting adventure or wildlife activities and come explore a taste of the many fun activities at the Audubon Center of the North Woods! You’ll be able to choose from: Zipline, Climbing Wall, Canoeing, Survivor; Reptiles & Amphibians/Frog Hunt, Fishing, Animal Signs, Stream Superheroes/Aquatics

Feathered Friends Day Camp...June 21 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.

For kids entering 1st to 4th grades Early bird $25 (before May 1) or Regular $30 Celebrate our feathered friends by testing out their beaks and feet, experimenting with feathers, and joining a bird birthday party for the birds who live at the Audubon Center all year! Our crow will let you feed him a snack and he may have some new talents to show us all!

l Build forts in different habitats each day l High Ropes & Climbing Wall l Orienteering/Geo-caching l Swimming

The Ways of Wildlife........July 10-15

State Park Sampler........July 23-24 For kids entering 7th to 9th grades;

Early bird $180 (before May 1) or Regular $200 Meet at the Audubon Center in morning and travel to Tettegouche State Park, one of the area’s most beautiful state parks. We will spend the day hiking and exploring the park’s unique features, camp overnight, and explore more state parks along the North Shore on the way back to the Audubon Center.

Don’t delay! Early bird registration discount ends May 1, 2011

Scholarships & discounts available - see other side

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Powerpoint, labels, book covers

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Logos, signage, posters, large format displays

Geothermal Energy – Reliable, Super Efficient, Clean & Available Everywhere

Types of Geoexchange Systems

Heat from the Earth, or geothermal — geo (Earth) + thermal (heat) — energy is an enormous, underused (it currently meets less than 2% of U.S. power needs) heat and power resource that is more important than ever before because it has a small environmental footprint, provides continuous, 24-hour a day, clean energy production, and emits little or no greenhouse gases. Its great advantage is that it works by concentrating naturally existing heat, rather than by producing heat through combustion of fossil fuels.

A study by the U.S. EPA showed that geoexchange systems have the lowest life-cycle cost and lowest impact on our environment of all heating/cooling systems available today. And consumers rank their comfort and satisfaction with geoexchange systems higher than all others. While a higher initial investment for installation is needed due to the required underground connections for heat transfer to and from the Earth, the initial investment is paid back in 2-10 years through low energy bills (enhancing resale value), low operating and maintenance costs, safety and greater comfort.

Geothermal resources range from shallow ground to hot water and rock several miles below the Earth’s surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for direct use or power plant applications. The constant temperature close to the Earth’s surface everywhere can be used in geoexchange systems for heating and cooling. The 3 types of geothermal energy applications are:

Geoexchange at the Audubon Center of the North Woods Our first installation of a geoexchange (also known as geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump) system was made possible through a grant received from the US Dept. of Housing & Urban Development (HUD). This system was installed in 2004 under the lawn south of the dining hall. The geoexchange here at the Audubon Center is a vertical closed-loop geothermal heat pump system. It consists of 30 vertical holes, 208 feet deep and 25 feet apart. We have been able to eliminate two 1,000 gallon LP tanks and save about $5,000 per heating season – the remaining LP tanks are used for cooking, hot water and emergency boiler usage. The electric usage to power our geoexhange system is offset by by our photovoltaic solar arrays and the elimination of window A/C units in both Crosby Lodge and Blandin Dining Hall.

Geothermal heat pump systems, also known as “geoexchange,” are the most energy efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning systems available.

The U.S. General Accounting Office estimates that if geoexchange systems were installed nationwide, they could save several billion dollars annually in energy costs and substantially reduce pollution. It is estimated that every 1,000,000 geoexchange installations would: Eliminate > 5.8 million metric tons of CO2 annually Eliminate > 1.6 million metric tons of carbon equivalent annually Save nearly 40 trillion BTUs of fossil fuels annually Reduce electricity use by about 8 billion kW annually The impact of 1,000,000 geoexchange systems is equivalent to: Taking close to 1,295,000 cars off the road Planting more than 385 million trees Reducing U.S. reliance on imported fuels by 21.5 million barrels of crude oil per year

Reducing energy consumption and green house gas emissions Geoexchange heating and cooling systems are the most energyefficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning systems available. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that geoexchange systems can reduce energy consumption and corresponding emissions by over 40% compared to air source heat pumps and by over 70% compared to electric resistance heating with standard air-conditioning equipment. They are an average of 48% more efficient than the best gas furnaces on a source fuel basis, and over 75% more efficient than oil furnaces. Geoexchange systems represent a savings to homeowners of 30% to 70% in the heating mode, and 20% to 50% in the cooling mode compared to conventional systems. In heating mode, an efficient geoexchange system will move at least three units of solar energy from the ground for each unit of electricity used by the heat pump and its accessories. In cooling mode, the same heat exchanger rejects heat to the surrounding ground, which equilibrates with the atmosphere. This sign was made possible through a grant from the US Department of Energy

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Direct-Use Systems: Hot water near Earth’s surface is piped directly into facilities and used primarily in aquaculture, greenhouses, industrial and agricultural processes, pools and spas, and space and district heating. Some cities pipe the hot water under roads and sidewalks to melt snow. Geothermal Power Plants: use of deep reservoirs to convert hydrothermal fluids (hot water or steam) to electricity Geoexchange – also known as geothermal heat pumps (GHP) or ground source heat pumps (GSHP): used for space heating and cooling as well as water heating. GHPs transfer heat from the Earth into buildings during the heating season at an efficiency of 300-400% (able to remove heat at a rate of 3-4 kW while consuming about 1 kW of electrical energy), and transfer it back into the ground during the cooling season. GHPs can be used almost everywhere in the world, as they do not share the requirements of fractured rock and water as are needed for a conventional geothermal reservoir.

How geoexchange works Geoexchange (or GHP) systems use the Earth’s energy storage capability to heat and cool buildings, and to provide hot water. The Earth is a huge energy storage device that absorbs 47% of the sun’s energy – more than 500 times more energy than mankind needs every year – in the form of clean, renewable energy. To take advantage of the nearly constant temperature of the ground near the Earth’s surface, a geoexchange (GHP) system consists of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building, a heat exchanger, and ductwork into the building. In winter, heat from the relatively warmer ground goes through the heat exchanger into the building In summer, hot air from the building is pulled through the heat exchanger into the relatively cooler ground. Heat removed during the summer can be used as no-cost energy to heat water.

The Heat Beneath Our Feet This map shows accessible geothermal resources suitable for electric power production, direct-use systems, and geoexchange (GHP) systems in the United States. Geothermal resources represent a huge energy resource, providing the U.S. with various ways to use them and enhance national security, and economic and environmental health. Geothermal resources range from shallow ground to hot water and rock several miles below the Earth’s surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications. In the U.S., most geothermal reservoirs are located in the western states, Alaska, and Hawaii. Almost everywhere, the upper 10-20 feet of Earth’s surface maintains a nearly constant temperature year round. In temperate regions such as Minnesota, the temperature stays about 52 degrees Fahrenheit. In tropical regions, it can range as high as 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit, while certain arctic regions stay near freezing all year. For most areas, this means that soil temperatures are usually warmer than the air in winter and cooler than the air in summer making geoexchange systems effective in using the Earth’s constant temperatures to heat and cool buildings.

Geoexchange designs include a series of pipes, commonly called a “loop”, buried in the ground near the building to be conditioned. The loop can be buried either vertically, horizontally or under a deep pond. It circulates a fluid (water, or a mixture of water and food-grade non-hazardous antifreeze) that absorbs heat from, or relinquishes heat to, the surrounding soil, depending on whether the ambient air is colder or warmer than the soil. ‘Closed loop systems’ usually circulate water with a biodegradable antifreeze added. ‘Open loop systems’ draw ground water through the heat pump, and return it to the ground unaltered except for a temperature change. Conventional ductwork is generally used to distribute heated or cooled air from the GHP throughout the building. In addition to space conditioning, GHPs can be used to provide domestic hot water when the system is operating. Because the GHP is so much more efficient than other means of water heating, manufacturers now offer “full demand” systems that use a separate heat exchanger to meet all of a household’s hot water needs. Those units cost-effectively provide hot water as quickly as any competing system.

Geothermal Energy Terms and Definitions Ambient—Natural condition of the environment at any given time. Aquifer—Water-bearing stratum of permeable sand, rock, or gravel. BTU—British thermal unit. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at standard conditions. (Equal to 252 calories.) Coefficient of Performance (COP)—ratio of quantity of heat delivered / energy required by pump Direct Use—Use of geothermal heat without first converting it to electricity, such as for space heating and cooling, food preparation, industrial processes, etc.

Heat Exchanger—A device for transferring thermal energy from one fluid to another. Heat Flow—Movement of heat from within the Earth to the surface, where it is dissipated into the atmosphere, surface water, and space by radiation. Hydrothermal Resource—Underground systems of hot water or steam. Injection—The process of returning spent geothermal fluids to the subsurface. Sometimes referred to as reinjection. Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA)—A region identified by the U.S. Geological Survey as containing geothermal resources.

District Heating—A type of direct use in which a utility system supplies multiple users with hot water or steam from a central plant or well field.

Mantle—The Earth’s inner layer of molten rock, lying beneath the Earth’s crust and above the Earth’s core of liquid iron and nickel.

Drilling—Boring into the Earth to access geothermal resources, usually with oil and gas drilling equipment that has been modified to meet geothermal requirements.

Permeability—The capacity of a substance (such as rock) to transmit a fluid. The degree of permeability depends on the number, size, and shape of the pores and/or fractures in the rock and their interconnections. It is measured by the time it takes a fluid of standard viscosity to move a given distance. The unit of permeability is the Darcy.

Efficiency—The ratio of the useful energy output of a machine or other energy-converting plant to the energy input. Fault—A fracture or fracture zone in the Earth’s crust along which slippage of adjacent Earth material has occurred at some time. Fumarole—A vent or hole in the Earth’s surface, usually in a volcanic region, from which steam, gaseous vapors, or hot gases issue. Geology—Study of the planet Earth, its composition, structure, natural processes, and history.

Plate Tectonics—A theory of global-scale dynamics involving the movement of many rigid plates of the Earth’s crust. Tectonic activity is evident along the margins of the plates where buckling, grinding, faulting, and vulcanism occur as the plates are propelled by the forces of deep-seated mantle convection currents. Geothermal resources are often associated with tectonic activity, since it allows groundwater to come in contact with deep subsurface heat sources.

Geothermal—Of or relating to the Earth’s interior heat.

Porosity—The ratio of the aggregate volume of pore spaces in rock or soil to its total volume, usually stated as a percent.

Geothermal Energy—The Earth’s interior heat made available to man by extracting it from hot water or rocks.

Reservoir—A natural underground container of liquids, such as water or steam (or, in the petroleum context, oil or gas).

Geothermal Gradient—The rate of temperature increase in the Earth as a function of depth. Temperature increases an average of 1° Fahrenheit for every 75 feet in descent.

Subsidence—A sinking of an area of the Earth’s crust due to fluid withdrawal and pressure decline.

Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP; also known as Ground Source Heat Pump - GSHP)—Device that takes advantage of the relatively constant temperature of the Earth’s interior, using it as a source and sink of heat for both heating and cooling.

Thermal Gradient—The rate of increase or decrease in the Earth’s temperature relative to depth.

Sources: wikipedia.org, energy.gov, consumerenergycenter.org, smu.edu, energysavers.gov, geoexchange.org, kgs.ku.edu, cocalicoph.com

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