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GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY

GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER GLITTER THEORY THEORY GLITTER THEORY LITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY

GLITTER THEO

GLITTER THEORY

GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY TTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEO GLITTER THEORY

HEORY

GLITTER THEORY

GLITTER THEORY

GLITTER THEORY

GLITTER THEORY

GLITTER GLITTER THEORY THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY GLITTER THEORY


w a v e s

w a v e s w a v e s ww aa vv ee ss v e ww a a v e s s ww aa vv ee ss w a v e s w a v e s w a v e s w a v e s w a w a v evwsea sv e s w a v e s w a v e s w w a a v v e e ss w a v e s wasav ve es s w a w v e a s v w e w a v e s s ea sv e of w a different vwe as vw w waves a v e s feminism have each used w a v e s w a v e s w a v e s w a v e s


ST YLE ST YLE

FOR

political

and fashion

m o b i l i z a t i o n m o b i l i z a t i o n


FEMININITY FEMININITY FEMININITY FEMININ FE FEMIN FEMININITY FEMININIT FEMININITY FEMININIT

FE


FEMININITY FEMININITY

FEMININIT FEMININITY NITY FEMININIT EMININITY NINITY TY femininity is not apolitical.

TY FEMININITY EMININITY FEMININI


THE GLITTER AESTHETIC RECLAIMS FEMININE MARKERS AND DRESS, TO DISTURB GENDER POWER STRUCTURES. S FEMININE MARKERS AND DRESS, TO DISTURB GENDER POWER STRUCTURES. E GLITTER AESTHETIC RECLAIMS FEMININE MARKERS AND DRESS, TO DISTURB GENDER THE GLITTER AESTHETIC RECLAIMS FEMININE MARKERS AND DRESS, TO DISTURB GENDER POWER STRUCTURES.


WITH A “SACCHARINE AESTHETIC” BY IONE GAMBLE IN DAZED. THIS SO CALLED TUMBLR FEMINISM IS A TERM USED TO DESCRIBE A SURGE OF CONTEMPORARY YOUNG FEMALE ARTISTS, WHOSE WORK SEEKS TO “NORMALISE THE TEEN GIRL EXPERIENCE” — THINK PINK, GLITTER, HEART DESCRIBED AS “TUMBLR FEMINISM”, WITH A “SACCHARINE AESTHETIC” SHAPED APPLIQUÉS, AND TULLE. BY IONE GAMBLE IN DAZED. THIS SO - CALLED TUMBLR FEMINISM IS A TERM USED TO DESCRIBE A SURGE OF CONTEMPORARY YOUNG FEMALE ARTISTS, WHOSE WORK SEEKS TO “NORMALISE THE TEEN GIRL EXPERIENCE” — THINK PINK, GLITTER, HEART - SHAPED APPLIQUÉS, AND TULLE.

R POWER STRUCTURES.

THE FOURTH WAVE “GLITTER AESTHETIC” OR GLITTER THEORY RELIES ON WAVE A HISTORY OF RIOT GRRL TACTICS TO CREATE BITING THE FOURTH “GLITTER AESTHETIC” OR GLITTER THEORYITS REFEMININITY. A DISTINCT AESTHETIC HAS HELPED MARK THE BEGINLIES ON A HISTORY OF RIOT GRRL TACTICS TO CREATE ITS BITING NING OF OUR CONTEMPORARY WAVE, ANDMARK THIS THE STYLE ACTS AS A FEMININITY. A DISTINCT AESTHETIC HAS HELPED BEGINNING OF OUR CONTEMPORARY WAVE, AND THIS STYLE ACTS AS A

SYSTEM OF COMMUNICATION AND VISIBILITY AMONG WOMEN, ONLINE AND THE FOURTH WAVE HAS BEEN SYSTEM OF COMMUNICATION ANDIRL. VISIBILITY AMONG WOMEN, ONLINE AND IRL. THE FOURTH WAVE HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS “TUMBLR FEMINISM”,


fem fem fem


fem

fem fem the goal is to redefine the femme as firmly political.


an o

xpo

dec

s he verpe lare rform e tdoesn’t constr subscribe Fourth wave theexpose the constructBy rec feminism ty canto both a u n ctce of laimin f emini gfemininity”. the“natural an overperformance of femininitools o notion of mselv nif e o s p a p s agen aged ressio reclaiming tools of oppression, to tak faces tsare n, withBycoloured Bodies W shimmer, in thpainted e e wor up s themselves as agents in the world. omen ld. hadecorated makeup stickers, while ve no pace anwith the and d feel aged to take up space and feel way t b ee y n o u t e h n have not been encouroughmade “of clothes rare plastic,c fake fur, Women and satin, appea wear” the ouried. r ancand look. shades.the way you “wear” the look. Fas pastel e a electric dyedFvarious ashion hion crea nd throug through appearance and through tes m bothh confront also n fashion Punk and glitter eanin eeds t ied.‘natural’ Fashion creates meaning g o b e egender’s ultura mbod as acconstruct, exposing reliance on culFashion also needs to be embodl is the and politi cal ag zeitgand tural eist; conditioning.  enda bee dress

it’s a . n ju cultural and political agenda. ously. st about a mirror of o is the zeitgeist; it’s a mirror of our “look” ur After . a i F d l l a , e s n f h , orjust a hyAn adoption ofashextreme feminine dressbeen tity ion about a “look”. Fashion ier to in order to ion has nev ously. After all, fashion has never a be tak canerbe used to interrogate per-femme or in ssimilaaesthetic, e n t e s e to a m boy riidentity in order to be taken serilubsfemale spassivity aidentities . The goal is to repaces s’ cin sculin , i t ier to assimilate to a masculine (effec would e t M befirmly ost o theivfemme easdefine political. Origins or in boys’ of clubs, it would be easften i ely all spacas e n ma s) and male l spaces (effectively all spaces) and/ /the notion that e is the aesthetic challenge what is alleng “right” o dominated r Most often in male dominated e e “po“powerful”. Most often in male werfu lmale notion or itical. isth“right” is male is “right” or “powerful”. Or that w l”. odominated redefi igins ospaces (effectively all spaces) and/or h challenge the notion that what ne the f the aest at h ninfeboys’ f e e t m i c be easier to assimilate ma meit would political. Origins to of the aesthetic clubs, be use le identitie as firmly is to redefine the femme as firmly s. The in order to be taken d to in aormasculine identity seriousg t e o r a r l o a hype gate p ity in female identities. The goal r-feall, assiv-has never been just about a fashion m oly. ptioAfter m can be used to interrogate passive n of e xtrem aesthetic, “look”. Fashion e femis the zeitgeist; it’s a mirror dress,of or our a hyper-femme aesthetic, inine ess an d An adoption of extreme feminine co i . gcultural tionpolitical agenda. gende ndand i n g.  r’s ‘natur reliance o tural dress and conditioning.  n al’ as c u l a dFashion conneeds to be embodied. Fashion exposingcregender’s reliance on culglitter also fashio struct, confront ‘natural’ as a construct, n bthrough oth ates meaning and through appearance shade Punk and glitter fashion both s. you “wear” the look. Women have not nthe , dyeway d vari ous mbeen and electric shades. ade o encouraged f plas pastel to take up space and feel themt fur, and satin, dyed various pastel iselves ic th st as agents ickers , fake in the world. By reclaiming tools , clothes are made of plastic, fake ured make whilean overperformance of femininity of oppression, u decorated with stickers, while p er, fac es are and ed of withgencoloured makeup and can both pexpose the constructed nature aintBodies shimmer, faces are paintnotionand declare space by bringing attention der to o ral femininity”. minis f “natum yourself in person or online.


Fourth wave feminism doesn’t subscribe to the notion of

h g -

r e

/

. t

l

-

l e e

-

“NATURAL FEMININITY” FEM NATURAL “NATURAL FEMININITY”

, .


WOMEN WOMEN WOMEN WOMEN WOMEN WOMEN W WOME WOMEN

WOMEN


WOMEN N N N WOMEN ENWOMEN WOMEN N WOMEN N

women have not been encouraged to take up space and feel themselves as agents in the world.


GLITTER THEORY IS A WAY OF UNDERSTANDING

UNDERSTANDIN UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING THE PRESENCE AND IMPORTANCE

HY FEM OF OF THETHE OF THE OF THE OF THE OF THE OF THE OF THE OF THE OF THEOF OFTHE THETHE OF OF THE OF THE THE OF THE OF OF THE OF THE OF THE OF OF THETHE OF THE OF OF THE OF THE THE OF THE OF THE OFOF THE OFOF THE THE THE

OF THE


NG G

PER ME AESTHETIC IN THE FOURTH WAVE.

THIS THEORY, AND THE GLITTER AESTHETIC, RECLAIMS AND PARODIES TRADITIONALLY FEMININE SIGNIFIERS IN ORDER TO DESTABILIZE THE GENDER BINARY.


race race race race race race race

racerace race race race

race

race race race race racerace race race

ra

race race rac r racerace

race race race

r


race

a

race race race race ace race race race race race ce race race race race race race

race

race race

what about race?

race

race race race

race race


How does sexuality also play into the fourth wave aesthetic? What about race? Who is allowed to be femme? While thinking about the femme and the double standards of femininity, women in drag can be used to reveal How does sexuality alsoHow play does into the fourthalso waveplay aesthetic? about Who isWhat allowed to race? Who is allowed to be femme? sexuality into theWhat fourth waverace? aesthetic? about the performativity of gender—and to think critically about the importance of having unapologetically feminine be femme? While thinking about the femme andfemme the double standards femininity, women in women in drag can be used to reveal While thinking about the and the double of standards of femininity, identities in the fourth wave. The overperformance of femininity that is present in drag helps conceptualize drag can be used to reveal performativity of gender—and to think critically about the impor- of having unapologetically feminine the the performativity of gender—and to think critically about the importance tance of having unapologetically identities the fourth wave. Theofoverperformance identities feminine in the fourth wave. in The overperformance femininity that isof present in drag helps conceptualize

glitter theory’s role in the current feminist landscape. Questioning the meanings and presentations of masculinity and femininity through dress, and through aesthetics, can further question the role of the gender binary in the fourth wave. How can we eliminate the stigma of doing something “like a girl”, if a feminine identity or a hyper-femme identity is perceived as weak or juvenile? When referring to the writing femininity that is present in drag helps of conceptualize theory’s role in the current feminist landscape. and content the show Myglitter Little Pony, Seanan McGuire states:

w does sexuality also play into the fourth wave aesthetic? What about race? Who is allowed to be femme? ile thinking about the femme and the double standards of femininity, women in drag can be used to reveal performativity of gender—and to think critically about the importance of having unapologetically feminine ntities in the fourth wave. The overperformance of femininity that is present in drag helps conceptualize

Questioning the meanings and presentations of masculinity and femininity through dress, and through aesthetics, can further question the role of the gender binary in the fourth wave. How can we eliminate the stigma of doing something “like a girl”, if a feminine identity or a hyper-femme identity is perceived as weak or juvenile? When referring to the writing and content of the show My Little Pony, Seanan McGuire states:

glitter theory’s role in the current feminist landscape. Questioning the meanings and presentations of masculinity and femininity through dress, and through aesthetics, can further question the role of the gender binary in the fourth wave. How can we eliminate the stigma of doing something “like a girl”, if a feminine identity or a hyper-femme theory’s role in currentWhen feminist landscape. identity isglitter perceived as weak orthe juvenile? referring to the writing Questioning theMy meanings andSeanan presentations of masculinity and and content of the show Little Pony, McGuire states: ity through dress, and through aesthetics, can further question the gender binary in the fourth wave. How can we eliminate t of doing something “like a girl”, if a feminine identity or a hyp identity is perceived as weak or juvenile? When referring to t and content of the show My Little Pony, Seanan McGuire states


YOU COULD GET AWAY WITH ANYTHING, IF YOU MADE IT FLUFFY YOU COULD GET AWAY AND PINK ENOUGH. WITH ANYTHING, IF YOU COULD DESTROY YOU MADE IT FLUFFY THE WHOLE WORLD, AND PINK ENOUGH. AS LONG AS YOU WERE YOU COULD DESTROY WILLING TO COVER THE WHOLE WORLD, IT IN GLITTER FIRST. AS LONG AS YOU WERE WILLING TO COVER IT IN GLITTER FIRST. 

PINK ENOUGH. COULD DESTROY WHOLE WORLD, ONG AS YOU WERE LING TO COVER N GLITTER FIRST.

f a e g d femininthe role of the stigma per-femme the writing s:


ident identity identity i id identity


identity

tity identity dentity identity

how can we eliminate the stigma of doing something “like a girl�, if a feminine identity or a hyper-femme identity is perceived as weak or juvenile?

identity


Femininity is constantly

CENTERED

and analyzed around

heterosexual men heterosexual men heterosexual men heterosexual men heterosexual men heterosexual heterosexual men men heterosexual men

HETEROSEXUAL MEN and not as an identity of

agency.


in the world—this glitter aesthetic and movement provide a system of communication and visibility among women, in order to promote social change.

By extravagantly slathering “gender” onto work and dress, the accomplishments of women will be undeniably “femme”. Glitter theory observes fashion as a way of carving out space the world—this glitter aesthetic and movement a system “femme”. GlitBy extravagantly slathering “gender” ontoinwork and dress, the accomplishments of womenprovide will be undeniably By extravagantly slathering “gender” onto work and dress, accomplishments ofmovement womenprovide a system of communication visibility among women, order to promote social change. terand theory observes fashion as a in way of carving out space in the the world—this glitter aesthetic and of communication and Glitter visibility among women, in orderfashion to promote will be undeniably “femme”. theory observes associal change. a way of carving out space

slathering

By navigating away from other terms used to describe the aesthetic developing online during feminism ’s four t h w ave, glitter theor y aims to create a way of talking about the feminine fourth wave aesthetic that includes images of both girlhood and womanhood— and the multiplicities of the c a t e g o r y “ w o m a n ”.

By navigating away from other terms used to describe the aesthetic devel during feminism’s fourth wave, glitter theory aims to create a way of t the feminine fourth wave aesthetic that includes images of both girlhood hood— andtothe multiplicities of the category “woman”. By navigating away from other terms used describe the aesthetic developing online during feminism’s fourth wave, glitter theory aims to create a way of talking about the feminine fourth wave thatthe includes images of both online girlhood and womannavigating away from other terms usedaesthetic to describe aesthetic developing hood— and the multiplicities the category “woman”. ring feminism’s fourth wave, glitter theoryofaims to create a way of talking about e feminine fourth wave aesthetic that includes images of both girlhood and woman-

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words by stephanie rotz book design & photography by emma lewis

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