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xkwfa0jcif; ZGef / 2005 ckESpf qufo, G &f ef P.O Box (119) Mae Sod, Tak 63110 Phone: 01-7223590 E-mail: thinyebaw@yahoo.com www.burmasolidarity.org

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2


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4


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cspfol0wfyg 'DuAsm opPmeD nKdxuf(vrf;opfO;D )

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tvkyo f rm;a&;&m owif;v$m

tvkyo f rm;rSwy f w Hk ifu'frsm; ZGev f uket f _yD; ðyvky& f ef xki d ;f tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; ajym-um; xkdif;tvkyform;0ef}uD; (Sora-at Klinprathum) u ZGefvukef aemufqkH;xm;I vkyfief;±Sifrsm;u EkdifiHjcm; tvkyform;rsm;twGuf tvkyform;rSwfykHwifu'frsm; topfðyvkyaf y;&efEiS hf ta[mif;jyefvaJ y;&ef ðyvkyrf ay; ygu w&m;Oya't& ta&;,ljcif;cH&r_EiS hf &ifqidk &f rnf jzpfa=umif; vkyfief;±Sifrsm;tm; owday;xm;onf? arv 10 &ufaeŒ 0ef}uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;. oabmwl qkH;jzwf csuft& wpfEpS w f m tvkyv f yk cf iG yhf grpf av#mufvm$ aemufq;Hk &ufudk owf r S w f c J h j cif ; jzpf o nf ? xk d i f ; Ek d i f i H w G i f Ekid if jH cm;om;tvkyo f rm; 11 ode;f 0ef;usif ±S+d yD; tvkyo f rm; u'f±Sdol 840000 teuf jrefrm 630000/ uarBm'D,m; 110000/ vmtkd 100000jzpf+yD; 4if;wkdŒ. tvkyform; u'frsm; topfjyefvkyf&rnfjzpfonf? usef2 odef;cefŒonf tvkyform; rSwfykHwifu'f vma&mufrðyvkyfao;ay? ZGef vukeftxd pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;±Sifrsm;u 4if;udpPukdysufuGuf ygu Oya't& axmif 3 ESpfESifh aiG'%f bwf 6 aomif; uscaH p&rnfjzpf+yD; tvkyo f rm;rsm;onfvnf; axmif 3 v ESifh aiG'%f bwf 5000 uscH&rnfjzpfa=umif; 0ef}uD;u owday; ajymqkdoGm;onf? owfrSwf&uf ukefqkH;+yD;aemuf tpkd;&onf GIS ac: twdtus owfrSwfI owif;&,lonfh pepfudk usifhokH; rnf[k qkyd gonf? xkpd epfonf xkid ;f tm%mykid rf sm;rS tvkyf

orm;rsm;tm; tvkyfvkyfcGifh vufrSwfðyvkyfray;onfh vkyfief;±Sifrsm;ukd ESdrfeif;ta&;,lEkdifa&;twGufjzpfonf? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rS tvkyo f rm; vufrw S rf sm;ðyvkyf Ekdifa&;onf &uf 30 ESifh vkHavmufonf[k tckdiftrm ajymqkdcJhonf? 0ef}uD;u tvkyform;u'f ðyvkyfEkdifa&; twGuf 0efxrf;iSm;&rf;&efESifh taxmuftulypPnf;rsm; twGuf ok;H pG&J ef bwf 94 oef;ukd twnfðycJo h nf? 0ef}uD;u ,cif t vk y f o rm;vuf r S w f ud k i f a qmif x m;+yD ; owfwrf;wkd;ol tvkyform;rsm;. rdom;pkrsm;twGuf ,m,D aexkdifcGifh ðyvkyfay;rSmjzpf+yD; ,ckrS yxrqkH;t}udrf tvkyform;vufrSwf ðyvkyfolrsm;. rdom;pkrsm;twGuf Ttxl;tcGifhta&;udk ay;rnfr[kwf[k ajym=um;cJhonf? 0ef}uD;rsm;tzGJŒrS tvkyform;0ef}uD;Xmeudk xdkif; Ek d i f i H E S i f h e,f p yf j cif ; xd p yf a eonf h jref r m-vmtd k uarBm'D;,m;EkdifiHrsm;rS aeŒydkif;wGife,fpyfukd jzwfausmfI xkdif;EkdifiHwGifvma&muf tvkyfvkyf=u+yD; naeykdif;wGif jyef=uonfh tvkyform;rsm;ESifh &moDtvkduf tvkyfvkyf =uaom tvkyform;rsm;ESifhywfoufonfh pm&if;Z,m; rsm;ðyvkyf&efESifh e,fpyfvkHòcHa&; ykdrdkaumif;rGefvmap&ef !$ef=um;cJhonf[k qkdygonf? Bangkok Post 2.6.2005

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&Jabmf tvkyform;rsm;cifAsm; æ oifwdk@ ae@pOf&ifqdkifjzwfoef;ae&aom b0tawG@tóuHrsm;rSwpfqifh aygufzGm;vmonfh pmayvuf&mrsm;udk oifh&Jabmf*sme,fwGif xnfhoGif;azmfjyvdkygojzifh oifh&Jabmf *sme,fodk@ pmrlrsm; ay;ydk@&ef awmif;cHtyfygonf? t,f'DwmtzJG@

okŒd qufo, G v f v kd #if

P.O Box (119) Mae Sod, Tak 63110 Phone: 01-7223590 E-mail: thinyebaw@yahoo.com www.burmasolidarity.org

7


tm;vyf&uftcsed yf v dk yk t f m;ctwGuf avsmaf =u;aiGbwf 34.9 oef;ay;aqmif &rnfh wuf(pf)ukv d w dk yf(pf) ukr% ` D wufukdvkdwyf(pf) (Tesco Lotus) qlygpwkd;qkdif}uD;u vkyfief;cGJtm;vkH;rS tvkyform; (84000) twGuf tcsdefykd a}u; bwf34.9 oef;ay;&ef oabmwlvkdufonf? 4if;tvkyform;rsm;onf vGefcJhaom wpfESpfausmfu trsm;jynfol tvkyfydwf&ufwGif tvkyfvkyfcJh}uonf? tvkyform;0ef}uD; qkd&mtufuvify&mwGrfu trsm; jynfol tvkyfydwf&ufwGif tvkyfvkyfcJh}uaom tvkyf orm;rsm;tm; tcsdefykda}u;ay;&efudpP aqG;aEG;&ef ukr`%D tr_ a qmif r sm;onf 4if ; tm; r}umrD u vma&muf I qufoG,fa}umif; ajym}um;cJhonf? wuf(pf)ukdvkdwyf(pf) qlygpwkd;qkdif}uD;onf tcsdefykda}u;Oya'ukd vkdufem&ef oabmwlcJhonf? Ekid if w H pf0ef;&Sd vkyif efcaJG ygi;f (125) ckrS 0efxrf; (210000) teuf (84000) cefŒukd ukr`%Du avsmfa}u; bwf (34.9) oef ; ay;&rnf [ k tvk y f o rm;0ef } uD ; Xmeu ajym}um;cJhonf? 4if;tcsdefykd vkyftm;cavsmfa}u;aiGukd 2005 ckESpf ZGefvukefaemufqkH;xm;+yD; ay;&rnfjzpfonf? apmapmykdif;u wuf(pf)ukdvkdwyf(pf) tzGJ@rS tvkyform;

rsm;onf 4if;wkd@. rauseyfcsufrsm;ukd tvkyform;0ef}uD; Xme. tvkyform; umuG,fa&;ESifh vlr_zlvkHa&;XmeokdŒ tr_zGifhI wkdif}um;cJhonf? 4if;Xmeu o}uFew f iG ;f tm;vyf&uf tcsed yf dk vkyt f m;c ray;onfh rr#waom vkyt f m;cay:vpDudk usio hf ;Hk ae aom ukr`%Dtm; w&m;pGJqkdcJhonf? ukr`%Du tvkyform; rsm;tm; tcsed yf cdk ray;aomfvnf; tm;vyf&uf tcsed yf cdk tpm; wpfaeŒukd tpm;xk;d ydwaf y;rnf[k ajym}um; cJo h nf? tvk y f o rm;umuG , f a &;ES i f h vl r _ z l v k H a &;Xmeu ukr`%Dtm; tvkyform;rsm;.tm;vyf&uf tcsdefykda}u; ay;&ef trdeŒf csrw S cf o hJ nf? ukr% ` u D qk;H jzwfcsuu f dk uefŒuGuf +y;D tvkyo f rm;w&m;±k;H okŒd t,lc0H ifcahJ omfvnf; &_;H edrchf hJ onf? ukr`%Du w&m;±kH;csKyfokdŒ t,lcH quf0ifonf? okd@aomf uk r ` % D u t,l c H v $ m uk d r}umao;rD u jyef vnf I ±kyo f rd ;f cJo h nf? Bangkok Post June 3,2005

csefy, D o H ;dk ar$;puf±kH qENjy 'gZifaps;E_e;f udk owfrw S af y;avh±o dS nf? vkyif ef;+yD; cdsew f iG rf S 'gZifaps;E_ef;udk rw&m; aps;ESdrfowfrSwfay; aoma=umifh tvkyform;rsm;onf vkyfief±Sifrsm;. ay; oavmufom &±Sd=uonf? puf±kHrsm;onf vpmukd 10 &uf odk@r[kwf 15 &uf wpf } ud r f xk w f a y;avh ± S d o nf ? xk d a e@nae aqG;aEG;yGJt+yD;wGif puf±kHrefae*smrS wpfvv#if ESpf}udrf 'gZifaps;ESifhjyKvkyf&ef owfrSwfay;rnf? okd@aomf &uf twdtusudk ajymjyjcif;r±SdbJ vpmxkwf&ufukdvnf; olaX;ESihf twwfEidk q f ;Hk ndE‡ id_ ;f ay;rnf[k tvkyo f rm; rsm;xH jyef=um;cJhonf? Supervisor u yef;puf pufqGJXmerS tvkyform; 30 cef@ wdk@onf tvkyfrvkyfcsifaoma=umifh ,ckuJokd@ qENjyr_ jzpfyGm;atmif v_HŒaqmfjcif;jzpfa=umif; wifjyonf? xkdpGyfpGJcsufudk tvkyform;rsm;u jyefvnf acsy jiif;qkd cJo h nf? cseyf , D o H ;dk ar$;puf±o kH nf rJaqmuf+rKd@wiG f 1995 ckEpS rf S pwif zGifhvSpfcJh+yD; tvkyform; wpfaxmifausmfcef h±Sdonf?

20/ 5/ 05 aom=umae@wiG f rJaqmuf+rdK@ cseyf , D H ok;d ar$; puf±kHY yef;pufESifhpufqGJXmerS jrefrmtvkyform; 300 eD; yg;cef@ qENjycJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf 'gZifaps; owfrSwf&ef vpmxkwf&uf twdtus owfrSwfay;&efESifh aexkid cf iG t hf opf jyefvaJ y;&eftwGuf awmif;qkq d ENjycJ=h uonf? xkdtvkyf orm;rsm;onf 20/ 5/ 05ae@ nae 3 em&DrS pwifI tvkyrf vkyb f J qENjyawmif;qkcd =hJ uonf? nae 4;30 em&DwiG f tvkyo f rm;rsm;rS xrif;jyefpm;=u+yD; 5;30 em&DwiG f tvk y f c G i f o k d @ jyef 0 if = uonf ? nae 6 em&D w G i f tvkyo f rm;rsm;. awmif;qkcd surf sm;ESihf ywfoufI tvkyf orm;rsm;rS puf±kHrefae*sm yefpufpufqGJXmerS acgif;aqmif wkd@ESifh tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD; n 8 em&DwGif aqG;aEG;yGJ +yD;qkH;oGm;onf? tvkyo f rm;rsm; qENjy&jcif;. t"du ta=umif;&if;rSm 'gZifaps; jy\emyifjzpfonf? puf±rHk S 'gZifaps;E_e;f udk }uKdwif owfrSwfay;xm;jcif; r±SdbJ vpmxkwf&uf eD;csdef wGifrS 8


rJaqmufY txl;pDymG ;a&;Zkv H yk &f ef axmufcH wyfcfc±kdif pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;±Sifrsm;toif;ESifh pufr_ vk y f i ef ; ±S i f r sm;toif ; wk d @ rS rJ a qmuf a 'otm; ta±S Œ taemufzGH h+zKd;a&;pDrHudef;wGif Oa&myokd@ qufoG,f&ef 0ifayguf xGufayguf wpfcktjzpf ajymif;vJypf&efjzpfonf? rJaqmuf txl;pD;yGm;a&;a'o xlaxmifEkdifa&; Oya'opf wpfck ukd xkid ;f ygvrD efo@dk t}uHjyK wifoiG ;f oGm;rnf jzpfonf? xkdif;vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr±SifrS rJaqmufa'o txl; pD;yGm;a&;±kHpDrHudef;tay:xm;±Sdaom vlxk. oabmxm; aumuf,lpOf wmhcfpD;yGm;a&; ESifhpufr_vkyfief;toif;rS ,ckuJhokd@ axmufcHa=umif; wkH@jyefchJjcif;jzpfonf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;±Sifrsm;toif; OuUÏ (Suchart trirat Wattana ) urd r d w k d @ tzG J @ pnf ; onf h vG e f c J h a om q,f E S p f avmufxu J txl;pD;yGm;a&;Zkx H al xmifa&;udk awmif;qkv d m cJh=uonf[k ajym=um;cJhonf? Tokd@jyKvkyfjcif;jzifh xkdif;ESifh jrefrme,fpyf±Sd vltzGJ@tpnf;ESpfckvkH;tm; pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlra_ &;tm;jzifh zGH +h zKd;vmrnf[k ,k=H unfchJ =uonf? rJaqmuf a'oonf Oa&my. 0ifaygufxGufaygufwpfckESifh EkdifiHwum tqifrh +D rKdŒwpfct k jzpf wk;d wufvmrnfjzpfonf? rJaqmuf+rKdŒ onf jrefrmEkid if /H tdE, dN Ekid if EH iS hf teD;uyfq;Hk wnf±adS eonf+h rdKŒ jzpfouJo h @dk Oa&myEkid if rH sm;ESihf qufpyfay;Ekid o f nf+h rKŒd jzpfonf? rJaqmufY txl;pD;yGm;a&;Zkq H o dk nfh Oya'opfukd jyXmef; rnfqkdygu tm±SESifhOa&myukdaomfvnf;aumif;/ a'owGif;

pD;yGm;a&;tzGJ@tpnf;jzpfaom rJacgifa'o/ xdkif;rav;±Sm;/ tif'edk ;D ±Sm; pD;yGm;a&; yl;aygi;f aqmif±u G rf t _ zG@J rsm;ESihf qufpyf ay;Ekdifvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? rJaqmuftxl;pD;yGm;a&;ZkH qkdonfh Oya'opfudk jyXmef; rnfqkdygu e,fpyfjzwfausmf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;±Sifrsm;ESifh &if;ESD;jr‡yfESHr_qkdif&m twm;tqD;rsm;ukd z,f±Sm;EkdifrSmjzpf ouJo h dk h Ta'owGif tm%m tvGo J ;kH pm;r_rsm;ukd [ef@wm; Ek d i f r nf [ k pD ; yG m ;a&;toif ; OuU Ï u ajym=um;ch J o nf ? vGefcJhaom oDwif;ywfu t}uHay; twkdifyifcHtzGJ@rsm; jzpfonfh SEC ESihf PCC tzGJ@rsm;rS ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf rJaqmufrS pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;±Sifrsm;ESifh jr0wDrS jrefrmpufr_ZHk n$ef=um;a&;rª; OD;wifv_difESifhtzGJ@ukd awG@qkHcJh=uonf? jr0wD aumhu&dwfvrf;ay:±Sd wnfaqmufrnfh o,f,lydk@aqmifa&; XmeESifh jr0wDoCFef; nDaemifESifh um;vrf;ukdvnf; ppfaq; ch=J uonf? jrefrmEkdifiHrS txl;pD;yGm;a&;ZkHtjzpf tultnDay;a&; tqkdjyKxm;onfh jr0wD/ zm;tH/ armfv+rKdifESifh aumhaomif; +rd K @rsm;ok d @ vnf ; ppf a q;=unf h ±_ c J h o nf [ k vl r_ pD ; yG m ;a&; twkid yf ifcH !$e@f =um;a&;rª;rpPwm Marin Wongharnchao u ajym=um;cJhonf? (Bangkok Post) May 22,2005

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xkid ;f tvkyo f rm;v+y&f mS ;r+tzJŒG (T.L.C) acgi;f aqmif Mr.Saner Boonthong ESiahf wGŒqkjH cif; tvkyf&Sifwkd@. acgif;ykHjzwftjrwfxkwfr_ukd&ifqkdifcHpm;cJh&mrS tvkyform;wkdufyGJtqifhqifhukd jzwfoef;&if; tvkyform;acgif;aqmifjzpfvmol jrefrmtvkyform;rsm;.ta&;ukda&SŒwef;rS óud;yrf;aqmif&Gufaeol xkdif;tvkyf orm;acgi;f aqmif Mr.Saner BoonthongeJ@ oif&h aJ bmf*sme,fw@dk &ŒJ pum;0kid ;f ukd oif&h aJ bmfpmzwf olrsm;twGuf azmfjy vku d yf gw,f? pmwnf;tzGJ@ oifh&Jabmf ? ? t&ifqkH; cifAsm;&JŒtvkyform;b0jzwfoef;r_tawG@tóuHukdajymjyay;ygvm;? qem ? ? usaemftouf 19 ESpfrSm xkdif;EkdifiHawmifykdif; Zmwdòrd@uae befaumufwuf+yD; tvkyf&Smw,f? um;b&dwf±_; puf±kHrSm tvkyf&w,f? tvkyf±kHxJu tr_eftr$m;awGu ,m;,Hap+yD; c%c%zsm;w,f? c%c%zsm;awmh c%c% cGifh,l &w,f? cGifh,lawmhvnf; tvkyf&Sifu vkyftm;c ray;wJhtjyif aemufwpf&ufpmyg xyfjzwfw,f? cGifh,lwmrsm;vkd@qdk+yD; usaemfukd tvkyfxkwfw,f? epfema=u;vnf;ray;bl;? tvkyfuxkwfypf&if epfema=u;ay;&r,fqkdwm usaemfodygw,f? 'gayr,fh b,fol@qD tultnDawmif;&r,fqkdwm usaemfrodbl;? ‘igwkd@&JŒ vkyfcepfema=u;awG&atmif b,fvkdvkyf&rvJ’ qkdwm usaemfpOfpm;=unfhw,f? aemufqkH;awmh tJ'Dpuf±kHuxGufcJhw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefu befaumufòrd@ay:rSm tvkyftukdif &Sm;yg;aecsdefvnf; jzpfwmrdk@ (1976) ckESpfrSm Zmwdòrd@ukdjyefoGm;w,f? oihf&Jabmf ? ? tif; 'geJ@qufajymygOD;? qem ? ? (1979) ckESpfrSm befaumufjyefvm+yD; ‘a&mfqm’um; bufx&Dpuf±kHrSm ae@pm;c bwf 80 eJ@0ifvkyfw,f? "mwkypPn;f awGu usaemfu h se;f rma&;ukd xdcu dk af pw,f? tvkyu f wtm;yifyef;+yD; vluvnf;ydew f mt&rf;yJ? usaemf puf±rHk mS tvkyf0ifawmh a&mfqmtvkyform;or*~uvnf; zGJ@ump? bmrSpOf;pm;raebJ or*~xJ0ifvkdufw,f? tvkyform; or*~ tpnf;ta0;awG yGJvrf;awGqkd rvGwfwrf;oGm;wmyJ? tvkyform;v_yf&Sm;r_awGukd usaemft&rf;pdwf0ifpm;rdwJh umvaygh? oifh&Jabmf ? ? tJ'Dpuf±kHu vkyfcukd b,fvkd&Sif;ay;vJ? qem? ? tvkyf p 0if0ifcsif; usaemfu vpm;r[kwfbl;? ae@pm;yJ? tJ'Dpuf±kHrSmu wpfESpfjynfhrS vpm;&Sif;ay;r,f? pae/ we*FaEGem;&ufay;r,fqkdwJh owfrSwfcsuf&Sdw,f? 'gayr,fh wpfESpfjynfhawmholaX;u uwdrwnfbl;? aemufajcmufv xyfvkyfrS vpm;ay;r,fqkd+yD; xyfvkyfjyefw,f? 'geJ@ ‘rif;uwdrwnfwJhtwGuf ig tvkyfu xGufr,f’vkd@ olaX;ukdajymawmh olu‘rif;aocsmpOf;pm;’qkd+yD;jyefajymw,f? usaemfvnf;±kH;cef;jyef wpfem&DavmufxkdifpOf;pm;+yD; tvkyfuxGufvkdufw,f? oifh&Jabmf ? ? aemuf+yD;awmha&m? qufygOD;? qem ? ? 'geJ@ ‘qkHqkHpifaxmfxkdif;(pufr_vkyfief;)’ ,ufuef;puf±kHukd (1981) ESpfprSm a&mufoGm;jyefw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefu tJ'pD uf±rHk mS or*~z@JG z@dk vlpak ecsed v f nf; jzpfw,f? tvky0f if+y;D 7 &ufajrmufae@rmS or*~z@JG pnf;a&; tpnf;a0;uko d mG ;+y;D usaemfu h dk

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tzG@J 0iftjzpf vufczH @dk ajymawmh olw@dk u r,ko H uFmeJ@ tvkyðf ywfrmS ra=umufb;l vm;vk@d usaemfu h dk ar;w,f? ra=umufa=umif; jyefajymawmh usaemfukd tzGJ@0iftjzpf vufcHvkduf=uw,f? or*~zGJ@pnf;+yD;csdefrSm tvkyf&Sifu or*~tzGJ@0if (30) xJu (10) a,mufukd tvkyfxkwfypfzkd@óud;pm;w,f? 'gayr,fh (10) a,mufrSm (1) a,mufyJ xkwfypfEkdifcJhwJhtwGuf usaemfwkd@bufu atmifjrifw,fvkd@ ajymvkd@&w,f? tJ'pD uf±rHk mS vnf; tvkyo f rm;awGtay: acgi;f ykjH zwftcGiahf &;csK;d azmufra_ wGudk cH&wmyJ? wpf&ufciG , hf &l if ESp&f ufpm vkyftm;cjzwfw,f? wpfESpfaerS ae@pm;cukd jym; 50/ wpfbwfavmufyJ wkd;ay;w,f? tJ'Dvkyf&yfawGu tvkyform;awGukd pkpnf;apzkd@ wGef;tm;ay;wmyJjzpfw,f? [kwfw,f tJ'Dpuf±kHrSmxJu or*~OuUÏjzpfae+yD? oifh&Jabmf ? ? tJ'Dpuf±kHrSma&m b,fvkd}uD;rm;wJh tvkyform;wkdufyGJawGeJ@óuHawG@cJh&ao;vJ? qem ? ? óuHcJh&wmaygh? (1986) ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvrSm vpmwkd;ay;wmaES;vkd@ vpmwkd;ay;a&;twGuf qENjy=uw,f? puf±kHrSm&SdwJh tvkyform; 3000 ausmfpvkH; 45 &uf tvkyfvkyfrvkyfbJ qENjy=uw,f? tpkd;&v$wfawmf±kH;a&SŒtxd tvkyform;2000 ausmfoGm;+yD; qENjy=uw,f? oifh&Jabmf-tJ'D qENjyyGJu b,fvkd&v'feJŒtqkH;owfoGm;vJ? qem- tJ'Doydwfu atmifjrifwmaygh?tvkyf±Sifu vkdufavsm+yD; vpmwkd;ay;w,f? tvkyform;tcGifhta&;awG jyef&w,f? oifh&Jabmff ? ?‘qkHqkHpifaxmfxkdif;’puf±kHrSmub,fESESpfavmuftvkyfvkyfcJhwmvJ? qem ? ? tJ'DrSm &SpfESpf=umw,f? (1988) ckESpfwpfae@rSmawmh atmufwkdbm (6) &ufae@ tvkyform; ta&;tcif; ta=umif; aqmif;yg;a&;aewkef; tvkyf=uyfu rdoGm;a&m? usaemfhukdtvkyfu csufcsif;xkwfypfcsifayr,fh usaemfu or*~ aumfrwD0ifjzpfv@dk w&m;±k;H rSm tr_&ifqidk +f y;D rSyJ qk;H jzwfv@dk &r,f? 'ga=umifw h &m;±k;H rSm tr_qidk =f uw,f? a&SŒaewk@d tvky&f iS w f @dk u tr_&ifqkdifvnf;usaemfyJ&_H;rSmrkd@ epfema=u;,l+yD; tvkyfu at;at;aq;aq; xGufoGm;zkd@ ajymw,f? 'gayr,fh olwkd@ ajymwJhtwkdif; vkyfvkduf&if or*~ukd b,fvkdoGm;+yD; &Sif;jyrvJ? 'geJ@yJ usaemfjiif;vkdufw,f? trdef@vnf;csa&m olwkd@ajymwJhtwkdif; epfema=u;r&bJ tr_±_H;+yD; tvkyfu xGufay;vkdufw,f? oifh&Jabmf ? ? tvkyfðzwfcH&awmh or*~u cifAsm;ukd b,fvkdtultnDay;vJ? qem ? ? or*~u wm0efc+H y;D wpfvbwf (1000)axmufyw hH ,f? 6 v tultnD ,lcw hJ ,f? aemufawmh ‘pifusL&D xyfxidk ;f ’ ,ufuef;puf±u Hk aq;qk;d yef;±ku d b f ufrmS tvky0f ifvu dk w f ,f? tJ'pD uf±rHk mS tvky0f ifwmu (2532) ckEpS f atmufwb dk mrSmayg?h +yD;cJhwJh (2004) ckESpftxd tvkyfvkyfcJhw,f? ‘pifusL&Dxyfxkdif;’ ,ufuef;puf±kH tvkyform;or*~rSm OuUX (3) }udrfvkyfcJhw,f? (puf±kHrSm tm;vkH;tvkyform;ta,muf (500) &Sdw,f?) tvkyf&Sifu pnf;±kH;a&;aumif;vkd@qkd+yD; usaemh f u k d róud u f b l ; ? usaemf u awmh tvk y f & S i f / tvk y f o rm;rcG J j cm;bl ; ? rS e f w J h b uf u yJ tjrJ & yf w nf w ,f ? tJ'DtcsdefrSmpifusL&Dxyfxkdif;rSm or*~OuUXtjzpfwm0ef,l+yD; (T.W.F.T) rSm taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_;aygh? oifh&Jabmf ? ? tJ'Dpuf±kHrSma&m tvkyform;wkdufyGJawGeJŒ&ifqkdif&ao;vm;? qem ? ? ‘pifusL&Dxyfxidk ;f ’rSm jzpfcw hJ mayg?h wpfEpS pf m Bonus ukd &ufavsmzh @dk vyk v f @dk ? tvky±f kH 3 vodr;f +yD; qENjy=uw,f? puf±kHxJukd olaX;vnf; ay;r0ifbl;? vkyfief;awGtm;vkH;vnf; &yfoGm;a&m? usaemfvnf; tzrf;cH&+yD; tcsKyfxJwpfn tdyfvdkuf&ao;w,f? oifh&Jabmf ? ? qENjywJh 3 vtwGif;rSm cifAsm;wkd@awG b,fvkd&yfwnf=uovJ? qem ? ? ckvdk tajctaersK;d óuHvm&if tok;H csz@dk q+kd yD; tvkyo f rm;wpfa,mufudk wpfvbwf 40 pkxm;wm? usaemfw@dk rmS &efykHaiGwpfoef;&Sdw,f? 'gayr,fh wjcm;puf±kH tvkyform;or*~awGu tultnDay;=uwm tJ'D&efykHaiGwpfoef;awmif

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oifh&Jabmf ? ? tJ'Dvkdwkdufvkd@ tvkyform;umuG,fa&;±kH;a&muf&if b,fvkdtultnDay;EkdifrvJ? qkdvkdwmu aemufqkH;tqifh a&SŒaeXm;zkd@ tcuftcJ/ tcsdefeJ@ aiGa=u;utpaygh? qem ? ? cufwmu tvkyform;a&SŒae±kH;uvnf; rJaqmufrSm r&Sdbl;? erfhcGrfp0rfrSmyJ&Sdwmrkd h oGm;wkdif&wm jrefrm jynfom;awGtwGuf tcuftcJ&Sdw,f? oifh&Jabmf ? ? aemufwpfcsufar;csifwmu cef@rSef;ajc jrefrmtvkyform; wpfoef;&Sdw,fqkdygpkd@Asm? tJ'D wpfoef;u EkdifiHtwGuf tusKd;&Sdvm;? xkdif;tpkd;&eJ@ xdkif;tvkyform;awGtwGuf xdckdufr_&Sdvm;? qem? ? xdkif;EdkifiHtwGufawmh repfembl;? tvkyf&SifawG tusKd;tjrwftrsm;}uD;&Sdwmaygh? xdkif;tpkd;&taeeJ@uawmh 'Dtay:rSm bmrSr&bl;? xkdif;EkdifiHu jrefrmtvkyform;ta&;ajz&Sif;ray;Ekdifvkdh emrnfysufw,f? oifh&Jabmff ? ? qkdvkdwmu xkdif;tpkd;&taeeJ@ tusKd;tjrwf&wmenf;vkd@vm;? qem ? ? tvkyf&SifawGqDu taumufcGeftenf;tusOf;&wmuv$J+yD; bmrStusKd;r&Sdbl;? xkdif;tvkyform;awGbufu vufn‡dK;xkd;p&m jzpfvmw,f? &wJhtcGefuvnf; jrefrmtvkyform;awG&JŒusef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_ jyefay;&wmeJ@yJ ±_H;+yD;&if; ±_H;wmygyJ? oifh&Jabmf ? ? xkdif;tvkyform;or*~awGtaeeJ@a&m 'Djrefrmtvkyform;awGtay: b,fvkdjrifygovJ? qem ? ? olwkd@bufu tvkyform;tcsif;csif; ukd,fcsif;pmygw,f? 'gayr,fh xda&mufatmif tultnD ray;Ekdif =ubl;? olwkd hukd,fYuvnf; jy\emawGeJ h &ifqkdifae&w,f? xdkif;pufr_tvkyform;or*~rsm;tzGJ hcsKyf (T.W.F.T) taeeJ h jrefrm tvkyo f rm;awG owfrw S v f yk cf &&Szd hdk xkid ;f tpk;d &udk or~awGeJ h 0dik ;f +y;D wku d w f eG ;f xm;w,f? (T.W.F.T) u or~aygi;f 30 eJ h zGJ hpnf;xm;wm? tzGJ h0ifaygif; (27000) &Sdw,f? oifh&Jabmf ? ? cifAsm;wkd@ T.L.C ta=umif;ajymjyygOD;? qem ? ? usaemfwkd@u or*~r[kwfbl;? xkdif;tvkyform;awG yl;aygif;aqmif&GufwJhtzGJ@tpnf;yg? oifh&Jabmf ? ? cifAsm;&JŒ ckvjdk refrmtvkyo f rm;ta&; aqmif&u G rf a_ wGrmS b,fvt dk aESmift h ,Surf sK;d awGudk óuaH wG@c&hJ vJ? qem ? ? b,folb,f0g&,fvkd@awmh twdtusajymvkd@ r&bl;? zkef;eJ@quf+yD; +cdrf;ajcmufwmawG &Sdw,f? tvkyf&SifawG bufu rauseyfwJh wkH@jyefr_awG &Sdvmw,f? ao&rSmvnf; ra=umufygbl;? vlqkdwm wpfae@ae@rSm wpfenf;enff;eJ@ ao&rSm csnf;ygyJ? tvkyform;awG tusKd;aqmif&Guf&if;ao&wm rGefjrwfw,fvkdhcH,lxm;ygw,f? oifh&Jabmf ? ? aemufqkH;taeeJ@ jrefrmtvkyform;awGukd bmrsm;ajymcsifygovJ? t}uHðycsifwmav;awG &Sd&ifaygh? qem ? ? olw@dk awGudk uk, d cf si;f pmygw,f? t"dujy\emukd olw@dk u, dk w f ifdk f ajz&Si;f Ekid rf o S m tusK;d oufa&mufr&_ rdS ,f? wjcm; tzGhJtpnf;awGukd tm;ukd;r,fqkd&if olwkd@u tðyoabmavmufom qufqHr,f? xda&mufatmifvkyfay;rSm r[kwfbl;? jrefrmtvkyform;awGukd 'DrSm&SdwJh jrefrmtzGJ@tpnf;awGu 0kdif;0ef;ulnDaxmufyH+yD;olwkd@&JŒ jy\emukd ajz&Sif;ay;&r,f? ÔÔÔÔÔÔÔ

13


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14

usaemfwkd@ tvkyform;awG E_dif;,SOf+yD; aqG;aEG;cJ@ }uw,f? tvkyform;awG&JŒ aexkdif pm;aomufr_b0/ tvkyfcGifu tajctae/ vpm/ axmufyHhr_/ apmifh a&Smufr_ ….ponf axmifhaygif;pkHu }unfyh gw,f? Oyrm…bDyDtkdif (aq;0g;puf±Hk) rSmqkd&if uav;xdef;Xme&Sdw,f? pnf; urf;owfrSwfr_jrifhw,f? tcef;xJ0if&if bdeyfcíwf0if/ ykd;owfxm;wJ@ 0wfpkHawG vJ+yD;rS 0if&wmrsKd;? avhvma&;u jyefvm&if aumifpD tpnf;ta0; xkdif&w,f? xkwfvkyfa&; b,fvkd wkd;atmifvkyf&rvJ aqG;aEG;}u w,f? 'Dae&mrSm rqvacwft&m&Sd}uD; awGeJ@ olwkd@vnfywfaewJ@ ,E W&m;}uD; ta}umif;ukd rdrdeJ@qufpyfaewJ@ tydkif; uae+yD; ajymcsifw,f? wpf a ,muf u Ak d v f r ª ; }uD ; wif p k d ; o,f,yl @dk aqmifa&;rSm OD;omausmf +yD;&if olyJ? olu ‘'DrSm udk0if;xdef cifAsm;odwJ@ twkdif; usaemf[m tpkd;&t}uD;wef; t&m&Sdjzpfw,f? 'gayr,fh usaemf bmrS vkyfvkd@r&bl;’wJ@? tJ ' D aumif p D tpnf ; ta0;rS m yJ usaemfu ‘xkwfvkyfa&;rSmM 6 vkH;vkd@ ajym}uw,f? man vl/ machine puf u&d,m/ market aps;uGuf/ money qkw d @J yk d u f q H / method enf ; ynmeJ @ management ac:wJ @ pD r H c ef @ cG J r _ ? usaemf w k d @ puf ± H k r S m acwf r D z k d @ qk d & if


usaemf w k d @ tvk y f o rm; tm;vk H ; uk d twwfynmjri‡ &hf r,f? puf±u kH dk acwfrzD @dk M 6vk H ; wyf q if & r,f ? usaemf wk d @ odyfyifyef;aew,f? vpmuenf;w,f? tm[m&u rvkdufEkdif/ cGeftm;vnf;r&Sd acwfuvnf; rrDawmh u&def;eJ@ vkyf& r,f[ h mukd vlawGe@J r,ae&w,f? 'ga}umifh M 6vkH; udpP tjref pOf;pm;ay; }uyg’vkd@ ajymvkdufw,f? 'kAkdvfrª;}uD;!Gef@atmif qkdwm &Sd w,f? tJ'Dwkef;u olu &efvkH;atmif ppfa&,mOf&JŒ C.Ojzpfw,f? Akdvfae0if; pmwku d }f uD;pma&;vkyaf epOfu ol@udk xde;f ay;&qkdawmh b,fol@rS *±krpkdufbl;? ol@ txuf u Ak d v f c sKyf a omif ; wif v m&if vnf;salute ray;bl;? rjrifcsifa,mif aqmifaewm usaemfwkd@&@J taxGaxG refae*smu OD;rsK;d cifqw dk @J &cdik u f v k m;}uD; olu p uf±Hkukd odyfzGH@òzd;csifw,f? odyfwkd; wufcsifw,f? tvkyform;awG&JŒ b0udk aumif;apcsifw,f? 'gudkodwJ@tcg ol@ txuft&m&SOd ;D omausmu f ‘a[@rsK;d cif’ qkd+yD; ‘ig’eJ@ukdifwkwfw,f? OD;omausmf [m &cdkifawGxJrSm bk&ifvkd qufqHwm awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u ol@ukd bk&m;rxl;&±Hk wr,fy?J a&wyf&Jhtxmu wpfrsKd; ? AkdvfawG ukd xrif;ykd@&wJ@ Ap wyfom;awG&Sdao; w,f? xrif;yk@d wt hJ cg olw@dk r}unfv@dk &S&d if xrif;xJ wHawG;axG; xnfhay;vkduf wm rdomG ;wJ@tcg xk;d }u}udw}f u jzpf}u w,f? olwkd@eJ@ usaemfwkd@ tvkyform; awG a,bk,stm;jzifh cif}uw,f? t&m&Sad &m wyfom;awGyg cif}uw,f? b0t&ukd rcifvkd@ rjzpfbl;? vl 200-300 avmuf pD;wJ@ wefcsdef 3000 avmuf&SdwJ@ ppf oabFm}uD; yifv,fxo J mG ;wJ@tcg tvkyf orm;awG vkyfay;vkdufwm raooyf&if vk&d mra&muf ao&Gma&mufomG ;Ekid w f ,f? oabFmaygufqif;&if usaemf vufrSwf xkd;rS xGufcGifh&wmqkdawmh usaemhfukd ta&;ay;ygw,f? ara';wkd@/ jynfaxmifpkae@wkd@qkd&if usaemfw@dk oabFmusi;f tvkyo f rm;awGyJ

xreJ x k d ; ay;&w,f ? vl a xmif a omif ; twGufxkd;ay;&wmyg? usaemf tvkyf orm;awGeJ@twlxkd; twlpm;aecJhw,f? oabFmusif;rSm pm}unfhwkdufzGifhw,f? twlzwf}u avhvm}uw,f? 'Dtvkyf orm;awG x J r S m ±k & S m ;/ yk d v ef / ta&S Œ *smr%D æ pwJ@ qkd&S,fvpfEkdifiHawGudk oGm;+yD; ynmoifcJ@&olawG&Sdw,f? 'ga}umif h qk d & S , f v pf p epf t ay: wdr;f nGwrf a_ wG&}dS uw,f? txufrmS ajymcJ@wmawG[m ta&; tcif;ray:rD aemufcH taetxm;awG jzpfygw,f? tck usaemfwkd@XmeeJ@ qkdifwJ@ ta&;tcif;ta}umif; wifjyygr,f? ZGefv 5 &ufae@upygr,f? usaemf wkd@ qifrvkdufoabFmusif;eJ@ vSnf;wef; rD;&xm;vrf;eJ@u uyfaew,f? &efukef bufu rD;&xm;tvkyo f rm;awG tif;pdef buf csDwufoGm;}u+yD qkdwJh owif;}um; ae}u&+yD? ZGef6 &ufae@rSm xkH;pHtwkdif; Xmeukd tapm}uD;oGm;w,f? oef@&Sif;a&;vkyf/ a&aEG;wnf/ pm}unfhwkdufzGifh/ puf±HkzGifh ay;+yD; uJefwif;xJoGm;xkdif+yD; apmifhae wk e f ; tvk y f o rm;awG 0if v mw,f ? ‘ukd0if;xdef [kdrSm rD;&xm;rSmawmh qENjy r_ a wG j zpf a e+yD ? bmvk y f } urvJ ’ vk d @ tvkyform;&Jabmfukdbmpdefuar;w,f? ‘olwkd@awmif arSmuf&if usaemfwkd@vnf; arSmufaygAh sm? 'gupd aP umif;yJ’qk+d yD; vuf ajr‡mufjyvkdufw,f? tvkyform;awGu vnf; tm;vk;H vufajr‡mufjyvku d }f uum ‘'Dvkdqkd&if usaemfwdk@ oydwfarSmuf}u r,f’ vkd@ nd‡vkduf}uw,f? uysmu&m pm;aomuf+yD; xGufvm}uw,f? qkdifa&S@ rSm usaemfu‘oyddwf oydwf’wkdifwmeJ@ ‘arSmuf arSmuf’qkw d @J toHawG[ed ;f xGuf cJ@w,f? tvk y f o rm;awG u k d usaemf u ‘&Jabmfwkd@ cktcsdefu p+yD;awmh oydwf arSmufr,f/ wkd@tvkyform;awG&JŒ tcGifh ta&;awG&z@kdtwGuf wkd@oydwfarSmuf }ur,f? qENjy}ur,f? 'DtcGifhta&;awG &&Sdzkd@pnf;pnf;vkH;vkH;eJ@ wkdufyGJ0if}ur,f’ 15

vkd@ v_H@aqmfvkdufw,f? tvkyform;awG wajzmajzm a&muf & S d v mcsd e f r S m awmh usaemfu pm;yGw J pfv;Hk ay: wuf&yfvu dk +f y;D ‘oyd w f oyd w f ’ vk d @ wk d i f v k d u f w meJ @ ‘arSmufarSmuf’qkw d @J toH}uD;u wke[ f ;D xGufay:vmw,f? aemufawmh wjcm; puf±HkawGbuf csDwuf}uw,f? 0,f'g a&Sm@ (Weldershop) bufa&mufawmh ‘&J a bmf t vk y f o rm;taygif;wkd@ wk d @ &J Œ tcGifhta&;awGukd&zkd@ wkdufyGJ0if}ur,f? 'DtwGuf wkd@ tvkyfrvkyf}uawmhbl;? puf±akH wGyw d rf ,f’vk@d a}unmvku d f w,f? &Jabmfbma&$u ‘tvkyform; oydw farSmuf arSmuf’vkd@ wdkifay;w,f? aemu fusaemfu zdwifa&SmhuaomheJ h 0,f'g a&Smu h aomhEpS af csmif; odr;f xm; vku d w f ,f? &Jabmfbma± O$ ;D aqmif tvkyo f rm; awG u a'guf u m (Docker) buf u k d xG u f o G m ;}uw,f ? &J a bmf b ma&$ [ m u&def;ay:wufvkduf+yD; ‘tvkyform; &Jabmftaygif;wkd@ cktcsdefrSm usaemfwkd@ tvkyo f rm;awG&ŒJ tcGit hf a&;ukd awmif; qkrd ,f? &atmifawmif;qkrd ,f? EGm;arG;&if jrufausG;&r,f? vlarG;&if qefay;&r,f’ vkd@ a[majymw,f? tvkyo f rm;xk}uD;u ‘'k@d ta&; 'k@d ta&;’ vk@d aºuG;a}umf}uw,f? tJ'DvkdeJ@ usaemfwkd@wawG t,f vufx&Du,fa&Sm@/ r&Si;f a&Sm@/ &Spb f v D f 'if (shipbulding) / aemuf 0 ,f ' if a &S m @/ umyifwm (Carpenter)/ abmf'D (Body)/ a&Sm@/ tif*si&f yD &J m;a&Sm@ (enginerepairsop)/ 0ef}uD;±Hk; (TLC)/ OD;omausmf±Hk; (oabFm usif;xJrSmyJ okH;w,f) awGbuf vSnfh vnf}uw,f? tJ'Dae@u OD;omausmfrvmbl;? olu tv,fxyfrmS aew,f? 0ef}u;D ±H;k rSm trsKd;om; trsKd;orD;0efxrf;awG &Sdw,f? ol w k d @ uk d usaemf u ajymw,f ? ‘oabFmusif;wpfckvkH;ukd tvkyform; awGodrf;vkduf+yD? tJ'Dawmh cifAsm;wkd@ tvkyform;awGeJŒ vufwGJ+yD; oydwf arSmufyg? twlwuG usaemfwkd@ tcGifh ta&;awGudk awmif;qkd}ur,f? r&rcsif;


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cktcsdefup+yD; wkd@awG qifrvkduf oabFmusif;ukd odrf;vkduf+yD;/ puf±HkawG tm;vk;H ukd wd@k ord ;f yku d v f u dk +f yD/puf±akH wGe@J twl ppfoabFmukdvnf; odrf;xm;vkduf +yD ? 'ga}umif h puf ± H k a wG tm;vk H ; [m oabFFmawG tm;vkH;[m wkd@tvkyform; awG&ŒJ tm%matmufrmS &Sw d ,f? 'ga}umifh wkd@odrf;ykdufxm;wJ@ puf±HkawGtwGuf wkd@tvkyform;aw GjynfolawG&J@ tusKd; twG u f wk d @ oyd w f a rS m uf q EN j yr,f ? awmif;qkdcsufawG r&rcsif; qufvuf wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;r,f? wkd@[m tnHhrcHbl;? tav#mhray;bl;? &Jabmftvkyform; taygi;f wk@d pkppk nf;pnf;eJŒ wku d yf 0JG if}u yg’ vk d @ vnf ; awmif ; qk d v k d u f a &m tvk y f orm;awGu‘'kd@ta&; 'kd@ta&;’vkd@ aºuG; a}umfvkduf}uw,f? usaemfu quf+yD; aumifpDrSm usaemf wifjyaqG;aEG;xm;wJh M 6vkH;udpP &Sif;jyygw,f?aemufrS ‘'D M 6vkH; jynfhjynfhpkHpkH r&SdbJeJ@ 'Davmuf acwfrDwJh oabFmusif;}uD; rvnfywf Ekdifbl;? u&def;eJ@r,&r,fh[mukd vlawGeJ@ r,ae}u&w,f? &Apf±kdufaewJh tvkyf orm;awGukd }unfhvkdufOD; ppfzdeyfu usGJwpfzuf EGm;wpfzuf ukd,fay:rSm puf qDawGay/waygif; wefcl;/ {+yDv}uD;xJrSm acG;awGvkd av;zufaxmuf &Apf±kdufae }u&w,f? oH*a[aqmfwJ@ tvkyform; awG c%c% "mwfvkdufcH&wmwkd@/ bm wk@d jzpfuek w f ,f? qkcd siw f mu vkyif ef;cGi[ f m tE &W m,f ruif;bl;? tE W&m,fuif;atmif &Jabmf wkd@ awmif;qkd}u&vdrfhr,f? aemufwpfck &Jabmfwkd@ tvkyfqif;wJ@tcg 7em&DcGJ a&mufvmEkdifzkd@ 6em&Duwnf;u tdrfu xGu&f w,f? rk;d csKyfrS tdrjf yefa&mufw,f? tcsed af wG trsm;}u;D ukeo f mG ;+y?D wae ukef tvk y f x J r S m yJ epf a e}u&w,f ? &wJ@vpmuodyef nf;w,f? 'ga}umihf 'DrmS tcef;&zkd@ vkdvm+yD? tdrfcef;&zkd@ awmif; qk&d r,f? tkdAmwkdifudpPvnf; ajym&r,f? tkd Amwkdifukd wpfv27 em&DyJ vkyfcGifhay; 16

w,f? wkd@vufawG@ vkyfay;}u&wmu em&D 100ausmf w,f? em&DausmfawG[m a';atmzf (dayoff) eJ@yJjyef&w,f? qkdcsif wmu tkAd mwkid v f yk cf tjynfrh &bl;? &wJh vpmu odyfenf;? wcsKd@us bm;qkH;ae+yD? y±k d r k d ; &S i f ; wif a y;oif h + yD ? csKyf v k d u f & if vk y f c awG od y f e nf ; w,f ? tk d A mwk d i f wtm; vkyaf e&w,f? vkyif ef;cGiu f vnf; tE W&m,f}uD;rm;w,f? 'ga}umifh 'gawG twGuf wkd@wkduf}ur,f? qefvkHavmuf pGm&zkd@ awmif;qkd&r,f? vpmwkd;ay;zkd@/ &mxl;wdk;ay;zkd@/ aetdrf&&Sdzkd@/ ukefaps;E_ef; usqif;zkd@awGvnf; awmif;qkd}u&r,f? aemufawmhusaemfu aºuG;a}umfoH wkdif ay;vkdufygw,f? qefvkHavmufpGm&&Sda&; ('kd@ta&;/ 'kd@ ta&;) ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&; ( ? ) aetdrf&&Sda&; ( ? ) vkyfief;cGiftE W&m,fuif;a&; ( ? ) vpmwkd;jr‡ifha&; ( ? ) aemufwpfqufwnf; oabFmusif; rSm&SdwJ@ a&wyfukdvnf; xyf+yD;awmh yef }um;&w,f? 'Dtcsdefu a'gufwifxm;wJ@ a&wyfoabFm 5 pif;&Sdw,f? ‘&ef v k H ; atmif / &ef r sKd ; atmif / okawoD/ e*g;usif;/ e0&wfoabFmay:u wyfrª;wyfom;taygif;wkd@/ &Jabmfwkd@udk usaemfwdk@ tdrfjyefcGifhray;awmhbl;vkd@’ vnf; a}unmvkdufw,f? (usaemfu }um;jzwf+yD; &JabmfawGudk ar;vku d w f ,f?) ar;? a'guw f ifaewJ@tcsed f oabFmay:rSm pwif;bkdif (standby) vm;? ajz? ?olwkd@bmom vkyfae}uwmyJ/ ±kd;±kd;ae}uwmayg@? tdrfrSmaeovkdae}u wmyJ? ar;? ?olwkd@u oabFm}uD;xm;cJ@+yD; urf;ay:wufwm&Sdovm;? ajz? ?r&Sdbl;av? 'Dae&mrSm ajymzkd@vkdwmu oabFm wpfpD;rSm wyfcGJwpfcJG&Sdw,f? 5 pD;qkd 5 cGJ &Sw d ,f? wpfp;D wpfp;D ukd 'kAv dk rf ;ª }u;D (C.O) od@k r[kwf Akv d rf ;ª wpfa,muf tkyf csKyfw,f?


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‘Ak d v f r ª ; &J n G e f @ vmaES m ih f , S u f a e w,f? tvkyform;awG oydwfrarSmuf& bl;vkd@ ajymaew,f’? Ak d v f r ª ; &J n G e f @ uk d oG m ; tac:ck d i f ; ayr,f@ vkdufrvmyg? olu !$ef@}um; a&;rª;/ olŒ ±Hk;cef;ukd usaemfvkdufoGm;+yD; ‘Adkvfrª;cifAsm; usaemfwkd@eJ@ vkdufcJhapcsif w,f’vkd@ajymawmh yxr jiif;aeao; w,f? usaemfu ‘cifAsm;&JŒ vkHjcKHa&; tE &W m,f&w dS ,faem/ vku d cf @J yg’qkad wmhrS vkdufvmygw,f? ‘armif&if }unfhvnf; vkyfay;yg’vkd@vnf; ajymw,f? ‘'gawG xm;vkdufprf;yg’ qkd+yD; ac: xkwfvmcJ@w,f? usaemfwkd@ ESpfa,muf wGx J u G v f mwmjrifawmh tvkyo f rm;awG u vufckyfwD;}uKd}uygw,f? ‘'kdŒta&; 'kd@ta&;/ oydwf oydwfarSmuf arSmuf’ ‘ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&; 'kd@ta&;’aºuG; a}umfoHawG xGufay:vmygw,f? oyd w f a rS m uf tvk y f o rm;awG twGuf &duQmudpP pOf;pm;&+yD? 'ga}umifh um;wpfpD;ukd tvHxkd;+yD; &JabmfwcsKd@ tif;pdefbufxGuf tvªcH}uw,f? jyef vm}uawmh &duQmawGu um;eJ@tjynfhyJ/ xrif ; xk y f a wG / vuf z uf o k y f x k y f a wG vnf;ygvmw,f? xrif;xkyfawGxJrSm vufa&;vSvSeJ@ ‘tvkyform;oydwfukd axmufcHw,f’qkdwJ@pmawGawG@+yD; tm; wuf } uw,f ? wcsKd @ txk y f a wG x J r S m yk d u f q H a wG y gw,f ? ypP n f ; awG u awmh rsKd;pkHyJ? &yfuGufxJu t&yfolt&yfom; awGuvnf;xrif;tk;d }uD;awGe@J a&mufvm }uw,f? [if;awGuvnf;rsdK;pkHyJ? usaemf w k d @ puf ± H k r S m yJ vuf u rf ; pmapmifawG±u dk w f ,f? awmif;qkcd suaf wG aºuG;a}umfoHawGygw,f? ukefaps;E_ef; usqif;a&;/ qefvkHavmufpGm &&Sda&;/ vk y f i ef ; cG i f tE W & m,f u if ; a&;/ vpm wd k ; jr‡ i f h a &; ponf h t jyif qk d & S , f v pf acwfajymif;awmfvSefa&; atmif&rnf qkdwmvnf; xnfh±kdufw,f? usaemfwkd@ tvkyform;awGu qkd&S,fvpfpepfukd qef@usifwmrS r[kwfbJ? rqv vkyfcsif 17

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ESpf±Hkonf wdwfqdwfpGm qufoG,fxm; =uonf? 1974ckESpf/ ZGefv (4) &ufaeŒwGif 4if;puf±HkESpf±HkrSacgif;aqmif tvkyform; wcsKdŒukd zrf;qD;I axmifxJxnfhvkduf onf? 4if;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf txuf t&m&SdESifh tqifrajyolrsm;/ rqvygwu D dk qefŒusifolrsm;/ qENjy&ef pnf;&kH;acgif; aqmifonf[k txifcH&olrsm;jzpfonf? rD;&xm;pufacgi;f jyif puf±rkH S tvkyf orm;rsm;onf qENjy&ef owfrSwfxm; aom ZGef (6) &ufaeŒ tpm; ZGef (5) &uf aeŒ naerSp+yD; puf±HktjyifokdŒ rxGuf}u awmhbJ zrf;qD;xm;aom tvkyform; rsm;ukd jyefv$wfay;a&;ESifh 4if;wkdŒESifh oufqikd af om awmif;qkcd surf sm; awmif; qkd+yD; pwifI oydwfarSmuf}uonf? usaemfwdk@ bDyDtdkif puf±HkwGifvnf; 1974 ZGefv (6) &ufaeŒwGif usaemfwdkŒ aq;0g;puf±rkH S uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm;onf ykrH eS f tvk y f p csd e f x uf apmpD ; pG m a&muf vm}u+yD; nd‡E_dif;xm;onfhtwdkif; oydwf arSmuf&ef jyifqif}uonf? puf±HkrSO}o &Snq f +JGy;D tcsuaf y;vku d o f nfEiS hf wpfòyid ef uf XmetoD;oD;&Sd 0efxrf; tm;vkH;onf ‘oydwf oydwf arSmuf arSmuf’ [laom

aºuG;a}umforH sm; aºuG;a}umf+yD; puf±ykH ifr wHcg;aygufwGif pk±Hk;}u&efjzpfonf? usaemfwkdŒ oydwfarSmuf&ef tcsdef owfrw S cf surf mS eHeuf9;30 jzpfaoma}umifh oydwfarSmufcsdefukd wufºuGpGm apmifhpm; &if; tvkyform;rsm;rSm rdrdwm0efukd ausyGefpGm xrf;aqmifae}uonf? 9;30rdepf puf±HkrS O}o&Snf qGJvkduf onfEiS hf wpfòydief uf usaemfwo hdk nf puf±kH yifr wHcg;}uD;ukd ajy;ydwf+yD; aomhcwf vk d u f y gonf ? rnf o l r # t0if t xG u f rjyKvk y f & ef trd e f Œ xk w f + yD ; yif r wH c g; aomhudkvnf; odrf;xm;vkdufygonf? puf ± H k u k d xd e f ; csKyf x m;+yD ; aemuf usaemf w k d Œ onf tpk v k d u f tzG J Œ vk d u f wm0ef r sm;uk d cG J a 0csrS w f } uonf ? tqifhqifh wm0efcGJa0r_ tzGJŒrsm;rSm (1) puf±Hk twGif;tjyif vkHðcHa&;tzGJŒ/ (2) owif;ESifh jyef}um;a&;tzGJŒ/ (3) usef; rma&;ulnDr_tzGJŒ/ (4) pnf;vkH;v_Haqmf a&;tzGJŒ/(5) &duQmo,f,l pkaqmif;a&; tzG J h w k d h j zpf o nf ? usaemf w k d Œ puf ± H k . awmif;qkdcsufrsm;rSm 1? zrf;qD;xm;aom rD;&xm;pufacgif;jyif puf±HkrSvkyfom;rsm; jyefv$wfay;a&; 2? 0efxrf;vpmwkd;jrêifha&;

tjcm; puf±t kH oD;oD;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;onfvnf; usaemfwŒdk EiS t hf wl tif;pdet f usO;f axmif óud;wku d w f iG f qHak wGŒ =ujcif;jzihf jrefrmEdik if . H ordik ;f rSww f ikd w f ckjzpfaom 74 - 75 tvkyf orm; taxGaxGoydwf jzpfayonf? 19


3? ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&; 4? aeŒpm;vkyfom;rsm; tjrJwrf; 0efxrf; tjzpfcefŒa&; 5? tvkyform;rsm;tm; qefqDESifh rD;zkd acsmifokH;ypPnf;rsm; tcrJhay;a0a&; 6? tvkyform;rsm; zGJhpnf;ykHt& tcGifh ta&;&m tm;vkH; cefŒtyfa&; 7? oufomacsmifcsda&; csufcsif;ay; 8? tE W&m,fa}u; csufcsif;ay; 9? jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;ygwD tvkdr&Sd/ ppf t m%m&S i f u sqk H ; ygap ponf w d k Œ jzpfonf? Ñ(rD ; &xm; puf a cgif ; jyif p uf ± H k r S zrf;qD;xm;aomtvkyform;tm;vkH;ukd 7/6/74 aeŒ nae 6em&DwGif jyefv$wfay; vkdufonf?) 7/6/74 aeŒeHeuf 11em&D 45rdepf avmufwGif puf±Hkrª;Akdvfrª;}uD;odrf;armif 'kpuf±Hkrª;/tkyfcsKyfa&;rª;ESifh Xme refae *smrsm;onf usaemfwdkŒ tvkyform; acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh vma&mufawGŒqkH+yD; ‘ tvkyform;wpf&yfvkH;. awmif;qkd csuEf iS hf ywfouf+yD; olwt hdk aejzifh tvkyf orm;0ef}uD;ukd wifjyr,f/ cifAsm;wkdŒ tvkyform;xktm;vkH; oydwfvSef+yD; td r f j yef } uyg? aemuf a eŒawG r S m vnf ; +id r f ; +id r f ; csrf ; csrf ; eJ Œ ud k , f u s&m Xme toD;oD;awGrSm tvkyfcGif jyef0if=uygvdk@/ arwW m &yf c H y gw,f v d k @ ajymygw,f ? tJ'DtcsdefrSm usaemfwkdŒ tvkyform; uk, d pf m;vS,w f pfO;D u x+yD; ‘'Dawmif;qkd csufawG[m ukd,fpm;vS,f acgif;aqmif awG&JŒ qkH;jzwfcsufjzpfw,f/ vG,fvG,feJŒ qkH;jzwfcsufukd tajzay;vkdhr&bl;/tvkyf orm;xkwpf&yfvkH;ukd ar;jref;+yD;awmhrS tajzay;EkdifrSmjzpfwJhtwGuf 8/6/74 aeŒ eHeuf 9 em&DrSmtajzay;ygr,f’ vkdŒ jyef ajymvkdufonf? xkd@aemuf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf tvkyform;xkwpf&yfvkH;tm; txuf t&m&Sdrsm;ESifh nd‡Ed_if;aqG;aEG;csufrsm;ukd jyefajymjyonf? usaemfwkd@twGuf ta&; t}uD;qkH;awmif;qkdcsuf wpfckrSm oydwf vSef+yD;aemuf tvkyform;rsm;ukd rzrf;

qD;ygbl; [laom tmrcHuwdpum;yif jzpfonf? xkdha}umifh tvkyform; ukd,f pm;vk , f r sm;ES i f h w uG tvk y f o rm;xk wpf&yfv;Hk . qENt& 4if;wkŒd ukd cH0efuwd vufrSwfxkd;ckdif;&ef qkH;jzwfcsufcsrSwf vku fd }f uonf? 8/6/74 aeŒeHeuf (6) em&DwdwdwGif puf±HkrSL;rsm;ESifh tvkyform; ukd,fpm; vS,frsm; 'kwd,t}udrf awGŒqkH}uaom tcg udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u oydwfvSef+yD; ygu tvkyform;awGukd rzrf;qD;ygbl;qkd wmukd tmrcH vufrSwfa&;xkd;ay;&ef awmif; qkdonf? puf±rkH ;_ rsm;u usaemfwŒdk awmif;qkd csufawG tm;vkH;&atmif aqmif&Gufay; rnf usaemfwŒdk ukv d nf; rzrf;qD;zkŒd tmrcH ygw,f uwd v nf ; ay;ygw,f q k d + yD ; tvkyo f rm;rsm;. a&SŒrSmyif tmrcH uwd vufrSwfa&;xkd;+yD; ukd,fpm;vS,f rsm; vufokdŒ ay;tyfcJhonf? 9/6/74 nae (4) em&D w d w d tcsdefwGif usaemfwkdh tvkyform; ukd,f pm;vS,frsm;ESifh tvkyform;xk tm;vkH; oabmqEN t & oyd w f v S e f v k d u f } uyg onf ? 9/6/74 aeŒwG i f tvk y f o rm; tm;vk;H onf atcsr;f pGmjzifh tvkycf iG o f Œdk jyefqif;}uygonf? 4if;wkdŒonf olwkdŒuwdtwkdif; zrf; qD ; jcif ; rjyKaomf v nf ; usaemf w d k Œ . awmif ; qk d c suf a wG u k d tvk y f o rm;xk tm;vHk;u ay;vdrfhEdk; ay;vdrfhEdk;eJŒ apmifh ar#mf v m&m &uf r S v / vrS E S p f o d k Œ om ajymif;vJvmcJhaomfvnf; bmwpfckrS & vmjcif;/ ay;vmjcif; r&Sdacs? vdrfvnf vSnfhjzm;onfudk odvmaomtcg Xme toD;oD;rSm &Sd=uaom ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; ESihf tvkyo f rm;xktm;vH;k wdŒk onf raus reyfESifh rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf+yD; ESpfywfvnfaeŒ jzpfaom 6/ 6/ 75 aeŒ eHeuf 9 em&D 30 rdepf wGif oydwfarSmuf qENjy}uygawmh onf? usaemf w k d h aq;0g;puf ± H k tjyif tif ; pd e f rD ; &xm;puf a cgif ; jyif p uf ± H k / orkdif;ESifh csnfr#iftxnfpuf±Hk/ *kHeDpuf±Hk/ 20

qifrvkdufoabmFusif;puf±Hk/ ukef;vrf; o,f,lykdŒaqmifa&;vkyfief;ESifh tjcm; puf ± H k i ,f ajrmuf j rm;pG m onf v nf ; oydwfarSmuf}u+yD; awmif;qkdcsufrsm; awmif;qdk}uonf? usaemfwkdŒ aq;0g;puf±HktwGif;rS qENjyawmif;qkdcsufrsm; awmif;qkdaeŒpOf */6/75naeŒ4;30wGif vufeuf tjynfh tpk H j zif h jref r mpum;em;rvnf a om wkid ;f &if;om;ppfom; (70) cefŒu puf±u kH dk 0kdif;xm;+yD; ppfom;tcsKdŒonf yifrwHcg; aygufukdausmfwuf0ifa&mufvm}uum usaemfwŒdk tvkyo f rm;tm;vk;H ukd aoewf ESichf sed +f yD; 0kid ;f xm;vku d yf gonf? xkd ah emuf Akdvfrª;wpfa,muf a&mufvm+yD; ‘cifAsm; wkdŒtm;vkH; puf±HktjyifukdxGuf+yD; ukd,fh tdrfukd,f at;at;aq;aq; jyef}uyg? puf±Hkukd usaemfwkdŒ odrf;vkduf+yD? usaemf wkdŒ trdefŒay;wmukd rvkdufem&if ypf&yg vdrrhf ,f? cifAsm;wkŒd ukd rdepf 30 tcsed f ay; r,f? puf±HkxJrSm wpfa,mufrS rypfcsif bl;’ vkŒd ajym+yD; rsuaf xmifeh }D uD;eJŒ }unfh aeygonf? ukd,fpm;vS,fESifhtvkyform;rsm; onf rausreyfjzifh tH}udwf+yD; vufoD; ukd uspfuspfygatmifqkyf&if; a'goawGukd rsKdodyfum puf±HktwGif;rS toD;oD; xGuf cGmay;&awmhonf? ‚if; 8/6/75 aeŒ nrSmyif usaemfwdkŒ jrefrmEkdifiHaq;0g;puf±HkrS Xmeukd,fpm; vS,f acgif;aqmif trsKd;orD; okH;a,muf tygt0if vl (33) a,mufudk nwGi;f csi;f vdkufvHzrf;qD;+yD; emrnfqkd;jzifh ausmf }um;aom tif;pdeftusOf;axmifokdŒ ykdŒ vku d yf gonf? 12/7/75 aeŒwGif ppfc±Hk ;kH zGi+hf yD; 10 ESp/f 13 ESpf/ 16 ESpf toD;oD; jypf'%f csrSwf vk d u f y gonf ? tjcm;puf ± H k t oD ; oD ; rS acgif;aqmifrsm;udkvnf; usaemfwkdŒESifh twl tif;pdeftusOf;axmif óud;wkdufokdŒ ykdŒaqmifvkdufygawmhonf?

wdu k yf 0GJ iftvkyo f rm;a[mif;wOD; bDbt D ikd f (1974 - 75)


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xkwfvkyfjcif;qdkif&m vkyfief;awGudk a&$Œajymif; tajcðycJh=uwm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm =umjrifhcJhyg+yD? 'gayr,fh tck aemufjzpfvmwJh jzpf p Of u awmh aumf v H j zL tvk y f a wG u d k y g Ed k i f i H & yf j cm;rS m t&nf t wG u f trsm;tjym; ajymif ; a&$ Œ vk y f u d k i f v mjcif ; jzpfygw,f? 'DvdkrsKd; aumfvHjzLtvkyfawG t&Sdeft[kefeJ@ t&nf twGufrsm;rsm; ajymif;a&$ŒwmrsKd;udk twdwfumvrSmwkef;u rjrifawG@cJh=u&ygbl;? 'g[m ajymif;vJr_&JŒ a&SŒajy;vdk@qdk&rSmyg? aemufvmr,fh q,fpkESpf wpfckrSmawmh tckvdk toHwdwf awmfvSefa&; (odk@r[kwf) atmhzf±_d;&if; urf;vGefEdkifiH&yfjcm; tvkyfv$Jajymif; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_[m tar&duefeJ@ Oa&myEdkifiHom; aumfvmjzL tvkyform; oef;aygif;rsm;pGmudk tvkyfvufrJh b0awGtjzpf tjyif;txef xdk;ESuf±dkufcwfygawmhr,f? olwdk@twGuf tvkyf cGifawG yg;vsm;vmygawmhr,f? avmhpftif*sDvdpfrS vef'ef òrd@awmf}uD;xd/ abmhpfwGefrS bmvif=um;/ wdkvJ'dkrS wdkusdK/ atmfpwifrS trfpwm'rf pojzifh tv,fvwfwef; vlwef;pm; awG=um;rSm wGif;euf}uD;wck òydqif;ovdk jzpfvmEdkifygw,f? tifw,fvf (Intel) EdkifiHwum ukr`%D}uD;&JŒ tvkyf tr_aqmif t&m&SdcsKyfwOD;jzpfwJh u&dwf bm&ufu ajymwm uawmh urBmt h vkyt f iftm;pk}uD; &ifqikd af e&wJh 'Dajymif;vJr&_ ŒJ ±dkufcwfcsuftay: vltrsm;pk}uD;uawmh auseyfvSwmawmh r[kwyf gb;l ? aemufq,fEpS af usmq f &kd ifawmh tifrwefta&;}u;D wJh pkzGJ@r_awG òydqif;wmudk awG@jrif&ygvdrfhr,f? oltawG@tóuH ay:uae&&SdcJhwJh oifcef;pmrSwpfqifh óudwifjyifqifxm;zdk@ owd ay;wmjzpfygw,f? ol@&JŒtifw,fvf ukr`%D}uD;udk,fwdkif EdkifiH &yfjcm; wdkif;jynfawGrSm tvkyform;opfaygif; axmifaygif; rsm;pGm iSm;&rf;xm;+yD;vkyfaqmifae&wmyg? ukr`%D }uD;onfjzpfap/ i,fonfjzpfap tòydiftqdkif wGufcsuf=u&if; olwdk@&JŒ txl;ðyxm;wJh tvkyfawGudkawmifrS tm&S a'oudk tvkt,uf ajymif;a&$Œae=u&ygw,f? vuf&Sd vkyftm;cawGxuf wpf0ufuae ig;yHkav;yHkxd jzwfcsEdkifzdk@ twGuf jzpfygw,f? ,cifwkef;u puf±HkawG wpfck+yD;wpfck vkyf aqmifcJh=uovdkrsKd; jzpfaeygw,f? tckawmh bHkabòrd@}uD;rSm wpfqifch u H efx±du k f vkyif ef;awGuakd y;+y;D usaemfw@kd tvkyf awGukd jr‡KyfEv HS yk af qmifae=uygw,f? bmjzpfv@kd aqmh0yJ ±d*k rfrm awGukd e,l;a&mufrSm aemufxyf riSm;=uvnf;qdkwm em;vnfzdk@ tawmf cJ,Of;ygw,fvdk h armf*efpwefav (Morgan Stanley)u pD;yGm;a&; okawoD wpfO;D jzpfwhJ pwDzef ±dŒk csf ajymwm jzpfygw,f?

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oH'ikd ;f az

21 &mpk atmhzf±_d;&if;eJ@ tm&S atmhzf±_d;&if; urf;vGef EdkifiH&yfjcm; tvkyfv$Jajymif; &if;ESD; jr‡KyfEjHS cif;qdw k m jynfwiG ;f vkyt f m;twGuf Edik if &H yfjcm; vkyt f m;eJ@ tpm;xdk;jcif;ygyJ? tar&duefawGtoHk;jyK=uwJh wl;z&D;vdk@ac:wJh ukr`%D&JŒ 0efaqmifr_ w,fvDzkef;udk vSnfhvdkufr,fqdk&if tJh'D

(a&SŒv qufzwfyg)

22


1974 ar - ZGef tvkyo f rm;oydwf aZmfoef@ (qifrvdu k )f

tvkyform;oydwfwdkufyGJ ppfppf jzpfw,f? vlxkwpf&yfvHk;eJ@ ausmif;om; xk&JŒaxmufcHr_ tjynfht0 &&Sdw,f? arvukefydkif;up+yD; jrpfi,f rD;&xm; wGJjyifpuf±Hk tvkyform;rsm;&J@ oydwfu pwifygw,f? yvdyfcsnfr#iftxnf puf±Hk uvnf; qufwdkufoydwfarSmufw,f? rEœav;eJ@ txufArmjynfw0Srf; puf±Hk tvkyf±Hkwdkif;vdkvdk oydwfarSmuf=uw,f? ajrvwfa'owpf0Srf;vkH; oydwfrkefwdkif; wdkufcwfvmygw,f? rqv 0gZDpuf±Hk rSmvJ wif;=uyfpmG udik w f , G x f m;wJh =um;u &uftcsdK@ oydwfarSmuf=uw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ tif;pdefrD;&xm;puf±Hkup+yD; tvkyo f rm;oydw[ f m &efuek u f kd a&muf vmygw,f? ZGefvqef;rSmawmh &efukef òr@dawmf wpf0Srf;&Sd puf±Hktvkyf±Hkwdkif; oydwf rarSmufwm r&SdoavmufygyJ? xdkpOfu puf±Hktvkyf±Hkwdkif;[m rqv od r f ; xm;wJ h “jynf o l y d k i f ” csnf ; yJ jzpfygw,f? yk*~vduydkifr&Sdyg? (pyg;puf/ yJpuf/ *sHKpufuav;awGawmh &Sdygw,f?) arSmb f /D tif;wdik /f axmuf}uHŒ/ 'nif; ukef;rS p+yD; tif;pdef óudŒukef;/ ordkif;/ tkwu f si;f / urm&Gw/f vSn;f wef;pwJh puf±kH tvkyf±HkawG/ tvkyform; &yfuGuf awG pka0;&m (e0wvufxufrmS tvkyf orm; &yfuu G af wG zsu+f yD; a&$@ajymif; vdu k yf g+yD?) ae&mawG r S m jcd r f h j cd r f h o J o J y gyJ ?

Adkvfwaxmif/ pufqef;/ oHvsif/ 'v/ &efukef qdyfurf; pwJh *dkaxmifawG ukef avSmif±HkawG opfpufawG pka0;&m òr@de,f awGrSmvJ jcdrfhjcdrfhoJygyJ? tvkyform;oydwf[m ol@ oabm olaqmif+yD; “tvdktavsmuf” jzpfay: vmwJh tvkyform;tcGifhta&;wdkufyGJ ppfppf jzpfygw,f? ‘rqv zGJ@pnf;tkyf csKyfyHkopf’ ay:vmwJh 1974 ZEM0g&D (1) up+yD; ‘ygwD-aumifpD’ qdkwmawG ay: vmygw,f ? pm;oH k ; ol or0g,rawG ay:vmygw,f ? rqvygwD jynf o l @ aumifpD ( ,cif ol}uD;tvkyf) tvkyf orm; aumifp/D v,form;aumifpq D w kd m awG[m tvkyform;xktay: wdkuf±dkuf zdESdyfwJh u&d,mrsm; jzpfvmw,f? tvkyform;eJ@ 0efxrf;rSefor# ‚if; wd@k e@J uif;uGmcsiv f @kd r&yg? rqv ygw0D if r[kwf&if tcGifhta&;r&/ tvkyform; wdkif; 0efxrf;wdkif; tvkyform; aumifpD r0if v d k @ r&/ (tvd k t av#muf tvk y f orm;aumif p D 0if & w,f ? ) or0g,r xJrSm rdrdtpkpyf (owfrSwfcsuftwdkif;) xnf&h w,f? 'DtzG@J tpnf;awGukd óud;udik f xm;wmu rqv ppftpdk;&yg? xdkpOfu Adv k ðf ywfawG tawmfrsm;ygw,f? ppfO;D xkyf c|wf + yD ; acgif ; aygif ; wJ h acwf y g? AdkvfðywfawG[m “txl;t&m&Sd” tjzpf XmetoD;oD; puf±Hktvkyf±HktoD;oD;udk a&mufvmygw,f? t&yfom; 'g±u kd w f mawG refae*smawG ynm&SifawG[m wpwp ab;a&mufuek +f yD; Adv k ðf ywfawG[m 'g±u kd f wmawG refae8smawG ‘taumif}uD;’awG jzpfvmygw,f? ‘ygwD - aumif p D ’ qd k w mawG [ m ae&mwum wGifus,fygw,f/ vkyfief; cGifxJ &yfxJ&GmxJrSm ‘tvdkawmf&d’awG 23

‘aemufvu kd af cG;’awG[m ygwD - aumifpD xJ r S m ae&m,l = uw,f ? taeacsmif tpm;acsmifvdk@wifru tm%mjy tcGifh ta&;,l+yD; npfw,f? bHk;w,f/ jzpfcsif ovdk jzpfaeygw,f? (,ae@ }uHhzGH@vdkygyJ) xdkpOfu ‘0g%dZ…yÉdyuQ jzefajza&; ±H k ; ’ qd k w m &S d y gw,f ? tvk y f o rm;tvkyf&Sif yÉdyuQjzpf&if ajz&Sif;wJh±Hk;yg? tvkyform;0ef}uD; vufatmufrSmyg? 'gayrJh tpdk;&puf±HkeJ@ tvkyform; tr_ jzpf & if tpd k ; & (puf ± H k ) yJ Ed k i f y gw,f ? tpdk;&u tvkyf&Sif - tvkyform;u vkyftm;a&mif;pm;ol/ tcpm;yg? puf±Hk refae*smud, k w f ikd u f tvkyo f rm; aumif pD OuUX jzpfaeawmh ±H;k a&mufwt hJ r_vnf; r&S d o avmuf y g? yk * ~ v d u vk y f i ef ; &S i f uav;rsm;eJ@ tvkyform; tr_jzpf&if awmh 0g%dZ…±Hk;u tvkyform;bufu &yfygw,f? ('gukd t&if;&Sief @J tvkyf orm; yÉdyuQ vdk@ yHk}uD;csJ@ygw,f?) tvkyform;wa,muf tvkyf&zdk@ qdkwm “tvkyftudkif&SmazGa&; tvkyf orm; rSwyf w kH if±;kH ” qdw k m òrd@e,fwikd ;f rSm &S d y gw,f ? tvk y f o rm;0ef } uD ; vuf atmufuygy?J tJ'±D ;kH rSm rSwyf w kH ifxm;+yD; apmif h & ygw,f ? tuyf t &yf a umif ; rS vmbfxdk;EdkifrS tvkyfwck (udk,feJ@ xdkuf wefwm rwefwmxm;) &ygw,f? tvk y f u awmh &+yD / ‘b,f v d k ’ tvkyfvJ´ ae@pm; v&Sif; tprf;cef@ tvkyfoif pwJh yHkpHrsm;eJ@ vkyf=u&ygw,f? t+rJwrf; tvk y f o rm; (permanent labour) r[kwfyg/ vkyfief;jy (work charge) vdk@ ac:ygw,f? b,f^m%f}uD;&Sif xGifcJhw,f awmh rodygbl;/ (6) v tprf;cef@yg? ðzwfcsifwJh tcsdefðzwfvdk@ &ygw,f? ESpfwdk; &S m ;yg;p&d w f yif p if p wmawG cH p m;cG i f h


r&Sdbl;? cGifh&ufwcsdK@awmh &w,f? t+rJ wrf; tvkyo f rm;vdk wpfEpS f (wpfveJ@ 10 &uf) &uf 40 cHpm;cGifh r&bl;? rD;zGm;cGifh emrusef;cGifh pwmawGawmh a0;a&m/ vkyfief;cGif xdcdkufepfem&if bmtcGifh ta&;rS r&Sd/ tJ'Dvdk tvkyfrsKd; jzpfygw,f? puf±Hkwdkif;rSm tJ'Dvdk tvkyform; rsKd;utrsm;pkyg? Oyrm - ordkif;*kefav#mf puf±kH (wpfae@ 3 qdik ;f ) tvkyo f rm; 4000 ausmf a vmuf &S d y gw,f ? t+rJ w rf ; r[kwfwJh tvkyform;u 3000 avmuf &Sdw,f? csnfpuf (wpfae@ 3 qdkif;) tvkyf orm; 3000 avmufrmS 2000 avmufu t+rJwrf; r[kwfyg? tvk y f o rm;awG [ m vk y f t m;eJ @ vkyfc r#wpGm r&bl;? tvkyfcGif rwnf +rJbl;? b0 tmrcHcsuf r&Sdbl;? vkyfief;cGif ouf o m acsmif c sd r _ r&S d ? tEœ & m,f ruif ; bl ; ? aexd k i f r _ pm;0wf a er_ b 0 usyf w nf ; ? ygwD - aumif p D a wG ae&m wum vlwiG u f s,f vkyaf ew,f? pwJh pwJh rauseyfr_awG pkyHkaeygw,f? xdkpOfu tedrfhqHk;vkyfc wpf&uf 3 usyf 15 jym;? wv 82 usyf jzpfygw,f? (vpmxkwfcsdef ygwD - aumifpDa=u;/ [dka=u; 'Da=u; jzwfvdkufao;w,f?) rqv ppftpdk;& rwdik rf D awmfveS af &; aumifpD (62 ppfwyf tm%modrf;+yD;zGJ@) vufxufupcJhwJh yxr av;ESpf pDrHudef; (71 - 72 rS 74 75) qdw k m ESpEf pS cf eJG @J &yfomG ;+y;D / 74 rqv tpdk;&up+yD; 'kwd, av;ESpfpDrHudef; (74 - 75 rS 77 - 78) qd k w mud k topf a &;qG J y gw,f ? yxr av;ES p f pD r H u d e f ; [m wG u f a jcrud k u f ratmifjrifvdk@yg? 74 ZGefvrSm (6v) tprf ; cef @ awG tvk y f ð ywf a wmh r ,f ? tvk y f o rm;awG [ m e*d k u wnf ; u tESdrfcH+yD; tvkyfvkyfae&ao;w,f ,ck axmifcsD tvkyfðywfawmhr,f? Armjynf wpf c G i f v H k ; tvk y f o rm;oyd w f } uD ; &J @ t"du “csdefudkufAHk;”u 'gygyJ? tvkyf orm; oydwfawG 0uf0ufuGJatmif wpf vHk;+yD; wpfvHk; aygufuGJvmygawmhw,f?

tvkyform;awG[m puf±Hktvkyf±Hk awGudk odrf;vdkufw,f? 0if;wHcg;awGudk aomh c wf yd w f q d k @ xm;vd k u f = uw,f ? puf±±kH ;kH cef;awGxrJ mS oydw±f ;kH zGi=hf u w,f? puf±HkawGrSm uif;txyfxyf csw,f? puf±w kH w H ikd ;f awGay: wuf+y;D toHcsŒJ pufe@J oydwfaºuG;a=umfoHawG 24 em&D rjywf wdkifwnf=uygw,f? vlxkudk &Sif;jyw,f? rw&m;r_ a wG cH p m;csuf a wG u d k &if z G i f h = uw,f ? txuf u ajymcJ h w J h ‘csdefudkufAHk;’ &Sdaea=umif; tvkyform; rsm; tpu rod=uygbl;? cHpm;csufawG &ifzGifh&if;eJ@ wlnDwJh rauseyfcsufawGu b0wl tvkyform;xk pnf;vHk;nD!Gwf apcJyh gw,f? olw@kd wawG[m vlpv k al 0;eJ@ ±Hk;cef;xJ0if+yD; AsL±dku&uft&m&SdawGudk ta&;qdk=uw,f? tajctwif jyif;jyif; xefxef ajymqdk+yD; vdkvm;csufawG r&wJh tcg ±H k ; cef ; awG u d k od r f ; vd k u f w ,f ? t&m&S d a wG u d k z rf ; +yD ; tcef ; wck x J r S m xde;f odr;f vdu k w f ,f? oydwaf rSmuf =uyg+y?D ol w d k @ [m bmud k r S ra=umuf a wmh / aESmifóud;rSty qHk;±H_;p&mr&Sdqdkwmudk b0ay;todt& oabmaygu=f uygw,f? puf±Hkwdkif;vdkvdk 'DyHkpHygyJ? tvkyform; awG&J@ emusnf;csufawG zGifhtefoH[m em;axmifwJh vlxky&dowf&ifxJ v_duf v_dufvSJvSJ cHpm;&ygw,f? wu,fhudk a'gow}uD ; eJ @ [ef a qmif r _ u if ; rJ h + yD ; uAsmrqefaomfvnf; vlx&k ifxJ pmemr_ u±k%maum a'gorD;aum pkðyH0ifa&muf vmapygw,f? tvkyforawGuvnf; xrDwdkwdk0wf+yD; rdkufcGufudkif &ifzGifh=u w,f? ‘&Jabmf tvkyo f rm;rsm; &Si’hf qdw k hJ b0emwJ h Armjynf t rsd K ;orD ; tvk y f orm;xk&J@ wdkufyGJac:oH[m =uufoD; xp&m aumif;ygw,f? ausmif;om;vli,fawGu tkyfvdkuf oif;vdkuf puf±Hkjyifyuae axmufcHr_ jy =uw,f? vlx}k uD;u puf±w kH ikd ;f rSm 0dik ;f tHk tm;ay;axmufc=H uw,f? xrif;xkyaf wG aq;vdyaf wG rke@f yo J a&pmawG yd@k =uw,f? xrif;xkyfawGxJrSmvJ tm;ay; axmufcH wJ h pmv$ m awG a&;xnf h a y;=uw,f ? 24

awmifhxm; &Jabmfwdk@/ xrif;riwfap &bl;? tvkyform;aumifpD æ æ tvdk r&Sd? rqv tpdk;& æ æ tvdk r&Sd? tvkyform; tcGifhta&; æ wdk@ta&;? vkyfc vpm wdk;jr‡ifha&; æ æ wdk@ta&;? tvkyfcGif wnf+rJa&; æ æ wdk@ta&;? ukefaps;E_ef; usqif;a&; æ æ wdk@ta&;? oydwf oydwf æ æ arSmuf arSmuf? rD;wkwf rD;wkwf æ æ ±_d@ ±_d@? ta&;awmfyHk æ æ atmif&rnf? aºuG;a=umfoHawGu wnDwnf;vdkygyJ? &Sif;vif;wdusw,f? tydktvdk ryg&Sdyg? tvkyform;awG[m olwdk@r0ifrae& 0if xm;&wJh tvkyform;aumifpDudk tvdk r&Sda=umif; aºuG;a=umfoH[m xdyfqHk;rSm ae&m,lxm;ygw,f? ygwD - aumifpDu pm;zm;awG aemufvdkufacG;awG =uuf aysmufiSufaysmuf aysmufukefygw,f? aumifpx D u J tvkyo f rm;csi;f ta=umif; odwJhvl olwdk@,Hk=unftm;udk;wJh tvkyf orm;acgi;f aqmifawG(olw@kd vnf;aumifpD 0if a wG y gyJ ? ) tvd k t avsmuf oyd w f acgif ; aqmif a wG jzpf v mw,f ? puf ± H k wpf±HkeJ@ wpf±Hk zkef;eJ@ (±Hk;zkef;) odk@r[kwf um;eJ@ (±Hk;um;) odk@r[kwf wenf;enf;eJ@ qufo, G =f uw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ oydwf[m us,fjyef@}uD;xGm; vdk@ vmcJhyg+yD? tqifhjrifhoydwf aumfrwD awG/ puf±Hkcsif;eD;pyf&m aygif;pyf zGJ@pnf; =uw,f? zrf;xm;wJh t&m&Sad wGukd t=uyfuikd f +yD; awmif;qdkcsufawGudk vufrSwfxdk;cdkif; =uw,f? wcsdK@u xdk;ygw,f? puf±Hk!ïef rª;wdk@/ refae*smwdk@yg? olwdk@rSm bmtcGifh tm%m&Syd grh vJ? ay:vpDu ppftpd;k & qDu vmwmyg? aemuf y d k i f ; tm;vH k ; ud k tvkyform;rsm;u jyefv$wfay;vdkufyg w,f? aoG;xGuo f , H jkd zpfw,f r=um; rdyg? t&m&S d i ,f r sm;uawmh pmemr_ jy=u ygw,f? wcsKdŒwavrSty udk,fwdkifryg 0ifyg? E_wfeJ@awmh axmufcH=uygw,f?


puf±Hk0efxrf; pma&;pmcsD trsm;ydkif;u oydww f u kd yf rJG mS yg0if=uygw,f? olw@kd vnf; tvk y f o rm;awG v d k zd E S d y f a oG ; pk y f c H & wmygyJ? &efuek òf rd@ay:u tpd;k &±H;k rsm;tm;vH;k ydwfukef=uygw,f? trdef@xkwf+yD; ydwf wmr[kwfyg? 0efxrf;awGyg oydwf ul; pufrSmpdk;vdk@ txufeJ@n‡d+yD; em;vnfr_eJ@ yd w f u k e f = uwmyg? ±H k ; apmif h 0 ef x rf ; avmufom usefygawmhw,f? ukef;vrf; o,f,l yd@k aqmifa&; c&D;onfwifum;rsm; 0efwifum;rsm;/ &xm;/ oabFm/ pmwdkuf yd@k aqmifa&;pwJh 0efaqmifr_ vkyif ef;awGyg oydwaf rSmuf=uygw,f? &efuek w f pfòr@d vH;k um;/ &xm;awG &yf q d k i f ; uk e f y gw,f ? v#yfppf0efxrf;awG pmtkyfwdkuf (tpdk;& yHEk ydS pf ufawG) ygrusef oydwaf rSmuf=u vd@k xkwv f yk af &;eJ@ 0efaqmifr_ ,Eœ&m; wckv;kH &yf q d k i f ; oG m ;ygw,f ? rqv ygwD aumifpD±Hk;awG or0g,rawGvnf; ydwf xm;ygw,f ? qd k i f ; bk w f a wG ðzwf + yD ; udk,fa&mif azsmufxm;ygw,f? xHk;pHtwdkif; yk'fr 144/ nrxGuf& trdef@eJ@ ppftkyfcsKyfa&;trdef@ xkwfjyef ygw,f ? &ef u k e f t 0if v rf ; awG j zpf w J h axmuf=uHh/ wdk;a=umifuav; *dwfawG yd w f + yD ; ppf w yf u apmif h x m;ygw,f ? omauw wHwm; opf§a[mif; (2) ck pvHk; ydwfvdkufygw,f? wHwm;opf}uD; ud k v nf ; r˜xm;vd k u f y gw,f ? (t&S i f jzpfw,f)? xdkpOfu &efukef - oHvsif wHwm; r&Sdao;yg? v_difjrpftwGif; ppf a&,mOfawG uif;vSnfhygw,f? xdkpOfu xkwfjyefcJhwJh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;[m 1977 78 avmufusrS ±kyfodrf;ygw,f? (4) ESpf avmuf =umcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh ae@a&mnyg oydwfawGu pnfum;vsufygyJ? rqvtpdk;&u puf±Hk wpf±Hkcsif;pDeJ@ aphpyfn‡dE_dif;wmawG vkyfyg w,f? ‘awmif;qdck suaf wG ajyvnfatmif vkyfay;r,f/ oydwfvSefyg tdrfjyefyg’ 'gyJ xyfumxyfum vmygw,f? acsmhwcg ajcmufwvSnfh zdtm;ay;ygw,f? tcsdef =umvmawmh oydwaf wG yef;vm=uw,f?

puf±Hk}uD;awGudk ppfwyfu 0dkif;vdkufyg w,f? rD;jzwfwm a&jzwfwm vkyyf gw,f? tvkyo f rm;awGqal wmh puf±akH wG azmuf cGJypfrSm a=umufvdk@ a& - rD; jyefay;yg w,f? puf±u kH av;awG wajz;ajz; oydwf vSef=u&w,f? jyif;xefwmu *kefav#mf puf ± H k / csnf r #if p uf ± H k / qif r vd k u f oabFmusi;f wd@k jzpfygw,f? ppfwyfu 0if ypf+yD; puf±Hkudk odrf;vdkufygw,f? tvkyf orm;awG aoG ; ajrusygw,f ? ord k i f ; csnpf ufrmS puf±akH &S@ jynfvrf;ray: xdik +f yD; qENjyaewJh tvkyform;eJ@ vlxk }uD;udk ppfwyfu ESpfzufn‡yf+yD; ypfcwf ygw,f? ab;rS m &yf = unf h a ewJ h vl t k y f a &m tdraf wGxu J =unfah ewJh vlxak &m teD;&Sd bwW m aps;xJ 0if a jy;wJ h vl x k u d k y g ppfajrjyifvkd twif;vdu k yf pfv@kd tavmif; csif ; xyf usqH k ; &ygw,f ? qif r vd k u f oabFmusif;rSm puf±Hk0u 0ifvmwJh ppf um;udk tvkyform;awGu v#yfppf"mwf v$wfxm;+yD; rD;owfydkufeJ@ yufxkwfvdk@ vef u suk e f y gw,f ? jrpf b uf u urf ; wuf,mOfeJ@ puf±Hkudk ypfcwfodrf;ydkufvdk@ aoG ; acsmif ; pD ; usqH k ; cJ h y gw,f ? Ad k v f waxmifopfpufrsm;eJ@ ajrmufOuUvm tvk y f o rm;&yf u G u f r sm;rS m yg ypf c wf r_rsm; jyif;xefygw,f? wjcm;ae&m tESH@ tjym;rSmvJ tenf;tyg; &Sdygw,f? 1974 ar - ZG e f tvk y f o rm; oydwf[m aoG;acsmif;pD; ESdrfeif;cH&yg w,f? 'Doydw}f uD;[m rxifrw S w f hJ tcsed f rSm t&Sdefjyif;jyif;eJ@ xavmifvdkufwJh rD;}uD;yg? qdk&S,fvpf ‘rD;’ eJ@ upm;wJh ppftpd;k & rD;avmifc&H wmyg? 1974 ZEM0g&D (1) rSmp+yD; topfyGJxkwfvmwJh ‘rqv zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk’ [m (6) v twGif; twk t a,mif tyk y f t od k ; om jzpfa=umif; yGifhuscJh&ygw,f? tvkyform;oydwf}uD;&J@ aemuf yd k i f ; rS m ILO &J @ zd t m;eJ @ tvk y f o rm; aumifpDudk ‘tvkyform; tpnf;t±Hk;’ vd@k trnfajymif;ygw,f? ‘twkta,mif’ a&G;aumufyGJawGeJ@ tvkyform;tpnf; t±H;k tr_aqmif a&G;aumufyaJG wG vkyjf yef 25

ygw,f? tvkyform; oufomacsmifcsd a&;qdkwm vkyf+yD; tvkyform;awGudk tpd;k &aps;eJ@ (xdpk Ofu arSmifcakd ps;vnf;&S)d qef-o=um;-aq;vdyf pwmawG a&mif; ay;ygw,f? tvkyform;rsm;udk t&pfus qyf pepfeJ@ aiGxkwfacs;ygw,f? (vpm xJu jyefjzwf,lygw,f)/ puf±Hkwdkif;rSm ‘aiGpak iGacs; or0g,rtoif;’qdw k mawG zG J @ apygw,f ? 'gawG [ m tvk y f o rm; oydwaf =umifh w'*F&vdu k w f hJ tcGit hf a&; wcsdK@yg? aemufydkif; (yxrt}udrf) vpm E_ef; wdk;jr‡ifhay;wm vkyfygw,f? (wjynf vHk; orRwupvdk@ tedrfhqHk; vkyfom; txdyg) tedrq hf ;kH vkycf 82 usyf uae 100 usyf jzpfvmygw,f? 'gayrJh e,fcs@J t*Fvyd f vufxufuwnf;u wdkuf,l& &SdcJhwJh ‘&S m ;yg;p&d w f ’ qd k w mawmh aysmuf oGm;yg+yD? t+rJwrf; 0efxrf; - tvkyf orm;rsm;vJ wdk;csJ@cef@xm;ay;ygw,f? 'gayrJh wdkufyGJ0if tvkyform;trsm;pk uawmh axmif x J r S m eJ @ 0&rf ; ajy;b0 a&muf&ygw,f? vpmwdk;wmeJ@ wqufwnf; aiG puU L azmif ; yG u m (0gZD p uf ± H k u vd k o avmuf ±dkufay;ygw,f) ukefaps;E_ef;awG vdkufwufygw,f? ESpftwef=umawmh (yxrt}udrf) aiGpuULawG w&m;r0if awmha=umif; a=unmwm vkyfygawmh w,f? tajccH EdkifiHa&; pD;yGm;a&; ay:vpD t&yf&yf azmufjyefrSm;,Gif; aeor#awmh aq;+rD;wdkeJ@ b,fvdkukpm;aomfvnf; uk&mewˆd aq;r&Sdyg? 1974 ar - ZG e f tvk y f o rm; oydwf}uD;[m 'Drdkua&pDr&SdwJh rqv wygwD ppf t pd k ; acwf r S m ppf t pd k ; &ud k jyif;jyif;xefxef xdk;ESufvdkufwJh jynfol w&yfvHk;udk rsufaphzGifhay;vdkufwJh ordkif; rSm arhaysmufypfvdk@ r&EdkifwJh ta&;awmf yHk}uD;w&yfyJ jzpfygw,f? aZmfoef@ (qifrvdu k )f ÔÔÔÔÔÔÔ


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orD;&J@ azaz arv (1)&uf/ 2005 30


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bl;wJh rdbESpfyg;u wkefv_yfajcmufjcm; ao;.? ynmwwf a wG r k d @ yk d q k d ; wmu tylyifykd}uD;jcif;yif? olwkd@ajr;uav;&JŒ pdwcf pH m;csuu f v dk nf;xnfph Of;pm;=u&ao; wm? a&$jzLom;av; crsm bmrSrod&mS ? okH;ESpfqkdaom t&G,f[m tarh&ifcGifxJ wkd;tdyf&r,fh t&G,fav;yg? 'gayr,fh tarhom;av;twGuf bmwpfcrk S tqkyf tukdif r&Sdao;? om;&JŒynma&; usef;rm a&;eJ@ pm;0wfaea&;awGtwGuf a&&Snf pDrHudef;yg om;&,f? a&$jzLtdrfuxGufvmonfh reufrSm om;uol@tzGm; (a&$jzL@tar) &ifcGifxJ tdyaf rmusjyD;usecf @J wm? Ek;d &if‘arjzLom; Ekd;+yD’vkd@ atmfac:aeus? 'Dae@awmhol@ ‘arzGm;’uyJ oGm;csD&awmhrSmaygh? om; av;&JŒ tarcrsmawmh rsuf&nfawGawG? tJonfwek ;f uawmh om;ukd tareJ@tb ukd Zmwd&GmudkrcGJEkdifaom rsuf&nfawG ygy?J uk, d b hf 0 uk, d chf pH m;csut f wGuf awmh xnf h r awG ; jzpf c J h ? txl ; ojzif h uk d , f h *k%foduQmtwGufaygh? aumhu&dwfu a'ge awmifajcrSm um;wef;apmifh&wm uk d y if pd w f r npf j zpf c J h ? vrf ; c&D ; wpf a v#muf pd r f ; jrjrv,f u G i f ; awG / nKdwkdwkd ±kd;jywfawG/ &mbmawmawG auG@aumuf awmifwef;awG/ euf±_dif; acsmuf u rf ; yg;awG jzwf c J h a wmh v nf ; jrifuGif;pdrf;awGxJom,m vGrf;armzG,f ai;&if; tdrfukdomvGrf;aecJhwm? [kd;æ t&if w k e f ; uqk d & if a&$ j zLu r&t& tcsdefvk+yD; ckvkd jrifuGif;vSvSawGqkd aemuf c H v k y f + yD ; "mwf y k H a wG t rsm;}uD ;


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Ekid if w H iG ;f rSm aer&vk@d a&$jzLwk@d eJ@twlwl jynfyudak &mufaewJh Ekid if aH &;orm;}uD;rsm; ulnD tajz&Sm ajz&Si;f ay;=uyg? pm;csi+f yD? odyaf vmbr}uD;olr@dk at;at; vlvlae&&if awmf+yD? tJovkdESifh *k%f oduQmavmavmq,f arhxm;&onf? 'D v k d e J @ yJ uk d , f h o m;av;uk d ol @ tzG m ; t*Fvdyfq&mra[mif;u pmoifay;ae csdefrSm a&$jzLu olrsm;uav;awGukd pm oifay;ae&onf? tJonf EkdifiHjcm;om; olaX;&JŒ uav;awG a0,sm0pPudk vkyaf y; ae&onf? nDrjzpfol ‘td’uawmh ol ynmroifcJhvkd@ olwpfyg;&JŒ uíefjzpf& owJh? 'gjzifh a&$jzLusawmha&m bmjzpf vkd@vJ? ‘td’&,f ynmwwfawmh ykd+yD;cHpm; &wmaygh[,f? ukd,fhwkdif;jynfu ukd,fh tm%mykdifawG raumif;vkd@ igwkd@jynfol awG 'Dvjdk zpf&wmvk@d odaeawmh yk+d yD;cHpm; &wmaygh ? a&$ j zLjzif h c%c% owd & ygw,f? &GmrSm=unfhjzpfcJhwJh ‘ol@uíef 33

rcH+yD’qkdwJh ±kyf&Sifum;ukd? aocsmygw,f? b,folrS ol@uíefrcHcsif=uygbl;? 'gjzifh tJ'Dukd,fhwkdif;jynf ukd,fhvlrsKd; ol@uíefjzpf ae=uwm b,f o l @ rS m wm0ef & S d o vJ ? b,fvkd q,fwif=urvJ? EkdifiHwGif;rSm ae r&vkd@ a&$jzLwkd@eJ@twlwl jynfyudk a&muf aewJh Ekid if aH &;orm;}uD;rsm; ulnt D ajz&Sm ajz&Sif;ay;=uyg? (3) wu,fawmh xkdif;EkdifiHxJrSm tdwkd@ a&$jzLwkd@&JŒ Zmwfvrf;rsKd;[m odyf±kd;+yD; od y f o uf o mygao;w,f ? ol w d k @ xuf qkd;+yD; b0ukd ay;qyfvkduf&wJh jrefrm jynf o l j ynf o m;awG od e f ; oef ; csD + yD ; &Sad e}uwmyg? tJ't D jyif olw@dk xuf enf;enf; uHydk aumif;+yD; Oa&myEkdifiHawG taemufEkdifiH awGrSm tvkyform; (uíef) oGm;jzpf=u &wJh 'kuQonf trnfcHawGvnf; trsm; }uD;yg? ynmwwfu &Sdor#ynmav;eJ@ olwkd@ a&mufoGm;=u&wJh EkdifiH&JŒ wkd;wuf zGH@òzd;a&;awGrSm 0kdif;yHhykd;&wJhuíefjzpfr,f? ynmrwwfolu vkyftm;eJ@yHhykd;&wJh uíef jzpfr,f? tJonf wkdif;jynftwGufawmh tusKd;tjrwfawGcsnf;ygyJ? jrefrmawG rSmom ynmwwfawGavsmh/ vkyfom; tiftm;awG avsmh/ ,Ofaus;r_awG avsmh/ om,mpnfyifjcif;awG avsmhvkd@? tJonf tcg usrjzifh ‘ol@uíefrcHjyD’qkdwJh ±kyf&Sif um;&JŒ emrnfuadk wmif r=um;csiaf vmuf atmif &ifxJrSm emusifrdygw,f? usrwkd@ tm%mykdifawGuvnf; tJonf ±kyf&Sif um;ukd r&Sufra=umufbJ vufckyf vuf 0g; wD;+yD; tm;ay;=uygw,f? ol@uíefrcH+yD wJh? usruawmh tJonf rsufESmajymif ajymifawGeJ@ &,farmaewJh owW0g}uD; awGukd pdwu f ;l xJrmS um;pifwif&if; olw@dk &JŒ usqkH;cef;ukd omapmifhaerdwm tcsdef wkdif;ygyJ? tJonf tcsdefwkdif;rSmvnf; t"dXmef&Gwfovkd pum;wpfcGef;ukd tjrJ qkrd yd gw,f? ‘wkd@acwfudkawmha&mufrnfrvGJyg’vkd@? ar+idrf; Ò


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ae&pfcrhJ vm;/ twlvu kd cf rhJ vm; ZGefrd+if;

34


cHpm;&w,f? usaemfwkd@ bmvkyfEkdifrvJ? usaemfwkd@ bmvkyfoifh ovJ? 'geJ@yJ wpfnaerSm usaemfwdk@ oli,fcsif; 2 a,muf udkvGifjrifhtdrfudk a&mufoGm;=uw,f? ‘tud k tvk y f o rm;}uD ; awG towf c H & wm usaemf towfc&H ovdyk J cHpm;&w,f? olw@dk ukd ESpaf wGtrsm;}u;D &uf&uf pufpuf axmifcsypfwmvnf; usaemfhudk axmifcsypfovdk cHpm; &w,f? usaemfwkd@ 'Dvdk +idrfae=uawmhrvm;tudk? tck arvqef;ae+yD? *|ef 6 &ufrSm usaemfwkd@ wpfckck vkyf=u&if raumif;bl;vm;? tukdvnf; tudk@tvkyform;awG udk jyifqifxm;? usaemfw@dk vnf; ausmif;om;awG=um;rSm jyifqif xm;r,f? wpfckckawmh vkyf=u&atmif tudk’ usaemfajymwmudk udkvGifjrifhu taotcsmem;axmif aew,f? ol@rsuf0ef;[m rsuf&nfpawGeJ@ pdk@vJhvJh? oufjyif&n S w f pfcsucf svu kd w f ,f? ‘nDav;wdk@ajymwm rSefygw,f? tudkwkd@ 'Dvdk +idrfaevdk@ rjzpfbl;qdkwm tukd rjiif;ygbl;? 'gayr,fh æ tudkwkd@u nDav;wkd@avmuf rvGwfvyfbl;? nDav;wdk@u pdwfxJrSm &Sdoavmuf udk,f,Hk=unfwmudk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf vkyfvdkufvkd@ &w,f? nDav;wdk@ rawmfvdk@ xdoGm;&ifawmif wa,mufxJyJ xdwm? tudkwkd@rSmuæ nDav;wkd@jrifwJhtwkdif; 'DaumifawG &Sd ae+yD? xrif;td;k wnfEidk zf @kd qw dk m/ tudrk &S&d ifqw dk mrsKd ; æ pOf;pm; =u&+yD? 'Dxrif;tkd;[m odyfrufavmufvSwm r[kwfayr,fh vHk;vHk; r&Sdawmhbl;qdk&if æ ’ udkvGifjrifh qufrajymEkdifawmhbl;? toHwdrfoGm;w,f? E_wfcrf;udk wpfcsufzdudkufvkduf+yD; rsufESmukd ab;wpfzufudk v$Jvkdufw,f? olvnf; usqHk;oGm;wJh/ tzrf;cHoGm;&wJh ol@vkyfazmf udkifzuf &Jabmf}uD;awGtwGuf b,favmufcHpm;ae&rvJ? tcef;[m awmfawmf=um=um +idrfoufoGm;w,f? c%t=umrSmrS æ ‘tud k p Of ; pm;r,f nD a v;wd k @ &m tud k @ ud k em;vnf ay;yg’wJh? usaemfh&ifxJ wpfrsdK;}uD;yJ? udkvGifjrifh pOf;pOf;pm;pm; ajymvmwJh pum;awG[m usaemfhtwGuf pOf;pm;p&mtcsufawGyg? 'gayr,fh æ usaemftjynfhem;rvnfEkdifcJhbl;? uav; ESpfa,muf&,f ol@ZeD; reDeD&,fa=umifh 'Dvl enf;enf;rsm; aoG;a=umifoGm;+yDvm;vdk@ oHo,0ifcJhrdwm trSefyg?

(3) 1991 &JŒ *|efv 6 &ufae@rSmyg? usaemfwdk@ *|ef 6 txdrf;trSwf tcrf;tem;wpfckudk wkd;wdk;wdwfwdwf usif;yae=uwmyg? 'DtpDtpOfu tif;pderf ;D &xm;pufacgi;f jyifpuf±u kH tvkyf orm; }uD;ukdvGifjrifh&JŒ txdrf;trSwf*k%fðyoDcsif; oDqkdjcif; tpDtpOf? 'Dtcrf;tem;udk usaemfwkd@u tif;pdef oD;oef@tusOf; axmif&JŒ taqmif(2) tcef;(10)rSm usif;yae=uwmyg? 'Dtcef;xJrSm bDyDtkdif aq;0g;puf±Hku tvkyform;}uD; udkausmfwifh/ ppfudkif;&Gmopf}uD; csnfpufu udka=umharmif/ tif;pdefrD;&xm;puf±Hku udkcif=unfESifh udkvGifjrifh/ +yD;awmh usaemf? ab;cef;rSmu pufr_wuUodkvf "mwkaA' vufawG@cef;u udv k 0S if;/ +y;D awmh Auorsm;tzG@J csKyfu ukad usmaf tmif/ vl@abmif opf'Drdku&ufwpfygwDu udkwifxGef;v_difESifh udkoufrSL;? tcrf;tem;usif;yw,fqkdayr,fh æ tcef;wpfcx k rJ mS / tcef;us,u f s,rf mS vGwv f w G v f yfvyf usif;y&wmrsdK;awmhvnf; r[kwfbl;? udk,fhtcef;rSm udk,fae+yD; txdrf;trSwfðy±Hk ðy=u&wm rsKd ;yg? oDcsif;udkvnf; pdwf&Sdwdkif; tus,f}uD;qkdvdk@&wm r[kwf bl;? wkd;wmrS wu,fhwkd;wkd;ygyJ? bmvk@d vq J adk wmhæ usaemfw@dk wku d &f ŒJ a&SŒudu k f 40 avmuf rSmu axmufvSrf;a&;(6) pcef;csxm;wJh rdef;a*s;qdkwm &Sdw,f? tJ'aD e&mu uHaqmif q&mawmf}uD;awG/ pifòydit f pd;k &zG@J z@kd jyifqif=uwJh v$waf wmftrwfawGukd ppfa=uma&; ac: ac:+yD;vkyf aewJhae&m? tcdsefuvnf; ppfa=umvufusefawG jzwfaewJh umv? tcef@roif&h if axmifxrJ mS wif aemufrw _ ;dk oGm;Edik w f mu vm;? (4) udkvGifjrifheJ@ usaemf awG@=uyHku ±kyf&Sifqefw,f? usaemfu pufrw _ uUov kd af &mufpESp?f 1974 *|ef 6 &ufae@ ordkif;csnfpufoydwfudk rqv ppftkyfpku &uf&ufpufpuf ypfcwfòzdcGJ+yD;ump? qifrvku d f oabFmusi;f oydwpf cef;udk *|ef 7 &ufae@reuf t±k%fwufrSm =unf;wyf/ a&wyf ESpfzufn‡yf+yD; twif;ypf/ twif;wuf/ twif;odrf;cJhwma=umifh tvkyform;aygif; 200 ausmf wpfreufcif;xJrSmyJ toufay;oGm;&wJhumv? tJ'DumvrSm udkvGifjrifhukd usaemf pawG@cJhwmyg? tJ'DjrifuGif;awG jyefajymrd=uwkdif; usaemfh&ifxJrSm/ usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awG &ifxJrSm i&JrD;rsdKrdovdk qdk@qdk@eifheifh 35


(6) *|ef 6 &ufae@ naerSm usaemfwkd@ orkdif;0ef;ausmif;om; awG oydwfparSmuf+yD? 'g[m ae@vnfu pufr_wuUodkvfudk ynma&;0ef}uD; a'gufwm cifarmif0if;ESifh a'gufwm vS[ef vm+yD;awG@wmu pw,fvdk@ ajym&r,fxifw,f? yGJu 'DrSmwif pcsifae+yD? naeydkif; obm0ody`H (Natural Science)udk 0ef}uD; ESpf yg;u vmawG@r,fvdk@ uwday;+yD; vmrawG@=uawmh æ ‘'g usaemfwdk@ ausmif;om;awGudk apmfum;wmyJ’qdk+yD; yGJu xdrf;vdk@r&awmhbl;? ZGJuyifaqmif aemufu csnfpuftvkyform;vkdif;awGeJ@ jcm;xm;wJh tkwfwHwkdif;udk òzdcsvdkuf+yD; tif;pdefvrf;rudk wufvu kd =f uw,f? ordkif;csnfpufxJukd csDwufoGm;=u+yD; tvkyform; ausmif;om; yl;aygif;v_yf&Sm;zdk@ zdwfac:cJhw,f? aemufawmh pufr_wuUodkvfudk csDwuf? tJ'DurS &efukefwuUodkvf0ef;xJudk jyef/ bGJ@ESif;obif cef;rudk odrf;ydkuf/ oydwfpcef;zGifhcJhw,f? usaemfwdk@ausmif; om;awGuawmh pvdkuf+yD? tvkyform;awG rvkduf&J ao;&if vnf; aecJhOD;? tJ'Dae@xd usaemf[m tJ'DvdkyJ awG;awm,lqrdcJhwmyg?

oydwfudk rjzpfcifuwnf;u p òzdygw,f? +yD;cJhwJh oydwfwkef;u Black List awG tukefzrf;w,f? +y;D awmh &uf&ufpufpufyJ ESpt f rsm;}u;D axmifcs ypfw,f? (10) ESpf/ (13) ESpf/ (16) ESpf/ (19) ESpf axmifcsypfcJhwmyg? 'DrSm udkvGifjrifhu (16)ESpf? (9) 1980 ckxd axmifxJrSm 'kuQawG trsdK;rsdK;cHcJh&w,f? axmifxrJ mS tvkyo f rm;awG[m usaemfw@kd ausmif;om; awGxufawmif yd+k y;D zdEydS cf &H w,f? 'gayr,fh olw@kd [m enf;enf;rS rwkefv_yfcJhbl;? pdwf"mwfa&;t&/ ,Hk=unfcsuft&/ b,fvdk tcuftcJESifh óuHóuH b,fvkdrS rwkefv_yfcJhbl;? Ekid if aH &; ,H=k unfra_ wGukd OD;csKd ;apmfum;zd@k &nf&, G cf suEf iS hf ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;ESifh axmiftm%mydkifawG&JŒ zdESdyfr_awG udk qef@usiw f u dk cf u kd cf w hJ hJ axmifwiG ;f wku d yf aJG wGrmS vnf; udv k iG jf rifh wkd@ tvkyform;awG[m usaemfwkd@ausmif;om;awGeJ@ vufwGJ v_y&f mS ;cJyh gw,f? rqv ppftpdk;&[m ausmif;om;wcsdK@udk jyifqifcsufeJ@ 1978 ckEpS rf mS jyefvw $ af y;cJw h mrsKd ;vkycf ahJ yr,fh tvkyo f rm;awG udak wmh vH;k vH;k v$wrf ay;cJb h ;l ? olw@kd ,E &W m;ukd wku d ±f u dk x f cd u dk f atmif vkyfolrsm;tjzpf t+idK;taw; tawmf}uD;ygw,f? taxGaxG vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGihf trde@f 2§80 qkw d m xGuf vmwJh 1980 arvxJrSmrS vGwfajrmufcGifh&cJh=uwmyg?

(7) usaemfvGJoGm;+yD? tvkyform;awG aoG;a=umif+yD; usefcJh+yDvdk@ usaemfh[m usaemf xif&mjrif&m rSwfcsufawGcsxm;wm wufwufpif atmifvGJoGm;+yD? usaemfu toufuvnf; i,f/ tawG@tóuu H vnf; i,f/ tajrmftjrifeJ@ pOf;pm;csifhcsdefEdkifr_uvnf; i,f? ‘udk,ftcsdef wpfq,fr&if olvnf; tcsdefwpfq,frEdkif &r,f’qkdwmvdk oHk;csufwGufenf;ESifh uav;wGufwGufxm; rdwmyg? xl;jcm;wJh obm0awGeJ@/ xl;jcm;wJh taetxm;awG atmufrSm rwluGJjym;wJh vkyf[efawG&SdaeEdkifw,fqkdwmudk aemuf wjznf;jznf;rS oabmayguf em;vnfvm&wmyg? cGifhv$wfyg udkvGifjrifh&,f? usaemfawmfawmfvGJygw,f?

(10) tJ'Dvdk axmifawGwef;awGus/ trsm;pk}uD;[m b0awG/ rdom;pk b0awG wppDa=urGoGm;=u? 'DtwGufæ tvkyform;awG b,fvkdpOf;pm;=uygovJ? tvkyform;awG&JŒ b0[m vlxk}uD;&JŒ b0eJ@ wpfquf wnf;yJvdk@ olwdk@em;vnf=uw,f? vlx}k u;D rvGwaf jrmufrcsi;f tvkyo f rm;xk[m b,fvrkd S vGwfajrmufEkdifrSm r[kwfbl;vdk@ tvkyform;xku tcdkiftrm em;vnf=uygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; 1988 'Drdkua&pD ta&;awmfyHk}uD;rSm æ tvkyform;awG tifwkduftm;wkduf yg0ifcJh=uwmyg? &Spfq,fh&Spfta&;awmfyHk}uD; t+yD;rSm æ EkdifiHa&;ygwDawG zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifcGifh &vmwJhtcgrSm æ (8) trsKd;om;EkdifiHa&;wyfaygif;pkrSm udkvGifjrifhtygt0if 1974 ar/ *|efwkef;uvkdyJ æ tvkyform;acgif;aqmifawG 0ifa&mufvkyfudkifwm0ef,l=uyg 1975 ar/ *|efrSmvnf; puf±Hkwkdif;vdkvdku tvkyform; w,f? 'Dwyfaygif;pkudk ppftkyfpku t+idK;taw;eJ@ rw&m;oif; awG oydwaf rSmuf=u/ oydwaf rSmufz@kd jyifqif=u vky=f uygw,f? a=unmvkdufwJhtcgrSmvnf; olwdk@[m tjcm;tiftm;pkawGeJ@ 'gayr,hf ppftpd;k &u 'DwcgrmS awmh 1974 ckEpS f uavmuf yl;aygif;+yD; ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; wkdufyGJawGxJrSm quf+yD; oydwfudk t}uD;rcHawmhbl;? yg0ifc=hJ ujyefw,f? 'DvdkeJ@yJ 1990 *ENDa[m v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;t+yD;rSm æ 36


usaemfhtawG;awGu 1974 ckESpfrsm;qD a&mufoGm;vkduf/ &Spfav;vHk;wkdufyGJawGqD a&mufoGm;vkduf/ 1990 *ENaD [m v_y&f mS ;r_tvGeu f ppfa=uma&;pcef; awGe@J tusOf;axmifawGqD a&mufoGm;vdkuf/ ara';ae@ tcrf;tem;qDudk jyefvmvkduf/ vGef;xdk;ul;,SufoGm;vmaeawmhw,f? 1974 *|ev f 6 &ufae@rmS tvkyo f rm;}uD;awG &mESichf s+D yD; toufay;cJh&wmawmif 'Dae@qkd&if (31) ESpfwif;wif;jynfh+yD? csDum*dku tvkyform;}uD;awG toufawG&if;ESD;ay;qyf cJhwmvnf; (119) ESpf wif;wif;jynfhcJh+yD? a&eHajrtvkyo f rm;}uDawG&ŒJ rkid f 400 ausmaf 0;wJh &efuek f txd csDwufwdkufyGJ0ifcJhwJh (1300) jynfh ta&;awmfyHk }uD;vnf; ESpfaygif; (70) eD;yg;&SdcJh+yD? 'gayr,fhvkd@vnf; æ usaemfwkd@ tvkyform;awG&JŒ b0 uawmh 'Dae@xd wnf+idrfr_rJh/ vHkòcHr_rJh/ at;csrf;r_rJh aeqJ? wpfae@tvkyfcdsef (12) em&D/ (14) em&D/ (16) em&Dqkdwm awGukd }udwrf w dS &f ifqidk af e=u&qJ? tvkyform;awG&JŒ b0[m jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;u pufr_ZHk awGrmS tumtuG,rf ahJ eovdk 'Dbufukd (xkid ;f / rav;&Sm; ponf udk) vmvkyfae=u&wJh tcgrSmvnf; wu,fhudk usD;vef@ pmpm;?

rJ mS tvkyo f rm;awG[m “usaemfaxmifwŒkd xausmif ;om;awGxufawmif yd_k yD; zdEydS cf &H w,f? 'gayr,fh olwŒkd [m enf;enf;rS rwkev f y+ cf b hJ ;l ? pdw"f mwfa&;t&/ ,H-k unfcsuft&/ b,fvkd tcuftcJeŒJ óuóH uH b,fvrdk S rwkev f y+ cf b hJ ;l ?

tck v k d 'k w d , t}ud r f a xmif u svm=u+yD ; usaemfwkd@ESifhtwl tckvdk *|ef 6 trSwfw& tcrf;tem;ukd usif;ycJh=uwmyg? ‘}uD;jrwfwJhwkdufyGJ urBmwnfoa&G@ t"Gef@&Snfygap eD;armif;wJh tvkyform;aoG;ordkif; urBmwnfoa&G@ t"Gef@&Snfygap *k%fajymifwJh *|ef 6 pdwf"mwf urBmwnfoa&G@ t"Gef@ &Snfygap’ udkvGifjrifh[m oDcsif;&JŒ tcsydk'fudk qkdcsvdkufw,f? +yD;awmh usaemfhvufudk tm;&yg;& qkyfudkif+yD; E_wfquf w,f? +yD;awmh æ ‘nDav;wdk@ ESpfa,muf tukd@ rD;&xm;pufacgif;puf±Hk tvkyform;vdkif;xJu tcef;av;rSm vmaqG;aEG;=uwkef;u tudk@qDu rwifrus pum;awG=um;&vkd@ pdwfrcsrf;rajr@eJ@ jyef oGm;=u&wJh rsufESmEkEkav;awGudk tudkb,fawmhrSrarhygbl; uGm? wu,fu nDav;wdk@ vmwm[m tudkwkd@ tvkyform; awGudk pmemvGef;vdk@ vm=uw,fqkdwm tudkem;vnfygw,f? nDav;wdk@vkdcsifwJhtajz tukdcsufcsif;wpfxkdifwnf; ray;vkduf EkdifcJhwJhtwGuf tudk vHk;vHk;pdwfraumif;ygbl;/ tJ'DtwGuf tukd@udk cGifhv$wfyg? tudk@udk em;vnfay;yg’ usaemf bmjyefajymvkduf&rvJ? usaemf bmrS jyefrajymEkdifcifrSmyJ æ usaemfh rsuf0ef; wpfckvHk; rsuf&nfawG jynfhoGm;+yD? ‘usaemf em;vnfygw,f? usaemf trsm;}uD;em;vnf ygw,f tudk ’

(12) usaemfwkd@ quf+yD; óud;pm;=u&ygvdrfhr,f? usaemfwdk@&JŒ yckH;ay:rSm æ usaemf w k d @ jzwf o ef ; ae&wJ h uae@tajctae}uD ; u jyXmef;vkdufwJh orkdif;a&;wm0efawG? ae&pfcJhrvm;/ twlvkdufcJhrvm; &xm;}uD;uawmh qufvufxGufcGmzkd@ rD;pdrf;jyae+yD? &xm;}uD;&JŒ a&SŒqH;k wGrJ mS awmh udv k iG jf rifah &mufaeESirhf ,f qkdwm oGm;r=unfhbJeJ@udk usaemf odaevdkufyg+yD? ? (*|ef 6 ESihf tvkyo f rm;wku d yf JG tqufqufrmS pGe@f vw $ af y;qyf cJ=h uwJh tvkyform;&Jabmf}uD;rsm;tm; OD;!¸wf *k%fðyvsufæ)

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(11) (115)ESpfajrmuf ara';ae@ tcrf;tem;u qufusif;y aew,f? 37


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(4) uíerf wd@k jr0wDa&mufawmh nae apmif;+yD? wHwm;uvnf; ydwfcgeD;ae+yD? wnf;cdpk &muvnf;r&Sad wmh [db k ufurf;udk tjrefu;l &awmhr,f? uíerf &,f oli,fcsi;f *D*&D ,f ol@tpfr0rf;uJu G ek o f nf rykw&f ,f ayg?h (rykwu f uíerf wd@k ukd tvkyo f iG ;f ay; r,fq+kd yD; tmrcHxm;olyg? wu,fvnf; uíerf tay: nDtpfr&if;vdk apmifah &Smufco hJ l ygy)J ? wHwm; *dw0f rSm jrefrmaiG 350 ay;+y;D jzwfoef;cGifh vufrSwfvkyf&w,f? tppf taq;vnf; rsm;w,f? tJ'Dumvu (ouU&mZf 2000) rJaqmufrmS jrefrmjynf om;ud k tzrf ; tqD ; rsm;aecsd e f v nf ; jzpfw,f? wHwm;jzwfz@kd jyifaewke;f ppfom; wpfa,mufu “n (6) em&D rausmcf if jyefc=hJ u? ausm&f ifawmh wpfcgwnf; tzrf; 38

cH&vdrrhf ,f”vd@k vSr;f ajymw,f? ol@ pum; vnf;=um;a&m aomif&if;jrpfxJ ckecf scsipf w d f awmifaygurf w d ,f? wHwm; [kd bufxyd f xdkif;*dwfudka&mufawmh olwdk@uawmh ppf[,f ar;[,feJ@ uíefruawmh bm wpfckrS em;rvnfbl;? um;pD;vm&if; vrf;wpfae&ma&mufawmh ppfaq;a&;eJ@ wd;k jyefw,f? olw@kd u “n 6 em&Dx;kd awmh r,f? wHwm;jyefu;l awmhw”hJ um;orm;u ‘[kwu f ’hJ qd+k y;D rJaqmufòrŒd buf qufarmif; oGm;w,f? tJ'n D u um;*dwef @J ra0;wJh tdrw f pftrd rf mS uíerf wd@k wnf;cGi&hf w,f? uíefrwdk@a&mufvdk@ odyfr=umcifrSmbJ tdrf&Sifu &Jvmzrf;rSm a=umufvdk@qdk+yD; wdkufcef;wHcg;awG tvHkvdkufydwfw,f? quf+y;D olu “pum;us,u f s,rf ajymzd@k / ae@vnf a e@cif ; tcef ; xJ r S m yJ a ezd k @ / &J


tajctaeud=k unf+h y;D rS tjyifuk d xGuf =uzd@k ” txyfxyf owday;ygw,f? uíefrjzifh tdrv f rG ;f pdwef @J a=umuf&ŒHG tm;i,fra_ wGyg wpfòydiw f nf; cHpm; vdu k &f vd@k wpfnvH;k aumif ; aumif ; td y f raysmf b J bk&m;pm&Gw&f if; rd;k pifpif vif; oGm;w,f? reufa&mufawmh tdr&f iS u f uíerf ygvmwJh }udrfjcif; awmif;udk =unfh+yD; eifh[mu wpftdk; wpftdrf ajymif;vmovdk yJwJh? [k w f y g&J Œ pnf ; pepf } uD ; wJ h taru tvkyrf &cif pyf=um; pm;zd@k xnfah y;vdu k w f hJ ypPn;f awG? iyda=umfwpfyv k if;/ wnif;0uf a=umfwpfAl;/ i±kwf/ =uufoGef/ qDqm;/ &Sr;f qef rpm;Edik rf mS pd;k vd@k xnfah y;vdu k w f hJ iuíJ q ef æ tk d æ pH k a ewmyJ ? td r f & S i f trsK;d orD;u uíerf ypPn;f awGukd =unf+h y;D òyH;aeav&JŒ? ae@vnfvnf;a&mufa&m tvkyfvdkuf&Smvdkuf=uwm rykwf t&if vkyfcJhzl;wJh trsKd;orD; oD;oef@puf±kHrSm tvkyf&w,f? puf±kHrSmajymif;ae+yD; (4) &ufajrmufae@wrhJ mS tvkypf qif;&w,f? uíerf wd@k &ŒJ 0À (tvkyef nf;jyq&m) u zefcu G u f kd b,fvu kd ikd &f r,f? taumif;eJ@ tuJG b,fvdkcJGjcm;&r,fqdkwm poif ay;w,f? wpf0idk ;f ukd vlav;a,muf usrwkŒd vkid ;f u paqumvkid ;f [kb d ufwpfjcrf;u aq;r_wv f ikd ;f ta±SŒjcrf;rSmu ypPn;f o,f olu o,fxkwfykd;oluxkwfeJŒ tv,f rSmu yef;uefvkH;awGukd rD;zkwfwJhpuf xm;w,f/ tvkyo f rm;OD;a& 600 ±Sw d ,f xdik ;f tvkyo f rm;uenf;w,f? jrefrmu rsm;w,f? usrwdkŒu aeŒpm;orm;awG wpf&ufukd bwf50&w,f? OT u wpfem&D 3 bwf&w,f? xkid ;f tvkyo f rm;uawmh wpfaeŒudk 100 ausmf&w,f? olwdkŒudk OT ray;bl;? t&ifqHk; vkyf&wJhtvkyfu oHacsmif; av;awGe@J zefcu G af wGukd toHjrnfatmif wD;&wmyJ? tufoHyg&if z,fvdkufaygh? eHeufyikd ;f qdk puf±w Hk pfcv k ;kH zefcu G o f aH wGe@J qlnaH ewmyJ? aemufzefcu G zf ifukd wHqyd f uyfaygh? tJ'D tvkyfawGu wpfcsdefvHk; rwfwyf&yf+y;D vky&f wm? 'grS wHqyd n f D rSmwJ?h

(OT &Sw d n hJ awGq&kd if 24 em&DrmS 12 em&D avmuf &yfae&wm/ anmif; vdu k w f jhJ zpfjcif;) yku d q f &H csiaf ZmeJŒ onf;cH+y;D vkyyf gw,f? 'gayr,fh wpfvavmuf=umawmh 'l;awGvnf; =um=um r&yfEdkifawmhbl;? tqd;k qH;k uawmh rsuaf pha&SŒu jrifuiG ;f yJ? uíerf wd@k usawmhvo l pfq+kd y;D wpfcsed v f ;kH rwf wyf&yfe@J wHqyd u f yfcikd ;f aemufrS a&muf vmwJh xdik ;f tvkyo f rm;awGus wpfywf avmufe@J xdik cf ikd ;f +y;D t±kyyf ykH gwhJ ab;wHqyd f

=um+yDjzpfwhJ rdbESpyf g;udk pdwrf eS ;f +yD; OD;cs vku d w f ,f? “tpfr/ tpfrxawmhx 6 em&D ausmaf e+yD aps;um;vmawmhr,f? ypPn;f o,fzŒd k atmufu qif;apmif&h r,fav? 'DaeŒ usrwkŒd tcef;o,fwhJ tvSn”hf ? [kwo f m;yJ usrarh a evk d u f w m bk & m; od=um;rvkŒd qDy;Hk awG rygygapeJŒ? rsuEf mS jrefjref opf+yD; atmufxyfudk qif;vm rdw,f?

'aD eŒu usrzefcu G u f kd “ tJa'goxG ux f u G e f ŒJ wtm;acgufvu dk w f t hJ oHu ykr H e S x f ufukd us,fomG ;w,f? uyfcikd ;f w,f? uíerf wd@k rmS awmh wpfae@v;kH &yftvkyfvkyfvdk@ t&rf;anmif;wJhtcg tanmif;ajy xdik pf &mae&mqdv k @kd tdro f myJ &Syd gw,f? rw&m;vdu k w f m? tvkyo f rm; vlwef;pm;qdw k hJ pum;rSm vlwef;pm;cJjG cm;r_ EdkifiHom; cJGjcm;r_qdkwmawG rygygbl;? tJ'aD eŒu usrzefcu G u f kd a'goxGux f u G ef ŒJ wtm;acguv f u dk w f t hJ oHu ykrH eS x f ufukd us,o f mG ;w,f? tJ'D tcsed pf +y;D xkid ;f 0À rsm;&JŒapmif=h unfjh cif;udck &H w,f? yxrvu vky&f uf16&ufy±J w dS ,f? OT u trsm; }u;D yJ? 10&ufausmaf vmufu ykvyd v f m zrf;r,f owif ; =um;vk d Œ a±S m if y k e f ; ae&w,f ? yxrv&JŒ vkyt f m;cuawmh 672bwfyJ &w,f? puf±kHuauí;wJh xrif;[if;ukd =unf+h y;D tarajymwJph um;udk owd& rdw,f? igorD; [kad &muf&if ±Sr;f xrif;pm; Ekid rf mS r[kwb f ;l wJ?h tarajymwm wpf0uf awmhreS yf gw,f? 'gayr,f h aumuf n ‡ i f ; eJ Œ wl w J h xrif;awmh r[kwb f ;l ? tvkyu f yifyef; awmh xrif;vnf; pm;r0ifygbl;? em&D =unfhawmhreuf3em&D±Sd+yD? tdyfrSjzpfr,f? 'geJŒckd;zGifhxm;wJhrD;udk ydwfbk&m;±Sdckd;+yD; tvkyfyifyef;vGef;vkdŒ ruefawmhjzpfwm 39

usrwk d Œ tcef ; u vl e nf ; awmh ypPnf;awGut&rf;av;&if o,f&wmu rouf o mbl ; ? um;qk d u f w J h ae&meJ Œ pm;zkad qmifu ta0;}u;D yJ 'Dreuf tvkyf qif;awmh xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tdro f ma±SŒrSm zefcGufawGudk xkdifcGJaewJh tvkyform; ESpaf ,mufuakd wGŒ&w,f? usru olwŒdk udk bmvkŒd cGw J mvnf; ar;awmh “'Dpuf±rHk mS u 'Dvydk J tufaewJh zefcu G af wG wHqyd rf mS ;wJh [mawGudk tukev f ;Hk ±ku d cf yJG pfw,f?f tjyifrmS ypf&if tjcm;olu ykpH w H l ck;d rSmpd;v k Œdk ”? usr vnf;olwkdŒ zeffcGufcGJaewJhykHpHukd=unfh+yD; pdwu f ;l wpfc&k wmeJŒ usrwkŒd ck&H ŒJ acgi;f aqmif qDomG ;+y;D ajymvku d w f ,f? “tpfr usrvnf; zefcGufcGJwJh tvkyfukd vkyfcsif w,f? usrt&rf ; uk d a 'goxG u f + yD ; onf ; nnf;rcHEidk af wmhb;l ? ±Sr;f rawGudk pdww f dk vGe;f vkŒd cGuaf wGu±kd u dk cf cJG siw f m=um+y”D ? oluusrudk “pdwf±Snf±Snfxm;yg? tJ'D tvkyu f igwŒkd vkid ;f eJŒ rqkid b f ;l ? yguifvidk ;f u vlawGvyk &f wm”wJ?h wpfaeŒvk;H rwfwyf&yf+yD; tvkyf vky&f awmh t&rf;anmif;wJt h cg tanmif; ajyxkid pf &mae&mqkv d Œdk tdro f myJ±w dS ,f? 'geŒJ yJ a&csK;d cef;±S&d mudo k mG ;rdw,f?


wJ?h o&Juyfw,f qdw k hJ aumifrav;u 1415 avmufy&J dS tH;k r,f? ol@tcef;azmfawG ajymwmu ol@ukd c%c% o&J0ifp;D w,f qdyk ?J wjcm;tcef;u vlawGvnf; a=umuf+y;D rtdyf&Jawmhbl;? uíefr pdwfxifawmh tdyfa&;ysufr_awGrsm;+yD; tm;enf;aewJh tcsed rf mS arhvw J mwd@k / pdwaf csmufcsm; wmwd@k jzpfwmvd@k yJ xifw,f? aemufae@ reufrmS ref a e*smu uwd w pf c k ay;w,f ? ol@puf±kHxJrSm&SdwJh raumif;qdk;0g;awG ruyf E d k i f a tmif yl a Zmf y oay;r,f w J h ? ol@uwdtwdik ;f 0ufacgi;f awGe@J za,mif;wdik f awGxeG ;f +y;D olw@kdawG &Spcf ;kd =uw,f? 'gayr,fh o&J0ifuyfw,fqw kd hJ aumifrav; uawmh tvk y f y if y ef ; wJ h '%f r cH E d k i f v d k @ Hk xGuo f mG ;av&JŒ? wpfntdyfarm=uae&if; puf±kH aemufq;kH puf±u twGi;f udk um;}uD;0ifvmoH=um;&w,f? (5) tJ'v D kd nbufum;[Ge;f oH=um;&if uíerf wd@k uíefrwdk@ tvkyfvkyfwJhumvrSm tm;vHk;aysmfvGef;vdk@ tdyfraysmfawmhbl;? bma=umifv h q J kd aemufae@wikd ;f vdv k kd OT work permit vk d @ ac:wJ h tvk y f o rm; &S+d yaD v? nbuf ypPn;f um;rsm;rsm; qdu k f rSwfyHkwifu r&Sdao;awmh nwdkif;vdkvdk av OT rsm;+y;D tvkyaf umif;avavyJ? ykvyd v f m ppfrvm;/ &Jvmzrf;rvm;qd+k yD; a&uefa±SŒrSm t0wfav#maf ewJh trsK;d orD;u pdww f xifx h ifeh @J awG;a=umufae=u&wm? tcsed af r;wmeJŒjyefajzrdw,f? tvk y f o uf w rf ; (5) vom ausmf trsK;d orD;u t0wfvnf; av#mf oGm;w,f? uíerf ajcaxmufawGu puf±Hk yg;pyfuvnf; “igwdkŒyifyifyef;yef; eJŒ 0ef;xJrmS yJ &J&w J if;wif; av#muf&w J ,f? tvk y f v k y f & wm ol r sm;tES d r f c H & wm puf±t Hk jyif a&muf&if av#muf&wJv h rf;[m Ak d v f c if ! $ e f Œ wk d Œ raumif ; vk d Œ 'if ; wk d Œ usD;uef;awmif;arSmuf ywf0ef;usifudk wdkif;jynfudk tkyfcsKyfwm tokH;rusvkdŒ rsuaf phvnfxu G af eatmif =unf&h w,f? igwkdŒ olrsm;qDrSm uíefvmcHae&wm? tvkyfxJ&J0ifr,fvdk@ =um;&if wcsKdŒu 'DaumifawGom w&m;ojzifh tkyfcsKyf&if òrdŒpGefrSm&SdwJh refae*smtdrfrSm/ wcsKdŒu igwŒdk ±GmrSmat;at;aq;aq; tvkyv f yk v f Œdk awmxJrmS / wcsKŒd us jr0wDbufrmS oGm; &w,f”? usrtwGufawmh xl;qef;oGm; yke;f ae=u&w,f? 'Dvakd evm&if; wpfnae w,f? 'DtrsK;d orD;[m trSew f &m;awGudk rSmawmh befaumufrmS &Sw d hJ &Jt&m&Sad wG Hk kd &JawG ajymaeygvm;qk d + yD ; uk d , f h u d k , f u d k ol qif;vmvd@k q+kd y;D uíerf wd@k puf±u avmufawmif pOf;pm;r_r±Sdygvm;qkd+yD; 0ifcsvmawmhw,f? uíerf wd@k jzifh a=umuf tjypfwifrw d ,f? vG e f ; vd k @ naepmawmif rpm;Ed k i f b l ; ? olrsm;awGu nbuf tdyaf rm nbufa&mufawmh refae*smu tpnf; Hk tvkyf usaewH;k us,af vmifwhJ um;oH=um;&if ta0;ac:+y;D &Si;f jyw,f? 'Dpuf±u tdyaf &;ysuw f ,f? uíerf wd@k twGuaf wmh orm; (50) udk reufjzef reuf (5) em&DrmS vluEkd ;_d +y;D ydu k q f aH y;aewmvd@k xifrw d ,f? &Juvmac:+yD; (3) &uf zrf;xm;vdrrhf ,f? noef;acgi, f t H csed af vmufrmS puf±w Hk iG ;f u ol@taeeJ@ pdwfraumif;ygbl;wJh? tJ'Dvdk atmfo=H um;vd@k vt l akH ewJh tcef;udk bmjzpf ajym+y;D tzrf;cH&r,fh tvkyo f rm; pm&if;udk wmvJ oGm;ar;=unfah wmh ‘o&J0ifuyf’vd@k a=ujimw,f? 'Dtcsed t f wGi;f rSmyJ wpfcsed v f ;kH 40

yef;uefoHawGnHaewJh puf±kH[m tvkyf orm;awG&ŒJ atmf[pfi, kd o kd aH wGe@J qlnH oGm;awmhwmygy?J bma=umifv h J qdak wmh tzrf;cH&r,fph m&if;rSmygoal wGu vla[mif; awGr[kww f hJ vlopfawG/ wcsKŒd qdk rae@u tvkyf p qif; 'Dae@tzrf;cH&olawG/ wcsKŒd toufi,fi,fav;awG? 'geJ@ uíefrwdk@ touf}u;D ydik ;f eJ@ vla[mif;awGp+k y;D olw@kd udk,fpm;vdkufayr,fvdk@ awmif;qdkawmh refae*smu vufrcHb;l ? o}uFef&ufeD;vmvdk@ tvkyfu aumif;awmh tvkyo f ifpuav;awGuykd J tzrf;cHapcsiw f mayg?h olw@kd tvkyx f cd u kd rf mS pd;k &dr+f y;D pmemr_qw kd m vH;k 0r&Sad wmhb;l ? reuf (4) em&Davmufusawmh ±kH;cef;a&SŒrSm tzrf ; cH & r,f h tvk y f o rm; (50) eJ @ refae*smwd@k pum;awGajym=u vufcyk f wD;+y;D oD c sif ; qd k v d k u f = ueJ @ ref a e*smu tvkyo f rm;awG&ŒJ 0rf;enf;r_ukd arhaysmuf atmif pdwu f x k ;kH rsK;d pHk oH;k aewm awG@&w,f? pm±Gufwpf±Guf,lvm+yD; ykdufqHbwf100 ay;+yD ; tvk y f o rm; 50 a,muf u d k vuf r S w f x k d ; ck d i f ; aew,f ? wu,f y J wwf E k d i f w J h ref a e*smygyJ ? 'gayr,f h ol @ &J Œ uk x H k ; u uíef r wd k @ b0awG & J Œ &ifwiG ;f em=unf;csuaf wGuakd wmh ukv@kd &rSm r[kwyf gb;l ? reuf (5) em&Dvnf;xd;k a&m puf±aHk &SŒudk &Jum;ESppf ;D a&mufvmw,f? pm&if;eJ@wuG tvkyform;awGudk ppf+yD; um;ay:ac:wifomG ;w,f? puf±rHk mS usecf o hJ l awGteuf wpfa,mufaomolom ðy;H ðy;H av;vufjy&if; useaf e&pfcw hJ ,f? usew f o hJ l tm;vH;k uawmh olw@kd &ŒJ b0wl oli,fcsi;f awG aemufo;kH &uf=um&if jyefa&mufrmS yJ qdkwJh ar#mfvifhcsufeJ@twl rjrifEdkifwJh tem*wf u d k , f p D u d k pd w f t awG ; csJ Œ +yD ; use&f pfc=hJ uav&JŒ? uíerf uawmh tJ'aD e@u refae*sm ðy;H vdu k w f hJ tðy;H [m tvkyo f rm; awGtwGuf wu,fyJ cGet f m;jzpfapovm;/ rjzpfapbl;vm; qdw k mudk oli,fcsif;awG jyefa&muf&ifawmh ar;=unfh&OD;r,f? a&$[oFm Ò


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BLSO Journal 2005 Issue