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Thyroid is a gland in the neck. It comprises of two kinds of cells, which make thyroid hormones. Thyroid is butterfly shaped and placed in front part of the neck. Thyroid cancer may be due to benign or malignant tumor produced in thyroid gland. There are three types of thyroid cancer; papillary and follicular thyroid cancers, medullary thyroid cancer, Ana plastic thyroid cancer. When it spreads outside the gland, it infects the other parts of the body. The main causes for this type of cancer are; Radiation, genetic, age, insufficient amount of iodine in the diet. Common symptoms used to detect the this type of cancer are; a small elevated tumor found on the front of the neck near Adam's apple, difficulty while speaking a normal tone, extreme difficulty in swallowing and breathing, immense pain on neck. The thyroid cancer is diagnosed by following methods, ultrasonography, radio nuclide scanning and biopsy. This type of cancer may be treated with surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment, external radiation and chemotherapy. Surgery is proved to be the best treatment. By removing the entire tumor from the gland, the disease can be completely cured. The surgeon removes the thyroid from the neck by a small incision on the neck. In the radioactive iodine method, the radioactive iodine is passed through the cancer cells to completely destroy them. After the thyroid is removed entirely, there still some infections cells may be present in the affected area. To remove them the method called hormone treatment is employed. External radiation therapy is passing high energy x-rays through the affected area to destroy the infected cells. Chemotherapy is a systematic method of injecting drugs through the entire body to remove all infected cells.


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