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Warringah Timbers is one of the largest suppliers of timber and building materials in Sydney. We welcome you to our showroom where you will find an extensive range of high-grade timber flooring and decking along with expert sales advice from our experienced sales staff. So if you’re planning on renovating or you’ve got a project in mind, don’t forget to come in and see the experts.
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S TO C K TA K E S A L E
Publisher/Designer Editor Profile Tasting Notes Property History Cartoonist Advertising
04 Preamble 06 Profile Catherine Alcorn 08 Design Product Image 10 Design Julian Hakes 12 Hotel Hopping Bangkok 20 Recipes Cairo Kitchen 24 Tasting Notes Steve Blandford 26 Travel OS Romania 38 Hindsight Lewis Hine 54 Fashion Designer Judith Duriez 60 Art Exhibition Mel Brigg 64 At Home 74 Sculpture Marie Uchytilová 78 Your Property David Murphy 80 Photography Andrew Chapman 84 Exotic The Kamasutra Temples 100 Classic Short Fiction Guy De Maupassant 102 Bookshelf 105 Taronga Zoo Sumatran Tiger David Shapter Jan Shapter Lee Suckling Steve Blandford David Murphy Donna Braye, Dr Ian Hoskins Glen Le Lievre, Grant (02) 9527 1246
PADDINGTON 184-186 OXFORD STREET 9360 4200
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The publisher accepts no responsibility for any statements or claims made by advertisers. The information contained within this publication was correct as at the time of publishing. This publication is copyright. “Harbourview Magazine” is registered as the name of this publication. No part may be reproduced by any process without written consent from the publisher. HARBOURVIEW
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I wonder if illiterate people get the full eﬀect of alphabet soup. Jerry Seinfeld David Shapter Publisher/Designer
I’m a sucker for fabulous photographs and when I came across the image below I had to take a closer look. Also I’m, as most of you know, interested in all things science based - scientific observation over speculation wins every time. The NASA aircraft and scientists have now returned to the United States after their short ice-surveying mission to Antarctica. However despite having only a week there, they collected crucial scientific data and a trove of spectacular photographs. The Operational Land Imager on Landsat 8 captured a wider satellite view (shown on the right) of McMurdo and New Zealand’s nearby Scott Base on November 30, 2013. We are told it took 43 hours and five missions last November to collect more than 20,000 kilometres worth of science data. Instruments busily gathered information about the thickness of the ice over subglacial lakes, mountains, coasts, and frozen seas. Laser altimeter and radar data are the primary products of the mission, but IceBridge project scientist Michael Studinger almost always has his digital camera ready as well. So it was he who took this photograph of a multi-layered lenticular cloud hovering near Mount Discovery, a volcano about 70 kilometres southwest of McMurdo Station on Antarctica’s Ross Island. Lenticular clouds are a type of wave cloud. They usually form when a layer of air near the surface encounters a topographic barrier, gets pushed upward and flows over it as a series of atmospheric gravity waves. Lenticular clouds form at the crest of the waves, where the air is coolest and water vapour is most likely to condense into cloud droplets. The bulging sea ice in the foreground is a pressure ridge, which formed when separate ice floes collided and piled up on each other. It is hard to get a sense of the real size of shards of ice rent out of the disrupted landscape but one can imagine those pieces would be hard to fit into the evening G&T. Just a reminder that the online version of this magazine can be found at www.harbourviewmag.com.au Until next month
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Participate Experience Enjoy An Anglican School
PROFILE: CATHERINE ALCORN
Go Your Own Way Catherine Alcorn has the ability to charm audiences with authentic embodiments of the musical greats. She discusses cabaret success with Lee Suckling.
rom North Shore choir girl to Oxford Street cabaret queen, Catherine Alcorn is a song-and-dance chameleon. Raised in St. Ives, Alcorn’s career on the stage began soon after she learned to spell. “I went to PLC (Pymble Ladies College) prep school and was given very early opportunities to sing,” recalls Alcorn, who joined the PLC choir at six years old. “By the time I was seven or eight I was in the Australian Girls Choir – from then onwards, I knew I’d always be a singer.” Alcorn studied Voice for her HSC at Barker College and took up voice coaching, and later embarked on a Bachelor of Arts in acting for the screen and stage. She completed this at Charles Sturt University’s Wagga Wagga campus. “The course at Wagga Wagga gave us parallel exposure to stage and screen. It was a straight acting course, but had a voice component.” Knowing her talents led towards musical theatre, Alcorn was encouraged by a classmate to join a singing club in Wagga Wagga. “Local legend (and music producer) Don Hillam saw us sing and thought he could make some money out of us,” Alcorn explains. “He formed us into an act, “Double Platinum”, and for four years, we did three or four gigs a week in Wagga Wagga – concerts, weddings, festivals, dinner theatre … you name it.” After a four-year O.E. to Europe, various behindthe-scenes roles came for Alcorn before she burst back onto stage. She worked at Channel 9 as a talent coordinator and production assistant for Kerri Anne, as a meet-and-greet producer on Today and Weekend Today and personal assistant to the head of sport for Wide World of Sports. In 2009, Alcorn ran into Peter Cox - Don Hillam’s writing partner - at Oxford Street cabaret venue Slide. “I’d never been to Slide before; I was there seeing a show Peter had written,” Alcorn remembers. “He wrote many of the [Double Platinum] shows back in Wagga Wagga, and I went up to him and said, ‘Please write me something!’.” Cabaret wasn’t new to Alcorn after performing dinner theatre in Wagga Wagga. “Cabaret is about sharing a story in an intimate space. While some cabaret is very scripted, we (Cox and Alcorn) came up with something that would have me thinking on my feet, connecting with the audience, and improvising in the moment.” The pair decided to create a show that embodied a singing legend – one whom Alcorn thought she could do justice. “We chose Bette Midler, in her 1970s heyday. She was roughly the age then that I was when we devised the show (29 years old).” The Divine Miss Bette ran as a series of Christmas shows in 2009 in Wagga Wagga. “It was supposed to be just a few Christmas shows, but a year later, there was an opportunity to bring it to Slide in Sydney.” One night in November 2010, the house at
Slide was packed – upstairs and down – and cabaret-lovers were so supportive that Alcorn was able to run the show monthly throughout 2011. “I ended up performing The Divine Miss Bette right until the middle of 2012,” Alcorn says. In July 2013, the show re-performed at the Glen Street Theatre in Sydney. Performing as Bette Midler saw Alcorn develop improvisational and comedic skills. “Not all cabaret is about comedy, but in playing Better Midler I realised I am in fact a comedienne,” Alcorn says. “I was able to work under the guise of Bette and embody her timing skills, her ‘improv’ skills and her voice skills.” Taking on a living character is a definite challenge for many actors and performers. Alcorn took a unique approach to Better Midler. “It’s more ‘channelling’ than impersonation,” she says. “I didn’t wear a wig. I didn’t do the First Wives Club-era Bette, it was the 1970s Bette that people first came to love. It was more about pace of Bette’s speech – it was very quick, her walk, and her definitive accent.” Alcorn’s next starring role saw her perform as
Christine McVie, the “less prominent” woman of Fleetwood Mac (behind the famous Stevie Nicks). “When I first said to a friend, ‘I’m doing Christine McVie next, the ‘other woman’ from Fleetwood Mac’, she replied, ‘Don’t you mean THE woman of Fleetwood Mac?’,” Alcorn explains. “Stevie was in the spotlight and Christine was always a bit subdued – at least in the public eye. But what Christine did behind the scenes is a much different story.” Go Your Own Way – The Story of Christine McVie, was commissioned for the Adelaide Cabaret Festival 2013 then played at Slide in Sydney and at the Melbourne Cabaret Festival. Following the successful re-run of The Divine Miss Bette, Go Your Own Way was brought to Sydney’s Glen Street Theatre between 27 May and 1 June 2014. “I took a different approach to Christine than I did with Bette,” Alcorn explains. “It’s a full script, and a full score. I don’t have exactly the same [voice] timbre as Christine; this time it’s more about the text and the story. “Rumours [Fleetwood Mac’s renowned album] was the wallpaper of my childhood. Everybody knows the songs, but few know the stories behind them – each was written by one band member about another band member. Go Your Own Way is from the perspective of the lessercelebrated performer of Fleetwood Mac; her contribution, her journeys and her secrets.” The show received rave reviews, including from Time Out Sydney, which proclaimed, “A commanding voice. Alcorn fully shows her talents as a performer. Remarkable.” Alcorn is fervent in keeping Sydney’s cabaret scene alive. “Cabaret has a sporadic history in Sydney; it’s had its ups and downs,” she says. “The Tilbury Hotel in Woolloomooloo had a great cabaret run, and Slide (of which Alcorn is currently creative director) now holds its annual Cabaret Festival (it ran in May this year). While often interlinked with burlesque, cabaret is something different altogether. In place of saucy, cabaret is sassy. Think Chicago over Can Can Girls; Eartha Kitt over Dita Von Teese. “Cabaret is about intimacy. Sydney loves a grand big anthem at a stadium, but we also love being in a beautiful club, getting up close and personal with the artists. Cabaret is constantly evolving in this city,” says Alcorn. Presented at the next Adelaide Cabaret Festival (6-21 June 2014) is Alcorn’s first major show performing as herself. “I’m not playing anyone this time – it’s my stories, and my favourite songs,” she says. Aptly, the show is titled Nothing But A Song. “I’m going to push the hair, and push the gowns, but I’m stepping aside from telling others’ stories and presenting myself as ‘me’. “I broke the ice with Bette Midler; a trusted entertainer I knew I could make proud. Go Your Own Way was really well received, and now I’ve got a chance to show myself.” With a bright future ahead, let’s hope Nothing But A Song’s success in Adelaide follows suit with Alcorn’s previous two shows, and is revived in Sydney. Unless, of course, Alcorn is swept up by Broadway first. n HARBOURVIEW
DESIGN: PRODUCT IMAGE
Down ‘n’ Dirty
Do you remember these images from a few years back introducing the Panasonic Toughbook? Well the rough and tough spawned the new wimpy CF-LX3. This is just an excuse to revisit some great images The ultimate in durability and reliability, with MIL-STD 810G and IP65 compliance demonstrating they’re capable of operating in the most challenging of outdoor environments, Toughbook and Toughpad mobile PCs and tablets overcome the challenges of extreme temperatures, vibration, water, dust, shock, drop and impact. To ensure the devices are rugged ‘from the inside out’, every fully rugged Toughbook and Toughpad is put through extremely arduous testing regimes in both Panasonic’s specialist facilities and independent thirdparty testing labs. Throughout the manufacturing process, Japanese engineering and compliance with the most stringent, up-to-date quality programmes ensure production standards are uncompromising and continuous development of the product range is inherent. Of course, one of the greatest challenges faced by mobile workers is integrating the devices they need to stay productive into the vehicles they need to stay mobile. So the fully rugged Toughbook and Toughpad ranges are supported by specialist vehicle mounts, delivering the same levels of quality, reliability and durability as the mobile PCs and tablets they house. Using cutting-edge design and manufacturing technology and exceptional engineering experience, every docking solution is completely fit for purpose, no matter how bespoke. However, the Japanese company also builds a line of slightly less tough 'business rugged' notebooks, which do away with the IP55 water and dust resistance (while retaining some degree of shock-resistance and protection against drops) in favour of lighter, more portable builds. In Japan, these business rugged notebooks are part of Panasonic's colourfully named 'Lets Note' series - over here, their designation is far more mundane, with the latest addition to the lineup given the humdrum model name: CF-LX3. n For more information www.panasonic.com.au
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Consider a GIFT VOUCHER for someone you care about Phone: 9960 3653 or 9387 1039 www.dutifuldaughters.com.au HARBOURVIEW
SHOE DESIGN: JULIAN HAKES
A Hole in One
A shoe that has no sole and no upper but instead supports the foot on a continuous loop... that’s diﬀerent One late summer night I was in the studio, thinking about the design of shoes in general. I wondered why there was the need for a foot plate in high heels.When I look at a foot print in the sand it was clear to me that the main force goes to the heel and ball, even more so in a heeled shoe. If you were to stand with your heel on a wooden block the foot naturally spans the gap to the floor. If the foot has its own inbuilt strength and support why duplicate this? You would not have a shirt with rigid arms between the elbows and the wrists. So this raised the question: if the early design of a shoe was an evolution of the humble sandal was this process limited by the materials and technology available? How can new materials and design techniques lead to a new solution, an evolution, possibly a revolution? So I began exploring these questions in a similar way to how I would design a building or a bridge; examining the load path and looking at the most simple, elegant yet poetic expression of the forces at play within the materials used. The resulting form was rather like a twist of lime peel and so I named it the ‘Mojito’. The Mojito is a unique shoe design. It is a single wrapped geometry which starts under the ball of the foot, sweeps over the bridge, then down below the heel before twisting back on itself to provide the support for the heel”. Julian Hakes n For more information www.julianhakes.co.uk 10
timber flooring specialist Warringah Timbers is one of the largest suppliers of timber and building materials in Sydney. We welcome you to our showroom where you will find an extensive range of high-grade timber flooring and decking along with expert sales advice from our experienced sales staff. So if you’re planning on renovating or you’ve got a project in mind, don’t forget to come in and see the experts.
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VISIT OUR ON SITE SHOWROOM TODAY 9 INMAN ROAD, DEE WHY WEST TEL 9981 3733 FAX 9971 2462 www.warringahtimbers.com
Cro omer High Schoo l
South Cree e
Middlet ton Rd
HOTEL HOPPING: BANGKOK
ON REFLECTION 12
haven of calm on the banks of the Chao Phraya River the Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok is a truly remarkable hotel. A sophisticated retreat in one of the world’s most exciting cities, the hotel enjoys a reputation for style, service and excellence. Timeless yet contemporary, classic yet cutting-edge, it is regarded as the ultimate Bangkok address. Excellently situated within easy reach of all Bangkok’s main attractions, the hotel enjoys a peaceful yet central location with only a short walk from the city’s famous skytrain or a brief boat ride to the breathtaking Grand Palace. The rooms and suites combine elegant Thai style with seductive modern touches, all of the accommodation has its own distinct character.
There are 339 rooms, most with river views and 35 suites, including the legendary Authors’ Suites. Large bathrooms with separate bathtubs and walk-in showers greet the guests after their journey. The City of Bangkok wouldn't be Bangkok without it's vast array of magnificent temples. Whether you want to visit the temples such as the Grand Palace or the Emerald Buddha that dominate the landscape in Bangkok or venture to the ancient city of Ayutthya, there's a temple tour for everyone. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which eventually grew in size and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of Siam's (as Thailand used to be known) modernization during the later nineteenth century, as the country faced
pressures from the West. The city was the centre stage of Thailand's political struggles throughout the twentieth century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule and underwent numerous coups and uprisings. The city grew rapidly during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact among Thailand's politics, economy, education, media and modern society. Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok is home to nine outstanding restaurants and bars making it one of the city’s premier gourmet destinations.
Hotel Restaurants One of the best-loved French restaurants in Asia, Le Normandie offers a delicious fine dining menu and an exceptional wine cellar. Situated in the Garden Wing of the hotel, the restaurant frequently entertains the highest echelons of Thai high society from celebrities and politicians to members of the Royal Family. Offering stunning views over the river through floor-to-ceiling windows, the restaurant enjoys an elegant feel with large chandeliers, round tables and stunning flower arrangements. Diners are offered the choice of a set or à la carte menu specialising in exemplary seafood and exquisite meat dishes. Enjoying an idyllic setting on the banks of the Chao Phraya River, The Riverside Terrace offers guests alfresco dining with a beautiful view. A delicious international buffet is accompanied by a live band every night. Alongside Indian tandoori ovens, an open fire rotisserie and a large sushi counter, we also serve a choice of Lebanese mezze, Japanese Teppanyaki, fresh bread, fresh seafood and mouth-watering barbecued meats. Our famous dessert station boasts a variety of delicious puddings as well as decadent offerings from our flambé table. Inspired by Shanghai’s legendary Art Deco period, The China House is our stunning Cantonese fine dining restaurant. Featuring authentic Cantonese dishes interpreted in a contemporary style, The China House offers one of our most celebrated dining experiences. Housed in a beautifully restored two-storey colonial building, The China House enjoys an opulent old-world feel with dark wood furnishings and atmospheric low lighting. Under talented Executive Chef Andy Leong Siew Fye, The China House features an a la carte menu, unlimited Dim Sum (Tuesday to Saturday) and a Brunch Buffet on Sunday containing many signature dishes from the menu.
Enter a world of mouth-watering delicacies, culinary sensations and perfect pastries With a refined atmosphere rich in gourmet history, the Mandarin Oriental Shop continues The Orientalâ€™s much-loved tradition of gastronomic creativity, presenting a wonderful selection of patisseries, viennoiserie, cakes and chocolates. Under the innovative leadership of Executive Pastry Chef, Claus Olsen, The Mandarin Oriental Shop offers a range of mouth-watering homemade delicacies including breads, pastries, macarons and seasonal favourites including exquisite hampers and mooncakes. With an array of delicate flavours and sublime textures on offer, our wonderful delights are true taste sensations. Visit one of our Mandarin Oriental shops located at Siam Paragon, Central Chidlom, The Emporium, Gaysorn and the lobby counter at Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok, to taste the delicacies on offer.
Traditional Thai Cuisine And Show-Stopping Entertainment Lying across the river from the hotel, Sala Rim Naam offers a delicious choice of traditional Thai dishes including Lon Poo Talay (sea crab meat cooked in coconut milk), Yaam Talay (spiced seafood salad) and Mussamun Nuea (southern style beef curry with sweet potato and onion). Housed in a richly decorated pavilion built in the traditional Northern Thai style, Sala Rim Naam is the setting for a unique cultural experience â€” a classical Thai dance show performed every night.
The hotel also offers guests the chance to enjoy our private dining facilities. We have three private dining rooms, each seating up to 10 guests and one larger room seating up to 20 diners.
Nine outstanding restaurants and bars Fine French dining at Le Normandie Seafood with a beautiful riverside view at Lord Jim’s Traditional Thai cuisine and dancing at Sala Rim Naam Contemporary Chinese cuisine in an art deco setting at The China House BBQ specialities at The Riverside Terrace All-day international specialities at The Verandah Elegant afternoon tea at The Author’s Lounge Delicious Italian dining at Ciao Jazz and cocktails at Bamboo Bar Signature pastries at the Mandarin Oriental Shops
Spa & Wellness They offer an exquisite spa which boasts a serene design and over forty unique treatments blending contemporary and ancient techniques. 15 treatment rooms and suites Yoga sessions ranging from group classes to private lessons Two outdoor swimming pools State-of-the art fitness centre with classes and private training Two outdoor tennis courts, one squash court and outdoor jogging track
Children’s Services & Facilities It’s know that travelling with children requires a little more thought and hotel aim to make you and your family as comfortable as possible. Thier excellent Kids Club offers a range of imaginative, supervised entertainment for children aged 3 - 14. They’ll keep your children occupied through a mix of arts and crafts projects, educational games and cultural activities. Open daily 3pm - 11pm. n
For more information on the Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok www.mandarinoriental.com/bangkok/hotel HARBOURVIEW
RECIPES: CAIRO KITCHEN
Pumpkin Soup Serves 4 50g butter 1 onion, chopped 500g pumpkin, cut into cubes 1 bay leaf Pinch of ground cinnamon Pinch of ground nutmeg Pinch of ground allspice 1 teaspoon brown sugar 1 litre vegetable stock 2 tablespoons pumpkin seeds 2 tablespoons toasted pumpkin seed oil Salt and freshly ground black pepper
Heat the butter in a large pot and sautĂŠ the onion over a medium heat until golden. Add the pumpkin and stir over a low heat for about 15 minutes. Add the bay leaves, cinnamon, nutmeg, allspice and sugar, then pour in the stock and simmer for 15 to 20 minutes. Season with salt and black pepper, to taste. Blend all the ingredients together in a food processor or blender until they soften. Return the soup to a clean pan to heat through. Toast the pumpkin seeds by placing in a dry frying pan and stirring for a few minutes until they turn golden brown. To garnish the soup, sprinkle the toasted pumpkin seeds over the top and drizzle with the toasted pumpkin seed oil. Pumpkin is not commonly eaten as a savoury dish in Egypt and most pumpkin is made into a baked dessert. Here we have flavoured it with sweet spices and a dash of brown sugar and have made it into a wholesome, savoury soup.
75g lemons, sliced 150g oranges, sliced 100g sugar 100g salt 1 teaspoon whole black peppercorns 3 garlic cloves, crushed Handful of fresh rosemary sprigs 2 bay leaves 1 whole chicken
For the marinade 4 tablespoons olive oil 1 garlic clove, crushed 1 lemon, sliced 1 tablespoon fresh rosemary leaves 1 tablespoon fresh thyme leaves 1 teaspoon black pepper
Our rotisserie chicken spends 24 hours in our special brine, which makes it ultra juicy. Roasting over low heat for an extended period of time also makes the chicken tender and full of flavour. If you do not have a rotisserie oven, the chicken can be roasted in the oven. Prepare the brine by mixing together the lemon and orange slices, sugar, salt, black peppercorns, garlic, rosemary and bay leaves with 3 litres water in a large pot. Immerse the whole chicken in the soaking liquid and cover and chill for 24 hours in the fridge. After 24 hours, remove the chicken from the brine and wash with water. Mix all the marinade ingredients together and rub in and on the chicken. Place the chicken in the rotisserie grill on a low heat for 2 to 21⁄2 hours, depending on the grill, or roast in a conventional oven at 200°C/400°F for 1 to 1½ hours.
Halawa Truffles Makes about 20 â€“ 24 200g halawa 40g halawa spread 100g sesame seeds 100g cocoa 100g pistachios, finely chopped
These truffles are small bite-size sweets to serve alongside coffee or tea after a meal. They are very sweet, so one or two per person would probably do the job. In a bowl, mix together both kinds of halawa with a spoon until well combined. With your hands, form the halawa into small balls, the size of hazelnuts, and place on a plate. Refrigerate for 10 minutes. Place the sesame seeds, cocoa and chopped pistachios in three separate bowls. Dip the halawa balls in one topping and toss around to make sure they are fully and evenly covered. Remove carefully and place on a small platter.Repeat with each topping and then refrigerate the balls until you are ready to serve. Serve as you would chocolates with coffee or tea.
A gorgeous collection of Middle Eastern recipes. Suzanne Zeidy grew up in a household that loved to cook. In Cairo Kitchen, Suzanne shares the classics that ignited her love of food, as well as her more modern recipes, which are inspired by Middle Eastern flavours. A combination of authentic street food and delicious home-style cooking, this is modern Middle Eastern food, all set against the exotic, vibrant backdrop of Cairo. Her modern dishes are classics reinterpreted in a fresh and original way. The chapter on pickles and preserves will transform any dish into a mouthwatering Middle Eastern style delicacy, and the sweets, such as Halawa truffles and date and walnut cake, are irresistible. Illustrated throughout with stunning pictures by award-winning photographer Jonathan Gregson, this stylish cookbook is a celebration of Cairo and its wonderful food.
Cairo Kitchen is published by HARDIE GRANT BOOKS RRP $49.95 PH: 03 8520 6444 www.hardiegrant.com.au HARBOURVIEW
TASTING NOTES: STEVE BLANDFORD
WRITER: STEVE BLANDFORD CREMORNE CELLARS TEL: 9953 1331 EMAIL: SALES@CREMORNECELLARS.COM.AU
The Rhone Valley Northern Exposure The Cote Blonde with its sandy/slatey soil, producing lighter, more feminine wines, and the Cote Brune with a much heavier iron-infused clay soil, creating a far more robust style of red wine
The valley of the Rhone River is one of the most important wine regions in France. From vineyards along its banks come red wines of extraordinary diversity and character, as well as whites of lesser fame though no less interest. It is the spiritual home of the noble red grape variety Syrah (aka Shiraz) and the red blends of the southern Rhone are revered and imitated by winemakers throughout the New World. It is a region where, if you scratch its viticultural surface as I will do over the next two articles, the desire to delve deeper will surely take hold. The Rhone River originates in the Swiss Alps from which it flows in a westerly direction until it meets the Saone River near Lyon in the south-east of France. Here it turns due south and it is along the section of the river between Vienne and Avignon, where it runs toward the Mediterranean, that the majority of the vineyards are planted. Within this section of the river valley, there are two distinctive regions, north and south, each quite different from the other in terms of climate, topography, soil and, consequently, grape varieties. For this article, I will look at the Northern Rhone; the south will be next month. In wine terms, the Northern Rhone extends from Vienne to just south of Valence, a distance of approximately 60km. Here the valley is narrow and steep-sided, with the best vineyard sites clinging to the often precipitous slopes. The climate is continental, cooled further by the mistral, a strong, cold and dry wind that sweeps down from the north-west. In this region the Syrah reigns supreme, being the only red grape permitted in Northern Rhone reds. The northern-most appellation is Cote Rotie, literally the “roasted slopes”, a narrow strip of land where the vineyards are terraced on the south-east facing granitic walls of the valley, receiving the maximum sunlight exposure. These are highly perfumed, concentrated wines of exceptional character. The appellation boundaries tend to be disputed but there is no doubt that the two top sites are the Cote Blonde with its sandy/slatey soil, producing lighter, more feminine wines, and the Cote Brune with a much heavier iron-infused clay soil, creating a far more robust style of red wine. Wine from these sites are often blended to create a “generic” Cote Rotie, though many producers are now following in the footsteps of the famed Marcel Guigal and are bottling (more expensive) single-vineyard wines. Another common practice of the past was to co-ferment a small percentage of the local white Viognier grape with the Syrah to provide aromatic lift, though most modern Cote Rotie is now made exclusively with Syrah, though often with whole bunch fermentation and stalks influence. Adjoining Cote Rotie to the south is the appellation of Condrieu where highly perfumed, heady white wines are made from the Viognier grape. The vineyard plantings for the appellation have increased markedly over recent times, but the best sites are those sheltered nooks where the original vineyards were planted and, as a result, the best wines tend to come from the more established and recognised landowners such as Guigal, Vernay, Cuilleron and Gangloff. Within Condrieu is a separate 3.8ha appellation, a grand cru of Viognier if you will, known as Chateau Grillet; unfortunately prices for this wine seem to have outstripped quality. Heading downstream the vineyards flank forty kilometres of the western bank of the river; this is the extensive appellation of St Joseph. Again the grape is Syrah but because the vineyards receive less sunshine during the ripening period, the wines tend to be lighter of body, still fragrant and juicy but with less gravitas. Similarly, white St Joseph, made from Marsanne and Roussanne, is less rich and overt when compared to Condrieu. These are wines, both red and white, for drinking in their youth. Toward the southern end of the St Joseph appellation, the Rhone River sweeps around the western flank of a granitic outcrop, the famed hill of Hermitage. The majestic view from the chapel at the top of this steep hill is easily matched by the majesty of the red wines produced from the vines tenaciously clinging to its south facing slope. These are wines of exceptional depth and intensity, the match of the greatest wines from Bordeaux and Burgundy.
Four names dominate the appellation – Chave, Chapoutier, Jaboulet and Delas – and the wines command stellar prices. For those of us on more modest budgets the wines of CrozesHermitage, produced from vineyards tucked behind the mighty hill, offer a very reasonable introduction to the local style. Producers such as Alain Graillot, Domaine Belle and Gilles Robin excel at balancing the depth of fruit with pleasurable drinkability, with wines ranging from the frivolously fruity to seriously substantial expressions of the Syrah grape. The final, southern-most appellation of import in the Northern Rhone is that of Cornas on the western bank of the river. This is the bucolic cousin of Hermitage royalty, a version of Syrah with no less character, just somewhat rougher around the edges. Given ten years in the bottle, Cornas from a good vintage can emerge as a glorious red wine of exceptional authority and complexity. The master of this region has long been Auguste Clape, but others to look out for in this resurgent appellation include Colombo, Allemond, Courbis, Durand and Vincent Paris. n
Head Blonde Shiraz Viognier 2012 One of the drawbacks of Cote Rotie is that it does tend to be quite expensive, so here is homage from Barossan winemaker Alex Head. The Blonde name is a nod in the direction of the more feminine Cote Blonde character; importantly the fruit comes from a single vineyard planted on grey (blonde) sands in the Stonewell sub-region of the Barossa. Alex also adds 2% Viognier in traditional Cote Rotie style. And a glorious, statuesque blonde this is. The bouquet is redolent of spice and dark fruits, beautifully pure and heady (excuse the pun). In the mouth, the wine shows superb integration of plush, sumptuous fruits with spicy notes, filigree tannin and tangy, taut acidity. It is, in short, a cracker, combining the power of the Barossa with French sensibility.
Domaine Belle les Pierrelles Crozes-Hermitage Rouge 2010 Jancis Robinson states that the 2010 vintage in the northern Rhone may be the best ever and, at four years old, this wine still shows the vibrant appeal of the year. The fragrant bouquet reveals an impressive amalgam of mixed berries, red jubes, white pepper, hung meat, nutmeg and iron whilst the medium-bodied palate shows juicy, plump red fruits, a dash of spice and liquorice and gentle tannin grip. It all results in a wine that provides immediate and considerable drinking pleasure.
Guigal Saint Joseph Rouge 2009 Guigal is the big name in the Rhone Valley, consistently producing wines of excellent fruit depth and richness. This Saint Joseph, for example, is immediately appealing, its lavish bouquet redolent with blue and black berries, Provencal herbs, anise, and the mandatory sprinkle of Rhone-ish pepper. In the mouth the wine has impressive line and focus, with bright, plush fruits, lively tanginess, very fine tannins and a spicy, satisfying finish. This is a great example of what Saint Joseph should be. HARBOURVIEW
TRAVEL OS: ROMANIA
Truly Medieval Romania is located at the crossroads of Southeastern and Central Europe, on the Lower Danube, north of the Balkan Peninsula and the western shore of the Black Sea and home of Dracula
elcome to the sixth largest city in the EU, Bucharest and the largest city in Romania. It is located in the southeast of the country and lies on the banks of the DĂ˘mbovita River, less than 70 kilometres north of the Danube River. The Danube is an important water route for domestic shipping, as well as international trade and tourist cruises. The main port, both for trade and tourism, is Constanta, linked to the Danube by a canal built in 1984. Tulcea, Galati, Calarasi, Giurgiu and Drobeta are other important river ports. The nearest Danube river port to Bucharest is Giurgiu. Older plans for construction of a 40 mile canal connecting Bucharest with the Danube River are now being re-considered by the Romanian Government. The United Principalities emerged when the
territories of Moldavia and Wallachia were united under Prince Alexander Ioan Cuza in 1859. In 1866 Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was called to the throne as the Ruling Prince of the Romanian Principate and in 1881 he was finally crowned as King Carol I, the first monarch of the Kingdom of Romania. Independence from the Ottoman Empire was declared on 9 May 1877 and was internationally recognised the following year. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania. Tourism focuses on the country's natural landscapes and its rich history and is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy. In 2006, domestic and international tourism generated about 4.8% of gross domestic product and 5.8% of the total jobs (about half a million jobs). Following commerce, tourism is the second largest component of the services sector. Tourism
is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors of the economy of Romania and is characterized by a huge potential for development. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, Romania is the fourth fastest growing country in the world in terms of travel and tourism total demand, with a yearly potential growth of 8% from 2007 to 2016. As a side note: Count Draculaâ€™s Transylvanian castle has been put on the market by its Romanian archduke owner - with a reported asking price of at least ÂŁ47million ($A84 million). Previous owners of the castle, which dates back to 1211, range from Saxons to Hungarians and Teutonic knights.
Peles Castle nestled (shown below) at the foot of the Bucegi Mountains in the picturesque town of Sinaia, Peles Castle is a masterpiece of German new-Renaissance architecture, considered by many one of the most stunning castles in Europe. Commissioned by King Carol I in 1873 and completed in 1883, the castle served as the summer residence of the royal family until 1947. Its 160 rooms are adorned with the finest examples of European art, Murano crystal chandeliers, German stained-glass windows and Cordoba leathercovered walls. The furniture in the Music Room is carved of teak, a gift to King Carol I from the Maharajah of Kapurtala in India, while handmade silk embroideries adorn the ceiling and walls of the Turkish Salon. The ceiling paintings and decorative frescoes in the Theater Hall were designed by the renowned Austrian artists Gustav Klimt and Frantz Matsch. Over 4,000 European and Oriental pieces dating from the 15th to the 19th centuries are on display in the armories. King Ferdinand, who succeeded Carol I, commissioned the smaller, art nouveau-style Pelisor Castle nearby. Pelisor's 70 rooms feature a unique collection of turn-of-the century Viennese furniture as well as Tiffany and Lalique glassware. Also worth exploring is the Sinaia Monastery, founded by Prince Mihai Cantacuzino in 1695, named after the great Sinai Monastery on Mount Sinai. The monastery served as the residence of the royal family until Peles Castle was built and now is home to a monastic establishment. Sinaia, a well-known ski resort and the surrounding towns of Busteni, Azuga and Predeal provide many facilities for an active vacation â€“ from ski and hiking trails to wildlife viewing. During winter, the ski resorts along the Valea Prahovei and Poiana Brasov are popular with foreign visitors. Fagaras and Bucegi Mountains, with its iconic Sphinx, are ideal trails for hikers. Most of Romania's national parks
have arrangements for outdoor activities with a network of marked paths and trails and overnight accommodation in either staffed lodges or local guesthouses. For their medieval atmosphere and castles, Transylvanian cities such as Sibiu, Brasov, Sighisoara, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mures or Miercurea Ciuc have become major tourist attractions for foreigners. Rural tourism, focusing on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative recently and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the Painted churches of Northern Moldavia, the Wooden churches of Maramures and Salaj, or the Merry Cemetery in Maramure County. Other major natural attractions, such as the Danube Delta, the Iron Gates (Danube Gorge), Scrioara Cave and several other caves in the Apuseni Mountains have yet to receive great attention. In terms of tourism potential, Romania benefits from splendid cities, scattered on the smooth plains or high peaks. These include Sibiu, a city built by Saxons, with cobblestone streets and colourful houses. The Hunyad Castle, one of the most important monuments of Gothic architecture in Transylvania, can be visited in Hunedoara. Also, resorts such as Bile Felix, Bile Herculane and Bile Tunad are points of interest for local and foreign tourists. The Romanian seaside is the most developed tourist area. In 2009, Romania's Black Sea seaside was visited by 1.3 million tourists, of whom 40,000 were foreign. The shore is very varied, formed by slightly wavy shapes, with emphasized capes and deep bays extending into the Dobruja valleys, with cliffs, beaches and sand cords. In Târgu Jiu one can see the sculptures of Constantin Brâncui (1876–1957), a Romanian sculptor with overwhelming contributions to the renewal of plastic language and vision in contemporary sculpture. These include The Endless Column, The Gate of the Kiss and The Table of Silence, which together represent the three parts of a monumental sculptural ensemble. The list of World Heritage Sites includes Romanian sites such as the Saxon
villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Painted churches of northern Moldavia with their fine exterior and interior frescoes, the Wooden Churches of Maramure unique examples that combine Gothic style with traditional timber construction, the Monastery of Horezu, the citadel of Sighi oara, and the Dacian Fortresses of the Or tie Mountains. Vorone Monastery, built in 1488, is one of the most valuable foundations of Stephen the Great. Also, Unirii Square is the treasure in the heart of Cluj-Napoca, on which rises the St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church, guarded by two "twin" buildings on the eastern side. Located at 29.7 km from Braov, between Bucegi and Piatra Craiului Mountains, Bran Castle is a major national monument and tourist landmark. Built by Saxons in the 14th century, today it hosts an art and furniture collection by Queen Marie, but is also marketed as the legendary residence of Bram Stoker's Dracula. Romania's contribution to the World Heritage List stands out because it consists of some groups of monuments scattered around the country, rather than one or two special landmarks. Also, in 2007, the city of Sibiu, famous for its Brukenthal National Museum, was the European Capital of Culture alongside the city of Luxembourg. Romanian cuisine is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character. It has been greatly influenced by Ottoman cuisine but also includes influences from the cuisines of other neighbours, such as the Greeks (musaca), Bulgarians (zacusca), Turks (pilaf), and Hungarians (langosi). Quite different types of dishes are sometimes included under a generic term; for example, the category ciorba includes a wide range of soups with a characteristic sour taste. These may be meat and vegetable soups, tripe and calf foot soups, or fish soups, all of which are soured by lemon juice, sauerkraut juice, sour cherry plums, vinegar, or traditionally bors (fermented wheat bran). Popular main courses include mititei, frigarui and the snitel. One of the most common dishes is mamaliga (similar to the Italian polenta), and is served on its own or as a side dish. Pork and chicken are the preferred meats,
but beef, lamb and fish are also popular. Sarmale are prepared from minced meat mixed with rice and other ingredients (pap, couscous etc.) and wrapped in cabbage (fresh or sour) or vine leaves in the form of rolls. Usually, they are served with polenta and sour cream, but can be served with a spoonful of fresh butter. The list of desserts includes names like amandine, clatite, chec (cake), cozonac, gogosi, gris cu lapte, lapte de pasare etc. Tuica is a strong plum brandy that is widely regarded as the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, along with the wine. Romania is the world's second largest plum producer and as much as 75% of Romania's plum production is processed into the famous tuica, a plum brandy obtained through one or more distillation steps reaching a 70% alcohol concentration (depending on the number of steps of distillation). Alcoholic beverages are also obtained from other fruits. Wine, however, is the preferred drink, and Romanian wines have a tradition of over three millennia. Romania is currently the world's 9th largest wine producer, and recently the export market has started to grow. Beer is also highly regarded, like the blonde pilsener beer, the traditional methods of preparation being generally influenced by German wheat beers. There are some Romanian breweries with a long tradition, such as Timisoreana, Ursus and Azuga. Since the 19th century, beer has become increasingly popular and today Romanians are amongst the heaviest beer drinkers in the world. And how could we forget petite Nadia Comaneci who was the first to achieve a perfect routine and get the first score of 10.00 in the history of gymnastics, during the Olympics in Montreal (1976). n For more info www.romaniatourism.com
HINDSIGHT: THE PAST THROUGH THE LENS
Paris Gamin c. 1918 38
Some boys were so small they had to climb up on the spinning frame to mend the broken threads and put back the empty bobbins. Location: Macon, Georgia.
LEWIS HINE DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHER Lewis Wickes Hine was born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin in 1874 and died in 1940. He became what was known as an American sociologist and photographer by using his camera as a tool for social reform. His incredible and compassionate photographs were instrumental in changing the child labour laws in the United States.
that he "wanted to show things that had to be corrected." Hine's work resulted in a wave of popular support for federal child labour regulations put forward by the NCLC. In effect, Hine's photographs became the face of the National Child Labor Committee and are among the earliest examples of documentary photography in America.
After his father died at an early age in an accident, Lewis began working and saved his money for a college education. He studied sociology at the University of Chicago, Columbia University and New York University. He went on to become a teacher in New York City at the Ethical Culture School, where he encouraged his students to use photography as an educational medium. The classes travelled to Ellis Island in New York Harbour, photographing the thousands of immigrants who arrived each day.
Hine took many pictures of workers under the age of 16 in the field and his pictures appear in many books on the history of child labour. His photographs were taken in high risk situations in order to capture the negative side of child labour. His photographs also helped make the National Child Labor Committee investigate the child labour that was taking place in many of America's factories. "Hine was clever enough to bluff his way into many plants. He searched where he was not welcome, snapped scenes that were meant to be hidden from the public. At times, he was in real danger, risking physical attack when factory managers realised what he was up toâ€Śhe put his life in the line in order to record a truthful picture of working children in early twentieth-century America"
Between 1904 and 1909 Hine took over 200 photographic plates and eventually came to the realisation that documentary photography could be employed as a tool for social change and reform. Around 1904 he followed these immigrants into the teeming tenements of the Lower East Side in Manhattan. He explored the immigrant experience with his probing lens and exposed the terrible housing and working conditions they were subject to in their attempts to integrate into their new homeland. In 1908, he became the photographer for the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC), leaving his teaching position. Over the next decade, Hine
documented child labour, with a focus on labour in American industry to aid the NCLC's lobbying efforts to end the practice. Hine's subjects included both boys and girls employed by mills and factories and other occupations all over the United States. For the average American, Hine provided an otherwise unavailable window into the sombre working conditions facing America's youth. When asked about his work on the subject Hine simply stated
Now there is a Lewis Hine awards that awards ten honourees in their outstanding work in servicing young people.
We show you many of Lewis Hineâ€™s extraordinary photographs at www.harbourviewmag.com.au HARBOURVIEW
By 1900 in Crown Mills, Whitfield County, Georgia, the average doffer was fourteen years old. A doffer in North Carolina in 1904 would earn $2.40 per week, while a head doffer would earn $3.50. Skilled workers would earn more. A drawing-in girl could make $6.00, a warper $7.50 and an engineer up to $9.00, while the weave boss made as much as $15.00. The working week would be ten hours a day from Monday to Saturday. Many of the children worked barefoot, which made it easier to climb the machinery to reach bobbins or broken threads. Children met with accidents more often than adults. Hines was told by the overseer of one mill "We don't have any accidents in this mill .... Once in a while a finger is mashed, or a foot, but it don't amount to anything." Conditions were demanding. There was a constant racket of machinery. The mill windows were kept closed, creating a hot and humid atmosphere in which cotton threads were less likely to break. The air was filled with lint and dust, making breathing difficult, and often leading to diseases such as tuberculosis and chronic bronchitis. Some workers suffered from Byssinosis, or brown lung, caused by prolonged exposure to cotton dust.
Doﬀer boys in Knoxville Cotton Mills. Location: Knoxville, Tennessee (1910) A doﬀer is someone who clears full bobbins, pirns or spindles holding spun ﬁber such as cotton or wool from a spinning frame and replaces them with empty ones.
At that time boys might start to work as doffers before the age of seven. However, as Hines reported, "In every case, the youngsters told me their age as 12 years, even to the little Hop-o'-My-Thumb, whom the others dubbed 'our baby doffer.' They would hesitate when I asked them, but always succeeded in remembering that they were twelve." Hine's photographs of child workers such as doffers were influential in driving reform of child employment laws in the United States, an early example of the power of photo journalism.
Waiting For The Signal. Newsboys, starting out with base-ball extra. 5 P.M., Times Star OďŹƒce. Location: Cincinnati, Ohio (1908)
Spinner in Globe Cotton Mill, Augusta, Georgia, (1909) 42
Earle GriďŹƒth and Eddie Tahoory, working for the Dime Messenger Service in Washington D.C.
Joseph Bernstein, a ten year old news-boy who had been selling in saloons along the way, said he makes a dollar a day selling until 7:30 P.M. 10 April 1912
Street Bretzau, who is a "Tube bou" in mule-room. Mule is apparently more dangerous than ring spinning. Photographed during working hours. Chattanooga, Tenn. 6 December 1910 HARBOURVIEW
Group of workers in Lane Cotton Mill, New Orleans, showing the youngest workers, and typical of conditions in New Orleans (1913) Newsies at Skeeter's Branch, JeďŹ€erson near Franklin. They were all smoking. Location: St. Louis, Missouri (11:00 A. M . Monday, May 9th, 1910. )
Roland, eleven year old negro newsboy. Location: Newark, New Jersey (1924)
In 1909 Lewis Hine spoke at a social work conference on the subject of photography and social reform. Whether it be a painting or photograph, the picture is a symbol that brings one immediately into close touch with reality. In fact, it is often more eďŹ€ective than the reality would have been, because, in the picture, the non-essential and conďŹ‚icting interests have been eliminated. The average person believes implicitly that the photograph cannot falsify. Of course, you and I know that this unbounded faith in the integrity of the photograph is often rudely shaken, for, while photographs may not lie, liars may photograph. Breaker boys. #9 Breaker, Mine of Hughestown Borough, near Pittston, Pennsylvania, the USA. Year 1911.
Two of the tiny workers, a raveler and a looper in London Hosiery Mills. London, Tenn. Spinners and doďŹ€ers in Lancaster Cotton Mills. Dozens of them in this mill. Lancaster, S.C., December 1908
5 year old Helen and her stepsisters hulling strawberries at Johnson's Hulling Sta. Helen is an orphan, who, one month after the death of her widowed mother, was adopted by the Hope family of Seaford. This is her 2nd season at Johnson's Hulling Sta. On the day of investigation, she started working at 6 A.M., and at 6 P.M. the same day, Helen was still hulling strawberries. Seaford, Del, May 1910
Photographs show work activities and portraits in glass and bottling factories in Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Missouri, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Alexandria, Virginia. Work sites in the latter two locations include an integrated work force of white and black workers. Images document working conditions and work hours, showing workers at their lunch breaks and working at night. Also includes three exhibit panels that use the images to portray child labor in glass factories (1908)
Newsboys on a stoop, Wilmington, Delaware, Group of newsboys on a stoop at 4th & Market Sts. "Take our mugs, mister?"(1910) 48
Nannie Coleson, looper who said she was 11 years old, and has been working in the Crescent Hosiery Mill for some months. Makes about $3 a week. Has been through the 5th grade in school. She is bright, but unsophisticated. Told investigator, “There are other little girls in the mill too. One of them, says she’s 13, but she doesn’t look any older than me.” Location: Scotland Neck, North Carolina. A Little "Shaver," Indianapolis Newsboy, 41 inches high. Said he was 6 years old. Aug., 1908. Wit., E. N. Clopper. Location: Indianapolis, Indiana (1908)
Wilbur H. Woodward, Western Union Messenger 236, is one of the youngsters on the border line. He was 15. HARBOURVIEW
7-year old Rosie. Regular oyster shucker. Her second year at it. Illiterate. Works all day. Shucks only a few pots a day. (Showing process) Varn & Platt Canning Co. Location: BluďŹ€ton, South Carolina (1913)
Little Julia tending the baby at home. All the older ones are at the factory. She shucks also. Alabama Canning Co.,. Location: Bayou La Batre, Alabama (1911)
Little Lottie, a regular oyster shucker in Alabama Canning Co., Bayou La Batre, Alabama (1911) HARBOURVIEW
The worker was always a favourite theme of Hine's and he believed that the emerging modern technologies of the 1920s and 1930s would lift the burden of hard labor from them. Hine began in the 1920's a series of photographs he called "Work Portraits" which showed man and machine at work together. Perhaps his best known series from this group is his commission to document the construction of the Empire State Building from March 1930 to May 1931. At the conclusion of the project Hine published Men at Work, a picture book which summarized his theme. During and after World War I, he photographed American Red Cross relief work in Europe. In the 1920s and early 1930s, Hine made a series of "work portraits," which emphasized the human contribution to modern industry. In 1930, Hine was commissioned to document the construction of The Empire State Building. Hine photographed the workers in precarious positions while they secured the iron and steel framework of the structure, taking many of the same risks the workers endured. In order to obtain the best vantage points, Hine was swung out in a specially designed basket 1,000 feet above Fifth Avenue. During the Great Depression, he again worked for the Red Cross, photographing drought relief in the American South, and for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), documenting life in the mountains of eastern Tennessee. He also served as chief photographer for the Works Progress Administration's (WPA) National Research Project, which studied
changes in industry and their effect on employment. Hine was also a member of the faculty of the Ethical Culture Fieldston School. The Library of Congress holds more than five thousand Hine photographs, including examples of his child labor and Red Cross photographs, his work portraits, and his WPA and TVA images. Other large institutional collections include nearly ten thousand of Hine's photographs and negatives held at the George Eastman House and almost five thousand NCLC photographs at the Albin O. Kuhn Library & Gallery of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. In 1936, Hine was selected as the photographer for the National Research Project of the Works Projects Administration, but his work there was never completed. The last years of his life were filled with professional struggles due to loss of government and corporate patronage. Few people were interested in his work, past or present, and Hine lost his house and applied for welfare. He died at age 66 in 1940 at Dobbs Ferry Hospital, New York, after an unsuccessful operation. After his death his son Corydon donated his prints and negatives to the Photo League, which was dismantled in 1951. The Museum of Modern Art was offered his pictures but did not accept them; but the George Eastman House in Rochester, New York did.
Left: Power house mechanic working on steam pump (1920) Below: (One of his best known images) Workers, Empire State Building (1931)
FASHION DESIGNER: JUDITH DURIEZ
French Fashion meets Arabian Heritage
Judith Duriez is a name to be reckoned with in the lively fashion scene in the Middle East. The versatility of her designs and prodigious ability to revolutionize the abaya into nothing short of a fashion classic is much loved and sought after by fashionistas worldwide. The veritable influence of French elegance is palpable in her latest renditions of the traditional Middle East garment. Judith cites her signature style as 'an artful balance between futuristic minimalism and pared-down luxury that our label Arabesque stands for'. Judith Duriez’s designs are inspired by past elegance and her brilliant and unmatchable imagination offering women all around the world abaya designs as a way to distinguish themselves in a unique manner. Moreover her designs are truly ones that can be considered an epitome of abaya haute couture in its truest sense. Haute Arabia has found her fashion sense worth featuring in many of their fans favourite- ‘Look of the Day” features. “I was brought up in an environment with a true love for art; my parents passed their passion on to me, and I was introduced to the science of colours and sketches at an early age. I studied fashion design at the very prestigious Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture de Paris. For almost a decade, I perfected my skills whilst working side by side with master craftsmen for some of the most renowned French Haute Couture houses.” My “masterpieces” are definitely the wedding abayas I create for so many Royals and VIPs. They are exceptional and unique designs made with the rarest laces from Paris, mixed and matched and embellished with the most delicate hand embroidery.
“I was brought up in an environment with a true love for art; my parents passed their passion on to me, and I was introduced to the science of colours and sketches at an early age. I studied fashion design at the very prestigious Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture de Paris. For almost a decade, I perfected my skills whilst working side by side with master craftsmen for some of the most renowned French Haute Couture houses.” When I first came to the UAE with my husband, back in the 90s, I started as a High Fashion company working exclusively with VIPs. Although I was specialised in evening and party gowns, I was asked by my customers to design matching abayas to wear with their dresses. They were delighted with the result: my haute-couture experience and techniques helped me to deliver impeccably fitted and trendy abayas. So the idea came naturally to launch Arabesque Sheilas & Abayas; an innovative brand based on an unique concept bringing together quality and creativity. I was filled with excitement to explore this new area and to apply my Haute Couture experience to the traditional world of sheilas and abayas. It was a huge challenge, but I think it was a very successful experiment as today Arabesque is seen as a main trendsetter in abayas. Arabesque collection is all about structured lines and textures. One of the highlights of this season is the application of premium quality leather on abayas, it’s is very avant-garde and never seen before in the world of abayas. The colour palette is very rich; midnight blues, plum, chalkboard matt black or metallic silver and peplum bronze. Intricate woven leather panels and delicate signature embroideries beautifully enhance the new shapes; Tiara and Athena, our customers love it! Once again, I incorporated the latest trends into abayas, mixing catwalk’s inspiration and Parisian chic. My “masterpieces” are definitely the wedding abayas I create for so many Royalties and VIPs, exceptional and unique designs made with the rarest laces from Paris, mixed and matched and embellished with the most delicate hand-embroideries. My biggest influence is Paris, where I travel to as often as possible. I like to relax at a terasse and watch people passing by, or have a stroll in the streets, to feel the ambiance and the unique French atmosphere! Beside, influence and inspiration is everywhere, from Art Fairs and European Fashion Shows to exhibitions, where I get the feel for the new trends, colour combinations, fabrics, shapes and textures which influence my creations and brings sophistication to my collections. Each Arabesque design is the result of a long creative process; first I will create a “mood board” for the collection, the colours of the season, the shapes…Then I will visit my suppliers in Paris, the same are supplying the workshops of very famous and prestigious French Haute Couture brands. We will work together in creating and manufacturing the best fabrics and most exclusive laces suitable for Arabesque designs. I think that my best advice to a young designer would be to spend some years studying technique in a good fashion school and to train with haute couture or ready to wear workshops, so as to get a strong background and sharpen their skills. To achieve the ultimate and perfect design, you need to understand the technique and master it, so your creativity will be empowered.” Today Arabesque has earned a GCC wide reputation as a trendsetter in the world of sheilas and abayas. Bringing together bespoke French tailoring, the fine workmanship of the Haute Couture atelier and the impeccable finish, it is the brand of choice for women with a strong sense of style and uncompromising about quality. n
For more information www.arabesque-hc.com HARBOURVIEW
ART: MEL BRIGG
TRANSITIONS Born into a family of farmers, and having farmed myself, I developed a love for the land, the rich sunsets, the sounds and earthy smells, the vastness and ever changing landscapes as well as the people that inhabit those areas. I remember seeing a BBC documentary on the refugees fleeing the violence in central Africa, the endless streams of people, snaking their way across the arid landscape. This image was the beginning of the Exodus series. This coupled with my own migration from Africa in 1990 tormented me, until I finally painted the first of this series in 1996. My current works portray a mix of situations, some with a touch of humour, all connected to my past experiences, the loneliness, the isolation, the challenges and observations. I have also tried to portray, the happiness and thoughts of a brighter future, by showing the figures walking from the dark into the light, this has led to the next series called the Arrivals. I am moved by the complexities of the human condition, the vastness of our beautiful country, the mix of cultures, and the spirituality of our nomadic indigenous peoples ... and enjoy sharing my thoughts, through painting, with those who expect a work to have some meaning, a connection, that moves them, be it 60
in a positive or negative way ... if some of my work's create an emotional response, then I am content, but that I leave for the viewer to decide.
Mel Brigg and his paintings have been featured in a number of Art magazines; Interior Design Magazines; national, state and local newspapers; text books including the Curriculum for Fine Art for school students in Australia.
Professional Artist, Mel Brigg, is based on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. Born in South Africa, Mel is self-taught and commenced his painting career in 1970. As well as having exhibited in England, Portugal and Singapore, he has had numerous solo and joint exhibitions in South Africa and Australia.
"I have always been moved by the complexities of the human condition and my paintings are reﬂective of turbulent times that the human race may endure in countries with conﬂict. I also reﬂect on harmony and peace once pro-active personal change has occurred. Light is the core of my paintings, together with perspective, texture, structure and lyrically atmospheric colour. Combined, these culminate in evocative, emotive and empathetic works."
For more information contact Trevor Victor Harvey Gallery 515 Sydney Road Seaforth NSW This exhibition: 13th June - 29th June Opening hours: Tues to Sat 10am to 6pm Sun 12pm to 5pm Tel: (02) 9907 0595 www.tvhgallery.com.au. HARBOURVIEW
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Ten Major Benefits of Wood Flooring, Compared to Other Forms of Flooring Wood flooring is more hygienic than carpets. There are some fairly horrifying reports out there detailing the parasites that carpets can harbour. If you were to read these reports you would not go anywhere near a carpet. These allergen producing, dust mites, fleas or dust play havoc with allergy sufferers, a floor from wood eliminates this saving you money and extreme discomfort. This is particularly relevant to dog and cat owner’s. One of the most important advantages of a hardwood floor, that many people tend to overlook is the timeless appeal that wood has. Carpet, linoleum and tile patterns and colours definitely go in and out of fashion – think of what we had in the 70’s. Wood’s appeal has lasted centuries and in my belief that is not about to change in fact wood is more popular now than ever. Wood floors are easier to clean than carpets. The reasons for this are fairly obvious. A simple brush or light vacuum keeps your wooden floors looking great. If dogs or children have dragged mud through the house a damp mop removes this muck with ease. Carpet owners at this stage would be screaming. Not only are wooden floors more hygienic, but carpets also trap in unpleasant odours from animals or things that have been spilt. The aroma of a polished wooden floor is a delight and will make your home more inviting. Estate agents state that houses with wooden floors sell twice as easily compared to houses with other floor finishes. And there is no doubt that the value of your home does directly increase as a result of fitting a wooden floor. If after a few years your wood floor has been scratched or is a bit damaged due to heavy wear and tear. A simple sand and seal will bring it back to new again. This is a lot less costly than refitting a new carpet. Wood was always considered only available to the very wealthy. Modern production methods have now meant that some types of flooring can be produced cheaply making wood floors available to all budgets. Wood provides a great medium to install under floor heating, which these days is considered by far the most efficient way to heat your house. Stone and tile floors although as hygienic and easy to maintain as wood, don’t have the same warmth and feel that timber floors have. Good quality wooden floors last for decades – Whereas many people find themselves replacing carpet every 5 years, due to stains, holes, or shabbiness from everyday wear and tear. You will find that with a minimal maintenance program, these floors actually look better as the years go by.
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SCULPTURE: MONUMENT TO CHILDREN
These children are looking towards the common grave of their fathers, grandfathers and friends 74
Lidice is a village in the Czech Republic just northwest of Prague. It is built near the site of the previous village of the same name which, as part of the Nazi Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, on orders from Adolf Hitler and ReichsfĂźhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler, was completely destroyed by German forces in reprisal for the assassination, in Operation Anthropoid, of Reich Protector Reinhard Heydrich in the late spring of 1942. On 10 June 1942, all 173 men over 15 years of age from the village were murdered. Another 11 men who were not in the village were arrested and murdered soon afterwards along with several others already under arrest. Several hundred women and over 100 children were deported to concentration camps; a few children considered racially suitable for Germanisation were handed over to SS families and the rest were sent to the CheĹ‚mno extermination camp where they were gassed to death. After the war ended, only 153 women and 17 children returned. The destiny of Lidice children is the saddest part of the Lidice tragedy. The children were separated from their mothers in the gymnasium of the Grammar school in Kladno. The children were moved by train to Lodz where they had lived for three weeks in a collection camp. The youngest child was only one year and six days old the oldest boys were under the age of 15, girls were under the age of 16. On June 2 their destiny was decided. Few children had secretly received correspondence lists so that they could write to their relatives. Afterwards there was a command for their movement to the extermination camp in Chelmn. The victims were taken to a castle and were told that they would continue their journey. They had to undress; they only could keep underwear, a towel and a soap so that they could take a shower before the journey. Afterwards they were taken to a truck that was specifically modified for 80-90 people, where they were killed by exhaust gas in 8 minutes. This is where the trace of Lidice children ends. From 105 of Lidice children only 17 survived. Nine were adopted by German families, seven of the youngest children under the age of one were placed into a German children shelter in Prague. One boy died in the shelter. After the tragedy in Lidice seven children were born to the mothers however only two survived. One boy was born in the concentration camp but was killed right after the birth. HARBOURVIEW
On June 10 at the day of the first memorial meeting, straight after the ceremony, one of the Lidice women, Anna Hroníková asked the whole nation for one thing: “Please, help us find our children”. There was nothing known about their destiny. With a help of Hana Benešová a group of two police members and two Lidice mothers went to search for the children’s trace. The investigation ended in May 1947 when the last child Václav Zelenka was found. Out of the 105 children 82 died in Chelmn, six died in the infantile home 17 returned back home. An academic sculptor professor Marie Uchytilová was deeply touched by the tragedy of the crime in Lidice. In 1969 she decided to create bronze monument of Lidice children that should be also understood as “A Monument of children’s war victims”. To create eighty-two statues of children in an above-life-size height took her two decades. The atelier where the monument was created was meanwhile visited by tens of thousands of people from the whole world. They started collecting money spontaneously so that the monument could be realized as it already touched everyone who had seen it. In March 1989 the author finished her art work in plaster however she never saw any money from the collected donations. Therefore she cast in bronze the first three statues from her own savings. Unfortunately in autumn 1989 she unexpectedly died. She could only see her whole life work placed in Lidice in her imagination.
The International Children’s Exhibition of Fine Arts was established to commemorate the children victims from the Czech village Lidice who were murdered by Germans as well as all other children who have died during war conflicts. The exhibition is being held in our country regularly already since the end of sixties and it is well known not only among children and teachers in our country but literally all over the world as every year thousands of children from all continents participate in it every year. Until 1972 it had been a national competition then it changed its statute and became an international exhibition. It is pleasant that the exhibition is mentioned in renowned quarterly "Child Art" (The Magazine of the International Child Art Foundation), that is edited by ICAF (International Child Art Foundation) seated in Washington, as one of the most significant exhibitions together with those in Israel, France, Ireland, USA and others. Those who visit this nowadays worldwide famous exhibition can every year admire a high quality works of children from all kinds of schools from more than 70 countries of the world, including those that are so exotic for us such as Bangladesh, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Kenya, Seychelles, Zimbabwe etc. Every year they receive more than 10 000 exhibits. Children can present their works in any art technique such as painting, drawing, graphics, ceramics, textile, wood sculpture, metal, plastic and paper objects, marionettes, toys and even photographs.
For more information: www.lidice-memorial.cz
Her husband J V Hampl continued in the work since 1990 on his own. In spring 1995 there was a concrete rest cased by marble blocks made on the marked place. Afterwards the moment that was awaited for long time came. Thirty children in bronze shape returned to their mothers in Lidice. Since summer 1996 more statues were installed with a different time in between each installation. The last seven were uncovered in 2000. Currently there are 42 girls and 40 boys who were murdered in 1942 looking at the valley. HARBOURVIEW
YOUR PROPERTY: DAVID MURPHY
A DAVID MURPHY REALESTATE PROMOTION WORDS: DAVID MURPHY PHOTOGRAPHY: SARAH BRADEN
Confessions of a Real Estate Agent
IMAGE IS NOTHING Real Estate businesses (and agents) are famous for trying to project an image of success with big ads, flashy shop fronts and expensive sports cars. Some years ago when we were hiring for a new agent to join our team one of the applicants cited that by driving a late model Mercedes they would project the right sort of image for our business. Unbelievable! The idea is that if you look successful then you are successful and potential sellers are then more likely to choose you. There is an old industry saying ‘if you don’t list you don’t last’ and it's true. Listings are the lifeblood of a real estate office and the competition to win the right to sell your home is fierce. Just think about how much junk mail you get in your letterbox asking you to sell your home. Open the local paper and look at the similar ads from the agents that do the same thing - stating just how different they are!?
Another excellent way to discover which agent will always work for you is by adding one simple clause to the standard agreement before you sign saying: ‘If the owner becomes unhappy with the service, they can cancel this agreement by providing 24 hours notice in writing.’ The best agents will agree to this, untrustworthy ones will not. I would go as far to say that if this clause was a standard clause in agency agreements, the industry would be changed overnight. n
David Murphy owns an independent real estate agency in Sydney’s lower north shore – feel free to call ON 02 9968 2088 or email with question firstname.lastname@example.org
When selecting an agent, image and profile mean nothing. Whether you list with a major franchise or small office - once your property is on the market, the genuine buyers will find it. The ‘we have the biggest database’ line is nonsense; buyers look and they will find your property, regardless of the logo on the sign. What should you be looking for? Simple - a good agent. So, how do you define a good agent? One who has a long list of happy clients. Will the agent provide you with the names and phone numbers for the last 10 people they have sold for? If so, call them. If not, call another agent. HARBOURVIEW
DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHY: ANDREW CHAPMAN
W O O L S H E D S In 1976 I visited my first woolshed, a nondescript tinnie in central Victoria. I was immediately struck by the wear, tear and texture of the building. Inside this rudimentary dwelling, dim rays of light traversed half-opened door and small louvered windows invoked a dramatic atmosphere. As a photographer, I was hooked.
countless shearings. They have hints of history in the names and dates of shearers, often roughly daubed on walls. Sometimes they tell of extraordinary physical feats, of exceptional daily tallies. The numerals '302' written over a stand at Boonoke in the Riverina signify one hell of a day's work by a 'gun' shearer.
The faces of the shearers and crew seemed to complement the dwelling as I set to work and produced my first set of shed images.
The past thirty years have been the hardest in the Australian wool industry's two centuries of existence. The calamitous collapse of the Wool Reserve Price Scheme in 1991 sent many woolgrowers to the wall. A recent decade-long drought and subdued wool prices have halved the national merino flock from its heady peak of the late 1980s. Yet through all this hardship and pain, many woolgrowers have hung on, innovated and survived. Now after two dozen years in the price doldrums, wool is seeing a resurgence.
As the years rolled by I came to visit many more sheds, large and small, grand and humble. When time and finances permitted, I made a series of road trips, making contacts and friends along the way as well as getting recommendations for other sheds I should visit. Woolsheds is a labour of love and reflects my enthusiasm for commitment to documentary photography. The wool industry, with its rich heritage is prominent in our folklore and national psyche. Woolsheds engendered an immense community spirit. Once the big sheep stations resembled small villages and it was common for several generations of the one family to work on the property. For shearers and shearing teams it was a badge of pride to work in the famous woolsheds. Shearing fostered the fierce camaraderie that gave rise to workers' unions, bitter strikes and profound industrial labour reforms. Woolsheds are like living museums. In many you will see ancient relics made obsolete by modern technology; often the longdisused manual woolpress sits in a far corner while its modern hydraulic counterpart performs feats at shearing time that old wool pressers could only have dreamt of. Or stationary engines that powered the early mechanical shearing machines sitting silently rusting while electric machines do the present day work. Sometimes outside you'll find scatters of green glass from broken vegetable oil bottles. It was the oil that shearers used to sharpen their shears in the days of blades. Woolsheds bear the marks and scars of time. Often the shearing board where the wool is harvested has been hollowed and polished by years of shearers dragging sheep from the catching pens. The timber usually has a rich patina of lanolin drawn from the wool. There are darker stains left by the drips of oil that spill as shearers lubricate their hand pieces. Woolsheds, even disused ones, carry the distinctive and evocative smell of wool mouldering with the manure that has fallen between the grated floor over
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Many sheds have remained largely unchanged in decades, but poor wool prices have not been kind to them. Some are decaying into history. I feel it is very important to document the old sheds and record them before they disappear.
Woolsheds is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all these sheds, rather my visual record of how I viewed them and the people who inhabit their working spaces. This book is a testament to those people, past and present, who have graced the industry. It is also a reminder that once upon a time, for a long time in Australia, wool was king. Andrew Chapman was born in 1954 and raised in Melbourne. A freelance photographer, his images have appeared in many Australia publications. Andrew has always retained a passion for photojournalism and documentary photography. His interest in shearing began in 1976 and he has been travelling the country documenting the sheds and the people who inhabit them ever since.
Woodbury woolshed, Tunbridge, Tasmania Graffiti left by shearers over the years, some using the stencils that were used to identify the wool bales.
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TRANSPORT Our great rivers provided Australia’s first superhighways. Water, often a fickle servant that no pastoralist could ever completely master, provided the means for wool to reach the railways and ports and hence the world markets that would be the mainstay of Australia’s wealth up until World War II and a significant player after then. Many of our greatest woolsheds were built within easy reach of our inland water systems. Many of our grand sheds lie within easy reach of rivers such as the Darling, Murrumbidgee, Murray and Paroo (a branch of the Darling). Aside from being a life source, these waterways helped open up the inland to generations of farmers and rural workers. Paddlesteamers that towed barges loaded with wool bales were much cheaper than the cost of freighting wool over land by bullock or horse team. In good rainfall seasons paddlesteamers would haul wool out of Australia’s heartland, often to the Echuca Wharves, where a rail link would complete the wool clip’s journey to Melbourne’s docks for export to the mother country. Return trips would see the paddlesteamers backloading corrugated iron and other building supplies, as well as the new Wolseley mechanical shearing plant, which would slowly revolutionise the shearing industry. In times of drought, farmers could either wait it our and pray for rain or engage the services of bullockies and their teams of cattle to make the long and often arduous trip south. Most paddlesteamers had ceased operating by the 1930s.
WHEN WOOL WAS KING If you visit the magnificent Kinchega woolshed at Menindie in south-western New South Wales, you will find a chart on sheep numbers in the Western Darling region, just before the start of the 20th century. In 1880 there were fewer than two million sheep in the district. By 1886 the numbers stood at four million, then six million by 1889. By 1894 numbers had ballooned to eight million. Expansion of the wool industry was as massive as the profits to be made, with no end in sight. Likewise, if you travel to Farina, between the Flinders Ranges and Lake Eyre, local history will again tell you about the record grain crops that were harvested in some of the boom years of the early days. Surveyor-General George W. Goyder had warned about the unsustainability of lands above his surveyed "Goyder Line" back in the 1860s. Pastoralists, with their European farming backgrounds and their insatiable need to conquer new lands and succeed, were perhaps ignorant to the whiplash that lay ahead in their attempts to tame the landscape.
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Drought and pestilence had brought the Western Darling flocks tumbling to below three million by 1901. It's all pretty heady stuff, but maybe it does not tell of the two factors that would change the landscape irrevocably. The till and the cloven hoof perhaps played as big a part as any other factor in the destruction of this time-honed, ancient land. The finesse of soils created over millions of years was soon broken up by the till and the cloven hooves of sheep. Once this was done the land lay open to the vagaries of drought, wind and rabbit. Nutrients that had existed would never return.
WOOLSHEDS The Australian woolshed is quintessential Australian architecture, steeped in our history and folklore. Blown by ferocious seasonal winds, bleached bare by hot summer sun, survivors of flood, pests and fire, these buildings are synonymous with the harshness of the surrounding landscape and a testament to farmers’ ingenuity, courage and resourcefulness. But recent years have seen times a’changing. The national flock has more than halved from its high of 180 million and this, combined with new health and safety regulations, are closing many sheds. They are fast becoming a silent symbol of our past.
One of Australia’s finest photographers, Andrew Chapman, has embarked on a passionately ambitious project to record woolsheds in every state, capturing the grand as well as the everyday. This is an invaluable historical record of an Australian icon at the end of an era told in over 216 glorious pages. n Published by The Five Mile Press © Andrew Chapman RRP: $39.95 Available in all good bookstores
Mile Pool shearing shed York, Western Australia The Mile Pool shearing shed has not been used since 2000 and sums up the state of the wool industry in Western Australia. The property, owned by Gordon and Jeremy Marwick, is within sight of a new housing development in York.
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EXOTIC: THE KHAJURAHO GROUP OF MONUMENTS
The Kamasutra Temples With its 24 temples, symbolizing the 24 Thirthankaras, the mountain is an important place of pilgrimage
Between 950 and 1150, the Chandela monarchs built these temples when the Tantric tradition may have been accepted. In the days before the Mughal conquests, when boys lived in hermitages, following brahmacharya until they became men, they could learn about the world and prepare themselves to become householders through examining these sculptures and the worldly desires they depicted. The name Khajuraho, ancient "Kharjurav haka", is derived from the Sanskrit words kharjura "one who carries". Locals living in the Khajuraho village always knew about and kept up the temples as best as they could. They were pointed out to the English in the late 19th century when the jungles had taken a toll on the monuments. In the 19th century, British engineer T.S. Burt arrived in the area, followed by General Alexander Cunningham. Cunningham put Khajuraho on the world map when he explored the site on behalf of the Archaeological Survey of India and described what he found in glowing terms. The Khajuraho Group of Monuments has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and is considered to be one of the "seven wonders" of India. In the 27th Century of Kali Yuga the Mlechcha invaders started attacking Northern India, some Bargujar moved eastward to central India; they ruled over the Northeastern region of Rajasthan, called Dhundhar, and were referred to as Dhundhel or Dhundhela in ancient times, for the region they governed. Later on they called themselves Chandelas; those who were in the ruling class having gotra Kashyap were definitely all Bargujars; they were vassals of Gurjara - Pratihara empire of North India, which lasted from 500 CE to 1300 CE and at its peak the major monuments were built. The Bargujars also built the Kalinjar fort and Neelkanth Mahadev temple, similar to one at Sariska National Park, and Baroli, being Shiva. HARBOURVIEW
The Khajuraho Group of Monuments in Khajuraho, a town in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, located in Chatarpur District, about 620 kilometres (385 mi) southeast of New Delhi, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples, famous for their erotic sculptures.
Between 950 and 1150, the Chandela monarchs built these temples when the Tantric tradition may have been accepted. In the days before the Mughal conquests, when boys lived in hermitages, following brahmacharya until they became men, they could learn about the world and prepare themselves to become householders through examining these sculptures and the worldly desires they depicted.
In the 27th Century of Kali Yuga the Mlechcha invaders started attacking Northern India, some Bargujar moved eastward to central India; they ruled over the Northeastern region of Rajasthan, called Dhundhar, and were referred to as Dhundhel or Dhundhela in ancient times, for the region they governed. Later on they called themselves Chandelas; those who were in the ruling class having gotra Kashyap were deďŹ nitely all Bargujars; they were vassals of Gurjara - Pratihara empire of North India, which lasted from 500 CE to 1300 CE and at its peak the major monuments were built. The Bargujars also built the Kalinjar fort and Neelkanth Mahadev temple, similar to one at Sariska National Park, and Baroli, being Shiva The city was the cultural capital of Chandel Rajputs, a Hindu dynasty that ruled this part of India from the 10 to 12th centuries. The political capital of the Chandelas was Kalinjar. The Khajuraho temples were built over a span of 200 years, from 950 to 1150. The Chandela capital was moved to Mahoba after this 92
time, but Khajuraho continued to ﬂourish for some time. Khajuraho has no forts because the Chandel Kings never lived in their cultural capital. The whole area was enclosed by a wall with eight originates, each ﬂanked by two golden palm trees. There were originally over 85 Hindu temples, of which only 25 now stand in a reasonable state of preservation, scattered over an area of about 20 square kilometres. The erotic sculptures were crafted by Chandella artisans. The temples, maintained by the locals, were pointed out to the English in the late 19th century when the jungles had taken a toll on the monuments. Today, the temples serve as ﬁne examples of Indian architectural styles that have gained popularity due to their explicit depiction of sexual life during medieval times. HARBOURVIEW
The Khajuraho temples are made of sandstone. The builders didn't use mortar: the stones were put together with mortise and tenon joints and they were held in place by gravity. This form of construction requires very precise joints. The columns and architraves were built with megaliths that weighed up to 20 tons. The Khajuraho temples contain sexual or erotic art outside the temple or near the deities. Some of the temples that have two layers of walls have small erotic carvings on the outside of the inner wall. It has been suggested that these suggest tantric sexual practices. Some 10% of the carvings contain sexual themes and those reportedly do not depict deities but rather sexual activities between people. The rest depict the everyday life. For example, those depictions show women putting on makeup, musicians, potters, farmers, and other folk. The mundane scenes are all at some distance from the temple deities. A common misconception is that, since the old structures with carvings in Khajuraho are temples, the carvings depict sex between deities. One can only marvel at the shere scale of this monument to the humane condition and know with great certainty that the likes of such a work will never be repeated anytime in the near future. HARBOURVIEW
The temple takes its name from kandara or cave and Mahadeva, another name for Shiva. Like many other temples in the Khajuraho complex, it has a linear series of access-steps facing the eastwest directions. Other features are columned halls with balconies, an entrance porch, and the inner sanctum. Decorating the sides of the temple are over 646 statues. At the top of the shikhara is the amalaka, a circular ring motif common in North Indian temple architecture. The erotic ďŹ gures do not span the whole temple and are not to be found among the 226 found inside.The temple includes some of the most energetic eroticism to be seen at khajuraho. Beyond the archway of the Kandariya Mahadev, lie the six interior compartments; the portico, main hall, transept, vestibule, sanctum and ambulatory. The ceilings are particularly noteworthy and the pillars supporting them have intricately carved capitals. The transept's outer walls have three horizontal panels showing deities of the Hindu pantheon, and groups of lovers, a pageant of sensuousness, vibrantly alive. The Archaeological Survey of India protects the temple, which is now part of the UNESCO World Heritage site.
CLASSIC SHORT FICTION: THE TERROR GUY DE MAUPASSANT
You say you cannot possibly understand it, and I believe you. You think I am losing my mind? Perhaps I am, but for other reasons than those you imagine, my dear friend. Yes, I am going to be married, and will tell you what has led me to take that step. I may add that I know very little of the girl who is going to become my wife tomorrow; I have only seen her four or five times. I know that there is nothing unpleasing about her, and that is enough for my purpose. She is small, fair, and stout; so, of course, the day after to-morrow I shall ardently wish for a tall, dark, thin woman. She is not rich, and belongs to the middle classes. She is a girl such as you may find by the gross, well adapted for matrimony, without any apparent faults, and with no particularly striking qualities. People say of her: "Mlle. Lajolle is a very nice girl," and tomorrow they will say: "What a very nice woman Madame Raymon is." She belongs, in a word, to that immense number of girls whom one is glad to have for one's wife, till the moment comes when one discovers that one happens to prefer all other women to that particular woman whom one has married. "Well," you will say to me, "what on earth did you get married for?" I hardly like to tell you the strange and seemingly improbable reason that urged me on to this senseless act; the fact, however, is that I am afraid of being alone. I don't know how to tell you or to make you understand me, but my state of mind is so wretched that you will pity me and despise me. I do not want to be alone any longer at night. I want to feel that there is some one close to me, touching me, a being who can speak and say something, no matter what it be. I wish to be able to awaken somebody by my side, so that I may be able to ask some sudden question, a stupid question even, if I feel inclined, so that I may hear a human voice, and feel that there is some waking soul close to me, some one whose reason is at work; so that when I hastily light the candle I may see some human face by my side - because - because - I am ashamed to confess it - because I am afraid of being alone. Oh, you don't understand me yet. I am not afraid of any danger; if a man were to come into the room, I should kill him without trembling. I am not afraid of ghosts, nor do I believe in the supernatural. I am not afraid of dead people, for I believe in the total annihilation of every being that disappears from the face of this earth. Well - yes, well, it must be told: I am afraid of myself, afraid of that horrible sensation of 100 HARBOURVIEW
incomprehensible fear. You may laugh, if you like. It is terrible, and I cannot get over it. I am afraid of the walls, of the furniture, of the familiar objects; which are animated, as far as I am concerned, by a kind of animal life. Above all, I am afraid of my own dreadful thoughts, of my reason, which seems as if it were about to leave me, driven away by a mysterious and invisible agony. At first I feel a vague uneasiness in my mind, which causes a cold shiver to run all over me. I look round, and of course nothing is to be seen, and I wish that there were something there, no matter what, as long as it were something tangible. I am frightened merely because I cannot understand my own terror. If I speak, I am afraid of my own voice. If I walk, I am afraid of I know not what, behind the door, behind the curtains, in the cupboard, or under my bed, and yet all the time I know there is nothing anywhere, and I turn round suddenly because I am afraid of what is behind me, although there is nothing there, and I know it. I become agitated. I feel that my fear increases, and so I shut myself up in my own room, get into bed, and hide under the clothes; and there, cowering down, rolled into a ball, I close my eyes in despair, and remain thus for an indefinite time, remembering that my candle is alight on the table by my bedside, and that I ought to put it out, and yet - I dare not do it. It is very terrible, is it not, to be like that? Formerly I felt nothing of all that. I came home quite calm, and went up and down my apartment without anything disturbing my peace of mind. Had any one told me that I should be attacked by a malady -for I can call it nothing else--of most improbable fear, such a stupid and terrible malady as it is, I should have laughed outright. I was certainly never afraid of opening the door in the dark. I went to bed slowly, without locking it, and never got up in the middle of the night to make sure that everything was ďŹ rmly closed. It began last year in a very strange manner on a damp autumn evening. When my servant had left the room, after I had dined, I asked myself what I was going to do. I walked up and down my room for some time, feeling tired without any reason for it, unable to work, and even without energy to read. A fine rain was falling, and I felt unhappy, a prey to one of those fits of despondency, without any apparent cause, which make us feel inclined to cry, or to talk, no matter to whom, so as to shake off our depressing thoughts. I felt that I was alone, and my rooms seemed to me to be more empty than they had ever been before. I was in the midst of infinite and overwhelming solitude. What was I to do? I sat down, but a kind of nervous impatience seemed to affect my legs, so I got up and began to walk about again. I was, perhaps, rather feverish, for my hands, which I had clasped behind me, as one often does when walking slowly, almost seemed to burn one another. Then suddenly a cold shiver ran down my back, and I thought the damp air
might have penetrated into my rooms, so I lit the fire for the first time that year, and sat down again and looked at the flames. But soon I felt that I could not possibly remain quiet, and so I got up again and determined to go out, to pull myself together, and to find a friend to bear me company. I could not find anyone, so I walked to the boulevard to try and meet some acquaintance or other there. It was wretched everywhere, and the wet pavement glistened in the gaslight, while the oppressive warmth of the almost impalpable rain lay heavily over the streets and seemed to obscure the light of the lamps. I went on slowly, saying to myself: "I shall not find a soul to talk to." I glanced into several cafes, from the Madeleine as far as the Faubourg Poissoniere, and saw many unhappylooking individuals sitting at the tables who did not seem even to have enough energy left to finish the refreshments they had ordered. For a long time I wandered aimlessly up and down, and about midnight I started for home. I was very calm and very tired. My janitor opened the door at once, which was quite unusual for him, and I thought that another lodger had probably just come in. When I go out I always double-lock the door of my room, and I found it merely closed, which surprised me; but I supposed that some letters had been brought up for me in the course of the evening. I went in, and found my fire still burning so that it
lighted up the room a little, and, while in the act of taking up a candle, I noticed somebody sitting in my armchair by the fire, warming his feet, with his back toward me. I was not in the slightest degree frightened. I thought, very naturally, that some friend or other had come to see me. No doubt the porter, to whom I had said I was going out, had lent him his own key. In a moment I remembered all the circumstances of my return, how the street door had been opened immediately, and that my own door was only latched and not locked. I could see nothing of my friend but his head, and he had evidently gone to sleep while waiting for me, so I went up to him to rouse him. I saw him quite distinctly; his right arm was hanging down and his legs were crossed; the position of his head, which was somewhat inclined to the left of the armchair, seemed to indicate that he was asleep. "Who can it be?" I asked myself. I could not see clearly, as the room was rather dark, so I put out my hand to touch him on the shoulder, and it came in contact with the back of the chair. There was nobody there; the seat was empty. I fairly jumped with fright. For a moment I drew back as if confronted by some terrible danger; then I turned round again, impelled by an imperious standing upright, panting with fear, so upset that I could not collect my thoughts, and ready to faint. But I am a cool man, and soon recovered myself. I thought: "It is a mere hallucination, that is all," and I immediately began to reflect on this phenomenon.
BOOKSHELF The Art of Killing Well Marco Malvaldi MacLehose Press $34.99 The nineteenth century is drawing to a close. Pellegrino Artusi, Italy's first celebrity chef, has travelled the length and breadth of the country compiling his masterpiece, The Science of Cooking and The Art of Eating Well. When Baron Romualdo Bonaiuti invites him to his Tuscan home to compare notes with his kitchen staff, he's quite looking forward to a break. On arrival he finds everything one might expect: a dramatic Tuscan castle, eccentric aristocrats, spinster aunts and a mysterious guest. Not to mention a murdered butler. Faced with a menagerie of suspects, the local constabulary are baffled. But when the Baron himself is the target of a second murder attempt, Pellegrino realises he may need to put his celebrated culinary skills to use to find the killer. The Strange and Beautiful Sorrows of Ava Lavender Leslye Walton Walker Hardback $19.95 Foolish love appears to be a Roux family birthright - for Ava Lavender, a girl born with the wings of a bird, it is an ominous thing to inherit. In her quest to understand her peculiar disposition and a growing desire to join her peers, sixteen-year-old Ava ventures into the wider world. But it is a dangerous world for a naive girl - a world which may view her as girl or angel. On the night of the summer solstice celebration, the skies open up, rain and feathers fill the air and Ava's journey and her family's saga reach a devastating crescendo. First-time author Leslye Walton has constructed a layered and unforgettable mythology of what it means to be born with hearts that are tragically, exquisitely human.
Almost English Charlotte Mendelson Picador $19.99 Home is a foreign country: they do things differently there. In a tiny flat in West London, sixteen year-old Marina lives with her emotionally delicate mother, Laura and three ancient Hungarian relatives. Imprisoned by her family's crushing expectations and their fierce unEnglish pride, by their strange traditions and stranger foods, she knows she must escape. But the place she runs to makes her feel even more of an outsider. At Combe Abbey, a traditional English public school for which her family have sacrificed everything, she realises she has made a terrible mistake. She is the awkward half-foreign girl who doesn't know how to fit in, flirt or even be. As a semi-Hungarian Londoner, who is she? In the meantime, her mother, an alien in this strange universe, has her own painful secrets to deal with, especially the return of the last man she'd expect back in her life. She isn't noticing that, at Combe Abbey, things are starting to go terribly wrong. The Last Kind Words Saloon Larry McMurtry Macmillan $29.99 Larry McMurtry has done more than any other living writer to shape our literary imagination of the American West. With The Last Kind Words Saloon, he returns to the vivid and unsparing portrait of the nineteenth-century and cowboy lifestyle made so memorable in his classic Lonesome Dove. Evoking the greatest characters and legends of the Old Wild West, McMurtry tells the story of the closing of the American frontier through the travails of two of its most immortal figures: Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday. Long Grass, Texas. Once hailed as heroes for their days of subduing drunks in Abilene and Dodge - more often with a mean look than a pistol - the taciturn Wyatt now idles away his time between bottles, while the dentist-turned-gunslinger Doc is more adept at poker than extracting teeth. With the buffalo herds gone, the Comanche defeated and vast swaths of the Great Plains enclosed by cattle ranches, Wyatt and Doc live on, even as the storied West that forged their myths disappears. McMurtry traces the rich and varied friendship of the heroic pair from the town of Long Grass to Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in Denver, then to Mobetie, Texas and finally to Tombstone, Arizona, culminating with the famed gunfight at the O.K. Corral, rendered here in McMurtry's stark and peerless prose. As harsh and beautiful and as brutal and captivating as the open range it depicts, The Last Kind Words Saloon celebrates the genius of one of the most original American writers. The White Russian Vanora Bennett Century $45.00 From the author of Midnight in St Petersburg, a novel of love, art, music and family secrets set amongst the Russian émigré community of Paris in 1937. Evie, a rebellious young American leaves New York in search of art and adventure in jazz-age Paris, where her grandmother lives. But on arrival, her grandmother's sudden death leaves Evie compelled to carry out her dying wish: to find a man from her past called Zhenya. The quest leads Evie deep into the heart of the Russian émigré community of Paris. With the world on the brink of war, she becomes embroiled in murder plots, conspiracies and illicit love affairs as White faces Red Russian and nothing is as it seems.
Bert Westcott’s face was set with grim determination as he walked his balloon through the savage savanna. Danger lurked for his companion with every step. 102
With Jean, a liberal Russian writer by her side, Evie finally seems to have found the passion and excitement she's yearned for. But is she any nearer to discovering the identity of the mysterious Zhenya, or the heartbreak of her grandmother's past?
The Extra Ordinary Life of Frank Derrick, Age 81 J.B. Morrison Macmillan $29.99
The Awakening of Miss Prim Natalia Sanmartin Fenollera Abacus $29.99
Kelly Christmas made Frank feel like getting out of bed in the morning. She was like a replacement hip. His half an Aspirin a day. She was his stair lift and his Zimmer frame, Kelly was his grab rail and his large button telephone. She was his bath hoist. She was his easy to grip scissors, his one touch battery operated jar opener and his long handled shoehorn. Kelly was all the vitamin supplements he needed.
Miss Prim, a librarian, comes to the village of San Ireneo de Arnois, a place more eccentric and enlightening than she'd imagined. A delightful tale of literature, philosophy and the search for happiness.
Frank Derrick is eighty-one and he's just been run over by a milk float. It was tough enough to fill the hours of the day when he was active. But now he's broken his arm and fractured his foot, it looks set to be a very long few weeks ahead. Frank lives with his cat Bill (which made more sense before Ben died) in the typically British town of Fullwind-on-Sea. The Villages in Bloom competition is the topic of conversation amongst his neighbours but Frank has no interest in that. He watches DVDs, spends his money frivolously at the local charity shop and desperately tries to avoid the cold callers continuously knocking on his door. Emailing his daughter in America on the library computer and visiting his friend Smelly John used to be the highlights of his week. Now he can't even do that. Then a breath of fresh air comes into his life in the form of Kelly Christmas, home help. With her little blue car and appalling parking, her cheerful resilience and ability to laugh at his jokes, Kelly changes Frank's life. She reminds him that there is a big wide-world beyond the four walls of his flat and that adventures, however small, come to people of all ages. Frank and Kelly's story is sad and funny, moving, familiar, uplifting. It is a small and perfect look at a life neither remarkable nor disastrous, but completely extraordinary nonetheless. The Secrets in Silence Nicole Trope Allen & Unwin $29.99 There was so much anger brewing in the child that sometimes Alicia feared for all of them, now she had gone and done this terrible thing. This terrible, terrible thing. Tara has lost her voice. She knows there was pain and fear but she cannot remember anything else. Now she can only answer the questions with silence. Minnie has buried her voice for years, losing herself in silence and isolation, keeping her secrets safe and her broken heart concealed. Liam finds refuge in silence; it is a place to go to when he cannot get the words out. Kate cannot speak for herself just yet. People are only separated from each other by moments, by fate and coincidence.One teenage mistake, one shocking choice and one terrible night will lead to courage found, voices raised and the truth finally spoken. The True and Splendid History of The Harristown Sisters Michelle Lovric Bloomsbury $27.99 It is the age of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, when Europe burns with a passion for longflowing locks. Seven sisters, born into fatherless poverty in Ireland, grow up with hair cascading down their backs, to their ankles and beyond, men are not slow to recognise their potential. It begins with a singing and dancing septet, with Irish jigs kicked out in dusty church halls. But it is not the sisters' singing or their dancing that fills the seats: it is the torrents of hair they let loose at the end of each show. And their hair will take dark-hearted Darcy, bickering twins Berenice and Enda, plain Pertilly, gentle Oona, wild Ida and fearful, flame-haired Manticory - the inimitable narrator of their on-and-off stage adventures - out of poverty, through the dance halls of Ireland, to the salons of Dublin and the palazzos of Venice. It will bring some of them love and each of them loss. For their past trails behind the sisters like the tresses on their heads.
Prudencia Prim is a young woman of intelligence and achievement, with a deep knowledge of literature and several letters after her name. But when she accepts the post of private librarian in the village of San Ireneo de Arnois, she is unprepared for what she encounters there. Her employer, a book-loving intellectual, is dashing yet contrary, always ready with a critique of her cherished Jane Austen and Louisa May Alcott. The neighbours, too, are capable of charm and eccentricity in equal measure, determined as they are to preserve their singular little community from the modern world outside. Prudencia hoped for friendship in San Ireneo but she didn't suspect that she might find love - nor that the course of her new life would run quite so rocky, would offer challenge and heartache as well as joy, discovery and fireside debate. Thief's Magic: Millennium's Rule Book1 Trudi Canavan Orbit $29.99 A brand new series from the bestselling new fantasy author of the last decade In a world where an industrial revolution is powered by magic, Tyen, a student of archaeology, unearths a sentient book called Vella. Once a young sorcerer-bookbinder, Vella was transformed into a useful tool by one of the greatest sorcerers of history. Since then she has been collecting information, including a vital clue to the disaster Tyen's world faces. Elsewhere, in a land ruled by the priests, Rielle the dyer's daughter has been taught that to use magic is to steal from the Angels. Yet she knows she has a talent for it and that there is a corrupter in the city willing to teach her how to use it - should she dare to risk the Angels' wrath. My Salinger Year Joanna Rakoff Bloomsbury $27.99 At twenty-three, after leaving graduate school to pursue her dreams of becoming a poet, Joanna Rakoff moves to New York City and takes a job as assistant to the storied literary agent for J. D. Salinger. She spends her days in the plush, wood-panelled agency, where Dictaphones and typewriters still reign and old-time agents doze at their desks after martini lunches. At night she goes home to the tiny, threadbare Brooklyn apartment she shares with her socialist boyfriend. Precariously balanced between glamour and poverty, surrounded by titanic personalities and struggling to trust her own artistic sense, Joanna is given the task of answering Salingerâ€™s voluminous fan mail. As she reads the candid letters from his readers around the world, she finds herself unable to type out the agencyâ€™s decades-old form response. Instead, drawn inexorably into the emotional world of Salingerâ€™s devotees, she abandons the template and begins writing back That Car! Cate Kennedy illustrated by Carla Zapel Allen & Unwin Children $24.99 We found the old car in the shed the very first day we moved to the farm. Dad put it under the peppercorn tree. 'You kids might as well play in it for the time being,' he said. We couldn't wait to find out where that car would take us. A story about three children, one old car and a world of imagination. HARBOURVIEW
Thoughts fly quickly at such moments. I had been suffering from an hallucination, that was an incontestable fact. My mind had been perfectly lucid and had acted regularly and logically, so there was nothing the matter with the brain. It was only my eyes that had been deceived; they had had a vision, one of those visions which lead simple folk to believe in miracles. It was a nervous seizure of the optical apparatus, nothing more; the eyes were rather congested, perhaps. I lit my candle, and when I stooped down to the fire in doing so I noticed that I was trembling, and I raised myself up with a jump, as if somebody had touched me from behind. I was certainly not by any means calm. I walked up and down a little, and hummed a tune or two. Then I doublelocked the door and felt rather reassured; now, at any rate, nobody could come in. I sat down again and thought over my adventure for a long time; then I went to bed and blew out my light. For some minutes all went well; I lay quietly on my back, but presently an irresistible desire seized me to look round the room, and I turned over on my side. My fire was nearly out, and the few glowing embers threw a faint light on the floor by the chair, where I fancied I saw the man sitting again. I quickly struck a match, but I had been mistaken; there was nothing there. I got up, however, and hid the chair behind my bed, and tried to get to sleep, as the room was now dark; but I had not forgotten myself for more than five minutes, when in my dream I saw all the scene which I had previously witnessed as clearly as if it were reality. I woke up with a start, and having lit the candle, sat up in bed, without venturing even to try to go to sleep again. Twice, however, sleep overcame me for a few moments in spite of myself, and twice I saw the same thing again, till I fancied I was going mad. When day broke, however, I thought that I was cured, and slept peacefully till noon. It was all past and over. I had been feverish, had had the nightmare. I know not what. I had been ill, in fact, but yet thought I was a great fool. I enjoyed myself thoroughly that evening. I dined at a restaurant and afterward went to the theatre, and then started for home. But as I got near the house I was once more seized by a strange feeling of uneasiness. I was afraid of seeing him again. I was not afraid of him, not afraid of his presence, in which I did not believe; but I was afraid of being deceived again. I was afraid of some fresh hallucination, afraid lest fear should take possession of me. For more than an hour I wandered up and down the pavement; then, feeling that I was really too foolish, I returned home. I breathed so hard that I could hardly get upstairs, and remained standing outside my door for more than ten minutes; then suddenly I had a courageous impulse and my will asserted itself. I inserted my key into the lock, and went into the apartment with a candle in my hand. I kicked open 104
my bedroom door, which was partly open, and cast a frightened glance toward the fireplace. There was nothing there. A-h! What a relief and what a delight! What a deliverance! I walked up and down briskly and boldly, but I was not altogether reassured, and kept turning round with a jump; the very shadows in the corners disquieted me. I slept badly, and was constantly disturbed by imaginary noises, but did not see him; no, that was all over. Since that time I have been afraid of being alone at night. I feel that the spectre is there, close to me, around me; but it has not appeared to me again. And supposing it did, what would it matter, since I do not believe in it, and know that it is nothing? However, it still worries me, because I am constantly thinking of it. His right arm hanging down and his head inclined to the left like a man who was asleep - I don't want to think about it! Why, however, am I so persistently possessed with this idea? His feet were close to the ďŹ re! He haunts me; it is very stupid, but who and what is he? I know that he does not exist except in my cowardly imagination, in my fears, and in my agony. There enough of that! Yes, it is all very well for me to reason with myself, to stiďŹ€en my backbone, so to say; but I cannot remain at home because I know he is there. I know I shall not see him again; he will not show himself again; that is all over. But he is there, all the same, in my thoughts. He remains invisible, but that does not prevent his being there. He is behind the doors, in the closed cupboard, in the wardrobe, under the bed, in every dark corner. If I open the door or the cupboard, if I take the candle to look under the bed and throw a light on the dark places he is there no longer, but I feel that he is behind me. I turn round, certain that I shall not see him, that I shall never see him again; but for all that, he is behind me. It is very stupid, it is dreadful; but what am I to do? I cannot help it. But if there were two of us in the place I feel certain that he would not be there any longer, for he is there just because I am alone, simply and solely because I am alone! n
TARONGA ZOO: SUMATRAN TIGER
PHOTOGRAPHER: LISA CAVANAGH
The Sumatran Tiger is the smallest of the surviving subspecies of tiger and is classified as critically endangered, with numbers as low as 400. These Tigers are predominately solitary animals living on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in lowland forests that extend through to the mountain forests. The fur of the Sumatran Tiger appears orange to reddish brown and its underside white. Webbing between their toes makes them very fast swimmers. Being the smallest of the tiger family, it moves with ease through the dense growth of the jungle forests. Males can reach a length of 2.4 metres (head to tail) and weigh approx 120kg. The female is smaller reaching a length of 2.2 metres and weighs in around the 90kg. Distribution and Habitat The Sumatran Tiger lives in lowland forest to submountain and mountain forest where there is minimal human disturbance. The remaining tigers are distributed in fragmented pockets throughout the island. Of the 400 tigers still alive, most can be found in five national parks and two game reserves on the island of Sumatra. The largest populations of Sumatran Tiger can be found in the Gunuag Leuser National Park. Some are still living in unprotected forested areas; however these are more open to poaching.
Breeding The Sumatran Tiger is a predominantly solitary animal. Females live alone or with their cubs in territories neighbouring with other females. The males are completely solitary and have territories that may overlap several female territories. The males take no part in the rearing of their cubs. The Sumatran Tiger reaches maturity at approximately four years of age and has a life span of about 15 years. Mating can occur at anytime throughout the year; however it is typically during winter to spring. After a gestation period of about 100 days the female may give birth to as many as four cubs. The cubs are born with their eyes closed and do not open them until they are about two to three weeks old. For the first eight weeks the cubs will drink their motherâ€™s milk, after which they begin to wean. However, they will still suckle on and off for the next six months. Cubs will leave the den for the first time after approximately two months. Within 18 months the cubs will be able to hunt for themselves and are fully independent by the age of two years. At this time the cubs will have to find and defend their own territory. Behaviour and Diet Male and female tigers mark their ranges by spraying scent on trees or bushes. The extent of a tiger's range varies according to habitat and availability of prey. Its sight and hearing are very acute, accounting for the tiger being such an efficient predator.
The tigerâ€™s whiskers are just a little longer than the width of its body which helps it to navigate in the dark dense undergrowth. Unlike other members of the cat family, the tiger cannot outrun its prey and will therefore use its camouflage to surprise it instead. The hunting method is slow and patient, stalking through often dense cover until close enough to spring. Tigers in general tend to attack prey from the side or rear at close range and when the prey weighs more than half that of the tiger, a throat bite is used and death is caused by suffocation. The Sumatran Tiger will generally hunt at dusk and may travel up to 20 kilometres in one night in search of food. Its diet mainly consists of deer, wild pig and fowl. The Sumatran Tiger is a good swimmer and will try to run hoofed prey into water where the prey will be slower and more easily caught. Threats to Survival The Sumatran Tiger is considered to be critically endangered. The two major threats to the survival of the Sumatran Tiger are habitat destruction and poaching. The rapid agricultural growth on the island of Sumatra has reduced the area of habitat available to the tiger. Encroachment by villages has increased the contact between the tiger and humans resulting in many tigers being killed. Tigers are illegally poached to support the trade in tiger products. Tigers are hunted for their body parts for use in traditional medicine, for their pelts and as trophies. HARBOURVIEW
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