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AGATA BONISŁAWSKA Olsztyn, Poland born: 21st January 1993

Education 2016 - Master Diploma in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Politechnika Gdańska, Poland 2015 - Bergen Arkitekthøgskole, 1 semester, Norway - EEA Grants Exchange Programme 2015 - Engineering Diploma in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Politechnika Gdańska, Poland 2013-2014 - École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Grenoble, 1 year, France - LLP Erasmus Exchange Programme 2011-2016 - architecture & urban planning, Faculty of Architecture, Politechnika Gdańska, Poland Work experience 2016 - product developer/GIS manager - StructView, Gdynia, Poland 2016 - trainee in architectural design - ReStudio, Gdańsk, Poland 2013 - trainee in architectural design - Dżus G.K. Architekci, Olsztyn, Poland Workshops 2015 - Shapes of Logic, Wrocław, Poland 2014 - Erasmus IP, Skin and Bones - Crafting Wood, Vaduz, Liechtenstein 2014 - Plug-In Situ, Grenoble, France 2014 - Architektonik, Nantes, France 2012 - OSSA Lublin, Poland Design/rendering tools Autodesk AutoCAD Autodesk Revit Grafisoft ArchiCAD + Artlantis Rhinoceros 5 + Grasshopper Google SketchUp Graphic tools Adobe Photoshop CC Adobe Illustrator CC Adobe InDesign CC Others Adobe AfterEffects CC QGIS/ArcGIS Manual: sketching, model making, woodworking Interests perception, habitat design, technologies traveling, cycling, longboarding, rock climbing, electronic music

Languages Polish French (DALF C1) English (C1)


ABOUT I consider architectural design as a complex discipline that aims to investigate and develope the way people live. In course of my education I distinguished several aspects of interest that let me rethink that issue - what is in practice. My special focus gathered around functioning of human perception which is something that let people explore, understand, communicate or get influnced by the environment. People are mentaly shaped by places and opportunities, so they are able to reshape places and give themselves opportunities in return. That is the reason why taking care of a structure of a habitat - a city, a district, a village, a postindustrial site - seems so crutial. In the same time I take technology as a wide toolbox, being able to be used to extend design capacities. People are now able to make profitable architectural design - profitable in a realistic sense.


CONTENT

DESIGNED Logic of a Place, Łupstych, Poland, 2016 Office Building, Gdynia, Poland, 2015 Town Towers, Grenoble, France, 2013 Underground Multifunctional Space, Virieu Castle, France, 2014 Small House, Perlino, Poland, 2016 Unfold, Gdańsk, Poland, 2015

06 10 14 16 18 20

BUILT The Ramp, Bergen, Norway, 2015 Mountain Cabin, Münz, Liechtenstein, 2014

22 26

COMPOSED Study of Forms, Gdańsk, Poland, 2011-2012 Cycle, Vernazza, Italy, 2015 Made to Stray, Gdańsk, Poland, 2015 Progress & Catastrophy, Poznań, Poland, 2015

28 30 32 33


DESIGNED Logic of a Place, Łupstych, Poland, 2016 Master diploma research study and project: Transformation of a suburban village. Spatial development concept of the village of Łupstych in context of Olsztyn agglomeration. THE STUDY The aim of the work was to manifest the importance of human perception as a way to read and reestablish a logic of a place in context of planning proceedures in Poland concerning the newly developed patchwork suburban areas. Nowadays, these processes are schematised and cause a clash of orders in between pre-existing and added built structures. The study was based on the case of a suburban village of Łupstych, being a closing point on a circular path around Ukiel Lake in Olsztyn, which’s infrastructure have been recently developed and can cause a further expantion around the lake. Łupstych is already planned to be extended by 100 new building plots in a local plan established in 2006. The site is attractive to get inhabiteted because of its closeness to the city and to nature. My field analyses intended to reveal the real structure of the existing village of Łupstych and the circumstances of its creation. The next step was to plan its extention in a way to preserve spatial characteristics present in the terrain and provide economical value to building terrain as well as social acceptance.

„The clash of orders introduces an element of disorder.” Rudolf Arnheim, Entropy in Arts [1971]

Potential circumstances of development of the extension site of Łupstych

06

Extension of Olsztyn around the Ukiel Lake in 1914 - 2016

Simulation of accomplishment of the current local plan juxtaposition of the pre-existing and the predicted structure


VALUE IN PERSEPTIVE PATTERNS Perceived spatial arrangments Research method of a notation of an observation walk - definition of types of spatial arrangements that constitute the overall structure of the village.

VALUE IN MATERIALITY Described spatial arrangments Description of defined structures as elements that can get used in further extension of the village.

07


THE PROJECT My response to defined problematic was a transformation of identified spatial settings of the old part of the village of Ĺ upstych according to current planning requirements into new spatial arrangements that will structure the new settlement. The proposed, alternative layout of the extension of Ĺ upstych refers to already exisitng elements in the terrain such as piping system, electric network and existing buildings. It offers a nonregular but characteristic positioning of buildings according to the patterns identified in the pre-existing part of the village. The Common House stands for an example of architectural qualities that are valuable to be kept in future realisations. That building and other public functionalities offer an interactive usage of the estate of private houses.

3

4

2

08

1


The Common House first floor 1:400

groundfloor 1:400 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

- 0.04

13

14

15

16

1

17

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

- 0.02 A

A

- 0.02

B

B

03

- 0.02 C

C

± 0.00

± 0.00

± 0.00

± 0.00 = 134 m n.p.m.

D

D

09 E

17 x 17.5 28

± 0.00

F

+ 2.98

+ 2.98

04

17 x 17.5 28

01

02 E

± 0.00

10

F

07

G

± 0.00

06

G

± 0.00

H

H

08 ± 0.00

± 0.00

05

- 0.02

I

I

- 0.04

- 0.04

- 1.00

+ 0.10

- 1.00

northern facade 1:400

section I-I 1:400

+ 9.00

western facade 1:400

eastern facade 1:400

+ 8.80

+ 4.30

+ 2.98

.5

17

x 17

x 28

± 0.00

- 0.02

- 0.02

section II-II 1:400

southern facade 1:400

+ 2.98

- 0.02

± 0.00

A

+ 2.98

± 0.00

± 0.00

± 0.00

- 0.02

09


DESIGNED Office Building, Gdynia, Poland Engineering diploma project, 2015

The corner of a busy crossroad was filled with a modulable structure. Clearly open and transparent to the outside on the grounfloor, with an accessible snack bar and conference room, and workers’ rooms on the floors above. The spatial typology refers to a house - where we meet and interact downstairs and find tranquility in our own space in a distance from the crowd. An important aspect of the project is a double-glazed facade permitting an economised flow of heated or cooled air.

10


- 1.70

A - 1.50

- 1.20 6%

5m

- 0.90 3650 600 12 35

600

258

600

872

groundfloor technical plan

10 48

128

150

150

150

150

97

600

100

77

53 19 110

150

21

600

529

529 150

97

53

150

150

35 150

150

600

565 150

150

35 150

150

308 150

40 254

10

128

600 590

20

25

47 10

- 0.60

50 8 128 150

440

440

S4

KUCHNIA POSADZKA BETONOWA

120

50

120

Ø40

Ø40

S4

50

Ø35

słup stalowy 140 x 140

150

Ø40

887

35

314

S8

750

20

20 105 20

S9 116

20 105

1.09 MAGAZYN 12,96 m2 POS. BET.

10

2904

557

belka stalowa 140 x 160

+ 2.54

35 150 565 1007

50 50

Ø35

35

Ø40

3655

889

Ø40

szacht wentylacyjny

590 1385

50

565 20

2315

50

260 260

1795

Ø35

A

10

180

75

150

150

20 110

35

208

20

150

565

600

600

Ø35

S11

- 0.03

990 600

Ø35

8 50

53

40

- 3.20

825 15

50

Ø35

10 35

110

Ø35

128

410

DETAL B

53

20

- 3.15

11 x 14.5 32

- 1.63

565

± 0.00

330 125

91 20

S4

S1

35

150 20

Ø35

kurtyna powietrzna

1007

1002

1002

Ø40

260

150

S4

Ø40

600

150 17 x 17.25 28

90 210

30

Ø40 1007

Ø40

20

150

50

1.02 SALA KONFERENCYJNA 232,66 m 2 WYKŁ. DYWANOWA

1.18 KLATKA SCHODOWA 2 12,50 m POSADZKA BETONOWA

150

86 20

1460

855

dźwig osobowy ELWIND

5 5

20

150

275

± 0.00

28

170

35

20

- 0.03

S5 18

90 210

600

150 50

10

10

292

panele mobilne DORMA Moveo

18

18

260 260

Ø35

292

150

416 143

145 20

292

100 260

120

S8

11 x 14.5 32

- 0.03

S10

20 20 68

20 3322

110 260

S8

40 25 100

301

15

40

292

53

151

5 83

18 82

158

156

600

1.17 WC MĘSKI 2 16,50 m TERAKOTA

292

Ø40

235

S9

90 210

S8 18

S4

53

90 210

15 10 40 100

855

10 120

185

S9

100 22 18

S7

86

15 x 17 28

1255

90 210

119

°

74

Ø40

S9

20

20

S7

1.16 WC DAMSKI 12,00 m2 TERAKOTA

S7

210

15 120

36 18 132 22 18

156

WC INWALIDZI TERAKOTA

125

szacht wentylacyjny

100 10

1.15 5,75 m2

40

165

120 260

18

90 210

POM. GOSPODARCZE TERAKOTA

185

6 100

S6 S1 1.14 3,00 m2

20

S6

Ø40 20

35

Ø40

S4

480

125

375

S4

260

kurtyna powietrzna 925

1.01 HOL 156,40 m 2 WYKŁ. DYWANOWA

20

630

20

1.03 SALA SPOTKAŃ 297,93 m 2 WYKŁ. DYWANOWA

565

20 80

1107

80

150

1316

± 0.00 = 21,30 m n.p.m. p.p.p.

920 260

50

S2

1.13 KORYTARZ 15,90 m 2 POS. BET.

600

600

150 150

35

496

150

240

787

150 35

35

150

558

120 20 80

Ø40

kurtyna powietrzna

40

1255

600

150

420 160

S11

430 623 1465

Ø40

260 260

5

7

Ø35

KLATKA SCHODOWA POSADZKA BETONOWA

565

55

1.06 11,1 m 2

5

± 0.00

ścianka całoszklana ze szkła ognioodpornego

890

Ø35

- 0.03

6

565

150

Ø40

150

50

20

3657

1007

5

Ø40

ścianka całoszklana ze szkła ognioodpornego

150

50 50

600

- 0.55

745

150

19

34 19

120

110 260

52

150

8%

914

°

77

120

Ø40

S9

120

19

21 9 205

95 20

S4

34 40

Ø40

35

Ø40

18

230 260

± 0.00

150

15 x 17 28

582

582

542

658

260

600

565

20 55 260

837

Ø35

600

S9

5

50 260 260

S11

4

150

565

S9 18

kurtyna powietrzna

- 0.03

3

35 10

53

53 155

50

panele mobilne DORMA Moveo

S8

160

73

Ø35 - 1.10

SALA SPOTKAŃ WYKŁ. DYWANOWA

150

1.08 37,10 m 2

Ø35 1.05 38,07 m 2

1437

150

100 260

38 90

18

462

227 110

80 210

18

150

118

100 210

Ø40

1.07 SALA KONSUMPCYJNA 113,68 m 2 POSADZKA BETONOWA

5

53

950

150

Ø40

35

Ø35

95

1.04 SALA SPOTKAŃ 24,66 m 2 WYKŁ. DYWANOWA

8%

2

S7

18 24

158

613

90

150 600

565 150

149

KORYTARZ POS. BET.

18

S7 80 210

29

S7 1.12 9,69 m 2

- 0.30

38 238

S6

DETAL A

SANITARIAT TERAKOTA

Ø35

18

S6 18

2

5

842

149

152

50

18

1.11 6,75 m

198

837

- 0.30

POM. SOCJALNE POSADZKA BETONOWA

S3

7%

50

53

53

50 8

35 10

128

1

Ø35

600

1.10 7,80 m2 - 0.03

S11

Ø35

198

0

150

150

- 0.20

150

35

150

150

565

600

150

150

35

150

150

565

600

150 35

128

47 10

308

257

600

35 8

600

600

40

600

3650

F

4

5

P6

85 779 56

240

110

DETAL D

30 30

68

30 41 30

468

370 300

30

2%

- 0.20

53

53 15

15

53

53 25 5 S12

DETAL D

P2 ± 0.00

- 0.53

S12

151

P3

S11

panele mobilne DORMA Moveo 270

belka stalowa dwuteowa 5 x 25 cm pochwyt ze stali cynkowanej prostownik 2 x 10 cm P2

28

300

7x

430

x1

536

130

5

+ 5.17

2%

5

+ 4.65

5

30 43

+ 6.30

+ 5.06

P7

14

P4

+ 5.08

309

balustrada stalowa emaliowana biała

DETAL C

1315

ścianka całoszklana ze szkła ognioodpornego

265

P4

ścianka całoszklana ze szkła ognioodpornego 15

259 - 3.15

5%

taśma Waterstop RX101

208

kanał odwodnienia liniowego

P1

5%

5%

3034

244

kanał odwodnienia liniowego

3034

30 34 55

7% 5%

244

259

- 1.68

taśma Waterstop RX101

rura drenarska PCV Ø15 cm

5

30 44

P5

belka stalowa 14 x 16 cm

370

550

482

- 0.30

- 1.68

9 + 5.08

słup stalowy 14 x 14 cm

P2

krawężnik betonowy

- 0.98

x2

+ 2.54

S11

płyty betonowe 55 x 75 x 5 cm

- 0.60

7.2

130

68

30 30 41 5

+ 5.06

+ 8.43

S11

DETAL C

S11

x1

5

13 110

2%

P4

+ 8.87

300

11

S4

- 0.90

ścianka całoszklana ze szkła ognioodpornego

+ 6.97

+ 6.30

P7

P4

30 43

309

1328

belka stalowa 14 x 16 cm

balustrada stalowa emaliowana biała

+ 5.17

P5

5

56

+ 8.87

35 30 44 5

779

S3

328

ścianka całoszklana ze szkła ognioodpornego

240

35 30 46 5

+ 12.98

+ 12.32

265

300

328

5

30 46

85

+ 12.78

ścianka całoszklana ze szkła ognioodpornego

7

6

DETAL C

5

3

AA technical section

I

H

G

30 30

2

1

E

D

30 30 44 30

5m

C

3034

0

B

30

A

- 3.76

55

rura drenarska PCV Ø15 cm

11


- 1.70

0

5m

-1 level A

1

7%

2

- 3.15

IV

situation 0

10 m

3

4

3,8 m 5,7 m 3m 12,5

m 5m

33,5

B

5m

II

B

7m

4m

0.09

III

III

m

B

0.04

6%

0.05

- 3.15

5

0 8%

0.03

III

27

+21,

7%

D

A

0.02 0.01

8%

3,5

m

0.07

52 m

C

27

27

+21,

+21,

II

± 0.00 = 21,30 m n.p.m. p.p.p.

m

27

27

17 x 17.25 28

24,5

0.06

II

+21,

+21,

III

0.08

6

III

I

12 m

14.5 11 x 32

m

IV

14.5 11 x 32

- 3.15

E

27

07

+21,

7

+18,

24 m

11 x 14.5 32

11 x 14.5 32

- 3.20

3,5

m

1,5

F

- 1.63

IV

IV

III

III

III

8 A A

B

C

E

D

F

G

H

I

K

J

A

1 A

2

2

+ 6.97

+ 6.97

2.06

11 x 17.2 29

11 x 17.2 29

3

11 x 17.2 29

3.04 15 x 17 28

2.04

3.06

+ 8.87

3 + 5.08

+ 5.06

3.05

2.05 3.15

4

4

10 x 18.9 26

10 x 18.9 26

2.03 + 5.08

B

B

2.07

3.03

B

B

+ 8.87

10 x 18.9 26

3.07

5

5 2.08

3.08 2.02

2.01 2.14

+ 8.87

+ 5.08

2.12

2.13

3.09

6

15 x 17 28

2.10

3.13

3.12

+ 8.87

3.10

+ 5.06

2.11

3.11

+ 6.97

7

11 x 17.2 29

11 x 17.2 29

11 x 17.2 29

2.09

6

3.02

3.01 3.14

+ 5.08

+ 6.97

7

A

A A

1 level

12

0

B

5m

C

D

E

F

G

A

H

2 level

0

5m

B

C

D

E

F


northern elevation 0

5m

eastern elevation 0

5m

southern elevation 0

5m

balustrada

płyty betonowe PRODEMA Polycon faktura Aller

pochwyt - rura aluminiowa Ø 10 cm słupki - rura aluminiowa Ø 5 cm poprzeczki - rura aluminiowa Ø 5 cm

western elevation 0

płyty betonowe PRODEMA Polycon faktura Aller

98 x 62,5 cm 323 x 62,5 cm 61 x 62,5 cm 316 x 62,5 cm

98 x 62,5 cm 323 x 62,5 cm 61 x 62,5 cm 316 x 62,5 cm 90 x 62,5 cm 430 x 62,5 cm

+ 12.98

+ 12.15

5m + 8.89

+ 7.95

+ 8.33

+ 6.30

+ 5.17

+ 4.27 + 2.95

+ 2.95

± 0.00

± 0.00

+ 1.10

+ 0.80

+ 0.50 - 0.03

blacha stalowa emaliowana biała

obudowa aluminiowa emaliowana biała

szkło laminowane

13


DESIGNED Town Towers, Grenoble, France, 2013 The project was based on an in situ observation of quarters that let the observer from the street have a look into their inner stucture through gaps in between the buildings. I developed six square towers containing private houses and appartments - one- and two-storey. The height of the designed buildings was adjusted to the lenght of shade that they gave on the surrounding and on one another during the year.

0

situation AA section 0

14

5m

10 m

0

5m

groundfloor plan BB section 0

5m


00 elevation 0

5m

15


DESIGNED Underground Multifunctional Space, Virieu Castle, France, 2015 cooperation: Kristin Janda The issue of the site was to provide a solution that would activate the castle and its surrounding in order to generate outcomes for the owners. The idea was to use the elevation of the courtyard and insert an underground level inside. We’ve found important the way we approach the castle and how we access the created space. 3 new things appeared in the space of the courtyard: a patio, a staircase and an elevator. Choosing the stairs we go down to a large, concrete and wooden space, then we go towards the direction of sunlight coming through the patio. When we go outside, we take a ramp long the ancient stone wall and arrive in the garden.

  

  

 











  





10 m

underground floor plan

16





0


way of use

lecture

wedding reception

workshop

concert

exhibition

1-1 section 0

10 m

2-2 section 0

10 m

ancient wall view 0

10 m

17


DESIGNED Small House, Perlino, Poland, 2016 Wooden summer house in between the trees

0

grounfloor plan

18

1m

0

situation

10 m


0

2m

eastern elevation

0

2m

northern elevation

0

2m

western elevation

0

2m

southern elevation

Project released on a private command, but wasn’t built. The client intended to spend time in this place with his family and friends, enjoying the sunlight on a large terrace and have basic conditions to sleep. The first idea of building a treehouse got transformed into a house in between the trees respecting their position in the shape of the house.

19


DESIGNED Unfold, Gdańsk, Poland, 2015

The rocking chair was created with use of parametric tools. It consists of one piece of folded composite material - elastic and rigid. Its aim is to provide comfort for students seeking for a place to work or have a rest in the large main hall of the Main Building of Politechnika Gdańska.

20


front

side

rocking

top

proposed material - Ply Project - Flex

foldable table

Grasshopper script

21


BUILT The Ramp, Bergen, Norway, 2015 The project of the ramp came up as a next result of Design & Build Masterclass of Bergen School of Architecture. Each year students working in that studio release a built intervention at school to imrove its qualities or make a built project for any contractors interested in cooperation with the school. The particular course that I attended, called Entropy and Intent, led by Tristan Bonhiver, was focused on a theoretical study of material structure managment according to what is the potential preserved in every lifecycle of materials and buildings that people release and how to cope between the reuse and waste. We began our work with a research on issues that need to get resolved around school. The main focus was put on the space of the silo basement (the school is located in an old grain silo), which had already been used as an exhibition and concert space. It needed improvements in order to keep that function - especially a proper access such as a fire escape route and a facility for the disabled. The project intended to use an existing shaft leading from the basement space to the sea - previously it was used for grain transportation. We decided to cut off some part of the concrete slab covering the shaft and insert inside metal grids on rails to form the surface of the ramp. For a half of the semester (2 months) we were building our project. Following the realisation process, we had to prepare the site - destroy walls that would be in a way of the ramp, flip a fire escape staircase, dig out a pile of sand to reach the concrete slab of the shaft etc. Then we ordered some proffessionals to cut the concrete slab and the hole for the door to the basement. Simultanously we were working on the interior ramp - a wooden structure that combined a slope and a stair, covered with reused black plywood planks being used previously as formwork for pouring concrete walls. As a final result, we prepared a brief exhibition showing sources of our approach and any further commentaries on what a state of change means in a context of particular developments - having the example of the ramp as a reference behind the back.

22


0

2m

plan

0

2m

AA section

23


My personal contribution to the project was a handmade handrail out of old wooden planks found in the school yard. I cleaned them, cut in halves and assembled with connectors made out of reused steel sheets. Connectors got invisible in the shade of the basement, giving an exposure to a simple wooden line on the raw concrete background. cooperation: Wei Hsiang Tseng, Ling Lee

24


25


BUILT Mountain Cabin, Münz, Liechtenstein, 2014

cooperation: Anna Benitez Arnau, Daniel Bakker, Nina Heeb, Oliver Holm Lehrmann, Kristin Pallin, Ruth Pattyn, Jack Swanson

The cabin was built as a workshop project during LLP Erasmus Intensive Programme 2014 hosted by Univesität Liechtenstein in Vaduz. We released 4 huts at the latitude of around 1500 m above the sea level for private investors. The workshop programme included study trips around the Vorarlberg region in order to observe the most remarkable historical and contemporary wooden structures. In this way we gained the knowledge of local construction patterns that we could implement in our craftwork. Our group designed a house for forestery workers in Münz. We created walls composed of wooden beams stuck one on another. The beams where of 4 types of dimensions so they formed a vibrant exterior surface. We used a dove tail joint - we cut the beams so they fit like puzzles and didn’t need any nails. They were screwed together vertically to obtain the rigidity of the mass of the wall. We were limited to provide a 5 x 5 m living space for 2 - 3 men. We divided the given plan in halves - a light zone and a dark zone. We distributed functions and adjusted the elevation of window stripes to activities that will occure inside.

STORAGE

SLEEPING

LIVING

KITCHEN

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1m


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COMPOSED Study of Forms, 2011-2012 First year studio works on space and form interaction Forms were shaped according to a topic and intented to fullfilll a spatial and semantic expression of an abtract idea and situation of use. I 6 to 1, 1 to 6 Gallery of One Item: Syziphus’ Stone Memorial of an Artist: Witold Gombrowicz II Bridge for a Couple: Idealist and Pragmatic cooperation: Agnieszka Chromiec III House for a Poet inspired by Tadao Ando’s works cooperation: Agnieszka Chromiec Bar for a Shopaholic

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III

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COMPOSED Cycle, Vernazza, Italy, 2015

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The object was found on a beach of Vernazza after four years it was brought there by a massive mudslide that destroyed the village in 2011. The steel ring was created by people and brought to the shore by a force of nature, then used once again by me in a context in which it was directly present. Placement of a ring which doesn’t seem to be natural is clearly showing a specific intention of a human action. Being there it rises a question of what is and how to use it, while keep on belonging to a place.

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COMPOSED Made to Stray, Gdańsk, Poland, 2015 The composition was created with Grasshopper plug-in for Rhinoceros. My intention was to create an image formed simultaneously by sound. I made a grid of points that adhered or repulsed randomly wandering points with a force that was generated by frequencies of a piece of music (Mount Kimbie ’Made to Stray’). I captured the movement of points every 5 seconds in order to register the process of transformation. As a result I observed an accumulation of points in a vertical line after several shifts from one side to another.

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Progress & Catastrophy, Poznań, Poland, 2015 Exhibited in MONA Inner Spaces gallery as a contest award FallOut Skies: Bad Weather 2015

’Far, in the past, it didn’t begin but proceeded, a reflection of what do we want. The primitive is a so called simple and unsophisticated but evident. A proceedure is triggered by an intention.’ Both of them: progress and catastrophe, are states ongoing in time. They evolve and are noticed in comparison between values. We can say that the progress happens when it brings a certain effect - an irreversible fact that differs a new situation from the previous one. The catastrophe is revealed in a way of judgement - it’s a progress that leads to effects that are considered negative. Both of them happen every day - in a microand macro-scale of actions. As people, we have a capacity to intent something - the intention depending on needs orientate us towards further steps.

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