UNVEILING THE HIDDEN Blanca Pérez González PFG June 2013
“In life, as in art, most of the times you need to choose between understand or feel.” - Juanjo Sáez
IBERIA TOTAL 1.0 Architecture & Tourism for the ACTAL Undergraduate Thesis Project Undergraduate Degree in Architecture IE University 2013
PFG Professors Pablo Oriol Fernando Rodríguez Lina Toro Technical Practices Manuel Pérez Romero Rafael Iñiguez de Onzoño Workshop Instructors Linna Choi Tarik Oualalou Laura Martínez de Guereñu José María García del Monte Design Critics Izaskun Chinchilla Juan Elvira Mónica García Pedro Iglesias Andrew Varela Director David Goodman
Tourism, again Are we facing a return to the economic model of “sun and beach”? Are we prepared to re-think a productive model, already successful in past decades, to adapt it to a ecologically and culturally sensitive context? According to the current economic difficulties and analyzing the benefits of Tourism in Spain, we think not only this condition is necessary to consolidate the country as the first European tourist destination, but geographically restructured to achieve a more diverse offer, ensuring a greater international projection. The architectural thought and research have been absent from the shaping-processes of the economic landscapes related to tourism models. It is now time to use architecture to propose an update of the operating strategies for the exploitation of cultural and natural resources, seeking an economic and ecological balance that will allow achieving a high sustainable growth. We will explore other landscapes and territories to propose diversity. We will define a more consistent and extensive network, one in order to create new models for progress in some forgotten environments, absolutely susceptible to have a second chance. Our actions and architectural proposals will be narrated through a new lexical where words like diversity, sustainability or energy, will match concepts such as profitability, economy, benefit, autonomy, identity, without forgetting other known languages as the exchange, the event, the time offer, heritage, human and natural landscape. The presented projects make strong emphasis in the combination ‘tourist-resident’, extending the range of the tourism in daily life and vice versa. We are putting forward a kind of investment that doesn’t become the environment in a mere appeal of consumption.
The proposals look for a great capacity of transformation in aesthetic, social, cultural terms and in the economy of the villages. We attempt to build identity environments with high capacity of transformation, capable of coexisting with the natural landscape, architectural and existing urban conditions. Framework The starting point of the final project research is Iberia Total: the Iberian Peninsula understood as a strong touristic destination, the theoretical frame or support where the specific proposal (the architecture project) takes place. It seems important to implement a geographic and territorial reorganization for the Iberian Peninsula to become a global touristic destination, targeted not only to those tourists interested in the “sun and beach” offer, but also appealing to what Asian and American tourists demand. Visitors are not only attracted by sun and beach holidays, but also by the vast variety of holidays tailored to the interests of each visitor. In recent years, Spain has been confronted with the challenge of sustainable and diversified growth. The objective of such challenge is to complement the sun and sea supply with new forms of tourism, in order to create a new demand for quality that moreover contributes to increase the tourist expenditure. Thus, we propose to redefine that touristic map to transform the whole peninsula as a complete and complex tourist network. We propose a specific frame within Iberia Total that comprises the northern segment of the Ruta de la Plata, which originally runs from Gijón to Seville. We will then focus on the AP66 Higway area, between León and the coast of Asturias. This new territory of opportunities hosts a number of existing and abandoned coalfields along some valleys: the Valle del Nalón and the Valle del Caudal. Some other incredible geographical locations such as “Los Barrios de la Luna” reservoir or the “Picos de Europa” National Park and natural reserve, are there, and of course, several interesting cities as León, Oviedo, Gijon and Aviles; besides, it features a strong connection with the airport and seaport of Aviles and Gijón. This region, which we call ACTAL (Área de Centralidad Turística Astur Leonesa), will be a laboratory to explore tourism options, as it is strongly linked to a landscape of great industrial potential, and also to the main road infrastructure system of the Iberian Peninsula. The great potential of ACTAL, as we have known through rigorous research, is embodied in the wide range of projects presented in this book: new production landscapes, intensification of urban cultural programs, activation of natural spots, colonization of the mining heritage These proposals, unlike other programs and architectures already known, allow us to imagine a future scenario in which a different tourism is possible, thanks to the thoughtful and measured action of the architect. Fernando Rodríguez, Pablo Oriol y Lina Toro Professors of Undergraduate Thesis Project Unit
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BIOGRAPHY Blanca PĂŠrez born in Madrid, studied architecture in IE University, Segovia. In love with art and architecture, Looking at the details as well as at the big picture of a project. Observing the context and taking into account the issues of the environment, has always played an important role in informing the design process of a project. Committed to sustainability and open to new approaches that try to
meet the challenges contemporary architecture is facing. Good storyteller brings that personal way of explaining things to all the aspect of her life, including architecture.
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INDEX TOURISM. WORKSHOP I 13 TERRITORY. WORKSHOP II 25 THE PROJECT 37 STRATEGY 39 SYSTEM 45 PROGRAM 51 SUSTAINABILITY 61 TOURISM 63 CREDITS 67
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ABOUT THE PROJECT When I visited Asturias for this project I was astonished by the marvelous nature of the site. I thought that the project could be all about the landscape and the architecture should help to emphasize it. This project is a link between the visitor and nature, the encounter would happen through the architecture.
The program called for some â€˜pavilionsâ€™ scattered in the landscape which will host activities like yoga and meditation. A promenade through the forest would link all the pavilions. Each pavilion would be different from one to the other, the light condition inside, the relationship with the nature around would have different condition depending on the program.
The architecture would be as light as possible with no ambition to overtaking the landscape with its presence. The construction of the pavilion would be as much respectful as possible. The use of local and recycled materials and the light structure would minimize the impact to the landscape.
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TOURISM. WORKSHOP I The first workshop evolved on the analysis of different layers which compose the touristic complex of Seaside in Florida. Layers are important in a territory analysis and especially in a touristic destination.
1. Residential spaces, all aligned in a well defined grid.
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TOURISM. WORKSHOP I | 17 2. Other services organised in areas, allowing the visitor to have a better understanding of the place.
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3. Green areas, public and private.
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4. The landmarks. Allow the visitor to be oriented in an easy way and to identify the Seaside (IDENTITY).
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SEASIDE FLORIDA From the analysis of a very touristic place, Seaside in Florida, I learned a way to understand the site for a future project. In this case we applied it to this location and thinking about tourism. But analyzing the map of a place with all its layers, thinking on how are they configured, what do they have and why are like that you can get to know the place in a very deep way.
1. The essence of Seaside represented in a postcard. What would make you come, stay and return.
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a simple, beautiful life...SEASIDE
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TERRITORY. WORKSHOP II The second workshop developed on the research of the territory of Asturias with my colleague Marina Carretero. We made a deep research on Asturias and its identity, what makes it different form other places in the world. The main interesting aspect that came out from the workshop and the analysis turned to be the military architecture of the placeâ€Ś
1936 July 20th Oviedo is declared state of war
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August 3th First attacks against Oviedo 4th Columnas Gallegas” in Luarca 22nd Republicans get El Campón September 10th Attacks to Oviedo by Republicans 15th Columnas gallegas move to Grado 18th Republicans attack Peñaflor 25th Columnas Gallegas in Peñaflor October 5th-12th Intense attacks against Oviedo 13th Nationalists occupy El Escamplero 18th Republicans attack El Escamplero November 13th Nationalists get Valle del Nárcea 27th Republicans react against Grado December 10th Frente Popular get Peñaflor
THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR Asturias has some of the largest collections of military architecture of Spain. This is because it was a strategic area in Spain during the Civil War, (193639). The high mountains which define the perimeter of Asturias and the ocean as natural barriers contributed to a scene of isolation for the Republican force in the North of Spain.
1937 March 17th Frente popular start to surrender
This kind of architecture is an example of how to use the landscape to satisfy our needs. In this case, to be hidden or protected. This is a representation of Asturias memory and identity, something that makes it unique. And it is part of the layers that shape this location.
August 1st Republicans attack pasillo de Grado 21st-22nd Nationalists attack Belmonte September 1st-4th Republicans surrender 9th Nationalists get south of Pajares 22nd Nationalists dominate Pajares October 17th Consejo Soberano surrenders 21st Frente Norte dissapears
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1. June 1936 2. March 1937 3. October 1937 4. Zoom in the North of Spain1936 5. Zoom in Sierra de Grado, Asturias 1937
MAR CANTÁBRICO Avilés Gijón Ribadesella OVIEDO
Torrevieja Gijón Barruelo
Puerto de Pajares
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1. Location of the militar architecture across the A-66. They are organized in complex and the most dense complex is in Sierra de Grado.
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1. Armoured shelter 2. Light shelter 3. Armoured support 4. Light support 5. Armoured position 6. Light position 1
7. Armoured trench 8. Light trench
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PEÑAFLOR Sierra de Grado was one of the biggest emplacements of military architecture. It was a strategic point during the war due to its particular location. It is at 50 meters above the sea level, and its landscape includes the Nalón river and the Peñaflor pass. Because of its special geography in the Spanish Independence War they built a bridge (Peñaflor bridge) essential in the story of that war and
the followings. La Campona belongs to Peñaflor, and during the Independence War, in 1809 it was used as barracks against the neonapoleonic invasion. Because of its interesting historical memory I have decided to locate the project in this area. Adding a new layer of activity to the existing ones. The TOURISTIC LAYER.
We started the analysis of the place in the same way we learned before, analyzing each layer. From the most obvious ones to those others which are hidden or less evident at first glance.
1. First layer, superficial: roads, buildings, paths and train.
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TERRITORY. WORKSHOP II | 33 2. Second layer, the terrain: vegetation, level curves, river and soil matter.
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1. BIDI code to a video made by Marina Carretero and Blanca PĂŠrez. Conclusions of the analysis of Asturias. 2. View of PeĂąaflor bridge from the top of the hill.
THE HIDDEN Not every vegetation typology offer the same shadow, the same colour, or the same leaf and density mutation throughout the year. Not every point of the valley offers the same views, the same terrain conditions, the same slopes to locate the project. Is not the same the light in the forest at every time of the day.
All those aspects, which might consider minimal, have affected the design development hence my proposal and I will need to take them into account so I can unveil them later. Every individual experiences a place in a different way. The pavilions on my project try to emphasize the aspect of the place to provoke the feelings and the experience of the visitors.
In order to do that the understanding of each layer is fundamental.
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1. Isolated tree. Holm Oak, Quercus Ilex. 2. Isolated tree. Hawthorn May, Crataegus Oxyacantha. 3. River tree. Maple, Acer. 4. River tree. Ash, Fraxinus Excelsior. 5. River bush. European Elder, Sambucus Nigra. 6. Forest tree. Spanish Chestnut, Castanea Sativa. 1
7. Forest tree. Beech, Fagus Sylvatica. 8. Forest tree. Oak, Quercus Robur.
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UNVEILING THE HIDDEN After the analyis of every layer of the place I started to develop my proposal. The buildingâ€™s visitor would be a sensitive tourist which appreciate nature willing to perform the different activities offered by the centre, a spiritual retreat, in a strong relationship with the natural context.
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1. Program during the day. Times, kind of tourist, kind of vegetation, shadow at that time and light.
1. Roof plan of the project. Main components: the platform and the pavilions.
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Pavilions structure system. 1. Upper steel structural ring. 2. Steel cables from the ring to the next frame. 1
3. Tensegrity roof structure. 4. Steel structural frame.
5. Steel window frame. 6. Outer skin, fabric. 3
7. Structural post to the ground. 8. Footings.
9. Lower structural ring. 10. Inner skin, grass cilinder.
11. Steel window frame. 12. Platform.
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1a. Tense PVC fabric with a glassfiber inner layer. 1b. Pleated plastic fabric, just one layer. 4a. Ring continuous joint for a tense fabric. 4b. Press joint for a fabric in two cuts, upper and lower rings.
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1. Main detail. Middle stainless steel structural frame. A. Stainless steel cable. B. Open swaged fitting. C. Steel plate 3mm D. Fabric. E. Fabric tensor joint. F. Stainless steel structural ring. A
G. Gutter. H. Steel plate 3mm I. Tensegrity cable.
J. L profile window frame protector. K. Stainless steel window profile. L. Joint from the frame to the ring. M. Isulated glass 1ox12x10mm
B1 D E G
M G D
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THE PROMENADE It is not the same to walk in a forest of trees which protect you, and where you will easily get lost or to walk within flowers and aromatic plants which will be probably easy to touch and smell. Or to walk in a hard-rock landscape at the top of the mountain where a guide path to follow is essential.
The system of the promenade, which links the pavilions, allow to have all this different â€˜scenesâ€™ because it changes depending on the different landscapes and programs.
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1. Wooden beams 10x20x100 cm (the length can change depending on the program and location) 2. Galvanised steel plate 5x100x2 cm (the heigh can change depending on the needs)
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CHI KUNG PAVILION You will arrive to the chi kung pavilion between 10.00- 11.00 am. From the traditional Chinese medicine, this practice has three main components: mind, breathe and physical exercise. Chi means air, the flow of the wind and the movement. The possibility to be outside this pavilion is require by the program. The link between the body, the floor and the movement of the air is basic.
1. Mum senihiliace tam incupic morum perei signonc tiam. 2. Ons erturo, nossimil horeni consulvigna, pubis atium omandieri, quem, dicient ilibus endiem horae cupiorte in rem acchucerdie. 3. Nos esse pos sentravere quidem inarbes et, consultum in detius, se etsultis.
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TANTRA PAVILION Tantra is a way of meditation which teach the person to use the desire as a way for self realization. It is always related with fabric, with the sense of being part of something, building it by yourself. A very intimate kind of meditation with requires a layer of intimacy for a couple in the interior of the pavilion.
1. Inner skin, new fabric layer hanging from the tensegrity roof structure.
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RESTAURANT PAVILION Open the whole day, this is a place tourist will meet between the activities happening in the other pavilions. In this case the building is conceived in such a way that would have not only different views looking outside but also when visitor needs them, which is when they are sitting down eating.
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1. South elevation
1. North elevation
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SUSTAINABILITY The life cycle of the building is thought since it is built to its possible dismantling. The building would be sustainable also in its construction, in fact almost all the building materials would be available locally with no need for long distance transportation hence minimal impact to the environment. The construction of the pavilion will be carried out on site, and it would not
damage or demolish any trees, the light building constructions will be located in the clears of the forest. The foundations, made of steel plates and concrete, a base which will take the load of the pavilion will stay superficial on the ground with minimal impact to the treeâ€™s roots. This system allow also for an ease dismantlement of the structure which could be removed and relocate somewhere else.
When it is built, the complex has a minimum visual impact and also the platforms, elevated in some points, leave space for the fauna to circulate across the building, and the local flora to grow under it. When it is dismantled the footprint would be so minimal that in question of months it could be completely erased.
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1. Main structure footing. 2. 50cm hole left by the footing. 3. Platform footing. 4. 5cm hole left by the footing. 5. Not visual impact and integrated with fauna and flora.
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TOURISM & PEĂ‘AFLOR This project is part of a bigger intervention, the spiritual retreat Unveiling the Hidden. Its main program is related with mental and physical activities which bring the visitor in contact with the landscape. The first part, earthen (developed by Marina Carretero), is related with the physical act of cleaning yourself.
The second one, ethereal, has a more introspective character where the person looks inside himself. Apart from this particular kind of tourist typology this complex includes some other paths attracting other tourist. In fact, one-day tourists willing to spend few hours in the centre to enjoy the park or the building facilities for dinner or a pic-nic will be welcomed.
Ideally, the centre (project) would attract tourism to the Penaflor village. Apart, the centre the village could be organized to offer night accommodation for tourists. We believe that our proposal could help promoting the local resources which could be beneficial on the economy of this area.
1. How to get to the tourist.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY Romeyn BECK HOUGH. The Woodbook: The complete plates. Taschen, Germany, 2007. Rafael CHANES. Deodendron. Blume, Spain, 2009. Roger PHILLIPS. Trees in Britain, Europe and North America. TransAtlantic Pubns, United Kingdom, 1978.
David McCANDLESS. Information is beautiful. Collins, New York, 2009. Phyllis RICHARDSON. XS Big ideas, small buildings. Universal, 2001. Junya ISHIGAMI. Small Images. INAXShuppan, Japan, 2008. Petra BLAISSE. Inside Outside: Reveiling. Nai, New York, 2007.
Tectonica, arquitectura textil. A.T.C. Ediciones, SL, Madrid, December 2011. Number 36 www.arama.org.es www.1937.es www.desdeasturias.com
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CREDITS Printing: Copias Pradillo Prologo, S.L. Binding: Tema Paper: Curious translucent clear recycled 140 g/m2 Acetato Translucent Munken Pure 140 & 240 g/m2
(certified FSC,PEFC, ISO 1400’, TCF, Paper profile, EMAS) Font: Neutraface Architect Richard Neutra coined the term biorealism to describe what he considered to be the inherent and inseparable relationship between man and nature. With the institute for survival through design, he sought to bring these two into greater harmony.
Aknowledgements: Lina Toro Ocampo (tutor) and Manuel Pérez Romero for their knowledge, support and confidence during these four months. Javier Martínez Mañas Salvador Rivera
Asturias has some of the largest forest of Spain, the aim of my project is to combine architecture and the landscape of Asturias in an ideal balance. The strong relationship with the surrounding nature would the pivotal experience to the building visitors. The architecture would have a sustainable approach in how the building would be run and built causing the minimum impact to the surround environment.