At University Centre at Blackburn College we use the ‘Harvard Style’ referencing system. Full details of acceptable referencing is available in The Good Referencing Guide, available on Moodle, but many students find the following ‘at a glance’ guide very useful. In-Text References The Harvard system of references uses ‘in-text’ references using the author-date system as seen in the example below. Aspinall (2012) recognises that Marketing is a management process in which successful results can only be achieved with and through the use of other business functions. Others suggest that marketers are generally the type of people who are able to get other functions on-board with their ideas and create buy-in across the organisation (Lees et al. 2008). Here you can see the author’s name is part of the sentence. The author’s nam e and the date are used to indicate the source that is being referred to.
e authors, For more than thre text citation. use ‘et al.’ in the in-
When referencing within an essay or written document, you should use one of the following 4 formats at all times: If If If If
it is a direct quotation from a printed source you should reference in the following format – (Author, Year: Page) it is a paraphrased quotation from a printed source you should reference in the following format – (Author: Year) it is a direct quotation from an online book, you should reference in the following format– (Author, Year, Page: Online) it is an electronic source, you should reference in the following format – (Author, Year: Online) e the ou writ Here y line’ – don’t n s word ‘o ebsite addres w e h t put
Electro nic for ever source apply yt online b hing other than ooks – co these w ill be we mmonly bsites
Reference List / Bibliography The full details of all of the references that you have made throughout your piece of work are then referred to in the reference list or bibliography, situated towards the end of your assignment, before the appendices if you have them. hor’s the aut This is itten in the r name w urname, :S format nd Initial. a Comma
This is the year of the publication – generally found on the inside cover of a textbook or publication .
the This is the title of ld ou sh is Th e. referenc italics. in n itte wr be always
Taylor, B. (2005), The Future for Graphic Designers in the Digital Age, Edition 2, Bromsgrove Publications, Birmingham. This is the edition of the publication. Where the edition is the first edition this section can be left blank.
of the text. This is the publisher rally in ne ge You will find this t book. tex a of the inside cover
at the This is the place th ed. You int publication was pr in the lly ra will find this gene book. t tex inside cover of a
Where there is more than one author, the format of the reference is changed to accommodate the additional authors.
Berry, C & Wheeler, J (2008) Developing and Implementing Strategy: a guide for beginners, Edition 3, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK. thors. rence additional au
This is how to refe
Referencing a journal If you have to reference a journal as part of your bibliography, the title of the journal (rather than the title of the article), should be written in italics. You will need to reference the volume, issue number and pages of the article to which you are referring.
Postlethwaite, L (1998) ‘Event Management on the night: strategies for coping with the unexpected’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 32, no. 47, pp. 51-5. w This is ho ce n re fe re to lume. which vo
This is how to reference the issue number.
This is how to reference the pages to which the article refers.
Referencing an E-Journal
Postlethwaite, L (1998) ‘Event Management on the night: strategies for coping with the unexpected’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 32, no. 47, viewed 28 July 2010, Business Source Complete. This is the date that you accessed the journal online.
This is the title of the online journal. You may also use the URL/web address.
Referencing Websites If you cannot find the author of a website article, you should site the work by title in both the text and the reference list. You reference websites in the following way: the e title of th t a th te No lics. itten in ita r w is e g pa
National Library National Library of Australia 2009, Picture Australia, ralia.org/. of Australia, viewed 9 July 2010, http://pictureaust e specific This is th ress that dd website a cessed ac you have ion from. at the inform
We hope you’ll find this ‘at a glance’ guide useful throughout your time at University Centre at Blackburn College. Remember, to speak to your tutor should you have further questions about referencing. The Good Referencing Guide is also available on Moodle.