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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL ART By DR. M. VEGO JMO DEPARTMENT, U.S. NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, NEWPORT, RI.


“WAR IS NOT AN AFFAIR OF CHANCE. A GREAT DEAL OF KNOWLEDGE, STUDY AND MEDITATION IS NECESSARY TO CONDUCT IT WELL.” FREDERICK THE GREAT, 1747


TERMS USED • • • •

GRAND TACTICS OPERATIONS (OPERATIONS) OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIONSKUNST) OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIVNOYE ISKUSSTVO) • OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP (OPERATIONSFUEHRUNG; OPERATIVE FUEHRUNG) • OPERATIONAL WARFARE • OPERATIONAL WARFIGHTING


HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART

STRATEGY

OPERATIONS (Operational Art)

TACTICS

PPT-98-VEG0-38A (PFR)


ON OPERATIONAL ART •

AN INTERMEDIATE FIELD OF STUDY AND PRACTICE BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS

• IT IS APPLIED ACROSS THE ENTIRE “OPERATIONAL CONTINUUM” • IT DEALS WITH THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PLANNING, PREPARING, CONDUCTING, AND SUSTAINING MAJOR OPERATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS AIMED AT ACCOMPLISHING OPERATIONAL OR STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER.


“THE

NATION THAT WILL INSIST ON DRAWING A BROAD LINE BETWEEN THE FIGHTING MAN AND THE THINKING MAN IS LIABLE TO FIND ITS FIGHTING DONE BY FOOLS AND ITS THINKING DONE BY COWARDS.” SIR WILLIAM FRANCIS BUTLER


MILITARY SCIENCE AND MILITARY ART

MILITARY SCIENCE MILITARY ART

STRATEGY

TACTICS

OPERATIONS (OPERATIONAL ART)

PPT-98-VEG0-10A (PFR)


IMPORTANCE • TACTICS ALONE CANNOT ACCOMPLISH STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER OR WIN THE WAR; RESULTS OF TACTICAL ACTIONS ARE USEFUL ONLY WHEN LINKED TOGETHER AS A PART OF SOME LARGER DESIGN FRAMED BY STRATEGY AND ORCEHSTRATED BY OPERATIONAL ART • THE GAP BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS IS TOO LARGE TO BE BRIDGED WITHOUT AN INTERMEDIATE FIELD OF STUDY AND PRACTICE -- OPERATIONAL ART


• OPERATIONAL ART SEQUENCES AND SYNCHRONIZES SERIES OF TACTICAL ACTIONS TO ACCOMPLISH OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES THROUGH THE CONDUCT OF MAJOR OPERATIONS; STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER ARE NORMALLY ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH SERIES OF MAJOR OPERATIONS • OPERATIONAL ART ALLOWS A SMALLER, BUT BETTER TRAINED AND SKILLFULLY LED FORCE GUIDED BY SOUND STRATEGY TO DEFEAT QUICKLY AND DECISIVELY A MUCH STRONGER FORCE.


• OPERATIONAL ART HELPS TO AVOID MORE COSTLY AND TIME-CONSUMING ATTRITIONAL WARFARE AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS • IT PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK AND KEY INPUTS FOR WRITING SERVICE AND JOINT/COMBINED DOCTRINE • IT REINFORCES THE NEED FOR THE CLOSEST COOPERATION AMONG THE SERVICES -JOINTNESS.


CHARACTERISTICS • MOVEMENTS OF LARGE MULTI-SERVICE OR MULTI-NATIONAL FORCES OVER LARGE PART OF THE THEATER • THE DEPLOYMENT FORMS THE VERY BASIS OF A PLAN FOR CAMPAIGN OR MAJOR OPERATION • SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER


PREREQUISITES • A SUFFICIENT PHYSICAL SPACE FOR MOVEMENTS OF LARGE FORMATIONS • FULL MASTERY OF TACTICS • THE COMMANDERS MUST HAVE THAT RARE ABILITY TO THINK BEYOND THE REALM OF PHYSICAL COMBAT • THE EXISTENCE OF THE THEATER-WIDE STRUCTURE (C2; C2W; INTELLIGENCE; FIRES; LOGISTICS; AND PROTECTION).


COMPONENTS


MILITARY ART COMPONENTS COMPONENT

LEVEL OF WAR THEORY AND PRACTICE NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OR ALLIANCE/COALITION STRATEGY)

STRATEGY

CONFLICT/WAR TERMINATION ISSUING STRATEGIC GUIDANCE DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY ALLOCATION OF MILITARY RESOURCES AND SECONDARY AMONG THEATERS THEATERS BUILDING ALLIANCE/COALITION ENHANCING COUNTRY’S GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION NATIONAL MILITARY STRATEGY

STRATEGIC • NATIONALSTRATEGIC • THEATERSTRATEGIC

THEORY AND PRACTICE

OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIONS)

TACTICS

PPT-99-VEGO-40 (PFR)

OPERATIONAL-STRATEGIC AL INPUT TO CONFLICT/ OPERA N O I T T F I A WAR TERMINATION UNT ONA O RS OPER ION L FACT S O P L ER A A OPERATIONAL ART N O I PLA TION RATRSHIP (OPERATIONS) P OPEA E R D INC NNINGAL F O OPERATIONAL LE S O PER IPLE ENTONAL OPERATIONAL M S E A EL RATI E WAR TION OF TRAINING FAR A L OPE ARFAR METHODS OF COMBAT E W FORCE EMPLOYMENT CO THEORY AND PRACTICE F CS OS METHODS OF TACTICALARMS MBAT OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL I T C TA C TA A N C H E T EMPLOYMENT BR T AC I C S TIC TACTICS I CAL WEA G N TA C T PLA POSNOF I N N A TAC TFOR S PL F T O Y TACTICAL S PE OTICS O MS C D I T C TYPES OF AI R F S H F TA M BI N E CRA IPS/ SHIPS / AIRCRAFT C O R MS FT A TACTICAL FUNCTIONS


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART AND THE LEVELS OF WAR

OPERATIONAL ART

STRATEGY

COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

LEVEL OF WAR

COMMAND ECHELON

GLOBAL

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC LEVEL

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

THEATER OF WAR

THEATER-STRATEGIC LEVEL

THEATER-STRATEGIC

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL LEVEL

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL

TACTICAL LEVEL

TACTICAL

(LAND, MARITIME)

AREA OF OPERATIONS TACTICS

(LAND, MARITIME, AIR)

COMBAT ZONE (SECTOR) (LAND, MARITIME, AIR)

PPT-97VEG024A (PFR)


OPERATIONAL FACTORS


OPERATIONAL FACTORS

OPERATIONAL FACTORS

OBJECTIVE

SPACE- FORCE

SPACE

TIME TIME-SPACE

FORCE TIME-FORCE

BAL ANC ING SPA E CE - TIME - FORC

INFORMATION PPT-96VEG040B


THE FACTOR OF SPACE

GEOSTRATEGIC POSITIONS

DISTANCES

MILITARY ORGANIZATION OF SPACE

FACTOR SPACE

SHAPE

ELEMENTS OF THE THEATER DYNAMICS OF SPACE

PPT-97VEG022

02/13/14

SIZE

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS


THE FACTOR OF TIME DECISION CYCLE PLANNING

COLLECTING, PROCESSING AND EVALUATING INFORMATION

DURATION OF WAR OPENING HOSTILITIES

MANEUVER/COUNTERMANEUVER

WARNING TIME BETWEEN CONSECUTIVE MAJOR OPERATIONS/ CAMPAIGNS

REACTION

MOBILIZATION

ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE MISSION

DEPLOYMENT

TRANSIT

TIME FOR:

COMMITMENT OF RESERVES

REDEPLOYMENT

TIMING

REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER

PREPARATION MASTERING NEW WEAPONS/ EQUIPMENT

BRINGING UP REINFORCEMENTS

ETC.

FOR WAR FORCE RECONSTITUTION

FOR A MAJOR OPERATION/CAMPAIGN CONCENTRATION/COUNTERCONCENTRATION

PPT-96VEG032A (PFR)


COMBAT POTENTIAL vs. COMBAT POWER

PEACETIME

HOSTILITIES

NON-COMBAT

COMBAT DESIGNED

COMBAT POTENTIAL

ACTIVATION OF COMBAT POWER

AVAILABLE

PPT-00-VEGO-38 (PFR)

COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS

ENEMY COMBAT POWER

COMBAT POWER

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER


COMBAT POWER PEACETIME NON-COMBAT

HOSTILITIES COMBAT

FORCE TIME AVAILABLE COMBAT POTENTIAL

PPT-00-VEGO-36 (PFR)

PLUS

INFLUENCES OF:

SPACE

COMBAT POWER

SURPRISE DECEPTION FATIGUE CHANCE / LUCK

ETC.

FOG OF WAR DOCTRINE INTELLIGENCE DECISIONS MADE

FRICTION FREEDOM OF ACTION / INITIATIVE LOGISTICAL SUSTAINMENT


THE THEATER


THEATER STRUCTURE AND LEVELS OF WAR LEVELS OF WAR

ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE THEATER (OF WAR)

NATIONAL OR ALLIANCE/COALITION STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

THEATER-STRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

THEATER-STRATEGIC (OR MILITARY THEATER OF STRATEGIC) OPERATIONS OBJECTIVE

AREAS OF OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL AIR (SPACE)

MARITIME

LAND

JOINT

OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVE OR MAJOR TACTICAL

COMBAT ZONES/SECTORS

TACTICAL OBJECTIVE

TACTICAL AIR (SPACE)

PPT-97VEG035

MARITIME

LAND


THEATER GEOEMETRY INTERIOR EXTERIOR

LONG

EXTERIOR PPT-96VEG08

EXTERIOR

CONVERGING TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC

DIVERGING

THEATER GEOMETRY

SHORT LONG

DECISIVE POINTS

AIR (ALOC)

PHYSICAL OBJECTIVES TACTICAL

LAND (LLOC) SEA (SLOC)

MAIN INTERMEDIATE

BASE OF OPERATIONS

SINGLE DOUBLE MULTIPLE

LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS (LOC) CENTRAL (INTERIOR)

POSITIONS

PARALLEL

LINE OF OPERATIONS (LOO) SHORT

CENTRAL (INTERIOR)

OCEANIC COASTAL

MINOR MAJOR

GEOGRAPHIC-ORIENTED FORCE-ORIENTED CYBER-ORIENTED

OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC


THEATER GEOMETRY

NEW

BASE OF OPERATIONS

C ALO

LOO

LOO

DECISIVE POINTS GEOGRAPHIC-ORIENTED FORCE=ORIENTED

97-VEG032.PPT

LOO S

INTERMEDIATE BASE OPERATIONS

LOO

LLOC

ENEMY CENTER OF GRAVITY

LOO

SLO C

LO NEW

OS

PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE


OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS


OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS (IN GENERIC TERMS)

COMMAND AND CONTROL (C2) COMMAND & CONTROL WARFARE (C2W)

OPERATIONAL FIRES

SU P

PPT-96VEG07

C2

N CTIO N U F

OPERATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS

P O RT

OPERATIONAL PROTECTION

OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS

CE EN IG LL TE IN

COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS (C3)


SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE EFFORT LEVELS OF COMMAND

LEVEL OF WAR

STRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

TACTICAL

PPT-96VEG03A (PFR)

STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

TACTICAL INTELLIGENCE

IN SUPPORT OF

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP

NATIONAL ALLIANCE AND/OR COALITION POLICY & STRATEGY

THEATER-STRATEGIC COMMANDER

THEATER CAMPAIGNS & LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT

THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDER

A SINGLE CAMPAIGN

OPERATIONAL – TACTICAL COMMANDER

A SINGLE MAJOR OPERATION

TACTICAL COMMANDER

TACTICAL ACTIONS (BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES, ATTACKS, ETC.)


C2W COMPONENTS INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT

INFORMATION WARFARE (IW)

OPERATIONS SECURITY (OPSEC) ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW) EW SUPPORT ELECTRONIC ATTACK (EA) ELECTRONIC PROTECTION (EP)

PPT-96VEG02

C2W

PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOPS) MILITARY DECEPTION (MILDEC)

PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION


TYPE OF OPERATIONAL FIRES

OPERATIONAL FIRES LETHAL AIRBASED SEABASED GROUNDBASED

PPT-96VEG011

NON-LETHAL CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS

ELECTRONIC WEAPONS OF WARFARE (EW) MASS DESTRUCTION (WMD) SPECIAL NUCLEAR FORCES ELECTRONIC CHEMICAL ATTACK (EA) BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOP)


SCALE OF LOGISTICAL SUPPORT THE COMMUNICATIONS ZONE THEATER OF WAR

THEATER OF WAR COMBAT ZONE (SECTOR)

HOME BASE

INTER-THEATER LOCs

THEATER SUSTAINMENT BASE

INTRA-THEATER LOCs

THEATER OF OPERATIONS

STRATEGIC LOGISTICS

OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS TACTICAL LOGISTICS

PPT-97VEG020 (PFR)


OPERATIONAL PROTECTION (IN GENERIC TERMS) AIR DEFENSE AND AIRSPACE CONTROL

COLLECTION OF INTELLIGENCE FOR INDICATORS & WARNING (I&W)

PROTECTION OF INFORMATION

AIR BASE GROUND DEFENSE (ABGD)

FORCE PROTECTION

COMPONENTS REAR AREA DEFENSE

DEFENSE AGAINST WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION (WMD) PPT-99-VEG0-61 (PFR)

MARITIME SECURITY OF PORTS / HARBORS PROTECTION OF LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE


STAGES OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT


STAGES AND ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT MILITARY DECISION-MAKING AND PLANNING MAJOR STAGES DEPLOYMENT PEACETIME

MOBILIZATION

PREDEPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES

STRATEGIC

COMBAT CONFLICT/ OPERATIONAL EMPLOYMENT WAR & / TERMINATION SUSTAINMENT TACTICAL

OFFENSE

OR

CRITICAL FACTORS CONCENTRATION/ COUNTER CONCENTRATION

POSTHOSTILITIES ACTIONS

REDEPLOYMENT DEMOBILIZATION

PEACETIME

DEFENSE

PURSUIT/ COUNTER-PURSUIT

CENTERS OF GRAVITY COMBAT SUCCESS CULMINATING POINT

REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER

MANEUVER / COUNTER MANEUVER CONSOLIDATION OF COMBAT SUCCESS

ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT

PPT-98-VEGO-8 (PFR)

RECONSTITUTION

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR


ELEMENTS OF OPERATIONAL WARFARE


CONCEPT OF CRITICAL FACTORS CRITICAL FACTORS “CONCRETE” (TANGIBLE)

CRITICAL STRENGTHS

CRITICAL WEAKNESSES IF O PEN

TO A TTAC K

CRITICAL VULNERABILITIES (CVs)

OBJECTIVE(S) CENTER OF GRAVITY (COG) 97-VEG033.PPT

“ABSTRACT” (INTANGIBLE)


CRITICAL FACTORS “PHYSICAL” (TANGIBLE)

CRITICAL FACTORS

GEOGRAPHIC  GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION  GEOPOLITICAL POSITION  POSITIONS NON-MILITARY  BASE OF OPERATIONS  STATE ORGANIZATION  LINES OF OPERATIONS  ECONOMY  LINES OF COMMUNICATIONS  MINERAL RESOURCES  ETC.  AGRICULTURE MILITARY  ARMED FORCES  FINANCES  INDIVIDUAL SERVICES (ARMY, NAVY, AIR  BANKING FORCE)  ENERGY RESOURCES  THEATER ARMY, FLEET, AIR FORCE  ETC.  NUMBERED ARMY, FLEET, AIR FORCE  MAJOR FORCE ELEMENTS (AIR CORPS, NAVAL TASK FORCES, AIR TASK FORCES)  TACTICAL UNITS (DIVISIONS, BRIGADES, REGIMENTS, NAVAL SQUADRONS / GROUPS, AIR DIVISIONS / REGIMENTS / SQUADRONS)  INTELLIGENCE  C3I NODES  LOGISTICAL SUPPORT AND SUSTAINMENT  BATTLEFIELD SURVEILLANCE  INTELLIGENCE AND WARNING (I&W)  ETC. 97-VEG030.PPT

“ABSTRACT” (INTANGIBLE)  POLITICAL  DIPLOMATIC  PSYCHOLOGICAL  WILL TO FIGHT  LEADERSHIP  ALLIANCE/COALITION COHESION  ALLIANCE / COALITION’S COMMUNITY OF INTERESTS  PUBLIC SUPPORT  UNITY OF COMMAND  SERVICE / JOINT DOCTRINE  MORALE  DISCIPLINE  COMBAT TRAINING  COMBAT READINESS  ETC.


CENTER OF GRAVITY (IN GENERIC TERMS)

“IS A SOURCE OF ‘MASSED STRENGTH’ --PHYSICAL OR MORAL OR A SOURCE OF LEVERAGE WHOSE SERIOUS DEGRADATION, DISLOCATION, NEUTRALIZATION, OR DESTRUCTION WILL HAVE THE MOST DECISIVE IMPACT ON THE ENEMY’S OR ONE’S OWN ABILITY TO ACCOMPLISH A GIVEN MILITARY OBJECTIVE.”


CENTER OF GRAVITY’S COMPOSITION OUTER CORE N O I AT S R EG EN T T I N L EM E

PROTECTION

INTA NGI BLE

LE B I G TAN

FIREPOWER

LEADERSHIP MANEUVER

INFORMATION INFORMATIO

INNER CORE

SUPPORT

PPT-98-VEG0-4 (PFR)

N


OPERATIONAL MANEUVER


MANEUVER FORCES SCALE GROUND AIR/ SPACE NAVAL

MANEUVER

TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC

ENCIRCLEMENT

FORM DOUBLE

MEDIUM

SINGLE COMBINED

PENETRATION COMBINED WITH THE ONE-SIDED ENVELOPMENT

PENETRATION ENVELOPMENT

PENETRATION COMBINED WITH THE ECCENTRIC (OR CONCENTRIC) MOVEMENT PPT-96VEG042

LAND SEA AIR/SPACE ONE-SIDED

TWO-SIDED (DOUBLE) WIDE ENVELOPMENT (TURNING MOVEMENT)


OPERATIONAL MANEUVER, PART 1 O NE-SIDE D E NV E L OP MENT MANEUV ER

PENETRATION MANEUVER

SH OUL DER ENE M Y ’S

SHOULDER

SUP POR

CO G E NEM Y F OR C E

TING ATT ACK

MAIN A TTA CK

TAC K TING AT SUP P O R

M O BI L E F OR C E

RE SERVE FI X I NG F O RCE

TWO-SIDED(DOUBLE) ENVELOPMENT MAIN ENEMY FORCE

FIXINGFORCE MOBILEFORCE CD-98-V EGO-6 (JR N)

MOBILEFORCE


OPERATIONALMANEUVER, PART2 TURNINGMANEUVER(WIDEMOVEMENT)

ENCIRCLEMENT

R E

FR

ON

T

ENCIRC LED FOR CE

ENEMY’S OPERATIONAL COG MOBILEFORCE

SUPPORTINGATTACK OR FIXINGFORCE

DOUBLE ENCIRCLEMENT NT FRO R RONT TE RF OU INNE NT FRO R TE OU INNER FRON T

CD-98-VEGO-7(JRN)

NT FR O

ENEMY SUPPLY LINES

IL T A R P O ’S Y M N E

H T P E D

IN N

ER UT O

ESCAPE R OUT E


THEORY OF CULMINATING POINT

ATTACK ER COMBA T POWE R

EQUILIBRIUM OF RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

CULMINATING POINT

DEFENDER’S OBJECTIVE

AREA OF UNCERTAINTY

R POWE T A B COM DER N E F E D

FACTOR OF TIME PPT-00-VEG0-22 (PFR)

ATTACKER’S OBJECTIVE

FACTOR OF FORCE

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

FACTOR OF FORCE

FACTOR OF SPACE


ATTACKER’S CULMINATION START OF OFFENSIVE

OFFENSIVE STALLED

FACTOR OF SPACE SPACE GAINED CANNOT BE HELD

CULMINATING POINT OF OFFENSIVE (ATTACK)

ER

LINES OF SUPPLIES

ATTACKER’S OBJECTIVE

T OF

FACTOR OF TIME

ED OS

TH RENG T S ING INCREAS

ER ND E F DE HE

L EC

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

AC K

R FO

PPT-00-VEG0-24 (PFR)

TH EA TT

SS CE

START OF ATTACK

OF

C SU

FACTOR OF FORCE

DIMINIS HING S T RE NGT H

STALEMATE

ATTACK STALLED


DEFENDER’S CULMINATION

START OF DEFENSIVE

FACTOR OF SPACE SPACE LOST TO THE ATTACKER

RELATIVE COMBAT POWER

FACTOR OF FORCE

DIMINIS HING S T RE NGT H

OF

DEFENDER’S TACTICAL OFFENSIVE OBJECTIVE

START OF DEFENSE PPT-00-VEG0-23 (PFR)

TH EA TT

CULMINATING POINT OF AC K

ER

COUNTER-ATTACKS

TH RENG T S ING INCREAS

T OF

COUNTER-OFFENSIVE

ER ND E F DE HE

COUNTER-ATTACK COUNTER-OFFENSIVE WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY OF SHIFTING TO

COUNTER-ATTACK

FACTOR OF TIME


CULMINATING POINT AND THE LEVELS OF WAR LEVEL OF WAR

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

THEATER-STRATEGIC

FACTOR OF SPACE WAR AS A WHOLE CULMINATING POINT OF VICTORY (OR DEFEAT)

CAMPAIGNS AND MAJOR OPERATIONS CULMINATING POINT OF OFFENSIVE (OR DEFENSIVE)

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONALTACTICAL

TACTICAL

A MAJOR OPERATION

CULMINATING POINT OF ATTACK (OR DEFENSE)

A MAJOR BATTLE OR AN ENGAGEMENT PPT-00-VEG0-25 (PFR)

FACTOR OF TIME

OCCURRENCE

IT OCCURS ONLY ONCE IN A WAR

IT COULD OCCUR SEVERAL TIMES DURING A CAMPAIGN AND ONLY ONCE IN A MAJOR OPERATION IT COULD OCCUR ONLY ONCE

IT OCCURS ONLY ONCE IN A MAJOR BATTLE OR AN ENGAGEMENT


REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER

ELEMENTS TASKORIENTED TRAINING

LARGE-SCALE REPLACEMENT OF PERSONNEL

REESTABLISHMENT OF COMMAND AND CONTROL

REST & RECREATION OF PERSONNEL PPT-98-VEG0-46 (PFR)

REPAIR & REPLACEMENT OF WEAPONS & EQUIPMENT

REPLENISHMENT OF SUPPLIES


PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONAL WARFARE


“THERE HAVE EXISTED IN ALL TIMES FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ON WHICH DEPEND GOOD RESULTS IN WARFARE…. THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNCHANGING, INDEPENDENT OF THE KIND OF WEAPONS, OF HISTORICAL TIME AND OF PLACE.” BARON ANTOINE HENRI DE JOMINI


PRINCIPLES OF WAR (GENERIC)

PRINCIPLES OF WAR

SURPRISE

MASS OFFENSIVE

SECURITY

MANEUVER

UNITY OF EFFORT

PPT-96VEG041

TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC

OBJECTIVE

SIMPLICITY

COOPERATION

PURPOSE

UNITY OF COMMAND

ECONOMY OF FORCE


METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT


LEVELS OF WAR AND COMBAT FORCES’ EMPLOYMENT

 CA M  MA PAIGNS J  “ M OR OP E R IL A  OT ITARY O TIONS P H ER THAN ERATION S WAR ” (MO OTW )

N N AIG RATIO P M C A R OP E A  AJO M THEATER STRATEGIC LEVEL

S

OPERATIONAL LEVEL

TACTICAL LEVEL

TACTICAL ACTIONS       PPT-98VEG049 (PFR)

BATTLE ENGAGEMENT STRIKE ATTACK ENCOUNTER DUEL

     

SKIRMISH AMBUSH RAID HARASSMENT INFILTRATION PATROL

     

SEARCH SURVEILLANCE OBSERVATION SCOUTING RECONNAISSANCE ETC.


LEVELS OF COMMAND AND AND METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT LEVEL OF WAR

METHOD

LEVEL OF COMMAND OBJECTIVES NATIONAL* (OR ALLIANCE/ COALITION) LEVEL

NATIONAL STRATEGIC

MILITARY ART

A SINGLE OR SEVERAL NATIONAL-STRATEGIC

CAMPAIGNS MAJOR OPERATIONS

THEATER CDR

A SINGLE OR SEVERAL THEATER-STRATEGIC

OPERATIONALSTRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONALTACTICAL

A SINGLE CAMPAIGN MAJOR OPERATIONS

• • •

A MAJOR JOINT OPERATION TACTICAL ACTIONS NEO OPERATIONS

MAJOR TACTICAL ACTIONS (BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES)

MINOR TACTICAL ACTIONS

TACTICAL

PPT-96VEG09A

TO CDR**

• •

* NATIONAL COMMAND AUTHORITY

COMJTF ***

A SINGLE THEATERSTRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL MAJOR-TACTICAL

TACTICAL COMMANDER

** THEATER OF OPERATIONS CINC

MINOR TACTICAL

*** COMMANDER JOINT TASK FORCE

TACTICS

• •

OPERATIONAL ART

THEATERSTRATEGIC

STRATEGY

NATIONAL-STRATEGIC


MAJOR OPERATIONS


MAJOR OPERATION (IN GENERIC TERMS)

A MAJOR OPERATION CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES, AND OTHER TACTICAL ACTIONS SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED IN TERMS OF SPACE AND TIME TO ACCOMPLISH AN OPERATIONAL (AND SOMETIMES STRATEGIC) OBJECTIVE IN A GIVEN PART OF THE THEATER.


SCHEME OF A MAJOR OPERATION MAJOR STAGES BASE OF OPERATIONS

OPERATIONAL DEPLOYMENT & CONCENTRATION

X

X

COMBAT EMPLOYMENT AND SUSTAINMENT OPERATIONAL MANEUVER

XX

CONSOLIDATION OF OPERATIONAL REDEPLOYMENT SUCCESS

X

X

FORCE ALFA ENGAGEMENT BATTLE BA TT

OPERATION RESERVE

A CE R FO

LE

FORCE BRAVO BATTLE

FORCE CHARLIE ENGAGEMENT

FORCE DELTA ENGAGEMENT

1ST PHASE LEGEND DECISIVE POINT MINOR TACTICAL OBJECTIVE MAJOR TACTICAL OBJECTIVE PPT-99-VEGO-15 (PFR)

X

OPERATIONAL OF STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

ENGAGEMEN

T

X

FORCE B

FORC E NT ME E G GA EN

TT BA

LE

2ND PHASE…ETC OPERATIONAL PAUSE REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER

FOR

C

CE D


MAJOR OPERATIONS PRELIMINARY INITIAL

SEQUENCE CONSECUTIVE (SUCCESSIVE)

MAJOR OPERATIONS

PURPOSE

MEDIUM/ SERVICE LAND

OFFENSIVE

(GROUND)

DEFENSIVE PRINCIPAL (MAIN) SUPPORTING (ANCILLARY)

NAVAL (MARITIME)

DEGREE OF SERVICE PARTICIPATION

AIR (SPACE)

INDEPENDENT JOINT (MULTI-SERVICE) COMBINED (MULTI-NATIONAL) PPT-97VEG027


CAMPAIGNS


CAMPAIGN

(IN GENERIC TERMS) A CAMPAIGN CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF MAJOR OPERATIONS SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED IN TERMS OF SPACE AND TIME AND AIMED TO ACCOMPLISH A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE IN A GIVEN THEATER OF OPERATIONS.


SCHEME OF A CAMPAIGN MAJOR STAGES

MOBILIZATION

DEPLOYMENT STRATEGIC INTRA-THEATER

X

X

X

X

BASE OF OPERATIONS

MAJOR NAVAL OPERATION

THEATER STRATEGIC RESERVE

REDEPLOYMENT FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN OR DEMOBILIZATION

CONSOLIDATION OF STRATEGIC SUCCESS COMBAT EMPLOYMENT AND SUSTAINMENT

X

X X

JOINT / COMBINED

MAJOR LAND (GROUND) OPERATION

X X

X

X

X

X

X

DESIRED END STATE

X

“INDEPENDENT”

MAJOR AIR (SPACE) OPERATION

X X

STRATEGIC PHASE I CONCENTRATION

LEGEND STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE PPT-99-VEGO-16 (PFR)

X

OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVE

X

PHASE II

PHASE III…...ETC.

OPERATIONAL PAUSES

WAR/CONFLICT TERMINATION OR A DISTINCT PHASE OF WAR

POST-HOSTILITIES ACTIVITIES RECONSTITUTION


CAMPAIGNS TIMING

CAMPAIGNS

SEQUENTIAL (CONSECUTIVE) SIMULTANEOUS (CONCURRENT)

DEFENSIVE THEATER STRATEGIC

UNPLANNED PLANNED

NATIONAL OR ALLIANCE/COALITION MILITARY STRATEGIC

SERVICE PARTICIPATION

OPERATIONAL CONTINUUM WAR

GLOBAL (GENERAL)

REGIONAL (LOCAL)

* Denotes predominant features of the medium in which a campaign in conducted ** MOOTW in U.S. terms PPT-97VEG028

OFFENSIVE

OBJECTIVE

PLANNING

LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT**

PURPOSE

COMBINED (MULTI-NATIONAL) JOINT (MULTISERVICE)

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT(MEDIUM) LAND MARITIME


OPERATIONAL PLANNING


DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGY (IN GENERIC TERMS) MEANS

NATIONAL POLICY

ENDS

•PHYSICAL SECURITY AND SURVIVAL • POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY • ECONOMIC STABILITY AND WELL BEING • DOMESTIC PEACE AND STABILITY

NATIONAL ALLIANCE OR COALITION POLITICAL LEADERSHIP

VITAL

*

NATIONAL (GRAND) STRATEGY

INTERESTS

UNLIMITED

NATIONAL SOURCES OF POWER

NATIONAL OBJECTIVE

POLITICAL OBJECTIVE

LIMITED ANNIHILATION EROSION (ATTRITION)

STRATEGIC GUIDANCE

MILITARY STRATEGY

SUPPORTING STRATEGIES

TRADITIONAL NATIONAL INTERESTS

NATIONAL GOALS/AIMS

•POLITICAL •DIPLOMATIC •ECONOMIC •MILITARY •INFORMATIONAL •SCIENTIFIC •TECHNOLOGICAL •OTHER

MILITARY STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

THEATER STRATEGY AND THEATER-STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE

OFFENSIVE OR DEFENSIVE

**

SYMMETRIC OR ASYMMETRIC

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE

COURSES OF ACTION (COAs) STRATEGIC SITUATION STRATEGIC CONCEPTS

* **

NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY IN U.S. TERMS WHEN MULTIPLE THEATERS EXIST

DECISIONS

REVISED/UPDATED MILITARY OR THEATER STRATEGY

EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER


TYPE OF PLANNING OPERATIONAL PLANNING (MAJOR OPERATIONS OR CAMPAIGNS) INTERMEDIATE MILITARY OBJECTIVES INVERSE (REGRESSIVE) PLANNING

HERE AND NOW

ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE

PROGRESSIVE PLANNING NEAR TASK

PPT-97VEG047 (PFR)

FUTURE TASK

(BATTLES / ENGAGEMENTS, ETC.) TACTICAL PLANNING


CAMPAIGN PLAN DEVELOPMENT COMMAND ECHELON • MILITARY-STRATEGIC • THEATER-STRATEGIC COMMANDER (CINC) • THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDER (CINC)

STRATEGIC GUIDANCE

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE STRATEGIC VISION

STAFF ESTIMATES

COMMANDER’S ESTIMATE OF THE STRATEGIC SITUATION

THE DECISION

•OPERATIONAL • ORGANIZATIONAL • • DEPLOYMENT • LOGISTICS •OTHER

PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

• THE DECISION STATEMENT • OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME) • COMMANDER’S INTENT

CAMPAIGN PLANS

WAR

PPT-99-VEGO-04 (PFR)

CONCEPTS

LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT (LIC)


MAJOR OPERATION PLAN DEVELOPMENT HIGHER COMMAND AUTHORITY

DOCUMENTS •CAMPAIGN PLAN •OPORD

OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE

COMMANDER

COMMAND ECHELON •SERVICE COMPONENT •JOINT/COMBINED TASK FORCE •ARMY GROUP •ARMY •ARMY CORPS •NUMBERED AIR FORCE •NUMBERED FLEET

OPERATIONAL VISION

STAFF ESTIMATES

COMMANDER’S ESTIMATE OF THE OPERATIONAL SITUATION

THE DECISION •THE DECISION STATEMENT •OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME) •COMMANDER’S INTENT PPT-97VEGO15 (PFR)

PLAN FOR A MAJOR OPERATION (LAND, NAVAL, AIR/SPACE)


OPERATIONAL DESIGN


GUIDANCE • STRATEGIC • OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

OBJECTIVE

DESIRED END STATE

OPERATIONAL DESIGN DIRECTION/AXIS

IDENTIFICATION OF THE ENEMY’S CRITICAL FACTORS

98-PPT-VEGO-03( es)


OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)


OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME) MAJOR OPERATION

CAMPAIGN

OPERATIONAL IDEA

MAJOR LAND OPERATION

MAJOR NAVAL OPERATION

MAJOR AIR (SPACE) OPERATION

PPT-96VEG017 (PFR)

TACTICAL CONCEPTS

MARITIME ELEMENTS

GROUND ELEMENTS

AIR (SPACE) ELEMENTS

SPECIAL FORCES ELEMENTS


OPERATIONAL IDEA FEATURES FULL USE OF DECEPTION

SPEED IN EXECUTION

CREATIVE AND NOVEL

OPERATIONAL IDEA

MULTIPLE OPTIONS

PPT-96VEG021

NO DISCERNIBLE PATTERNS

FULL USE OF AMBIGUITY


OPERATIONAL DESIGN FOR A CAMPAIGN (IN GENERIC TERMS) INTERIOR VS. EXTERIOR GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION

DESIRED END STATE *

OPERATIONAL DESIGN

REQUIRED FORCES AND ASSETS

OPERATIONA L FACTORS

•ULTIMATE (STRATEGIC) OBJECTIVE •INTERMEDIATE (OPERATIONAL) OBJECTIVES

METHODS FOR DEFEATING THE ENEMY

STRATEGIC OR OPERATIONAL DIRECTION / AXIS

COORDINATION

IDENTIFICATION OF THE ENEMY’S CRITICAL FACTORS AND STRATEGIC CENTER OF GRAVITY

RECONSTITUTION

SELECTED PRINCIPLES OF WAR

BRANCHES AND SEQUELS OPERATIONAL PHASING

APPLICATION OF MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

ANTICIPATING ONE’S OWN STRATEGIC CULMINATION POINT

SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST) CONCENTRATION IN THE SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST) POINT OF MAIN ATTACK (DEFENSE)

OPERATIONAL PAUSE

OPERATIONAL TEMPO STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL DECEPTION OPERATIONAL MANEUVER **

* FOR A CAMPAIGN THAT ENDS HOSTILITIES ** FOR EACH MAJOR OPERATION IN A CAMPAIGN

PROTECTION OF ONE’S OWN STRATEGIC COG

OPERATIONAL MOMENTUM STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL RESERVES STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL SUSTAINMENT


OPERATIONAL DESIGN FOR A MAJOR OPERATION INTERIOR VS.EXTERIOR LINES

DESIRED END STATE *

OPERATIONAL DESIGN

REQUIRED FORCES AND ASSETS

OPERATIONA L FACTORS METHODS OF DEFEATING THE ENEMY’S OPERATIONAL COG

•ULTIMATE (OPERATIONAL) OBJECTIVE •INTERMEDIATE (MAJOR TACTICAL) OBJECTIVES

OPERATIONAL OR TACTICAL DIRECTION / AXIS

COORDINATION *

REGENERATION OF COMBAT POTENTIAL BRANCHES AND SEQUELS

SELECTED PRINCIPLES OF WAR

OPERATIONAL PHASING

APPLICATION OF AVAILABLE COMBAT POTENTIAL

OPERATIONAL IDEA (SCHEME)

OPERATIONAL PAUSE ANTICIPATING ONE’S OWN CULMINATION POINT

SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST)

OPERATIONAL TEMPO

CONCENTRATION AT SECTOR OF MAIN EFFORT (THRUST)

POINT OF MAIN ATTACK (DEFENSE)

IDENTIFICATION OF THE ENEMY’S CRITICAL FACTORS AND OPERATIONAL CENTER OFGRAVITY

OPERATIONAL DECEPTION OPERATIONAL MANEUVER

PROTECTION OF ONE’S OWN OPERATIONAL COG

* FOR A MAJOR OPERATION PLANNED TO ACCOMPLISH A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE.

OPERATIONAL MOMENTUM

OPERATIONAL RESERVE

OPERATIONAL SUSTAINMENT


OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP


OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP ARMY CORPS ?? COMMANDERS THEATERSTRATEGIC COMMANDERS

OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP

THEATER/ NUMBERED AIR FORCE COMMANDERS

THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDERS

THEATER/ NUMBERED ARMY COMMANDERS

SERVICE COMPONNENT COMMANDERS MILITARY/NAVAL DISTRICT COMMANDERS

THEATER/ NUMBERED FLEET COMMANDERS JOINT TASK FORCE COMMANDERS

PPT-97VEGO53


OPERATIONAL COMMANDER’S REQUIREMENTS PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OPERATIONAL THINKING INITIATIVE

DECISIVENESS

HONESTY

STEADFASTNESS OF PURPOSE MORAL COURAGE LEADING BY PERSONAL EXAMPLE

REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESS

SOUND JUDGMENT TOUGHNESS

CREATIVENESS

BOLDNESS

PERSISTENCE

PPT-97VEGO54B

MENTAL AGILITY

HIGH INTELLECT ABILITY TO PROVIDE MOTIVATION AND INSTILL PURPOSE


TENETS OF OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP INDIRECT APPROACH

ABSOLUTE PRIMACY OF POLICY & STRATEGY

UNWAVERING FOCUS ON THE OBJECTIVE

APPLICATION OF OVERWHELMING FORCE BALANCING THE ENDS, MEANS, AND WAYS

CONCENTRATION AT THE “WEIGHT OF EFFORT”

SELECTION OF THE PROPER “WEIGHT OF EFFORT”

TENETS (CARDINAL RULES)

OBTAINING AND MAINTAINING FREEDOM OF ACTION

INITIATIVE JOINTNESS EMPLOYMENT OF ALL AVAILABLE MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER

WILLINGNESS TO TAKE HIGH RISKS ACTING IN AN UNPREDICTABLE MANNER

PPT-97VEGO41 (PFR)


OBTAINING AND MAINTAINING FREEDOM OF ACTION

INITIATIVE

FACTORS AFFECTING FREEDOM OF ACTION • ASSIGNED OBJECTIVES/TASKS • COMBAT POWER OF ONE’S OWN / FRIENDLY FORCES • ENEMY’S COMBAT POWER • ENEMY’S DECISIONS AND ACTIONS • COMMAND & CONTROL STRUCTURE • COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

VI

EN

SP

AC

E

-

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

S CE OR -F

I P L O M A TI C - E C O L - D NO A M IC ITIC L PO

OPERATIONAL COMMANDER

G IV EN

E

PPT-97VEGO42 (PR)

AL

T IM

RO

NM

LE G L TA N E

O R E X E R C IS IN G F R E E D O M O F K R F O M E W N S T R A I N T S + R E S TR A I N T S = L IM I T A T I O A C T I O N A R F NS C O

TASK-ORIENTED ORDERS MENTAL AGILITY FORCES’ MOBILITY SURPRISE OFFENSIVE ANTICIPATION ABILITY TO DEPLOY OPERATIONAL RESERVES ETC.

DECISION CYCLE INTELLIGENCE GIVEN SPACE TIME AVAILABLE FORCES AVAILABLE FORCES BECOMING AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS AND SUSTAINMENT • OPERATIONAL PROTECTION • OPERATIONAL RESERVE


TYPE OF DECISIONS OPERATIONAL COMMANDER

ORGANIZATIONAL

INFORMATIONAL

OPERATIONAL

PPT-97VEGO52


THE FUTURE


• WARS WILL BE WON OR LOST AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVEL; HENCE, THE CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF OPERATIONAL ART WILL NOT BE REDUCED • INFORMATION WILL INCREASINGLY AFFECT THE FACTORS OF SPACE, TIME AND FORCE • NEW TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES WILL COMPRESS SPACE AND TIME SEPARATING LEVELS OF WAR • HOWEVER, THE NEED FOR THE OPERATIONAL LEVELS OF COMMAND WILL REMAIN.


• NEW METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT WILL EMERGE • STRIKES WILL REPLACE BATTLES AND ENGAGEMENTS, WHILE MAJOR OPERATIONS WILL BECOME THE MAIN METHOD OF COMBAT EMPLOYMENT TO ACCOMPLISH NOT ONLY OPERATIONAL BUT ALSO STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A GIVEN PART OF THE THEATER.


References

• Vego, M. (n.d.). Introduction to Operational Art [Power Point Presentation]. Retrieved from: http://indianstrategicknowledgeonline.com/web/o


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