selected works of
U R B A N
D E S I G N
B. K. Swastik
B K Swastik
architect & urban designer
M.Arch in Urban Design C.E.P.T. University firstname.lastname@example.org I +91 9726416252 53, Pawani complex, Jagmohan nagar, Khandagiri, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, INDIA Pin:751030
M. Arch Urban Design Thesis 2014 Guide: Prof. Rajiv Kadam
People centric Urbanism: Bicycling Case : Bhubaneswar
Questions : The present bicycle users in urban India are captive user due to their economic status. Does our city structure and infrastructure allow people, the comfort to choose bicycle over cars? If we switch our mode of transport from cars to bicycle, can our cities be small, dense, safe and most importantly people centric? How different will be urban design approach, if bicycling will be given central place?
Concern: why to choose this topic ? Indian Urbanization in 2030: 590 million people will live in cities nearly the population of USA today. 68 cities will have population of 1 million plus, which is 42 today. Europe has 35 today (Institute, April 2010). Due to this rapid urbanization the mobility needs are increasing. Traffic jams and air pollution due to CO2 emissions from cars are becoming a major problem for bad environment of Indian cities. Besides that, rapid growth of car ownership is demanding for fly overs almost at every square, because where ever traffic congestion happens, we make the roads wider. This does not solve the problem although it eats up public realm and pushes the buildings apart, that increases trip distance. This Increase in trip distance demands more motorized vehicles. So we are building cities larger by spreading and increasing road percentage just to connect it through cars. This approach has led Indian cities to grow out of human scale. Indian urbanism has reached at a stage, where it’s losing its quality of life, social life and security. I think the present transportation system is one of the major aspect, which is responsible for such condition. The way we connect our functions and spaces of the city, frames the environment of the city. Urban Transport means access and not mobility. But our current city development is focused on mobility of private motorized vehicles like cars, rather than focusing on accessibility.
Objective: Now cities over all over the world are experimenting with many new ideas of transport like solar cars, PRT etc. But I think the simplest solution is Bicycle. It’s the only most sustainable mode of mobility, which is still used at a very large percentage (India cities 7 to 28 % bicycling, NMT 10 to 43 % depending upon cities). It is safe, cheap, healthy, social and with good infrastructure it is fast also. Most importantly, if we focus on this, it can activate more public realm on the streets and more spaces can be given to the public recreation, which are now covered with vehicular traffic and flyovers. Bicycling should be prioritized and urban built should allow bicycle to be the most convenient mode of transport with minimized use of Private vehicles like cars etc. Bicycle should be with the people through out the day without any hitches, or difficulties or any user unfriendliness. Bicycling should be a part of our daily life. What I mean by convenience is: it should be safe, comfortable, easy-going, fast, cheap and easy availability of supporting services (Public bicycle, Parking, amenities). One more important thing is that the soothing image should be there that bicycle is a trend or style and you should feel prioritized.
Critical stance Transportation via vehicles like buses, car, motorbikes, train etc. is a domain dominated by traffic planners and engineers. To best serve these vehicles they have helped to build city structure for which they have provided land scape of wide travel lanes, continuous network, extensive safety and navigational signage, transit stops and vehicular parking. THEY HAVE DEVELOPED IT INTO A SYSTEM. A SYSTEM YOU CAN’T REJECT. In contrast to develop bicycle usage, It was always forced through debates and generated awareness by highlighting the issues of sustainability, public health social health etc. And in some cases with small infrastructure solutions. But an attempt was never made to make bicycle a primary mode of transportion in cities. It has to be more convenient, fast, safe and comfortable than cars. The environment has to be redesigned from a cyclist’s point of view. BICYCLING HAS TO BE DESIGNED LIKE A SYSTEM, WHICH PEOPLE CAN’T REJECT.
SITE Garden city: Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar bicycle tracks: 16 km Bhubaneswar already has beautiful, shaded and safe cycle tracks. It has helped a bit to provide safety and congestion free cycling by segregating cyclists from road. But it does not encourage people to change the mode of transport to cycling and it is not enough to generate a cycling culture.
These tracks are not useful because they are implemented at a very small scale network of 16 k.m. If we compare this to 1600 k.m of Bhubaneswar road network, the ratio is 1km to 100km. There is no integration with other modes of transport. So there is no last mile connectivity. So it fails to give freedom of connectivity to all points. And also the streets are not designed to the scale of cyclists so they fail to provide the level of comfort which was needed for a cyclist.
India IN DIA
B H U B A NBhubaneswar ESWAR CB I Tcity HYU1B3A5NSEGarden Q SW . KA MRcity C ABhubaneswar P I T A L C I T Y 1 6 . 8 S Q . KAim MA I M 135sq.km
The challenge is to convert a car centric city to a people centric city through bicycle transport system. City structure: In order to achieve the garden city concept, Bhubaneswar was designed with a very low density of 23 ppha. And to commute in such low dense area, the neighbourhoods are designed car centric. No other modes of transport could sustain as the trip distances are high and the commuter population is low. Safety: Large investments in road widening, construction of fly overs etc. has increased inconvenience for bicyclists and made their journey more unsafe by increasing ownership of cars and their speed (Jain). Lack of integration between other modes of transport to cycling: for longer trips and last mile connectivity. Road structure and trip distances: Total 1600* Km of Road length Fully Paved : 84% Per Capita Road Length : 2.71 m Vehicle Increase per year : 8.5%
Average Trips 7.5 â€“ 10* Km Average Road Density 11.82 Km/ Sq km Four - Six Lane: 40 Km* (App) 16*km of Protected Bicycle Lane
In order to achieve the garden city concept Bhubaneswar was designed with a very low density of 23 ppha. And to commute in such low dense area the neighbourhoods are designed car centric. No other modes of transport could sustain as the trip distances are high and the commuter population is low. Word no. 46 Population: 9071 Area: 2.68 sq.km Density: 33.8 ppha
This 60m. wide road connects suburb to city center.
Word no. 44 Population: 2,485 Area: 0.71 sq.km Density: 35 ppha
Word no. 47 Population: 5391, Old: 4120 & New: 1271 Area: 1.11 sq.km, Old: 0.24sq.km & New: 0.87 Old Bapuji nager Density: 171.6 ppha
Existing Morphology Unit 1, Unit 2, Bapuji nagar, Ashoke nagar Bhubaneswar Capital city. The average Building height of Unit 1 & Unit 2 is 3.5m with population density of 33 ppha. But average Building height of Bapuji nagar & Ashoke nagar is 9m with population density of 170 ppha.
Morphology of Unit 1 & 2
Design Approach: City structuring to reduce trip distance from 7.5 -10 km of Bhubaneswar to 3.5 - 5 km. • Control of Urban sprawl from 233 sq.km to 135sq.km. • Accommodate this extra 100 sq.km of future growth within the city by identifying low dense area. (22 ppha to 600 ppha) Neighbourhood restructuring: Divide large neighbourhood to smaller neighbourhood. • Removing back lanes and giving that extra space for kitchen garden • Removing private car park from front and reducing front yard space. • Replacing 2 m high solid compound wall with Badda (an organic low height semitransparent compound wall) • Importance of car free front yard. Designing Guidelines to Buildings for appropriate density, building heights, and building interface etc. • Less roads more streets: by traffic calming and developing shared space. • Restrict through traffic and protect inner streets from car access. • Reclaim spaces from car occupied areas like Parking, tar mark area etc.
new type of street structure could be designed
Develop complete street: Bicycle mix with motorized vehicle, vendors and pedestrians. Bicycle network door to door: connect every point. • Inter modality: Integrate with public transport and other modes of transport. • New typology of shops, offices and other commercials with inner bicycle accessibility. • Designing segregated, safe and fast bicycle tracks system for point to point connectivity.
Micro urban design details: Safety • Vegetation to segregate running way from motorized traffic. • Good lighting. Designing micro urban elements like street furniture, flooring etc to control people’s behaviour and to make bicycle convenient.
New typology of buildings Incorporating bicycle slope
Creating on street Micro climate for climatic comfort. • Street orientation with respect to sun & wind. • Building projection for shade. • Air conditioned restring rooms, shower, changing rooms at every PBS stations & also at private parking like in offices, malls, industrial buildings. Designing Spatial experience • Appropriate enclose for street from cyclist perspective. • Aesthetic design.
Designing the Spatial experience
What could be the possible Density to reduce trip distance ? 1948
Area 16.84 sq.km Population: 40,000
Area 135 sq.km Population: 8.5 lacs,
In 2030 area 233 sq.km Population: 18 lacs, Density: 77 with 45% of decadal growth rate
Trip Distance: 5 - 10 km
Trip Distance: 7.5 - 12.5 km
What if we make our CDP not on basis of city expansion but on basis of densification, Can that be more bicycle friendly ? City Transformation by redensification of very low dense area with 16 sq.km
Proposal for CDP in 2030
Area 135 sq.km Population: 18 lacs
Extension area 98 sq.km & Assume Land use type
Density 133 Trip Distance: 3.5 - 5 km
If I put that extra 10 lack population in 16 sq.km then Density 610 ppha Average trip distance might be with in 3.5 km
What should be land use or functional distribution and their movement pattern?
Movement pattern Office employees
Movement pattern Parks, play grounds, temples, Public plazas, recreation spaces, gathering and chatting spaces.
movement pattern shoppers
Over lapping all the layers
Through trafic and the major shortcuts
Origin Destination Desire lines
Deriving new land use & road network from existing movement pattern
Deriving Desire bicycling shortcut routs
According to major origin destination desire lines, I proposed new bicycle streets for shortcuts.
Based on existing movement pattern, I kept the minimum required road. And rest I removed.
Distributed Green and commerce along bicycle path for more mixed use development.
Divided 1 sq.km large neighborhood into small 300m X 300 m. walkable neighborhood .
New Proposal land use structure
Road Network existing
Public transport points (Bus and Metro)
The internal roads of neighborhood Linear connectivity can also be removed from neighborhood.
Proposed internal street of neighborhood Streets rather than having road at centres, can have a series of open spaces & activity zones.
Dead & Unattractive Edge High speed segregated grid iron pattern Mental mapping only street numbers.
Short trips & good for shortcuts Land mark & nodes important Imagebility & association to space will increase. People will interact more & spend more time on out door activities. SAFE & SLOW TRAFFIC.
it has only one function: clear the traffic as fast as possible.
so concept of fly over came
Curve extension making the traffic slow and allowing people to spend more time here
Edge, landmark, enclose, beautification becomes more important.
Existing Master Plan
Proposed Master Plan
Proposal for Internal streets of neighborhood These streets are vehicular restricted area and can be developed along the Desire Line of short connectivity. So it can connect bicycles faster than automobiles. These streets will connect all major schools, institutions, colleges, and squares. So it can carry major traffic. Theses streets will be comprise dense vegetation, tot-lots, small gardens, etc.
Shop Interface Foot path
High speed cycle track Very slow Average speed 6 km/hr
Slow Average speed 10 - 12 km/hr
Normal Average speed 12-15 km/hr
No specific origin destination
With a origin destination
Fast (In hurry) Average speed near to 20 km/hr
Strong Origin & destination
Vending Zone BRTS + Roads
Detailed master plan of 60m. wide street The south side of the street has been shaded by projections of buildings. The shade protects pedestrians, bicyclists & informally parked bicycles from heat.
The buildings which are public or along the street should have minimum projections of 25% length of their block length.
Existing 60m. wide road
Birdâ€™s eye view of Proposed 60m. wi de street
Imagine a street where cyclists move faster than automobiles. Cyclists have better comfort and better freedom than the automobiles. The center of the road is always free from obstacles and hassles. So at the centre of the road you have to put less breaks and you can move faster with less effort. Unlike automobiles cyclists have to run on human paddling or human power. Every time they put break, they have to give extra effort to go back to original speed. So a cyclist traveling for 10 kms or more canâ€™t afford to put breaks every time. Where as automobiles can afford to put breaks more often than cyclists. Then why should automobiles be at the centre, not cyclists ?
Proposed high speed bicycle tracks
Imagine a street where everyone moves at a same speed. A Street with equal space for rich, poor, young, old, handi-cappeds, venders, animals, birds, everyone. Everyone feels safe, comfortable and friendly. A street which is not just an infrastructure, itâ€™s an asset to the city. A place to celebrate of public realm.
Proposed crossing on shared space concept
Studio project of Semester I, M.Arch (group work) guided by Deval Gandhi
Dhoraji : a dying city Dhoraji used to be a thriving city of Surastra region in the state of Gujrat. Now the city is deteriorating because of its declining economy. Due to local unemployment the out migration rate has increased, and has pushed the city to urban decay.
Vision of Dhoraji 2020 Retain the memory & identity of the city. Generate the economy in the city. Create the importance of central urban space in the city. De-congest the market area of the city. Infrastructure De-congestion and pedestrianization of city core. Reuse the abandoned housing. Improve transit system by strengthening public transport system. Establish Plastic, cotton industries, plastic packaging, agro desiccant and herbal oil industries. Education Need of new institutions like Agriculture training, commerce college, Science college etc. Socio- cultural Basic needs: Job, Health care, Food Preserving heritage Creation of public space at the area and city level. Energy: Sustain the city on renewable energy sources. Environmental Services Integrated Urban waste management Improving water management system Limiting urban sprawl into green spaces Preservation of trees
How to revive the economy of Dhoraji city ? Dhoraji city is situated in prime industrial area of the country. The city has good connectivity to Port and oil industries. And the villages around the city has very rich agriculture of fruits, vegetables and cotton. Potentials Jamnager(Reliance oil refinery ) worldâ€™s largest grass-roots refineries
Filament industry Porbander
Cement pipe industry Oil cake Industry
Rajkot several small scale manufacturing industries
Major plastic industry Small plastic industry Sardar patel sugar factory Cotton Industries Ground nut oil industries
regional linkages to other villages
Bhavnager worldâ€™s largest ship breaking yard is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar
Junagarh Mineral based Cement industry, Agriculture based industry and Power sector
National Export Industry
Present Industrial Senario of Dhoraji
cultivates agricultural laborers
Oil mills - 25 nos Solvent plants - 6 nos Plastic industry - 100 nos ( 20 major and 80 small scale) Before Dhoraji had a Sugar Factory with production capacity of 1200 tonnes.
Employment 20 major plastic industry employes 70 worker each = 20 X 70 = 1400 80 small scale industry employs 5-10 worker each= 80 x 8 = 160
workers in household industries
Why small & medium scale Industries ?
Large labor absorption ability Employment proposal within Dhoraji : 20000 Regional : 35000
m leu tro pe
Dhoraji 2015 small and medium scale Industry : 100 Large Industry : 15
Projection small and medium scale Industry : 200 Large Industry : 20
Vartu Setruniji Surajwadi
Productivity Agro bases : 60% Plastic : 72% Plastic Industry Immigration : 10% Natural growth : 25 %
The stimulus for selecting the fabric is the strong historic character and the city life attached to it on its one end. One could find historic colonial architecture and following ahead is the chowk with the main vegetable market. The stretch then opens up into mela ground which is used for only few parts of the year and is almost dead for rest. The intervention looks at developing the edges along and how the fabric would change according to the vision of becoming an industrial city.
How a city would react to the injection? The project aims at looking those aspects.
Master Plan of proposed urban insertion
View of new administrative area
Proposed urban insertion
Vew of new Mela Ground
In situ Slum Rehabilitation Scheme for Urban Poor
Under BSUP, JNNURM. Yerwada, Pune, India Under Prof. Prasnna Desai
The Government of India, has initiated a housing scheme, BSUP (Basic Services for the Urban Poor) under JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission), to find housing and slum development strategies for over 1,200 households. A housing subsidy of 3,00,000 Rupees (90% funding is from the Government and 10% comes from the beneficiary as a contribution) has been granted PER HOUSE that will help upgrade 7 high density slum areas in Yerawada, Pune. Through the efforts and vision, the long term goal of the Pune Municipal Corporation is to achieve a â€œsustainable slum less cityâ€?. Pune Municipal Corporation has received JNNURM funds for undertaking in-situ slum up gradation for 4000 units in Pune. These slum rehabilitation works will be implemented in separate packages of slum clusters with temporary hutment structures of about 250 to 500 numbers each. This is a unique opportunity evolved through the efforts of the PMC and interest of the Central and State governments to identify appropriate housing alternatives for the urban poor. With this perspective, it is proposed that this unique opportunity in slums on the local government lands in residential zones is implemented with due thought to the community aspects and not in the manner of a contract for infrastructure construction projects.
SITE A : 330 units Mother Teresa Nagar
SITE B : 87 units Sheela Salve Nagar
SITE C : 134units Wadarwasti
SITE D : 142 units Bhatt Nagar
SITE E : 94 units Netaji Nagar
SITE 7 : 138 units Yashwant Nagar
Patterns that have evolved during time are preserved and existing social networks are respected. Neighbors remain neighbors, local remains local. The housing designs being presented give a variety of options that are chosen and arranged by the beneficiary themselves. The design is to construct the rehabilitation unit/s as individual or multiple house/s, single or multiple storied in-situ on the same footprint coverage or rearranging the hutment structures in the same cluster (with slum families consent). The design of a 270 sq ft carpet area is with two different housing topologies, having the possibilities of grouping to share walls, having individual homes or mixing options to fit the individual demands or situations and are flexible enough to adapt to most cluster arrangements.
INVOLVED PARTIES 1. BENEFICIARY 2. LOCAL REPRESENTATIVE
Introducing the scheme to people Facilitator between people, NGO, Govt. Transit conflict resolution
APPOINTED BY MUNICIPAL CORPORATION SPARC + CHF + MAHILA MILAN Survey : Plain table survey, biometric survey, socio economic survey. Identification of temporary and permanent structures. Preparing list of beneficiaries. Appointing architect and consultants. Approval of design - from beneficiary and Municipal Corporation. Financial strategy, estimation and people contribution. Transit, conflict resolution. Managing demand and supply. Construction supervision. Negotiation. Documentation.
4. ARCHITECTS (PRASANNA DESAI) APPOINTED BY SPARC STAGE I: Verifying surveys. STAGE II: Designing feasible building typology for the scheme. Explaining the design typology to the whole community. STAGE III: Discussing specific designs with individual beneficiaries. Icorporating suggestions and requirements in final design. STAGE IV: Preparing required sets of drawings. - Design Drawings - Revised Drawings - Municipal Drawings - Working Drawings.
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT BODIES AND FUNDING MODEL
Initiating the project Releasing funds for the project
In situ Rehabilitation scheme for Urban Poor under BSUP - JNNURM C ENTR AL G OV E R NME NT Government of India, New Delhi 30% funding STATE G OV E R NME NT Government of Maharastra, Mumbai 20% funding LOCAL G OV E R NME NT Pune Municipal Corporation 20% funding
Initiating the project. Identifying slum areas. Identifying NGOs to carry out the work. Issuing work orders. Agreement with releasing funds as per stage wise development. Sanctioning the project at individual and slum level. Supervision of work during construction. Infrastructure development. De-notification : a major step towards a slum free city.
METHODOLOGY OF WORK 01. Plain table, Socio - economic and biometric surveys of the slum. 02. Classification of houses into temporary and permanent structures. 03. Identifying the beneficiaries for the scheme. 04. Introducing the scheme to the beneficiaries in community mass meetings held in the slums. 05. Approval of beneficiaries for the scheme. 06. Resolving the design for each cluster of houses in the slum, as per the initial consent from the beneficiary. 07. Opening a joint bank account by the beneficiary and Municipal Corporation.
Existing survey plan: This survey maps all the structures- residential, commercial, institutional and mixed use; in one slum. Above is the survey of Netaji Nagar slum.
08. On site discussion about individual design with each individual beneficiary. 09. Revision in design as per the discussions and suggestions by the beneficiary. 1 0. Cost estimation with various permutations of specifications. 11. Final approval by beneficiary for individual tenement design. 12. Legal Agreement between NGO and beneficiary. 13. Compilation of final design drawings, agreement and consent form to submit to the authorities (Pune Municipal corporation) for approval.
Existing Hierarchy of temporary structures within one wasti.
14. Commencement certificate from Municipal corporation to start off work on site. 15. Transit arrangements for the period of construction. 1 6 . Demolition of house construction of approved house design. 1 7 . Release of founds by municipal Corporation and beneficiary as per the stage wise completion of works. 18. Possession of the house by the beneficiary upon the completion of the works. 19. Final payment by Beneficiary. 20. Completion certificate from Govt.
Existing hierarchy of open spaces & streets: To understand the possibility of creation of open spaces and widening existing narrow alleys.
Till now, for slum rehabilitation projects, the slum community and the people residing in the slum, were given new houses under various schemes by the government. They were fewer options regarding the designs and there was little or no implementation of their suggestions. However, under this scheme, the Community and people are the clients and the deciding factor in the entire process. The design for each and every house is discussed with the beneficiaries themselves and thus is a TAILOR MADE DESIGN. The challenge of the project lies in this reversal of roles of the beneficiaries and government bodies.
Design Devlopment of Typologies
The footprint of each individual house is retained and a new, G+1 house is designed on the existing footprint. Each level has a carpet area of 135sq ft. The effort has been to retain the overall fabric of the slum in terms of existing street patterns and existing footprints. Thus, an attempt has been made, as far as possible, to contain the design within the existing footprint of the temporary houses. After detail discussions with the people by the architectural team and Mahila Milan, it was realized that the people felt the need for balconies and underground water storage tanks. The inclusion of the underground water tank led to the creation of the â€˜Verandahâ€™ : a semi-private interactive space in front of each house, which forms the entrance porch of the house. Housewives could use the space for chatting with neighbors as the kids play in front of the house.
Third Floor Plan
Second Floor Plan
Wherever the existing footprint is far less or the houses in a cluster are in randomly placed where individual houses would not be possible to accommodate.
First Floor Plan
Entire area of 270 sq ft per house is provided on a single level and many such tenements together form the building type design. The number of temporary houses per building will vary as per the number of existing houses in that particular cluster. There is no need for vertical circulation and hence its comparatively more user friendly. Ground Floor Plan
Topic: The southern Paris region as a laboratory for localizing the energy, ecological, urban and rural transition. The aim of the workshop:
The aim of the workshop is to find out how a large area (like the southern Paris region), which has been dependent on easy access to fossil sources of energy, can shape and implement its own transition. And to imagine the ways and means of changing towns, cities and regions to make them more energy-efficient, smarter, more pleasant and more livable.
The Southern Paris is a rich territory , heritage agricultural, natural , architectural and cultural quality. During visits madeâ€‹â€‹ during the first week of the workshop, we were struck by the potential and little highlands present. However, the dynamism of this region shines through the many local projects being developed. Then, what are the problems that the country is facing? With all this potential , why is the transition not being operated faster?
Potentials naturals Potential South Ile are isolated on territorrial fragments. Urbanized areas, forests and agricultural areas appear to be little pockets connected to each other. The cultural and natural heritage, as well as some innovative initiatives and projects are too locked and not visible in the area.
The urban sprawl occurs north to the southern agricultural and natural areas. These precious but fragile areas faces the urbanization and consume space.
This fragmentation leads to excessive consumption of resources. It impacts the quality of life of its residents by increasing travel time, or increasing social segregation and spatial inequalities.
Local initiatives exist on this land, but they seem isolated.
High household consumption Poor social integration
Misuse of space
Lack of identity
Misuse of time
How to tackle the fragmentation? The developments of the last decades have shown their limits. In addition, the land across the southern Paris region currently is complex given the context of land reform and economic crisis. To act tomorrow, we choose to connect people and initiatives existing local associations to enhance and reveal the potential of the South Ile, and catalyze the transition energy and environmental planning. Our strategy does not seek to create new projects but to connect existing ones.
Where to Begin? How to Begin? The transition is not expected, so we propose an approach that can be initiated tomorrow, with few resources. This phasing is the implementation of our strategy. This chronology begins from time 0 by identifying existing initiatives. Then communicating these initiatives will attract and bring together local actors. These engines will thus take collective action, support the development of innovative projects in the area. At midnight, a new turn of the dial starts with a network of actors and projects expands and intensifies.
the nature is really rich here
too much consumption of ressources
a lot of interesting initiatives
too much fragmentation!
Bank of Time: how to use built resources collaboratively ?
On the territory of South Ile, strong initiatives are supported by stakeholder groups. These initiatives operate through the exchange of goods and services between people or through the creation of local collectives and associations. In addition, many projects based on sharing and mutual help share or exchange of goods, services, share experiences. All these actions enhance and related territory and its inhabitants. These links should generate savings and reduce CO2 emissions. This is for example grouped housing for housing, third places for work, trade in services etc. We decided to develop one of these initiatives experienced in Madrid: it is the Time Bank. This project is easily applicable in the territory.
A time bank is based on a system of exchange of services and skills non-monetary between people. The exchange value is time. For example, X a person repairing the computer of the individual Y, free for two hours will in return enjoy another service for two hours. This service may be lavished by another member or group of the Bank of Time. To reduce expenses, we suggest to mobilize existing underutilized spaces: e.g market hall or school during peak hours. The activities of the Bank of time to adapt to availability of members and the space mobilized. In addition, we propose to install time banks in areas near transport nodes to optimize commuting. These projects value the existing building and skills of residents while reducing CO2 emissions (eg, repair and recycling of objects, point of sale AMAP, childcare, language courses, cooking, shopping, work space and internet access ). The examples differ in the type of urban center and buildings invested.
Car Sharing: how to upgrade the mobility? South Ile is particularly well equipped with transport infrastructure : roads, highways, and railways strongly mark the landscape and land uses . Some tracks, like the N20 or the Paris are among the busiest in the country and are now the “ sewer cars .” These pathways although necessary to the life of the land and its inhabitants , are sources of pollution (C02 , noise, new malware ) , danger (excessive speed ) and fragmentation. Excessive traffic causing new plugs , travel time are also impacted. Faced with these multiple negative effects, it is necessary to improve existing connections : pedestrian , bicycle and bus . Projects and events such as “ Car Free Day “, “ On your bike “ fun and educational activities can be devised for reasoning and reduce car use . For this, it is a hand to promote travel by foot and bicycle for short distances. On the other hand, the use of public transportation or carpooling for longer trips can be encouraged. Public transport require large investments and long delays. We propose to support the practice car pooling.This inexpensive and applicable tomorrow , is a relevant lever to smooth traffic and reduce CO2 emissions. In addition , carpooling has a clear social and economic benefit for users. That is why we decided to develop this initiative in more detail on the RN20 , saturated axis , used by more than 55,000 vehicles per day.
INVESTMENT Private/public invesmtent from transport providers, entrepreneurs, etc.
DESIGNER Strategically drafts and implements the design of the stands
COMMUNITY Potential users
DRIVER Initial service user LOCAL GOVERNMENT Provides pick-up spaces and necessary infr structure USERS daily commuters
PUBLIC ASSOCIATION Responsible for initiating and managing the scheme The aim of this project is clear: divide the number of cars and CO2 emissions by three easily and quickly, reduce travel time and improve user safety. These objectives are achievable with little spending and using the unused space near the RN20 .
Awareness events will be offered to the location of different stalls carpooling. Animations allow future carpoolers to meet, share schedules and contact information. This initiative , shown as part of our project on the RN20 is transposed on roads such as the Paris of South A6, A10 or Ile .
Connecting secondary road to RN20
Priority lanes Priority lanes for carpoolers are installed on the RN20 , encouraging this practice. Thus, it is not necessary to create channels 2x3 expensive.
Today Locating the car sharing point
Stands carpool Stalls carpooling , easily identifiable , are installed at busy intersections of the RN20 . Near dense residential areas , they are accessible to residents walking and cycling. These stands will be as spaces of sociability between users. Soon, they will become known to all public facilities .
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