Page 1

2010

european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n


k e y f ig u r e s

published by

ACEA Communications department communications@acea.be

This paper is made in an environmentally-friendly way and according to FSC certification _september 2010

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t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Foreword The automotive industry is a key element in the fabric of the European economy and society. Our industry contributes enormously to the health and wealth of the EU and its near 500 million inhabitants - it is vital that the automotive sector retains its competitiveness and innovative edge. The European vehicle manufacturers are technology leaders, driving innovation towards cleaner, safer, sustainable transport. As major corporate citizens, they are fully part of society and, therefore, dialogue and mutual understanding with all our stakeholders is essential. This booklet, the 2010 edition of the ACEA Automobile Industry Pocket Guide, provides comprehensive and insightful facts and figures - with key data on employment, production, vehicle registration, vehicle use, taxation and trade, as well as information on a range of environment and mobility-related issues. It also presents the vehicle manufacturers’ trade association in Brussels, ACEA. I trust our pocket guide will be of great value to all those involved in automotive industry issues and relevant policies.

Ivan Hodac Secretary General ACEA

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european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n

ACEA

About ACEA


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

ACEA

ACEA in brief ACEA is the acronym for “Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles” or European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association. The  industry association , based in Brussels, is one of many interest groups that contribute to an informed decision-making process in the EU. ACEA has  sixteen members : BMW Group, DAF Trucks, Daimler, FIAT Group, Ford of Europe, General Motors Europe, Jaguar Land Rover, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge, Porsche, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault Group, Scania, Toyota Motor Europe, Volkswagen Group, Volvo Car Corporation and Volvo Group. ACEA was established in 1991. The Board of Directors (BOD) is composed of the  Chief Executive Officers  (CEOs) of its 16 members, whereas the Commercial Vehicle Board of Directors (CV-BOD) is composed of the heads of the 7 commercial vehicle company members/branches: DAF Trucks, Daimler Trucks, IVECO, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge, Scania, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles and Volvo Trucks. ACEA, furthermore, maintains close relationships with the 29 national automobile manufacturers’ associations in Europe. ACEA is the  first source of information  with regard to  vehicle-related regulation . The regulatory framework consists of around 80 EU Directives and more than 70 applicable UNECE regulatory agreements covering mostly technological issues and standards. ACEA is the main portal to clear and  factual information  about the  European automobile industry , encouraging understanding of the sector’s importance, complexity and contributions to society. 5


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Corporate citizenship

The members of ACEA deploy numerous corporate social responsibility  initiatives  to the benefit of their employees and society-at-large. The industry’s  products , furthermore, meet the highest environmental and safety standards. This is the result of a long-standing tradition of innovation and investments in research and development. It takes 100 of today’s cars to match the average pollutant emissions of 1 car built in the 1970s; Noise levels of vehicles have been reduced by 90% over the same period; Reducing fuel consumption has long been a matter of top-priority; On the safety front, the introduction of seatbelts, anti-lock braking systems, electronic stability control and airbags has cut fatalities and serious injuries to vehicle passengers by 80%. The development of further safety systems is an on-going process. Acting as a responsible corporate citizen is not only desirable in itself; it also helps to build a relationship based on  trust  and loyalty between companies and their customers. 6


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

ACEA

What interests does ACEA represent ?

ACEA represents an industry that is instrumental to EU growth and that plays an important part in everybody’s life, through employment and social benefits, education and innovation, and through product and mobility concepts. More than 12 million families depend on the sector for employment; ACEA members operate 208 manufacturing sites in 25 European countries; The industry’s high-quality products set the standard around the world and continuously push further innovation; ACEA members yearly invest over €26 billion in R&D, or 5% of turnover; Net auto exports are worth almost €30 billion; ACEA members have an annual turnover of over €500 billion. The sector’s technologies and innovations shoulder development and progress in many other sectors, from IT to logistics, health care and others. Vehicle manufacturers find it indispensable to maintain a dialogue with society, in particular on those issues that influence the sector’s future growth, competitiveness, innovation capacity and investment decisions. 7


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How does ACEA work ? ACEA is led by the Secretary General and employs around fifteen experts covering policy issues and technical requirements in the fields of environment, fuels, emissions, road safety, recycling, trade, taxation, transport, type-approval and internal market. Through specialist working groups and an extensive network within the vehicle industry, ACEA has access to a wealth of expertise and applied technical experience. ACEA activities include, but are not limited to:  Dialogue  with the European Institutions and others stakeholders concerned by the automobile industry;  Cooperation  with policy makers and related industries to advance mutual understanding of industryrelated issues and contribute to realistic and effective legislation, bearing in mind the interests of European society and its economy;  Research and study  of relevant developments and trends in automotive-related issues and policy fields;  Strategic reflection  on the increasingly global challenges of competition and corporate responsibility, drawing on the strengths and expertise of its members;  Communication  of the role and importance of the industry, of its common views and of reliable data and information;  Monitoring  of activities that influence the automobile industry, responding to and cooperating with the actors involved. 8


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

ACEA

The industry’s seven priority fields The European automotive industry has seven priority topics it discusses with the EU Institutions and other stakeholders : Strengthening the competitiveness of the EU economy and the European automobile manufacturing in particular, through a comprehensive industrial policy that recognises and promotes manufacturing as a corner stone of future growth and prosperity; Adoption of integrated policies in the fields of road safety and environment, involving all relevant actors and factors; Better market access for European automotive products through balanced multilateral as well as bilateral/regional free trade agreements; Continuous development of efficient road infrastructure and other basic infrastructure networks (energy, transport, telecommunications); A real completion of the Internal Market, which cannot be achieved without fiscal harmonisation of motor vehicle and fuel taxes. Car taxation schemes should be based on CO2 emissions to increase demand for fuel-efficiency; Reducing over-regulation and conflicting objectives of legislation, promoting adequate and independent impact assessment studies, reasonable lead-time periods for implementation and global harmonisation of technical regulations and standards for motor vehicles; Better promotion of R&D efforts and innovation policy instruments. 9


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ACEA cooperation & partnerships

ACEA has permanent and close cooperation with the European Council for Automotive R&D (EUCAR) which was established in 1994 as the research arm of the industry. EUCAR’s purpose is to strengthen the competitiveness of the European automotive industry by promoting cooperative research of products, processes and systems in the pre-competitive stage. ACEA maintains regular relations with a number of organisations with interests related to the automobile industry. These include the European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA), Intelligent Transport Systems - Europe (ERTICO), the European Committee for Motor Trades and Repairs (CECRA), the European Road Safety Federation (ERSF), the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA), the European Petroleum Association (EUROPIA), the Confederation of European Business (BUSINESSEUROPE) and others. ACEA also maintains a dialogue on international issues with automobile associations around the world, such as JAMA, KAMA, Auto Alliance, AAPC, OICA, CAAM, SIAM and many others. 10


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Secretary General

Director Safety

Ivan Hodac

Renzo Cicilloni

Director Emissions & Fuels

Manager Statistics & Economics

Paul Greening

Quynh-Nhu Huynh

Manager Communications & Public Affairs

Director Environmental Policy

Director Technical Affairs

Michael Klinkenberg

Peter Kunze

Dolf Lamerigts

Director Legal & Taxation

Director Trade & Economics

Marc Greven

Erik Bergelin

Director Mobility & Sustainable Transport

Director Transport Policy

ACEA

ACEA Secretariat Director Communications & Public Relations

Sigrid de Vries

Director Information Technology

Marc Vanderstraeten Director Finance & Administration

Tanguy De Decker

Fuensanta Martinez-Sans

Petr Dolejsi Director Parliamentary Affairs

CĂŠline Domecq

Acea Tokyo Office Anthony Millington +81 3 350 563 41 anrm@miinet.or.jp

Director Regulatory Projects

Stefan Larsson Director Regulatory Affairs

Wolfgang Reinhardt

Acea Beijing Office Dominik Declercq +86 10 6463 4055 dd@acea-beijing.com 11


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ACEA Members

BMW GROUP Petuelring 130 D – 80788 München T. +49 89 3820 www.bmwgroup.com

DAF TRUCKS NV Hugo van der Goeslaan 1 PoBox 90065 NL – 5600 PT Eindhoven T. + 31 40 214 9111

FIAT SpA Corso G. Agnelli 200 I – 10135 Torino T. +39 011 003 11 11 www.fiatgroup.com

www.daftrucks.com

12

Dr. Ing. h.c.F. PORSCHE AG Porschestrasse 42 D – 70435 Stüttgart T. +49 711 911 0

DAIMLER AG D – 70546 Stuttgart T. +49 711 170

FORD OF EUROPE GmbH Henry Fordstrasse 1 D – 50725 Köln T. +49 221 900

www.porsche.com

www.daimler.com

www.ford.com


ACEA

t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

GENERAL MOTORS EUROPE AG Bahnhofsplatz Friedrich-Lutzmann-Ring 1 D – 65423 Rüsselsheim T. +49 6142 77 0 www.gmeurope.com

JAGUAR LAND ROVER Banbury Road Gaydon UK – Warwick CV35 ORR T. +44 19 2664 1111 www.jaguarlandrover.com

TOYOTA MOTOR EUROPE Avenue du Bourget 60 B – 1140 Brussels T. +32 2 745 20 11 www.toyota.eu

PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN Avenue de la Grande Armée 75 F – 75116 Paris Cedex T. +33 1 40 66 55 11 www.psa-peugeot-citroen.com

VOLKSWAGEN AG Berliner Ring 2 D – 38436 Wolfsburg T. +49 536 190 www.volkswagenag.com

RENAULT SA Quai Alphonse Le Gallo 13-15 F – 92109 Boulogne-Billancourt T. +33 1 41 04 50 50

VOLVO CAR CORPORATION S – 405 31 Göteborg T. +46 31 – 59 00 00

www.renault.com

www.volvocars.com

MAN NUTZFAHRZEUGE AG Postfach 50 06 20 D – 80995 München T. +49 891 580 01

SCANIA AB S – 15187 Sodertalje T. +46 8 55 38 10 00

AB VOLVO S – 405 08 Göteborg T. +46 31 66 51 70

www.man-mn.com

www.scania.com

www.volvo.com 13


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Brussels ACEA Member Representations

14

BMW Group Representative Office Brussels Boulevard de Waterloo 25 B –1000 Brussels T. +32 2 737 50 30

Fiat Group Delegation to the EU Rue de Genève 175 B –1140 Brussels T. +32 2 513 63 92

GM Europe Public Policy & Government Relations Rue d’Idalie 9-13 B –1050 Brussels T. +32 2 773 69 82

Daimler EU Corporate Representation Rue Froissart 133 B –1040 Brussels T. +32 2 233 11 45

Ford Motor Company EU Affairs Rue Montoyer 40 bte 7 B –1000 Brussels T. +32 2 761 06 11

Jaguar Land Rover Brussels Office Rue Breydel 34 B –1040 Brussels T. +32 2 235 86 32


ACEA

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MAN Brussels Office Rue Jacques de Lalaing 4 B –1040 Brussels T. +32 2 230 41 95

PSA Peugeot Citroën EU Delegation Avenue des Arts 53 B –1000 Brussels T. +32 2 545 11 79

Renault Delegation to the EU Avenue des Arts 40 B –1040 Brussels T. +32 2 274 10 00

Scania EU Representation c/o Kreab Gavin Anderson Avenue de Tervueren 2 B –1040 Brussels T. +32 2 737 69 02

Toyota Motor Europe Avenue du Bourget 60 B –1140 Brussels T. +32 2 745 20 61

Volvo Car Corporation Brussels Office EU Affairs Sweden House Rue du Luxembourg 3 B –1000 Brussels T. +32 2 503 69 67

Volvo Group EU Representation Sweden House Rue du Luxembourg 3 B –1000 Brussels T. +32 2 482 58 70

Volkswagen Group EU Representation Rue Archimède 25 B –1000 Brussels T. +32 2 645 49 53 15


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Acea Associated Organisations _austria FFOE Fachverband der Fahrzeugindustrie Österreichs

Wiedner Hauptstrasse 63 A – 1045 Wien T. +43 5 90 900 48 00 F. +43 5 90 900 289 www.wk.or.at/fahrzeuge

_belgium FEBIAC Fédération Belge des Industries de l’Automobile et du Cycle Belgische Federatie van de Automobiel-en tweewielerindustrie

Boulevard de la Woluwe 46 B6 B – 1200 Bruxelles T. +32 2 778 64 00 F. +32 2 762 81 71 www.febiac.be 16

_bulgaria ACM Association of Car Manufacturers and their authorised representatives for Bulgaria

_czech republic AIA CR (SAP) Automotive Industry Association CR

Veliko Tarnovo Street 37 BG – 1504 Sofia T. +359 2 946 12 50 F. +359 2 94 33 944

Opletalova 55 CZ – 110 00 Praha 1 T. +420 221 602 982 F. +420 224 239 690

www.svab.bg

www.autosap.cz

OEB

_cyprus

_denmark DK BIL

Employers & Industrialists Federation

De Danske Bilimportører

Grivast Dhigenis Avenue 30 PoBox 21657 CY-Nicosia T. +357 22 66 51 02 F. +357 22 66 94 59

Radhuspladsen 16 DK – 1550 Kobenhavn V T. +45 39 16 23 23 F. +45 39 16 24 24 www.bilimp.dk


ACEA

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_estonia AMTEL Union of Estonian Car Sales and Service Enterprises

Pärnu Road 232 EST – 11314 Tallinn T. +372 672 23 06 F. +372 650 21 97

_france CCFA Comité des Constructeurs Français d’Automobiles

Rue de Presbourg 2 F – 75008 Paris T. +33 1 49 52 51 00 F. +33 1 49 52 51 88

_greece AMVIR (SEAA) Association of Motor Vehicle Importers-Representatives

Kifisias Avenue 294 GR – 152 32 Halandri - Athens T. +30 210 689 1400 F. +30 210 685 9 022 www.seaa.gr

www.ccfa.fr

www.amtel.ee

_germany _finland AUTOTUOJAT ry Ateneuminkuja 2 C 10 Krs FIN – 00100 Helsinki T. +358 207 928 855 F. +358 207 928 859

VDA

www.autotuojat.fi

_hungary AHAI (MGSZ)

Verband Der Automobilindustrie

Association of the Hungarian Automotive Industry

Behrebstrasse 35 D – 10177 Berlin T. +49 30 897 842-0 F. +49 30 897 842-600

Major u. 69 H – 1119 Budapest T. +36 1 382 9805 F. +36 1 382 9810

www.vda.de

www.gepjarmuipar.hu 17


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_ireland SIMI

_ l at v i a LAADA

The Society of the Irish Motor Industry

Latvian Authorized Automobile Dealers Association

Upper Pembroke Street 5 IRL – Dublin 2 T. +353 1 676 16 90 F. +353 1 661 92 13 www.simi.ie

Smerla Street 3 Suite 273 LV – 1006 Riga T. +371 6 752 99 79 F. +371 6 754 03 15

_ m a lta ACIM Association of Car Importers Malta

PoBox 50 Valletta Building Level 2 MT – San Gwann T. +356 21 38 57 74 F. +356 21 22 33 06

www.lpaa.lv

_ n o r w ay

_ i ta ly ANFIA

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_lithuania

BIL

Associazione Nazionale Filiera Industrie Automobilistiche

LAA

BilimportØrenes Landsforening

Lithuanian Autoenterpreneurs Association

Corso Galileo Ferraris 61 I – 10128 Torino T. +39 011 554 65 11 F. +39 011 545 986

P. Zadeikos g. 1b LT – 06319 Vilnius T. +370 5 230 12 24 F. +370 5 230 12 25

Økernveien 99 PoBox 71 Økern N – 0508 Oslo T. +47 22 64 64 55 F. +47 22 64 85 95

www.anfia.it

www.laa.lt

www.bilimportorenes-landsforening.no


ACEA

t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

_romania ACAROM _poland PZPM Polski Zwiazek Przemysłu Motoryzacyjnego

Al. Niepodleglosci 69 PL – 02-626 Warsaw T. +48 22 322 71 98/99 F. +48 22 322 76 65

Asociatiei Constructorilor de Automobile din Romania

Str. Banu Mãrãcine - Bl. D5 RO – 110194 Pitesti T. +40 248 219 958 F. +40 248 217 990 www.acarom.ro

www.pzpm.org.pl

_slovak ZAPSR

republic

Automotive Industry Association SR

Tomasikova 26 SK – 821 01 Bratislava T. +421 2 4364 2235 F. +421 2 4364 2237 www.zapsr.sk

_slovenia ADS _portugal ACAP

Association of Automobile Manufacturers and Authorised Importers

_spain ANFAC

Associação do Comércio Automóvel de Portugal

Asociación Española de Fabricantes de Automóviles y Camiones

Avenida Torre de Belém 29 P – 1400-342 Lisboa T. +351 21 303 53 00 F. +351 21 302 14 74

c/o Chamber of Commerce & Industry of Slovenia Dimiceva 13 SI – 1000 Ljubljana T. +386 1 58 98 217 F. +386 1 58 98 219

www.acap.pt

www.ads-slo.org

www.anfac.com

Calle Fray Bernardino Sahagún 24 E – 28036 Madrid T. +34 91 343 13 43 F. +34 91 345 03 97

19


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_sweden BIL PoBox 26173 S – 100 41 Stockholm T. +46 8 700 41 00 F. +46 8 791 23 11 www.bilsweden.se

_switzerland

Auto – Suisse | Auto – Schweiz

_the

De Rijwiel en Automobiel Industrie Vereniging

Wielingenstraat 28 PoBox 74800 NL – 1070 DM Amsterdam T. +31 20 504 49 49 F. +31 20 646 38 57 www.raivereniging.nl

www.auto-suisse.ch www.auto-schweiz.ch 20

_united SMMT

kingdom

The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders

Forbes House Halkin Street UK – London SW1X 7DS T. +44 207 235 70 00 F. +44 207 235 71 12 www.smmt.co.uk

Association Importateurs Suisses d’Automobiles Vereinigung Schweizer Automobil-Importeure

Mittelstrasse 32 Postfach 5232 CH – 3001 Bern T. +41 31 306 65 65 F. +41 31 306 65 50

netherlands

RAI

_turkey OSD Automotive Manufacturers Association

Atilla Sokak 10 Altunizade TR – 34676 Istanbul T. +90 216 318 29 94 F. +90 216 321 94 97 www.osd.org.tr


ACEA

t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

EUCAR secretariat is composed of: Simon Godwin sg@eucar.be Director Alessandro Coda ac@eucar.be Research Coordinator EUCAR members are:

BMW, DAF, Daimler, Fiat, Ford Europe, GM/Opel, Jaguar Land Rover, Porsche, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault, Scania, Volkswagen Group and Volvo

 The European Council for Automotive R&D (EUCAR)  is the research organisation for the major automotive manufacturers in Europe, with the mission to strengthen the competitiveness of the manufacturers through strategic collaborative R&D. Together with its members, EUCAR identifies the common R&D challenges of the industry. These are communicated to the European Commission and other key institutions and stakeholders. EUCAR’s members participate in collaborative research projects with manufacturers, suppliers and research providers. Projects are mainly financed through European Union funding programmes matched with industry funding. EUCAR key research is in the following domains: Fuels and Powertrain Materials, Processes and Manufacturing Integrated Safety Mobility and Transport 21


Did you Know ?

Did you know ?

european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

D i d yo u k n o w ?

Did you Know ?

The automobile industry is the largest private investor in R&D in the EU

The automotive industry is the largest private investor in R&D in the EU. The ACEA members together spend over €26 billion every year on R&D, or about 5% of their turnover. These figures, resulting from a recent ACEA survey among its member companies, reflect the great importance that the automobile manufacturers attach to R&D efforts to keep up their competitiveness and long-term viability. Main areas of automotive R&D investment are environment, road safety and production efficiency. Overall automotive R&D investments are even higher. According to the EU Industrial Investment Scoreboard, the sectors ‘automobiles and parts’ and ‘commercial vehicles and trucks’ represented R&D investment of €32.8 billion in 2008. The actual number will be greater, as these categories do not include all automotive supplying sectors. The Scoreboard ranks the pharmaceutical sector second with €19.8 billion and the telecommunications equipment sector third with €12 billion. 25


d i d yo u k n o w ?

D i d yo u k n o w ?

Auto industry tops R&D scoreboard in Europe The EU 2009 Industrial Investment Scoreboard confirmed once more the outstanding role of the automotive industry for the European economy in terms of innovative capacity and investment power. Six of the ACEA members are in the European Top 20 of investors, with two present in the Top 10, and one earmarked as largest single investor. The automotive industry has held its top position for years now.

6,300 patents The many patents filed by the industry underline the sectors innovative stance as well. In 2008, almost 6,300 patents were filed by the European automotive industry. They made up 55% of all automotive applications at the European Patent Office (EPO). 23% of automotive applications came from Japan, 16% from the US, 1% from China/Taiwan and 1% from South Korea. 26

Patent Applications filed by the Auto Sector | 2008

EU

54.1%

Japan

22.4%

US

15.6%

Korea

0.6%

China

0.3%

Taiwan

0.6%

Other

6.4%

Source: EPO (European Patent Office)


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

D i d yo u k n o w ?

The vehicle industry is one of the most densely regulated sectors in Europe Did you Know ?

The automotive industry is one of the most regulated sectors in Europe. Up till now, around 80 EU directives have been drawn up and more than 70 applicable pieces of legislation have been internationalised further within the UNECE in Geneva. Cars and commercial vehicles are very complex products and before they enter the market, they have to comply with what is known as the Framework Directive for Whole Vehicle Type Approval. This framework directive contains procedures and a long list of separate directives laying down technical requirements for motor vehicles as well as for components and separate technical units from which vehicles are assembled. In addition, there are directives that establish requirements for the use of motor vehicles, as well as regulations, which apply throughout the European Union on the basis of Community law. Vehicle-related regulation is mostly very technical in nature and cannot be drafted without the specialist knowledge of vehicle manufacturers. ACEA collects the necessary information through working groups of member company experts and shares the information with the EU institutions and other stakeholders to support effective and efficient policy making. For commercial vehicles, in particular, ACEA seeks further global harmonisation standards and regulation. 27


d i d yo u k n o w ?

Before entering the market, passenger cars have to comply with more than 45 EU Directives and Regulations

Environment 28

Lighting & signaling

Active safety

Passive safety

Other


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

D i d yo u k n o w ?

It takes at least 5 years to develop a new car Did you Know ?

Cars are highly complex and innovative products. Their development - from design to production logistics takes up to 5 years. Engine design can take even longer. Their product cycle, or the time that cars are kept in production, comprises up to 7 years. Vehicle and engine adjustments are hugely complicated and capital-intensive operations. Manufacturers and their suppliers plan and allocate production capacity well ahead to accommodate production and renewal of their car portfolio. To be able to adjust automobiles to new legal requirements, the car industry needs sufficient lead-time ahead of implementation of these new rules. During the development phase, changes to a prototype are limited to implementation of ready-available new technologies within the technical and economic constraints of the car’s concept. The possibilities for change become more limited in the execution phase. During the typical production life of a car, investments in capital and innovations need to be recovered. Modifications are only opportune in case of relatively minor requirements, such as software changes. ADVANCED engineering b inPUT

CONCEPT phase b

concept b EXECUTION

1

5

PRODUCT CYCLE b

10

Production Timeline (years) 29


d i d yo u k n o w ?

D i d yo u k n o w ?

The car is the preferred means of transport for Europeans There are more than 234 million vehicles on the European roads (eurostat, 2008), or about 1 per 2 inhabitants. Nearly 6% of them are new vehicles (up to 1 year), and about 34% are at least 10 years old (Anfac, 2008). The average annual distance travelled by a car in Europe is about 22,000 km.

Source: IHS Global Insight

New Cars sold in Europe* | 2009

30

Small

40.5%

Lower Medium

23.5%

Upper Medium

11.9%

MPVs

9.7%

SUVs

8.2%

Luxury

3.3%

Others

2.9%

*窶右U27, Norway and Switzerland, excluding Luxembourg


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

D i d yo u k n o w ?

Did you Know ?

Reducing CO2 emissions involves more than engine technology The European automotive industry is contributing significantly to reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles. A large number of advanced technologies have been introduced into the markets and many more are to come. The European car manufacturers and the automotive suppliers work closely together to achieve further important results. Reducing CO2 emissions from automobiles is a complex challenge and involves improvements of the whole vehicle, not just the engine. The European automotive industry has identified multiple categories for eco-innovative technologies that will ensure further progress: systems & components, running resistance, wellto-wheel efficiency, smart navigation and driver information. All categories contain numerous technology applications, from adaptive cruise-control and super efficient LED lights to robotised gearboxes and the storage and re-use of heat. These innovations confirm the automotive industry’s determination to achieve further reductions in new car CO2 emissions, no matter which engine they use. In addition, driving style, the choice of fuel or energy and the quality of the infrastructure are as decisive to achieve the best possible fuel-economy and lowest CO2 emissions of road transport. 31


d i d yo u k n o w ?

D i d yo u k n o w ?

Drivers can make a big difference Fuel-efficient driving, or «Eco-driving», can significantly reduce fuel consumption and lower CO2 emissions. Slight changes in driving style enable drivers to exploit fully the fuel-efficiency potential of modern technologies.  Eco-driving is easy to apply.

The Golden Rules for eco-driving are : Shift into a higher gear early Maintain a steady speed at highest possible gear Look ahead and anticipate traffic flow Switch off the engine at short stops Check and adjust the tyre pressure regularly Make use of in-car fuel saving devices such as on-board computers and dynamic navigators Avoid surplus weight and unused roof racks  Highly cost-effective : Eco-driving training leads to a reduction in fuel consumption of up to 25 % after training, with a significant long-term effects of 7% under everyday driving conditions. 32


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

D i d yo u k n o w ?

Modern trucks are a benchmark for fuel efficiency

Depreciation

2%

Vehicle Insurance

6%

Interest Overhead Tyres

Fuel Source: iveco

10%

Road Tax

Repair & Maintenance Wages

2% 18% 1%

30% 5% 26%

Did you Know ?

In freight transport, there is and has long been a clear business case to minimize fuel consumption. For most transport companies, fuel is the main operating cost and the intense competition on the commercial vehicle market has driven technological process in commercial vehicle manufacturing to great heights. A 40-tonne truck built today burns around a third less fuel than one made in the 1970s. Per tonne transported, this corresponds to a fuel consumption of just 1 litre of diesel per 100 tonnekm, with significant CO2 savings as a result. Today’s buses are also leading the way with average fuel consumption per Total Operating Costs (TOC) bus-passenger that can challenge the performance 40-tonne Tractor – Semitrailer Combination of a trip per train. Further improvements in fuel efficiency remain a prime priority for European manufacturers. Modern diesel engines are clean, fuel efficient and durable. Vehicles on alternative fuels or with innovative drive trains are now also a familiar sight on Europe’s roads. A combination of better infrastructure, increased driver training, wider use of telematics, improved transport efficiency and harmonisation of standards will help achieve further sustainable mobility. 33


Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

What our industry delivers

What else is key 37


Cars, Trucks and the Environment

The industry drives innovation towards “greener” transport

What else is key ?

The automobile manufacturers invest heavily to help moving towards cleaner, “greener” transport. Lower emission cars, vans, buses and trucks come onto the market every year. But technology alone does not have all the answers. Cooperation does. We need to share efforts to achieve our sustainable mobility goals We need to join forces to answer the many complex questions What about the emissions from congestion and inefficient infrastructure? How to move drivers and customers towards the cleanest vehicles? How to manage transport growth in the slipstream of economic growth? All over the world, the automobile brings improved quality of life; Together, we can sustain the benefits of mobility and reduce the environmental impact; The European vehicle manufacturers are playing their part. What our industry delivers 38

What else is key


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Less CO2 emissions European automakers have introduced dozens of CO2-efficient technologies into their vehicles over the past decades, and progress will continue. Improvements and new developments in conventional engine technologies remain important as they will continue to be the dominant propulsion source for years to come. Plug-in hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles will become available in more varieties, and their range will be extended. Cars running on alternative, low emission fuels like ethanol or gas are already available on the market; second-generation biofuels are on the way. Eco-innovative technologies like smart navigation, adaptive cruise control, highly energy-efficient LED lights, and storage and re-use of heat will further improve fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. What our industry delivers 39


Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Reducing CO2 : a key priority Overview of Global CO2 Emissions

Transport (Road, Rail, Air & Water) 17%

CO2 emissions are reduced by limiting the burning of fossil fuels. Vehicle technology is one of several important ways to contribute to this goal.

Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, WG III, 2007.

All automobile manufacturers have made CO2 reductions a top priority and are sustaining huge investments in this field.

Deforestation 22%

Industry 25%

Power/heating stations 27%

Household small consumers 9%

A large number of technologies has already been introduced, and more are still to come. Technologies need time to find their market. EU governments can help by providing harmonized fiscal support. It is essential to work together: vehicle manufacturers, oil industry, policy makers, and road users must all join forces to achieve the desired results. What our industry delivers

40


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Trucks

Cars  1 car  in the 1970s produced as many pollutant elements as 100 cars today. Particulate matter filters can reduce particulate emissions from diesel vehicles by over 99%. Passenger Cars

Compared to 1992 standards, Euro VI emission levels will reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions by 95% and 97% respectively. Particulate matter emissions from all trucks on the road are 40% lower than a decade ago – even though they drive 40% more kilometres today. AdBlue technology reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions even further, while cleaner diesel reduces sulphur emissions.

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Cleaner exhaust

Trucks

80%

80%

60%

60%

40%

40%

20%

20%

Petrol NOx Diesel NOx

Emissions (% Euro 0)

Diesel PM

Euro 0

Euro 1

Euro 2

Euro 3

Euro 4

Euro 5

Euro 6

Euro 0

Euro I

Euro II

Euro III

Euro IV

Euro V

Euro VI

What our industry delivers 41


Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Less noise

Optimal recycling Vehicles are recycled since the 1950s. Today 95% of a car can be recycled or recovered for use in other products or energy production. Any vehicle produced from 1 July 2002 onwards is taken back free of charge. The 8 million vehicles recycled annually in the EU account for only about 1% of waste in the EU. The target for 2015 is to reduce waste from an end-of-life vehicle to just 5%.

Noise from passenger cars has been reduced by 90% since 1970. Today 24 trucks are needed to make as much noise as 1 did in 1970. Since the mid-1990s, the dominant source of vehicle noise are tyres and outdated road paving. What our industry delivers 42


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Resource-efficient production Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Long-term strategies to reduce water consumption have made it possible to reduce the water use per car produced by almost 23%. This includes the increasing use of re-circulation technologies, which allows the reuse of water. Water Used 95.00

7.50

90.00

7.00

85.00

6.50

80.00

6.00

-22.9

75.00

%

5.50

70.00

5.00

65.00

4.50

60.00 Million m3

4.00

2005

Water total (million m3/year) |

2006

2007

m3

Water per unit produced (m3)

Source: ACEA

What our industry delivers 43


Cars, Trucks and the Environment

European auto manufacturers have significantly reduced the environmental impact of vehicle production in recent years. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are organic solvents mainly emitted from paintshops. The graph shows the VOC emissions per car produced and the emissions of all passenger car manufacturers taken together. With new technologies such as water-based paints that replace solvent-based paints, manufacturers have been able to reduce emissions by 14.3% per vehicle. VOC Emissions per Vehicle Produced

Absolute VOC Emissions

4.5 4.0 3.5

70

3.0

60

2.5

50

2.0

40

1.5

30

1.0

20

0.5

10

0 kg/unit Source: ACEA

0

2005

2007

thousand tons

2005

2007

Source: ACEA

What our industry delivers 44


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Energy Consumption 2.80

42.00

2.70

40.00 2.60

38.00 36.00

2.50

-6.5

%

34.00

2.40

32.00

2.30

30.00 Million MWH

2.20

2005

2006

Energy Total (Million MWH/year) |

2007

MWH

As cars are equipped with more and more features to make them safer and more environmentally-friendly, the complexity of production increases as well, with negative effects on energy demand. However, manufacturers constantly work on improving energy efficiency. As a result, energy consumption per vehicle produced has decreased by 6.5%.

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

44.00

note

Energy per unit produced (MWH)

The figures include direct and indirect energy consumption, i.e. from on-site and external energy suppliers.

Source: ACEA

CO2 Emissions 13.00

0.88

12.00

0.87

11.00

0.86

10.00

0.85

9.00

-5.0%

8.00

0.84 0.83

7.00

0.82

6.00

0.81

5.00

0.80

Million tons

2005

CO2 Emissions Total Million (t/year) | Source: ACEA

2006

2007

CO2 Emissions per unit produced (t)

CO2 emissions per vehicle produced decreased by 5%, mostly through efficiency increases, and somewhat helped by a warm winter in 2007. Differences in the trends on energy consumption (previous graph) and CO2 emissions have to do with changes in the energy mix available at the different production sites.

tons

note As for energy, the figures include direct and indirect emissions, i.e. from on-site and external energy suppliers.

What our industry delivers 45


Cars, Trucks and the Environment

The amount of waste per vehicle went down 4.8%, thanks to efforts by the manufacturers to reduce waste. Waste (excluding scrap metal)

note

Scrap metal, which is recycled and then used as a secondary raw material, is not included.

2.1

0.17

-0.8%

1.9

0.16

1.7

0.15

1.5

0.14

-4.8%

1.3 1.1

0.13

0.9

0.12

0.7

0.11

0.5

0.10

Million tons

2005

Waste total (t/year) |

2006

2007

tons

Waste per unit produced (t)

Source: ACEA

What our industry delivers 46


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Alternative fuels and energies A wide variety of alternative fuels exists in the EU. They should be used to reduce emissions and decrease our dependency on fossil fuels. Biofuels can significantly contribute to overall CO2 emission reductions. The vehicle technology is known and cost-efficient. FlexFuel vehicles can run on 85% ethanol and 15% conventional petrol. The auto industry has made a commitment that as of 2010 all new models will be compatible with E10/B7. Gas in the form of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) can contribute to reducing emissions today. Plug-in hybrid vehicles will become available in more varieties and European manufacturers are advancing extended-range and battery electric car technology as well. Future hydrogen-powered cars will emit mainly water vapour. What our industry delivers 47


Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Building an infrastructure To be successful, alternative fuel and energy technologies need to be affordable, easy to use and widely available. For biofuels, the future lies with so-called second generation biofuels, and their introduction should be encouraged: – they are likely to be better compatible with existing vehicles; – they are produced from different raw materials such as agricultural waste material or wood. The vehicle technology is known but the availability of these fuels and their infrastructure is still lacking. To fully benefit from the advantages of plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles, electricity will have to become increasingly drawn from renewable sources. The electricity infrastructure will have to be adapted and extended. A positive policy framework, including fiscal incentives, is needed to stimulate the uptake of the electric vehicles. Filling stations for gas and hydrogen should be more widely spread. What else is key 48


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Consumer awareness and market incentives

The choices that consumers make will be essential to meet fuel efficiency standards and CO2 emissions objectives. When purchasing a car, consumers weigh many criteria: from safety and design to reliability and fuel consumption. Building awareness about sustainable mobility will be key; as is the broad encouragement to accept and use new technologies. CO2-related vehicle taxation can help create consumer demand for fuel-efficient technologies and alternative fuels. What else is key 49


Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Intelligent transport management

Substituting 50% of current traffic lights with dynamic systems for a better traffic flow can save 2.4 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Better cooperation of transport modes and removing barriers to cross-border haulage can reduce CO2 emissions significantly. What else is key 50


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

The policy framework

Driver Behaviour

Eco-driving can improve fuel economy by up to 20%.

Over 50 CO2-cutting technologies have been introduced, and the flow of innovative eco-technologies will continue.

Vehicle Technology Alternative Fuels

Infrastructure & Logistics

Cars, Trucks and the Environment

Vehicle technology alone will not be enough to make mobility sustainable – a partnership of industries, governments and customers is required.

CO2-related taxation creates consumer demand for fuel-efficient vehicles and alternative fuels.

CO2-related Taxation Alternative fuels and renewable energies can significantly contribute to overall CO2 emission reductions.

Better cooperation of transport modes and removing barriers to cross-border haulage can reduce CO2 emissions significantly.

What else is key 51


european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n

Key figures

Key figures


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

The European automobile industry...

Jobs

Growth

Innovation

The automotive industry

Europe is the world’s largest vehicle

Automobiles are highly complex

At least

12 million families

depend on automotive employment

2.3 million direct jobs and another 10.4 million

with

producer with an output of over

15 million passenger cars,

vans, trucks and buses per year, or

25% of worldwide

vehicle production.

and innovative products. The ACEA members invest annually

26 billion in R&D, 5% of their turnover.

over ₏  or

Total automotive R&D investments,

in directly related manufacturing

including those from suppliers,

and other sectors.

are even higher. The auto industry

Key figures

is a formidable employer in Europe.

is the largest private investor in R&D in Europe.

55


k e y f ig u r e s

... the “engine of Europe”

Made in Europe The

16 major car, truck

and bus manufacturers in Europe operate

183 vehicle assembly

and engine production plants in

19 Member States, often

sustaining the economic fabric of complete regions and cities.

Sustainable Global Scope Mobility The automotive industry

Cars, trucks and buses are

is a leading EU export sector

the source of everyday mobility and

with a net trade contribution

transportation, fuelling economic

30 billion.

of almost € 

activity, social life and cultural

Leading in high-quality products,

exchange. European manufacturers

the industry sells

are leading in environmental and

and produces vehicles

safety technologies and are a

in all major world markets.

driving force behind the sustainable mobility concepts of the future.

56


t h e a u t o m o bi l e i n d u s t r y p o c k e t g u i d e

Key figures 2009 2009 2009 2009 2007 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2007

61.7 Mn units 15.2 Mn units 47.5 Mn units 13.9 Mn units 756 Bn EUR 60.5 Mn units 15.8 Mn units 50.1 Mn units 14.1 Mn units 46% Share 3.5 Mn people

2007 2008 2008 2007 2009 2009 2009 2008 2008 2008 2009

12.6 Mn people 536 Bn EUR 26 Bn EUR 155.4 Bn EUR 53.8 Bn EUR 25.2 Bn EUR 28.6 Bn EUR 268.9 Mn units 234.1 Mn units 470 per 1,000 inhab. 427.4 Bn EUR

= 25% of worldwide MV production = 29% of worldwide PC production

= 26% of worldwide MV registrations/sales = 28% of worldwide PC registrations/sales = 10% of EU manufacturing industry = 6% of EU employed population =5% of turnover = 9% of manufacturing sector

Key figures

Production Total Motor Vehicles (Worldwide) Total Motor Vehicles (EU27) Total Passenger Cars (Worldwide) Total Passenger Cars (EU27) Production value New Registrations Total MV (Worldwide) Total MV (EU27) Total Passenger Cars (Worldwide) Total Passenger Cars (EU27) Diesel (Western Europe) Employment Automotive manufacturing (EU27) Total automotive employment (manufacturing & services) Turnover ACEA members R&D Investment ACEA members Value Added EU27 Exports Extra-EU27 Imports Extra-EU27 Trade Balance MV in use (Parc) Total Motor Vehicles (EU27) Passenger Cars Motorization rate (cars) Tax Revenue from Motor Vehicles

= 4% of EU15 GDP

Source: ACEA, VDA, AAA, Global Insight, Eurostat

57


european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n

Employment

Employment


key figures

Employment

Over 12 million families depend on the automobile industry in Europe Automobile Sector: Direct and Indirect* Employment | 2007

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY (PRODUCTION OPERATIONS)

› Automobile manufacturing › Bodywork, trailers, caravans › Equipment and accessories

(NACE dm341) (NACE dm342) (NACE dm343)

2.3 Mn Jobs

CLOSELY RELATED MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

› Manufacture, retreading and rebuilding of rubber tyres and tubes (NACE dh2512) › Manufacture of bearings, gears, gearing and driving elements (NACE dk2914) › Manufacture of cooling and ventilation equipment (NACE dk2923) › Manufacture of computers and other information processing equipment (NACE dl3002) › Manufacture of electric motors, generators and transformers (NACE dl311) › Manufacture of electrical equipment for engines and vehicles (not elsewhere reported) (NACE dl3161)

1.2 Mn Jobs

12.6 Mn Jobs

(NACE g501) (NACE g502) (NACE g503) (NACE g505)

TRANSPORT

› Road transport (passengers and freight)

(NACE i602)

4.2 Mn Jobs

Trade

› Sale and distribution of motor vehicles › Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles › Sale of motor vehicle parts and accessories › Retail sale of automotive fuel

4.9 Mn Jobs

Taxation

Based on Eurostat data - 2007

AUTOMOBILE USE

* Indirect employment data does not report employment in raw material sector (e.g. steel, aluminium, glass, etc.), textile, driving schools, licensing activities, vehicle testing, vehicle insurance and financing, etc. 61


employment

Automotive Employment put into Perspective

EU automotive employment = 12.6 Mn

Automotive non-manufacturing = 9.1 Mn Automotive manufacturing = 3.5 Mn

Based on Eurostat data – 2007

Manufacturing employment related to the automotive sector Total automotive employment (manufacturing & sevices)

EU employment non-automotive, non-manufacturing = 180.4 Mn

EU Manufacturing employment non-automotive = 31.0 Mn

3.5 Mn people 12.6 Mn people

= 10.2% of total employment in EU manufacturing = 5.6% of EU employed population

EU27 total population

493.5 Mn people

EU27 total employment

224.1 Mn people

EU27 employed population in manufacturing sector Based on Eurostat data, 2007; ILO data 2007

62

34.5 Mn people

= 15.4% of total employed population


Employment

key figures

Direct Automotive Employment by Country | 2007 Units - in thousands

900

848

800 700 600 500 400

169

166

155

135

100

122

85

76

64

56

45

34

23

23

10

7

7

4

3

3

2

1

1

AT

NL

PT

SI

FI

DK

IE

BG

EL

EE

LT

LV

0 DE

FR

IT

UK

ES

PL

CZ

SE

SK

RO

HU

BE

Trade

255

200

Each direct job creates at least another 5 related jobs

Taxation

Based on Eurostat data – 2007

300

63


employment

Employment* by Mode of Transport | 2007

Total Transport 9.2 Mn Passenger Transport 21.3% (2.0 Mn)

Road Transport

Based on Eurostat data – 2007

53.4% (5 Mn) Freight Transport 32.2% (3.0 Mn)

Railways 9,4%

Air Transport 4,4%

Sea Transport 2,0%

Inland Water Transport 0,5%

Pipelines 0,1%

Travel Agencies & Tour Operators 5,3%

Other Auxiliary Transport Activities 24,8%

* Employment in companies whose main activity lies in the transport mode concerned

64


Production

Production

european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n


key figures

Passenger Car Production - International Comparison | 1999 – 2009 Units

36.2%

15,000,000

Production

18,000,000 33.3%

36.8%

29.5%

12,000,000 9,000,000

19.6%

20.8% 20.4%

Source: OICA - 2010

6,000,000 3,000,000

5.9%

7.9%

EU

14.5%

14.9%

14.5%

NAFTA

8.5%

7.0%

6.7%

Japan South Korea BRIC

0 1999

2004

2009

Passenger Car Production Worldwide | 2009

Source: OICA – 2010

EU

NAFTA

Japan

South Korea

BRIC

Total World

Volume

% share

13,944,054

29.5%

4,010,893

8.5%

6,862,161

14.5%

3,158,417

6.7%

15,722,536

33.3%

47,227,656

100%

67


P r o d u c t io n

The EU produces 33 vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants Motor Vehicle Production per 1,000 inhabitants | 2009

120 100

104 93 85

80 64

60

Production per 1,000 inhabitants

Source: Eurostat; ACEA – 2010

48

47

40

33

23

20

18

18

17

14

14

12

9

5

2

NL

FI

0 SI

CZ

SK

DE

BE

ES

FR

EU

68

32

PL

HU

UK

SE

IT

RO

PT

AT


key figures

Automobile assembly & engine production plants in Europe

Plants

AT

EU

Austria

6

BIH

Extra EU

Bosnia Herzegovina

1

BE

Belgium

9

BY

Belarus

3

BG

Bulgaria

1

KZ

Kazakhstan

1

CZ

Czech republic

11

RS

Serbia

2

DE

Germany

47

RU

Russia

27

EE

Estonia

ES

Spain

FI

Plants

1

TR Turkey

16

15

UA Ukraine

5

Finland

2

UZ Uzbekistan

1

FR

France

38

HU

Hungary

IT

Italy

Netherlands

NL PL

Poland

16

PT

Portugal

5

RO

Romania

4

SE

Sweden

15

SI

Slovenia

1

SK Slovakia UK United Kingdom

6 20 9

Countries

Plants

Total

27

297

EU

19

16

Countries

Plants

Total

25

208

EU

19

183

acea members

Production

Overview

3 32

69


P r o d u c t io n

Motor Vehicle Production in the EU by Country | 2009

Source: Source: ACEA - 2010 (National Automobile Associations)

TOTAL

15,714

71,714

AUSTRIA

56,000

BELGIUM

510,300

CZECH REPUBLIC

967,760

FINLAND

FRANCE

1,821,734

198,847

25,145

4,036

2,049,762

GERMANY

4,964,523

148,145

89,403

7,786

5,209,857

HUNGARY

180,500

1,670

370

182,540

ITALY

661,100

158,089

23,046

1,004

843,239

NETHERLANDS

50,620

24,340

1,641

76 601

POLAND

819,000

54,864

4,822

879,186

PORTUGAL

101,680

22,172

84

126,015

ROMANIA

279,320

16,990

188

296,498

SLOVAKIA

461,340

461,340

SLOVENIA

202,570

SPAIN

EUROPEAN UNION *

2,650

10,907

1,812,688

11,750

760

522,810

1,091

3,068

974,569

64

2,079

10,179

10,971

212 749

331,131

25,707

552

SWEDEN

128,738

18,000

9,600

156,338

UNITED KINGDOM

999,460

80,206

9,003

1,470

1,090,139

13,944,054

1,019,613

245,640

35,109

15,244,416

* Double countings are deducted from the totals

70

2,170,078


key figures

Commercial vehicle production trend

Units

Production

Commercial Vehicle Production in the EU | 1990-2009

Percentage

3,000,000

+30.0 +20.6%

+17.3% +10.2% +2.2%

-1.0%

2,000,000

+20.0

+13.2% +7.5%

+2.3% -3.3%

-3.3%

-7.7%

+3.8%

+3.3%

+3.8%

+10.0

+5.4%

+0.0

-5.2%

-6.0%

-10.0 -20.0

-23.5%

Source: ACEA – 2010

1,000,000

-30.0 -47.5%

-40.0 -50.0

0

-60.0 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Volumes % change year-on-year

71


P r o d u c t io n

Passenger car production trend Passenger Car Production in the EU | 1990-2009 Units

Percentage

18,000,000

+15.0 +12.4%

+10.0

+8.8% +3.8%

12,000,000

+2.0%

+2.9%

+5.6%

+4.3%

+3.1% +1.1%

+1.9% +0.2%

-3.2%

-1.2%

+5.0

+1.3%

+0.0

-0.9%

-1.2%

-5.0

-6.7%

Source: ACEA – 2010

6,000,000 -12.6%

-15.1%

-15.0 0

-20.0 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Passenger Car Production Worldwide | 1999-2009 Units

Percentage

+8.0 +6.0 +4.0 +2.0 +0.0 -2.0 -4.0 -6.0 -8.0 -10.0 -12.0

+6.2%

50,000,000

+3.7%

+3.8%

+5.2%

+6.5%

+6.6%

+1.5% -0.9%

Source: OICA – 2010

40,000,000

-3.4%

30,000,000

-10.5%

20,000,000 1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2003

2004

2005

60,000,000 +4.2%

72

-10.0

2006

2007

2008

2009

2006

2007

2008

2009

Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia

% change year-on-year


key figures

30% of passenger cars are produced in the EU

Source: OICA – 2010

8.5% NAFTA

6.7%

S. Korea

14.5% Japan

Brazil

5.5%

22.0% China

India

4.6%

Others

3.4%

Asia-Others

3.3%

Russia

1.3%

Europe / Others

1.2%

29.5% EU

Production

World Passenger Car Production (% share) | 2009

World Motor Vehicle Production (% share) | 2009

Source: OICA – 2010

13.0% Japan

S. Korea

5.8%

14.4% NAFTA

Brazil

5.2%

22.6% China

India

4.3%

Asia-Others

4.1%

Others

3.5%

Europe / Others

1.6%

Russia

1.2%

25.0% EU

73


Registrations

Registrations

european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n


key figures

Europe represents a market of over 15 Mn new vehicles per year

Source: ACEA – 2010

EU 26.1%

Asia 39.6%

America North & South 27.2%

Other

Registrations

Motor Vehicle Registrations Worldwide | 2009

7.1%

One of four new vehicles in the world is sold in the EU

77


r e gis t r at io n s

Motor Vehicle Registrations in the EU by Country | 2009

Source: ACEA – 2010 (National Automobile Associations)

78

AT

319,403

25,567

4,805

654

350,429

LU

47,265

2,927

870

209

51,271 451,887

TOTAL

TOTAL

BE

476,194

51,250

8,358

979

536,781

NL

387,679

51,286

11,834

1,088

BG

22,869

2,836

932

176

26,813

PL ²

320,119

41,652

10,064

953

372,788

CZ

161,659

19,427

4,760

775

186,621

PT

160,996

38,906

3,213

628

203,743

DK

112,271

15,271

3,261

314

131,117

RO

115,979

15,445

2,160

883

134,467

EE

8,234

941

225

59

9,459

SK

74,717

15,709

1,664

671

92,761

FI

90,574

8,677

3,173

592

103,016

SI

55,712

5,239

758

126

61,835

FR

2,268,671

372,575

36,174

7,432

2,684,852

ES

952,772

106,669

12,137

2,644

1,074,222

DE

3,807,175

169,376

67,196

5,612

4,049,359

SE

213,408

27,413

5,519

1,173

247,513

EL

220,548

14,549

1,872

1,012

237,981

UK

1,994,999

186,818

34,746

7,989

2,224,552

EU ¹

14,116,052 1,375,856

237,451

37,533

15,766,892

HU

78,590

11,655

2,729

177

93,151

IE

57,460

9,267

1,103

170

68,000

IT

2,158,010

181,274

19,087

3,055

2,361,426

IS

2,020

262

47

8

2,337

LV

3,745

428

297

70

4,540

NO

98,675

23,504

4,098

1,160

127,437

LT

7,003

699

514

92

8,308

CH

266,018

22,148

4,319

610

293,095

366,713

45,914

8,464

1,778

422,869

14,482,765 1,421,770

245,915

39,311

16,189,761

EFTA EU + EFTA ¹ Data for Cyprus and Malta not available ² Sales figures


key figures

New Car Registrations per 100 inhabitants | 2009

10.0 9.4

9.0

Registrations

8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0

4.7

4.4

4.0

3.8

3.6

3.5

3.4

3.3

3.0

3.2 2.8

2.7 2.3

2.3

New Car Registrations per 100 inhabitants

Source: ACEA – 2010

2.0

2.1

2.0

2.0

2.0

1.7

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.3

0.2

0.2

EE RO BG

LT

LV

0.0 LU DE BE

AT

* EU27, data for Cyprus and Malta n.a.

IT

FR CH

UK

EU 15

SI

EU 27*

NL

SE

ES DK NO EL

FI

CZ

PT

SK

IE

PL

HU

IS

EU 10

79


r e gis t r at io n s

Market Share of New Passenger Cars | 2008 – 2009

Source: ACEA – 2010 (National Automobile Associations)

Percentage

30 %

2008

25 %

2009

20 % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 % DE

FR

IT

UK

ES

BE

NL

PL

AT

EL

SE

CZ

PT

RO

DK

FI

SK

HU

SI

IE

LU

BG

EE

LT

In many markets, 2009 new car registrations were supported by temporary fleet renewal schemes as part of crisis relief measures

80

LV


key figures

Trend in new EU car registrations New Car Registrations in the EU | 1990-2009 Percentage Units

+5.9%

Source: ACEA – 2010, based on AAA data

15,000,000 -0.0%

14,000,000

+5.2%

+6.3%

+7.2% +4.9%

+10.0

+5.0%

+5.0

+3.8%

+1.1%

+1.0%

+0.6% -2.1%

-2.7%

13,000,000

-0.6%

-1.2%

-1.2%

Registrations

16,000,000

+8.0%

+0.0 -5.0

12,000,000

-8.0%

-10.0

11,000,000 10,000,000

-15.0

-17.0%

9,000,000

-20.0

8,000,000 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

New Passenger Car Registrations

% change year-on-year

81


r e gis t r at io n s

Trend in new EU commercial vehicle registrations New Light Commercial Vehicle Registrations in the EU | 1997-2009 Units

Percentage

2,500,000 Source: ACEA 2010, based on AAA data

+13.1% +9.0%

2,000,000

+9.5%

+5.6%

+5.7%

+3.0% -2.8%

1,500,000

-2.5%

+0.4%

-2.7%

-9.7%

1,000,000 500,000

-29.5%

0 1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

+20.0 +15.0 +10.0 +5.0 +0.0 -5.0 -10.0 -15.0 -20.0 -25.0 -30.0 -35.0

LCV - Light Commercial Vehicle < 3.5t (incl. light buses)

% change year-on-year

2009

New Heavy Commercial Vehicle Registrations in the EU | 1997-2009 Units

Percentage

Source: ACEA 2010, based on AAA data

500,000

82

+16.5%

+20.0

+12.7%

400,000

+9.5% +2.5% -3.7%

+6.1%

+6.4%

+10.0

+6.5%

-1.2%

+0.0

-2.6%

-10.0%

300,000

-10.0 -20.0

200,000

-30.0

100,000 -44.4%

0

-40.0 -50.0

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Commercial Vehicle > 3.5t

% change year-on-year


key figures

Vehicle sales develop in relation to economic growth New Passenger Car Registrations in the EU and GDP New PC Registrations – EU

EU GDP +4.5 +3.5 +2.5

14,000,000

+1.5

13,000,000

-0.5

+0.5

Registrations

15,000,000

GDP Growth (%)

New PC Registrations (units)

Source: AAA, ACEA, DG ECFIN

16,000,000

-1.5

12,000,000

-2.5 -3.5

11,000,000

-4.5

10,000,000

-5.5

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007 2008

2009

New Commercial Vehicle Registrations in the EU and GDP | 1990-2009 New CV Registrations – EU

EU GDP

+4.5 +3.5

2,500,000

+2.5

2,300,000

+1.5

2,100,000

-0.5

+0.5

GDP Growth (%)

New CV Registrations (units)

Source: AAA, ACEA, DG ECFIN

2,700,000

-1.5

1,900,000

-2.5 -3.5

1,700,000

-4.5

1,500,000

-5.5

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

83


r e gis t r at io n s

A closer look at consumer demand

New Car Registrations by Segment in the EU15+EFTA | 2006-2009

2009

Small Lower Medium Upper Medium Executive

Units

600,000

2008

Small Lower Medium Upper Medium Executive

600,000 500,000

400,000

2007 Small Lower Medium Upper Medium Executive

300,000 200,000

2006 Small Lower Medium Upper Medium Executive

100,000 0 jan

feb

mar

apr

may

New Cars sold in Europe* by Segment | 2009-2010

june

jul

aug

sept

oct

nov

dec

New Cars sold in Europe* by Segment | 2009

Units

50% 40%

2008

2009

Small 40.5%

Lower Medium 23.5%

Upper Medium 11.9%

30%

MPVs

9.7%

20%

SUVs

8.2%

10%

Luxury

3.3%

Others

2.9%

0% Others

Luxury

SUVs

MPVs

Upper Lower Medium Medium

Small *2009; EU27, Norway and Switzerland, excluding Luxembourg

84

More information on trends in new car characteristics at http://www.acea.be/index.php/news/news_detail/trends_in_new_car_characteristics/


key figures

The drive towards fuel efficiency Demand for Cars â&#x2030;¤ 120 gCO2/km | 1995-2009 Units

3,500,000

3,233,549

2,500,000 2,039,810

2,000,000 1,500,000

1,419,388

1,000,000

839,488

958,591

904,845

2004

2005

1,008,992

+59%

583,614

500,000 0

Registrations

Source: AAA figures for the EU15

3,000,000

2

0

813

20,339

88,174

159,384

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

306,514

2001

2002

2003

2006

2007

2008

2009

CO2 Emissions from New Cars | 1995-2009

Source: AAA figures for the EU15

80%

Trend in new car CO2 emissions (g/km) 39%

35%

30%

31%

30% 24%

22%

17%

161+ 16%

11%

9%

27% 25% 23% 25%

27% 26%

140-121

3%

1995

160-141 120 and less

2006

2007

2008

2009

85


r e gis t r at io n s

Most new cars have a diesel engine Diesel Penetration in the EU15+EFTA (% of new cars registered) | 1990-2009

Source: AAA figures for the EU15+EFTA

% share

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Diesel Penetration in the EU15+EFTA by Country (% of new cars registered) | 1990-2009 % share

80 70 Source: AAA figures for the EU15+EFTA

60

86

50 40 30 20 10 0 BE

LU

NO

FR

ES

PT

IE

FI

AT

DK

IT

UK

EU15 + EFTA More information on trends in new car characteristics at http://www.acea.be/index.php/news/news_detail/trends_in_new_car_characteristics/

SE

IS

DE

CH

NL

EL

2009


key figures

New passenger car registrations â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the global view Market Shares | 2009

2009 % share

Europe

16,576,725

EU EFTA

14,116,052

28,2%

-11,1%

14,331,792

-1,5%

366,837

0,7%

408,207

-10,1%

Russia

1,465,917

2,9%

2,897,459

-49,4%

Turkey

369,819

0,7%

305,998

20,9%

0,5%

Europe-Others

258,100

America 1

16,091,990

699,800

-63,1%

32,1% 19,101,002

-15,8%

NAFTA

12,613,177

25,2%

15,849,054

-20,4%

10,402,215

20,7%

13,194,741

-21,2%

3,478,813

6,9%

3,251,948

7,0%

3,008,742

6,0%

2,670,991

12,6%

33,2% 13,763,033

21,0%

of which USA

Mercosur

of which Brazil

Asia

Source: ACEA 2010

2008 % change

33,1% 18,643,256

16,656,815

Japan

3,923,740

7,8%

4,227,643

-7,2%

South Korea China

1,225,000

2,4%

1,034,387

18,4%

8,380,870

16,7%

5,692,049

47,2%

India

1,815,205

3,6%

1,545,342

17,5%

Asia-Others 2

1,312,000

2,6%

1,263,612

3,8%

Others 3

819,674

1,6%

965,006

-15,1%

50,145,204 100,0% 52,472,297

-4,4%

Total World

Europe Europe-Others Turkey Russia EFTA EU

Others

33.1%

America 32.1%

0.5% 0.7% 2.9% 0.7% 28.2%

Nafta 25.2%

1.6%

USA 20.7%

Mercosur

6.9%

Brazil

6.0%

Asia 33.2%

Japan 7.8% South Korea 2.4% China 16.7% India 3.6% Asia-Others 3 2.6%

Registrations

passenger cars

1. Including Light Commercial Vehicles 2. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand 3. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa

87


r e gis t r at io n s

New motor vehicle registrations â&#x20AC;&#x201C; worldwide Market Shares | 2009

motor vehicles

2009 % share

Europe

18,682,643

EU EFTA

26,1%

16,730,630

-5,8%

422,869

0,7%

485,172

-12,8%

1,618,917

2,7%

3,366,415

-51,9%

Turkey

575,865

1,0%

526,544

9,4%

0,5%

298,100

America

16,493,364

782,100

-61,9%

27,2% 19,676,000

-16,2%

NAFTA

12,859,317

21,2%

16,238,514

-20,8%

10,601,901

17,5%

13,493,165

-21,4%

of which USA

Mercosur

3,634,047

6,0%

3,437,486

5,7%

of which Brazil

3,146,905

5,2%

2,825,716

11,4%

39,6% 19,709,185

21,7%

Asia Japan South Korea

Source: ACEA 2010

15,766,892

-14,7%

Russia

Europe-Others

88

2008 % change

30,9% 21,890,861

23,982,136 4,609,255

7,6%

5,082,235

-9,3%

1,445,000

2,4%

1,237,087

16,8%

China

13,644,794

22,5%

9,336,326

46,1%

India

2,263,887

3,7%

1,983,045

14,2%

Asia-Others 1

2,019,200

3,3%

2,070,492

-2,5%

Others 2

1,361,145

2,2%

1,598,505

-14,8%

60,519,288 100,0% 64,116,327

-5,6%

Total World

Europe Europe-Others Turkey Russia EFTA EU

Others 2

30.9%

America 27.2%

0.5% 1.0% 2.7% 0.7% 26.1%

Nafta 21.2%

2.2%

1. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand 2. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa

USA 17,5%

Mercosur

6.0%

Brazil

5.2%

Asia 39.6%

Japan 7.6% South Korea 2.4% China 22.5% India 3.7% Asia-Others 1 3.3%


Vehicles in Use

Vehicles in Use

european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n


key figures

Cars in the EU are on average 8.2 years old Average Car Age by Country | 2008 18.0 16.0

15.9

14.0 12.0

11.6

11.0

11.0

10.0

10.5

9.5

9.0

8.3

8.2

8.2

7.9

7.7

BELGIUM

AUSTRIA

6.9

6.0 4.0 2.0 0 LATVIA

SLOVAKIA

FINLAND

ESTONIA

GREECE

SWEDEN

PORTUGAL

FRANCE

GERMANY

Vehicles in Use

Source: ANFAC, ACEA – 2010

8.0

UK

EU*

Car Fleet* Composition | 2008

Source: ANFAC, ACEA – 2010

34.5% Cars > 10 years old 33.6% Cars ≤ 5 years old 31.9% Cars 5-10 years old

* for available countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, UK.

91


v e h ic l e s i n u s e

EU vehicle fleet composition

Source: Eurostat – 2010

EU Fleet by Vehicle Type | 2008

Cars 87.1%

Commercial Vehicles 12.6%

Buses & Coaches 0.3%

EU Passenger Car Fleet by Fuel Type | 2008

Source: ANFAC, ACEA – 2010

92

Gasoline 63.6%

Diesel 33.7% Other 2.7%


key figures

EU vehicle fleet development EU Car Fleet | 1993 – 2008 Units - in thousands

250,000 200,000

100,000 50,000 0 1993

1998

2003

2008

2003

2008

Vehicles in Use

Source: Eurostat – 2010

150,000

EU Commercial Vehicle Fleet | 1993 – 2008 Units - in thousands

40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000

Source: Eurostat – 2010

20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1993

1998

93


v e h ic l e s i n u s e

Vehicle spread in the EU Car Fleet by Country (in units and % share) | 2008 Units

45,000,000 17.7%

40,000,000 15.4%

35,000,000 13.3%

30,000,000

12.5%

25,000,000

9.5%

20,000,000 6.9%

15,000,000

Source: Eurostat – 2010

10,000,000

94

3.2% 2.2%

5,000,000

2.1%

1.9%

1.9%

1.8%

1.8%

1.7%

1.3%

1.2%

1.0%

0.9%

0.8%

0.7%

0.7%

0.4%

0.4%

0.2%

0.2%

0.1%

0.1%

DK

IE

LT

SK

SI

LV

EE

CY

LU

MT

0

DE

IT

FR

UK

ES

PL

NL

BE

EL

CZ

PT

AT

SE

RO

HU

FI

BG


key figures

International comparison Car Fleet (in Mn) | 2008 Units â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in millions

250.00

234.08

150.00

135.52

100.00 57.93

50.00

32.02

25.74

21.88

CHINA

BRAZIL

0.00 EU*

USA

JAPAN

RUSSIA

12.48

9.85

S. KOREA

INDIA

* 27 countries included over the whole period

Vehicles in Use

Source: Eurostat, Global Insight

200.00

Car Fleet Growth (% change) | 1996-2008 % change

+30.0 +25.0 +20.0 +15.0 +10.0 Source: Eurostat, Global Insight

+5.0 +0.0 -5.0 -10.0 -15.0

EU*

China

USA Japan Russia

Brazil South Korea India

-20.0 1996

1997

1998

1998

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

95


v e h ic l e s i n u s e

Trends in motorisation Car Density in the World (cars per 1,000 inhabitants) | 2008 500

470

454

444

400 Source: Eurostat, Global Insight

300

254

226

200

113

100

19

8

CHINA

INDIA

0 EU*

JAPAN

USA

S. KOREA

RUSSIA

BRAZIL

* 27 countries included over the whole period

Car Density in the EU (cars per 1,000 inhabitants) | 2008 700

667 601

600

557

555 514

500

513

507

504

499

498

483

477

475

470

462

458

446

439

400

423

422

415

413

412

381 311

300

305

285

Source: Eurostat

200

96

187

100 0 LU

IT

CY

MT

SI

AT

FI

DE

LT

FR

ES

BE

UK

EU

SE

NL

EL

IE

CZ

PL

PT

LV

EE

DK

BG

HU

SK

RO


Trade

Trade

european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n


key figures

The EU automotive industry is a formidable exporter EU Exports of Passenger Cars (in value)

North America 31.6%

EFTA & Eastern Europe 25.6%

Asia & Oceania 26.8% Middle East 6.8% South America & Caribbean 2.2%

Source: Eurostat, 2009

Trade

Africa 7.2%

99


TRADE

EU Motor Vehicle Trade (in â&#x201A;Ź Mn)

Year 2008

Year 2009

% chg 09/08

Source: Eurostat

trade trade trade trade in value (¤Mn) imports exports balance imports exports balance imports exports balance

Passenger Cars

30,058

69,576

39,518

21,743

47,747

26,004

-27.7%

-31.4%

4,530

3,455

-1,075

2,567

1,881

-686

-43.3%

-45.6%

-36.2%

Commercial Vehicles (over 5t) + Buses & Coaches 1,196

6,767

5,571

866

4,136

3,270

-27.6%

-38.9%

-41.3%

35,784

79,798

44,014

25,176

53,764

28,588

-29.6%

-32.6% -35.0%

Light Commercial Vehicles (up to 5t)

total

-34.2%

EU Motor Vehicle Trade (in units) Source: Eurostat

Year 2008

Year 2009

% chg 09/08

Source: Eurostat

trade in volume (units) imports exports imports exports imports exports

100

Passenger Cars

Light Commercial Vehicles (up to 5t) Commercial Vehicles (over 5t) + Buses & Coaches

total

3,004,033

5,786,073

2,273,745

3,437,543

-24.3%

425,056

341,152

245,470

225,464

-42.2%

-40.6% -33.9%

20,638

207,918

14,942

143,956

-27.6%

-30.8%

3,449,727

6,335,143

2,534,157

3,806,963

-26.5%

-39.9%


key figures

Most imports to the EU come from Japan Origin of most EU Passenger Car Imports (in â&#x201A;Ź Mn)

2007

2008

2009

% chg 09/08

% chg 08/07

World

33,774

30,058

21,743

-27.7%

-11.0%

-35.6%

100.0%

Japan

12,030

10,821

7,896

-27.0%

-10.1%

-34.4%

36.3%

Turkey

4,206

3,676

3,193

-13.1%

-12.6%

-24.1%

14.7%

United States

6,395

6,036

2,990

-50.5%

-5.6%

-53.2%

13.8%

South Korea

6,691

3,945

2,607

-33.9%

-41.0%

-61.0%

12.0%

India

335

585

1,536

162.8%

74.7%

359.0%

7.1%

1,992

2,405

1,499

-37.7%

20.7%

-24.8%

6.9%

567

808

539

-33.4%

42.7%

-4.9%

2.5%

70

300

469

56.4%

327.5%

568.5%

2.2%

China

508

564

360

-36.1%

10.9%

-29.1%

1.7%

Switzerland

193

154

125

-19.1%

-19.9%

-35.2%

0.6%

Source: Eurostat

Mexico Brazil South Africa

Passenger Cars â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Origin of EU Imports (in value) | 2009

India

7.1%

12.0% S. Korea

Mercosur

2.6%

14.7% Turkey

South Africa

2.2%

China

1.7%

Asia & Oceania-Others

1.0%

36.3% Japan

Efta

0.8%

0.2% Europe-Others

Africa-Others

0.2%

0.2% Middle East

Russia

0.2%

Others

0.2%

20.9% NAFTA

Source: Eurostat

% chg 09/07 % share in 2009

Trade

101


TRADE

Origin of most EU Passenger Car Imports (in units)

Source: Eurostat

2007

2008

2009

% chg 09/08

% chg 08/07

World

3,437,676

3,004,033

2,273,745

-24.3%

-12.6%

-33.9%

100.0%

Japan

965,891

867,496

643,155

-25.9%

-10.2%

-33.4%

28.3%

South Korea

651,335

446,552

350,259

-21.6%

-31.4%

-46.2%

15.4%

Turkey

385,727

411,567

313,660

-23.8%

6.7%

-18.7%

13.8%

India

119,630

99,540

265,558

166.8%

-16.8%

122.0%

11.7%

China

392,926

303,698

177,783

-41.5%

-22.7%

-54.8%

7.8%

United States

460,222

371,967

174,461

-53.1%

-19.2%

-62.1%

7.7%

Mexico

152,007

183,650

116,291

-36.7%

20.8%

-23.5%

5.1%

Taiwan

122,466

136,739

73,854

-46.0%

11.7%

-39.7%

3.2%

Brazil

63,798

53,084

47,216

-11.1%

-16.8%

-26.0%

2.1%

3,913

20,520

31,308

52.6%

424.4%

700.1%

1.4%

South Africa

Passenger Cars â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Origin of EU Imports (in units) | 2009

30.0%

28.3

Source: Eurostat

20.0%

102

15.4

13.8

10.0%

11.7

7.8

7.7

5.1

3.2

2.1

1.4

TAIWAN

BRAZIL

S. AFRICA

0% JAPAN

S. KOREA

TURKEY

INDIA

CHINA

USA

MEXICO

% chg 09/07 % share in 2009


key figures

Car shipments to the USA represent over a quarter of EU car exports (in value) Main Destinations of EU Passenger Car Exports (in € Mn)

2007

2008

2009

% chg 09/08

% chg 08/07

71,025

69,576

47,747

-31.4%

-2.0%

-32.8%

100.0%

24,754

20,550

12,708

-38.2%

-17.0%

-48.7%

26.6%

China

3,345

4,610

5,470

18.7%

37.8%

63.5%

11.5%

Switzerland

4,324

4,365

3,841

-12.0%

0.9%

-11.2%

8.0%

Japan

4,121

3,256

2,670

-18.0%

-21.0%

-35.2%

5.6%

Russia

6,659

8,790

2,538

-71.1%

32.0%

-61.9%

5.3%

Turkey

2,835

2,808

2,047

-27.1%

-1.0%

-27.8%

4.3%

Norway

2,703

2,192

1,854

-15.4%

-18.9%

-31.4%

3.9%

Canada

2,094

2,085

1,792

-14.1%

-0.4%

-14.4%

3.8%

Australia

2,101

2,188

1,576

-28.0%

4.1%

-25.0%

3.3%

South Africa

1,603

1,026

948

-7.6%

-36.0%

-40.9%

2.0%

South Korea

975

912

802

-12.1%

-6.5%

-17.7%

1.7%

World

Source: Eurostat

United States

Passenger Cars – Destination of EU Exports 6.8% Middle East 11.5% China 12.0% EFTA

Source: Eurostat

31.6% NAFTA 0.8% Others 1.4% Mercosur 1.7% South Korea

(in value)

% chg 09/07 % share in 2009

| 2009 Japan

5.6%

Russia

5.3%

Africa-Others

5.2%

Asia & Oceania

4.7%

Turkey

4.3%

Europe-Others

4.0%

Australia

3.3%

South Africa

2.0%

Trade

103


TRADE

About 16% of exported cars set sail to the USA Main Destinations of EU Passenger Car Exports (in units)

Source: Eurostat

2007

2008

2009

% chg 09/08

% chg 08/07

5,069,862

4,854,618

3,438,246

-29.2%

-4.2%

-32.2%

100.0%

United States

988,449

875,953

544,506

-37.8%

-11.4%

-44.9%

15.8%

Iran

202,537

390,955

350,131

-10.4%

93.0%

72.9%

10.2%

Switzerland

244,539

234,076

200,328

-14.4%

-4.3%

-18.1%

5.8%

Russia

533,780

675,312

177,550

-73.7%

26.5%

-66.7%

5.2%

China

100,480

136,566

173,135

26.8%

35.9%

72.3%

5.0%

Turkey

225,785

223,463

169,275

-24.2%

-1.0%

-25.0%

4.9%

Japan

213,709

161,750

112,448

-30.5%

-24.3%

-47.4%

3.3%

Belarus

100,963

119,212

111,852

-6.2%

18.1%

10.8%

3.3%

Norway

153,320

124,422

111,329

-10.5%

-18.8%

-27.4%

3.2%

Mexico

64,012

58,635

104,900

78.9%

-8.4%

63.9%

3.1%

Canada

90,609

103,466

86,565

-16.3%

14.2%

-4.5%

2.5%

World

Destination of EU Passenger Car Exports (in units) | 2009 20.0% 15.0%

15.8 10.2

Source: Eurostat

10.0%

104

5.8

5.0%

5.2

5.0

4.9

3.3

3.2

3.2

3.1

2.5

JAPAN

Norway

Belarus

MEXICO

Canada

0% USA

iran

Switzerland

RUSSIA

CHINA

TURKEY

% chg 09/07 % share in 2009


key figures

A closer look at imports of all vehicle categories Origin of most EU Motor Vehicle Imports

(in units)

Source: Eurostat

2007

2008

2009

% chg 09/08

% chg 08/07

World

3,830,315

3,449,727

2,577,123

-25.3%

-9.9%

-32.7%

100.0%

Japan

988,418

894,298

658,331

-26.4%

-9.5%

-33.4%

25.5%

Turkey

621,373

716,977

497,074

-30.7%

15.4%

-20.0%

19.3%

South Korea

655,421

452,354

352,540

-22.1%

-31.0%

-46.2%

13.7%

India

121,276

102,124

266,958

161.4%

-15.8%

120.1%

10.4%

China

393,769

305,310

227,019

-25.6%

-22.5%

-42.3%

8.8%

United States

469,366

382,498

179,546

-53.1%

-18.5%

-61.7%

7.0%

Mexico

152,046

183,689

116,301

-36.7%

20.8%

-23.5%

4.5%

Taiwan

122,555

136,754

73,855

-46.0%

11.6%

-39.7%

2.9%

Brazil

68,698

58,382

49,594

-15.1%

-15.0%

-27.8%

1.9%

South Africa

25,092

35,321

38,779

9.8%

40.8%

54.5%

1.5%

30.0%

| 2009

25,5 19,3

20.0%

13,7 Source: Eurostat

(in units)

Trade

Origin of EU Motor Vehicle Imports

% chg 09/07 % share in 2009

10.0%

10,4

8,8

7

4,5

2,9

1,9

1.5

MEXICO

TAIWAN

BRAZIL

S. AFRICA

0% JAPAN

TURKEY

S. KOREA

INDIA

CHINA

USA

105


TRADE

A closer look at exports of all vehicle categories Main Destinations of EU Motor Vehicle Exports (in units)

Source: Eurostat

2007

2008

2009

% chg 09/08

% chg 08/07

5,642,020

5,403,265

3,804,561

-29.6%

-4.2%

-32.6%

100.0%

United States

997,593

882,134

547,340

-38.0%

-11.6%

-45.1%

14.4%

Iran

203,075

391,475

350,611

-10.4%

92.8%

72.7%

9.2%

Switzerland

268,413

259,625

221,096

-14.8%

-3.3%

-17.6%

5.8%

Russia

609,721

735,978

192,820

-73.8%

20.7%

-68.4%

5.1%

Turkey

258,557

256,330

187,133

-27.0%

-0.9%

-27.6%

4.9%

China

103,541

138,146

175,039

26.7%

33.4%

69.1%

4.6%

Norway

177,437

146,063

123,735

-15.3%

-17.7%

-30.3%

3.3%

Belarus

109,411

128,884

119,430

-7.3%

17.8%

9.2%

3.1%

Japan

213,999

161,838

112,527

-30.5%

-24.4%

-47.4%

3.0%

Mexico

90,819

70,014

109,030

55.7%

-22.9%

20.1%

2.9%

World

Destination of EU Motor Vehicle Exports

(in units)

| 2009

20.0% 15.0%

14,4

Source: Eurostat

10.0%

106

9,2 5.8

5.0%

5,1

4,9

4,6

TURKEY

CHINA

3.3

3.1

3.0

2,9

Norway

Belarus

JAPAN

MEXICO

0% USA

iran

Switzerland

RUSSIA

% chg 09/07 % share in 2009


european a u t o m o bi l e m a n u fa c t u r e r s a s s o ci at io n

Taxation

Taxation


key figures

17 Member States levy CO2-related taxation on cars

In 2010, seventeen EU Member States levied CO2-related taxes on passenger cars. Fifteen governments provided tax incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles. In 2009, total motor vehicle taxes in the EU15 amounted to €427 billion or 3.9% of GDP. The European car industry supports the further introduction of the fiscal incentives to promote fuel efficiency. Tax measures are an important tool in shaping consumer demand towards fuel-efficient cars, and help create a market for breakthrough technologies, notably during the introduction phase. The environmental results of the tax incentives in the EU may be negatively influenced by the widely varying systems in each country. The European car industry urges EU governments to show more resolve in harmonising car taxation schemes. The car industry advocates a linear system, in which tax levels are directly proportionate to the car’s CO2 emissions and every gramme of CO2 is taxed the same. Car tax schemes should neither include nor exclude specific technologies and be budget neutral in end-effect. CO2– related car taxation is applied in: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom.

Taxation

Incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles are provided in all Western European countries with the exception of Italy and Luxembourg. The Czech Republic and Romania take the total number of Member States with these incentives up to fifteen. 109


Ta x at io n

Fiscal Income from the Motor Vehicles in the EU* | 2008

AT

€ bn

BE DK DE

ES

FR

EL

IE

IT

NL

PT

FI

€ bn DKK bn

€ bn

€ bn

€ bn

€ bn

€ bn

€ bn

€ bn

€ bn

0.084 18.460

1.607

1.200

SE UK

€ bn SEK bn

£ bn

Purchase or transfer

Source: ACEA – 2010

1. VAT on vehicles, servicing/ repair parts, tyres

3.054

n.a.

27.100

4.957 13.186

n.a.

1.272 15.000 12.830

1.431 19.100

2.871

7.184

0.721

0.783

Second-hand vehicle sales

0.081

2.200

0.062

0.586

0.094

Services and repair + tyres

1.637

4.470

5.416

0.730

Accessories and spare parts

0.905

1.330

2. Fuels & Lubricants

5.523

6.073 15.000 39.930 16.815 34.735

3.115

2.651 33.460

9.867

3.700

3.284 50.000 24.510

3. Sales & registration taxes

0.530

0.358 24.300

1.043

1.888

0.843

1.121

1.230

3.271

1.175

1.018

Annual ownership taxes

1.510

1.401

1.296

0.996

1.057

6.470

3.079

0.080

0.637 11.850

5.380

0.070

2.024

9.627

8.840

2.636

Driving license fees

0.007

0.010

0.092

Insurance taxes

0.320

0.462

3.570

0.739

Tolls

1.300

2.096

0.413

Customs duties

0.093

0.480

Other taxes

0.589

0.750

TOTAL EURO

0.570

3.933

4.230

9.484

1.250

N.A. N.A.

12.263 16.091 51.436 107.780 31.594 79.143

5.675

16.1

6.9

107.8

31.6

0.040

– 1.435

12.3

0.355

79.1

5.7

GRAND TOTAL = € 427.4 BN *no data available for other EU Member States

110

2.510

New vehicle sales

0.177

4.600

0.501

5.130 69.700 19.932 5.1

69.7

19.9

0.260

3.350

0.125 0.090 6.370 6.4

7.250

3.710

6.471 87.450

46.500

6.5

8.2

52.2


key figures

Source: ACEA – 2010

Share of VAT in Net Price of the Car

Denmark

Hungary

Sweden

Finland

Poland

Belgium

Greece

Ireland

Lithuania

Latvia

25 %

22 %

21 %

Austria

Germany

Bulgaria

Netherlands

Czech Republic

Romania

Estonia

Slovakia

Italy Portugal

Malta

UK

Spain

Cyprus

Luxembourg

Slovenia

France

20 %

19.6 %

19 %

18 % 17.5 % 16 % 15 %

AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU

IE

IT LV LT LU MT NL PL PT RO SK

SI ES SE UK

EU minimum rates

Unleaded Petrol 442 614 350 299 505 571 423 627 607 655 410 444 543 564 380 434 462 459 714 391 583 348 515 499 425 540 617

 359 

Diesel

 330 

347 353 307 245 431 386 393 364 428 470 302 360 449 423 330 274 310 352 421 302 364 293 368 432 331 451 617

Taxation

Source: ACEA – 2010

Excise Duties on Fuels in € / 1,000 litres

111


AT Austria

LT Lithuania

BE Belgium

LU Luxembourg

BG Bulgaria

LV Latvia

CH Switzerland

MT Malta

CY Cyprus

NL Netherlands

CZ Czech Republic

NO Norway

DE Germany

PL Poland

DK Denmark

PT Portugal

EE Estonia

RO Romania

EL Greece

RS Serbia

ES Spain

RU Russia

FI Finland

SE Sweden

FR France

SI Slovenia

HU Hungary

SK Slovakia

IE Ireland

TR Turkey

IS Iceland

UA Ukraine

IT Italy

UK United Kingdom

Europe EU27 + EFTA EFTA Iceland + Norway + Switzerland NAFTA USA + Canada + Mexico BRIC Brazil + Russia + India + China

Mercosur Argentina + Brazil + Paraguay + Uruguay

ASEAN Brunei + Indonesia + Malaysia

+ Philippines + Singapore + Thailand + Vietnam CIS Commonwealth of Independent States: Armenia + Azerbaijan + Belarus + Kazakhstan + Uzbekistan + Tajikistan + Kyrgyzstan + Moldavia + Ukraine + Russia

Cars

PC Passenger Cars

Vans

LCV Light Commercial Vehicles + minibus / coaches  3.5t

Trucks

CV MCV + HCV

MCV Medium Commercial Vehicles > 3.5t but  16t HCV Heavy Commercial Vehicles > 16t

Buses + Coaches

B&C Buses > 3.5t

Motor Vehicles

MV Cars + Vans + Trucks + Buses & Coaches

Sport Utility Vehicles

SUV off-road passenger cars (4X4)

PM particulate matter CO carbon monoxide

NOx nitrogen oxides CO2 carbon dioxide

Mn g tkm GCW

Bn billion t tonne pkm passenger-kilometre GPD gross domestic product

EC European Commission CAFE Clean Air for Europe EEA European Environment Agency OECD Organisation for Economic

Cooperation and Development AAA Association Auxiliaire de l’Automobile VDA Verband der Automobilindustrie OICA Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles

million gramme tonne-kilometre gross combined weight

ACEA pocket guide 2010  

ACEA pocket guide 2010

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