Studio Air 2018 - semester 1 Beatrijs Kostelijk 925273 Alessandro Liuti
Part A / Conceptualization Introduction A.1 Design Futuring A.2 Design Computation A.3 Composition/Generation A.4 Conclusion A.5 Learning outcomes A.6 Appendix - Algorithmic sketches Bibliography
Part B / Criteria Design
B.1 Research Field B.2 Case study 1.0 B.3 ...
Part C / Detailed Design ...
1 4 10 16 22 23 24 26
Introduction About me I’m Beatrijs, a third-year exchange student from the Netherlands. I study Architecture and the Built Environment at the Technical University of Delft and I’m doing my final semester at the University of Melbourne before I graduate. In the past 2,5 years in my home university I did 6 design studio’s including renovating an apartment building, designing a rowing club and designing a museum, so the main focus of my study so far has been on studio’s similar to Studio Fire. I chose to do Studio Air because it is a subject that the TU of Delft doesn’t offer. During my first year at the Technical University of Delft I was disappointed that the curriculum focussed mainly on the aesthetics of exterior architecture and I found that architecture and architects can be very self-centred in their designs. I am, however, more interested in the technical field of architecture and my dream is to contribute to a more sustainable and liveable built environment for the future. In my opinion we, as designers, have the responsibility to do so since we are the ‘futurists’ of our built environment. I find that computation gives you a lot more freedom and therefore potential to design a better and more integrated building in terms of aesthetics, structure but also in terms of sustainability. I believe that computational design will become crucial in the future since our living environment becomes more and more complex and we are shifting towards a more digital world. During my time at the TU of Delft I was taught a lot of Revit and AutoCAD skills. In the 2nd year of the bachelor programme I did a subject that introduced me to the software Rhino and Grasshopper. During this subject I found out how helpful computational design can be and I found that I really liked using the software. Unfortunately the subject was very superficial since it was just an introduction to the software and I barely used it afterwards because my knowledge of the software was too little. I’m really looking forward to doing this subject and I hope I’ll learn not only to use the software, but also about the mathematical structures behind the software.
01 Revit model - Design studio 4: Renovating an apartment building (2017)
02 Rhino and Grasshopper model - Visualising Environments (2016)
Part A Conceptualization
Part A.1 Design Futuring With the growth of the world population to its current numbers, the impact of our existence on the environment has also grown to an uncontrollable extent. Humanity is using up all the resources on earth, climate is changing and it is no longer certain that humanity has a future. The condition of unsustainability is still accelerating and this causes what Tony Fry calls: ‘defuturing’. According to Fry ‘defuturing’ can only be stopped by design, as design is a world-shaping force. But for design to perform the act of futuring, design itself needs to be redesigned.1 Humanity cannot live of nature alone anymore. We have become too independent upon the artificial world and it is time to find new ways of building to change the condition of unsustainability. With the emergence of parametric design, a new way of designing was born. In this journal, the possibilities of parametric design are researched, especially in terms of lightweight structures. Lightweight structures, such as shells, cable structures and membrane structures, are very efficient since strengths are optimally used and materials can be saved. No resources are wasted.2 Lightweight structures, for example tension structures, can also be designed to withstand extreme climate conditions, like earthquakes, and they can easily be demolished and rebuilt on a different site, reutilising the parts and materials.
Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, ethics and new practice, English edn, (Oxford: Berg, 2009)-, pp. 1-16 Jörg Schlaich and Mike Schlaich, Leightweight structures, (2012), MIT – Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Concrete shell resembles a water drop that just landed into the landscape of Teshima Island. ÂŠBenesse Art Site Naoshima
Underneath the concrete shell is a serene, open space, devoid of beams and free of edges. ÂŠBenesse Art Site Naoshima
Teshima Art Museum By Ryue Nishizawa Teshima Art Museum is a concrete shell structure situated on Teshima Island in Japan. It was designed by Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA) and resembles a water drop that falls into the landscape of the island. The shell hosts a single piece of art by Rei Naito, called Matrix, which is committed to water, like the architectural concept itself. The building is highly appreciated by many architects, the local community and visitors. The organic shape, the integration of art and architecture and the natural surroundings, seen through the oval holes in the structure, create a feeling of happiness and serenity. The space underneath the shell, completely devoid of beams, is 40 to 60 meters wide and 4 meters tall at its highest point. The thickness of the shell itself is only 250 mm. It was built in collaboration with structural engineer Sasaki in 2010. “The curve was unlikely to be constructible until engineers were able to fine-tune the form into infinite numbers of analytic iterations, and contractors could accurately and cheaply set out 3,500 points for an unusual and non-orthogonal profile.”1 The concrete shell eventually was realised by pouring concrete continuously for 22 hours over a mortar-finished earth formwork, which was later excavated from the concrete shell. This created a beautiful and serene open space totally free of beams and edges. The integration of structure and architecture is a very important aspect of the building. “The digital linkage established an advanced environment for interactive digital generation and performance simulation as a paradigm of collaborative design between the architect and the engineer.”2 Without computing and without the close collaboration between architect and structural engineer, the building couldn’t have been as light and beautiful as it is now. The concrete shell by Rye Nishizawa is considered highly revolutionary since a structure like this is very experimental and innovative. The Teshima Art Museum proves that it is possible to design non-orthogonal buildings and inspires architects to design organic-shaped buildings.
Dana Buntrock, ‘Teshima Art Museum by Ryue Nishizawa, Teshima Island, Japan’, The architectural review, (2011), <https:// www.architectural-review.com/today/teshima-art-museum-by-ryue-nishizawa-teshima-island-japan/8612052.article> [accessed 8 march 2018] 2 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, ‘Theories of the Digital in Architecture’ , (London; New York: Routledge), (2014), pp. 4 1
Geodetic spheres floating on the Maas river. © 2015 Drijvend Paviljoen
The Floating Pavilion has a lot of sustainable elements such as solar panels, PCM’s, heat recovery and water treatment. © Public Domain Architecten
Rotterdam Floating Pavilion By Deltasync and PublicDomain Architects The Rotterdam Floating Pavilion is a floating venue in the city centre of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. It consists of three spheres, which are connected to each other, made from ETFE foil. The geodetic structure is extremely light. Not only does this cut down the use of material but it is also in favour of the buoyancy. Rotterdam is a Delta city, located on the banks of the Maas river. Therefore it is a vulnerable city for climate change and sea level rice. The pavilion is designed to be a climate change proof building as it is resilient to sea level rise and flooding. Besides the fact that the pavilion is lightweight and floating, it is integrated with solar panels, it uses the thermal capacity of the river and heat recovery, it has its own wastewater treatment, it has phase change materials (PCMs), used to store thermal energy, and it has vegetation on certain parts of the structure.1 The pavilion is a pilot and a catalyst for floating construction in Rotterdam.2 It is a prototype for future floating structures such as floating homes. The Rotterdam Floating Pavilion has an innovative, sustainable character and is a pioneer in the field of building on water. When the pavilion was built is was planned to stay there at least until 2019. It is unlikely that the structure will be removed after that, since it is such a successful and innovative building.
Public Domain Architecten, Floating Pavilion, (2015), < http://www.publicdomainarchitecten.nl/en/drijvend-paviljoen/ >, [accessed 15 march 2018] 2 Drijvend Paviljoen, (2015), < https://www.drijvendpaviljoen.nl/floating-pavilion-event-location >, [accessed 15 march 2018] 1
Part A.2 Design Computation Computing has caused a major shift in the architectural design process. It created a lot of possibilities in the field of architecture and civil engineering. In this chapter some of the possibilities are discussed and 2 case studies will be presented. Firstly, computers created the possibility to create graphics to share ideas. ‘The recent addition of computers to the repertoire of means of communication has expanded access to information and opened up the design process for more people to become involved.’1 Creating 3D computer simulations makes it easier to present our ideas to others and working on the same project with multiple designers and engineers. Secondly, computers have a big memory and because of that they are way better and faster at calculating complex structures than the human mind. Computers are able to make very accurate calculations on stresses and tensions and because of that we are able to design more complex and free forms. Making a change in the form of the building is way easier because the computer simply recalculates the stresses for the new form. The computer can even make the designer aware of errors in the structure.2 A huge benefit of calculating faster and more accurate is that it can minimise the material usage, which creates the possibility of building lightweight structures more easy. Designing digitally establishes a much more integrated design in terms of structure and details. Lastly computers also changed the structure industry. Because of computing we are now able to build with the use of 3D printers and drones. With the development of the 3D-printer the possibility to 3D-print structures became available and there are even examples of buildings that are completely built by the computer with this technique, such as the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilions. This is what Oxman calls the ‘digital chain’.3 Design, structure and even construction are all made digitally. ‘This new continuity transcends the purely instrumental contributions of the man-machine relationship to praxis and has begun to evolve as a medium that supports a continuous logic of design thinking and making.’4
Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer - Aided Design, (Massachussettes: The MIT Press ,2004), p. 13 2 Yehuda E. Kalay, p. 3 3 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, ‘Theories of the Digital in Architecture’ , (London; New York: Routledge), (2014), pp. 2 4 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, p. 1 1
Construction of Palazzeto dello Sport ÂŠ Atribune
Construction form the concrete roof of Palazzetto dello Sport. ÂŠ ArchDaily 2008-2018
Palazzetto dello Sport By Pier Luigi Nervi The Palazzeto dello Sport is a concrete shell structure, constructed 1958 by Pier Luigi Nervi in Rome. Pier Luigi Nervi actually was a structural engineer but he also had a great imagination and talent for architecture. The building is rather extraordinary for its time, because of the integration of design and structure and because of the construction process. The concrete shell is made from intertwined concrete ribs overlaid with cement mortar and supported by Y-shaped columns, creating an extremely light construction. Because the architecture and structure are designed by the same person both aspects are very well integrated in the building. Luigi also designed the building so that there were as little different types of concrete elements as possible. The elements could be produced on site and could be lifted by only two men.1 This way it was possible to put the prefabricated panels right in the structure on site, avoiding big costs. The Palazzeto dello Sport is an amazing outcome of Luigiâ€™s combined interest. Architecture, structure and composition are fused into one thing and there is no separation between architect and engineer. The construction process was also very well designed by the architect, keeping the costs of the design process down.
Tullia Iori and Sergio Poretti, Pier Luigi Nerviâ€™s Works for the 1960 Rome Olympics, (2005), pp. 605 - 611
End result of ICD/ITKE
© Roland Halbe
Fabrication process of ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 © ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart
Research Pavilion 2014-15
ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 By The Institute for Computational Design and Construction ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 is a 3D printed structure developed by researchers and students from the University of Stuttgart. The pavilion is completely generated with the computer. It is made through a novel robotic fabrication process. A flexible pneumatic formwork is gradually stiffened by reinforcing it with carbon fibres from the inside by a 3D-printing robot arm, controlled by the computer.1 The process of designing this structure is different from that of Luigi because of computation. The Engineers of the structure made a concept design but they optimized it with the computer. Computation stands in between the concept and the construction whereas in the design of Luigi design and construction are one thing. This project is a good example of the contiuum from concept to construction.
ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15, (2015), < http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965 >, [accessed 15 march 2018]
Part A.3 Composition/generation Form-finding is the process of designing optimal structural shapes by using experimental tools.1 The first actions of from-finding were based on making hanging models such as Gaudi’s hanging model for the Sagrada Familia. Wire-mesh models were made to find the most effective form to build grid shells. Then hanging models of pieces of wet fabric were made and frozen to find the right form for RC-shells and lastly the pneumatic/inflated hill method was developed.2 The benefit of these method is that you could find the most efficient form for you structure in order to build light but finding form through these models is highly time consuming, very labour demanding and it takes extreme precision to measure the models in order to build these structures on a large scale. Besides, the architect doesn’t define the shape using this method there is no ability to design a ‘free form’. Gravity defines the shape for you. Control on design changed because of the computer. Computation redefined the practice of architecture and it enabled new ways of thinking.3 It enabled the designer to create highly complex projects and provides the designer with inspiration ‘through the generation of unexpected results’. 4 Because of computation designers are now able to design complex free forms instead of fixed form found fixed forms. Where forms used to be found by studying models and measuring them, now forms are defined by algorithms, ‘allowing architects to explore new design options and to analyse architectural decisions during the design process.’5 Designing becomes a process of finding optimal structural shapes. This has a huge effect on how we find form. Because of the accurate computer simulations form is now defined by materials and structure, thus there is no top-down approach anymore where the architect defines the form. Computation doesn’t only affect the way we design but also has a huge effect on how we build, how we give meaning to architecture and on design thinking.
Arturo Tedeschi, AAD _ Algorithms - Aided design, (Potenza: Le Penseur Publisher, 2014), p. 353 Arturo Tedeschi, p. 356 - 358 3 Brady Peters, Computation Works: the building of algorithmic thought, (New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc 2013), pp. 10 -15 4 Brady Peters, p. 10 5 Brady Peters, p. 13 1 2
Muchic Olympic Park
© Atelier Frei Otto Warmbronn
One of Frei Otto’s prototypes for form finding © ArchDaily 2008-2018
Munich Olympic Park By Frei Otto The Olympic Park in Munich by Frei Otto is a tensile structure which is developed with the method of form finding. Otto was exploring designs based on the principles of nature and experimented a lot with lightweight structures throughout his life.1 He was especially engaged with research on cable net constructions, making a lot of prototypes spanning cable nets on high and low points. The Olympic Park in Munich is the first large scale realisation of these prototypes.2 His work was incredibly modern for his time, creating entirely new forms in buildings. The method Otto used to design the Olympic Park is based on stretching cable nets across edge frames ‘to simulate the pre-stress state typical of cable nets and generate their geometry.’3 “His tireless experimentation with models served the purpose of researching causal contexts and was simultaneously part of the form generating design process.”4 This method is a way of form finding that doesn’t allow free form. The form is determined by the structural optimum.
Irene Meissner and Eberhard Möller, Frei Otto: a life of research, construction and inspiration, (Munich: Detail, 2015), p. 13 Irene Meissner and Eberhard Möller, p. 17 3 Arturo Tedeschi, AAD _ Algorithms - Aided design, (Potenza: Le Penseur Publisher, 2014), p. 355-358 4 ArchDaily, Frei Otto’s Drawings and Models Showcased With Exhibition Design by FAR frohn&rojas, (2016). < https://blackboard.swan.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/LibraryISSResources/Referencing%20Guides/MHRA%20style%20(brief%20guide).pdf >, [Accessed 16 Mar 2018] 1 2
Municipal Funeral Hall in Kakamigahara ÂŠ Shinkenchiku-sha
Municipal Funeral Hall in Kakamigahara By Toyo Ito The Municipal Funeral Hall in Kakamigahara is designed by Toyo Ito. It seems so light that it looks like it is floating, as if it were a cloud. Toyo Ito, just like Frei Otto, wanted to make the design look as close to nature as possible. The project was designed in collaboration with structural engineer Sasaki. The roof, only 20 cm thin, is made up of concave and convex forms. It flows into twelve tapered columns and it’s partially carried by the two-storey core. The shape of the roof is a result of close collaboration between the architect and the structural engineer. The idea started with a simple design, which was digitalised and structurally tested by the computer. The internal tensions had to be minimised and a competent slope had to be created to the top of the tapered columns. “Hundreds of further calculations were performed before a computer model emerged of the optimum shape; neither architects nor structural engineers had anticipated the result in quite this way.”1 For the construction of the roof the digital data were used for the prefabrication of the curved formwork elements and columns. “Erecting the formwork on site was a difficult challenge, because very little deviation was permitted from the calculated coordinates.”2 For the pouring of the roof, rapid-hardening concrete was used, making it very difficult to create an even roof. The Municipal Funeral Hall in Kakamigahara is both an analytical and a form finding developed precedent. It compromises between optimal structure and computation.
Detail, Municipal Funeral Hall in Kakamigahara, (2008), <https://inspiration.detail.de/municipal-funeral-hall-in-kakamigahara-103351.html?lang=en>, [accessed 16 march 2018] 2 Detail 1
“This is an age in which digitally informed design can actually produce a second nature.” 1
Order of structures © Jörg Schlaich and Mike Schlaich
Part A.4 Conclusion Computer aided design is now widely available and becomes more and more prominent in our everyday life and in the field of architecture. Times are ready for us to use the machine and the digital to produce buildings. Computing generates a continuum from design to production, enabling us to design complex “free-form” geometry. “In effect, formation precedes form, and design becomes the thinking of architectural generation through the logic of the algorithm.”2 Digital linkage established digital generation and structural performance simulations, creating integration between architecture and structure. Form is no longer determined by the architect but by performance. “This is the age of the emergence of research by design.”3 During the rest of this subject I am going to do research lightweight structures. The type of lightweight structure I am particularly interested in is the concrete shell structure, thus my intended approach for this subject will be to design a concrete shell structure.
Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the digital in Architecture, (London: Routledge, 2014), p. 2 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, p. 2 3 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, p. 4 1 2
Part A.5 Learning outcomes My understanding of architectural computing has greatly increased and made me even more interested in this field of design. If I had knowledge of this during my previous projects I would have designed differently. I would have applied more lightweight structures and looked into opportunities to design free form. During my previous project I avoided designing free forms because of their complexity and my designs ended up being mostly orthogonal. Even though I didnâ€™t choose to learn about lightweight structures I found myself really interested in the subject. My knowledge about the principles of lightweight structures and architectural computing has greatly increased and Iâ€™m looking forward to applying my knowledge while designing during the rest of this subject.
Part A.6 Algorithmic sketches
Bibliography ArchDaily, Frei Otto’s Drawings and Models Showcased With Exhibition Design by FAR frohn&rojas, (2016). < https:// blackboard.swan.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/LibraryISSResources/Referencing%20Guides/MHRA%20 style%20(brief%20guide).pdf >, [Accessed 16 Mar 2018] Buntrock, Dana, ‘Teshima Art Museum by Ryue Nishizawa, Teshima Island, Japan’, The architectural review, (2011), <https://www.architectural-review.com/today/teshima-art-museum-by-ryue-nishizawa-teshima-is land-japan/8612052.article> [accessed 8 march 2018] Detail, Municipal Funeral Hall in Kakamigahara, (2008), <https://inspiration.detail.de/municipal-funeral-hall-in-kakami gahara-103351.html?lang=en>, [accessed 16 march 2018]
Drijvend Paviljoen, (2015), < https://www.drijvendpaviljoen.nl/floating-pavilion-event-location >, [accessed 15 march 2018] Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, ethics and new practice, English edn, (Oxford: Berg, 2009)
ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15, (2015), < http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965 >, [accessed 15 march 2018] Iori, Tullia and Sergio Poretti, Pier Luigi Nervi’s Works for the 1960 Rome Olympics, (2005) Kalay, Yehuda E., Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer - Aided Design, (Mas sachussettes: The MIT Press ,2004) Meissner, Irene and Eberhard Möller, Frei Otto: a life of research, construction and inspiration, (Munich: Detail, 2015) Oxman. Rivka and Robert Oxman, ‘Theories of the Digital in Architecture’ , (London; New York: Routledge), (2014), pp. 4 Peters, Brady, Computation Works: the building of algorithmic thought, (New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc 2013) Public Domain Architecten, Floating Pavilion, (2015), < http://www.publicdomainarchitecten.nl/en/drijvend-paviljoen/ >, [accessed 15 march 2018] Schlaich Jörg and Mike Schlaich, Leightweight structures, (2012), MIT – Massachusetts Institute of Technology Tedeschi, Arturo , AAD _ Algorithms - Aided design, (Potenza: Le Penseur Publisher, 2014)
Part B Criteria Design
cy and Projects, Chancellery
New Student Precinct
ÂŠ University of Melbourne
Part B.1 Research Field - Compression shell structure A new student precinct is being developed on the campus of the University of Melbourne. Its’ aim is to ‘Reshape the Parkville campus to create innovative and informal learning spaces and a student precinct which supports a rich and rewarding student experience’.1 With the new student precinct the University of Melbourne wants to activate the east side of campus by creating more facilities and to create an innovative image. In this journal a design will be developed that will improve the initial design for the new student precinct and that enriches the student experience on the Parkville campus. Part B focuses on developing a technique using computational methods, case-study analysis and research on physical models in order to create the design that will enrich the initial design for the new student precinct. The research field I will focus on is compression shell structure. Shell structures have a long history but are often avoided because they are so difficult to master. With the emergence of computational design we are now able to design shell structures through analytical methods and to master the art of building shell structures. There are also a lot of new materials available nowadays. Because of these developments we can look for new structural systems for shells. “Shell structures are constructed systems described by three-dimensional curved surfaces, in which one dimension is significantly smaller compared to the other two.”2 Shells are form-passive structures. The stresses in a shell act predominantly in the plane of the shell surface, and ideally work primarily on membrane action, if the shell has the right shape. Shell structures are structural very efficient, have eye-catching forms and can be easy to construct on site, making it a perfect match for the new student precinct. For the research on shell structures 2 case studies will be analysed. The first one is the DS service station by Heinz Isler in Deitingen and the second one is the Armadillo Vault by the research team of ETH Zurich.
University of Melbourne, 2018, https://students.unimelb.edu.au/student-precinct#design-and-development 2 Sigrid Adriaenssens, Philippe Block, Diederik Veenendaal and Chris Williams, Shell structures for Architecture, (Routledge: New York, 2014), p. 2. 1
Deitingen SĂźd Service Station (Heinz Isler)
Case study 1.0
Deitingen Süd Service Station By Heinz Isler While his shell structures in Deitingen are only used for a service station, Heinz Isler’s concrete shell structures were highly exacting and innovative for their time. The gracefull shells only have three supports, no edge beams and are just 90 millimetres thick.1 The shells for Deitingen Service Station were form-found, wich means their final shape is found by a natural hanging model. Isler used Hookes technique of making a hanging model to find optimal structural form but instead of using a chain he used a sheet of cloth wich he soaked in liquid plaster and suspended to harden.2 The suspended piece of cloth is subject only to its tensile forces and forms a curve known as a catenary. He then inverted the model, making it subject only to compression forces. “He directly produced the physical models by hand in order to not only create design prototypes, but also to generate scaled-up measurements for construction.”3 Isler was the first engineer to apply this principle to thin membranes in three dimensions. In order to explore the form of the Deitingen Süd Service Station I will investigate a definition wich is based on the hanging cloth model of Isler on the next few pages. Then I will highlight 4 of the most succesfull outcomes based on selection criteria.
John Chilton and Chu-Chun Chuang, ‘Rooted in Nature: Aesthetics, Geometry and Structure in the Shells of Heinz Isler’, Nexus Network Journal, 19.3 (2010), p. 65 2 Sigrid Adriaenssens, Philippe Block, Diederik Veenendaal and Chris Williams, Shell Structures for Architecture: Form Finding and Optimization, 1st edn (New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 38 3 John Cilton, p. 65 1
For the design of the student precinct we have decided to make an informal study space shell structure. For this space the following selection criteria are of importance: - Enough light - Shelter - Easthetics Light In order to design a succesfull informal study space it is important to have enough light in the space. The shell structure in iteration 008 will have a lot of light underneath it because the surface is smaller than the other iterations. Iteration 015 will also have a lot of light because of the holes in the structure. Iteration 012 and iteration 009 will have less light than the upper 2 iterations. Shelter The structure should offer shelter for students who would like to study or have a meeting in an informal study space. This is an interesting criteria since it seems to be the oppsite of the first criteria. The less surface of the shell, the more light but the less shelter. A balance or solution for these clashing criteria has to be found. Iteration 008 has four big openings on all sides, letting a lot of light in but not offering protection against rain, wind and sun. Iteration 015 also letâ€™s a lot of light in, but the wholes would have te be closed with a transparent material, to offer enough shelter. Iteration 012 provides a little more shelter than the first 2 but doensâ€™t let as much light in as the first two iterations. Iteration 009 letâ€™s even less light in. Easthetics Iteration 008 is the least attractive iteration of the four, because it is just a simple square structure. Iteration 015 is already more interesting, having a variety of wholes and elegant sweeping edges. Iteration 012 has less elegant edges but provides more difference in height level. Iteration 009 both has the difference of height level and elegent sweeping edges, making it the most succesfull one of the 4.
Armadillo Vault Venice Architecture Biennale 2016
Case study 2.0
Armadillo Vault By ETH Zurich The Armadillo Vault was built for the Venice Biennale in 2016 by ETH Zurich’s Block research group. It is a shell structure made solely from slabs of limestone, without the use of adhesives. The design intent of the ETH team was to make an efficient lightweight structure from only one single material wich is structuraly difficult “to show how optimised geometries make it possible to build ambitious structures, even with limited resources.”1 Philippe Block, one of the founders of the Block research groep, explained: “We’re showing a new way of designing where you understand the constraints, so that you’re not just focusing on geometry but on the relationship between geometry and forces,”2 In order to achieve the optimal thinness of the limestone shell structure they created their own Rhino design plugin named RhinoVAULT. Rhinovault is based on Thrust Network Analysis (TNA), a new methodology for threedimensional equilibirum. “TNA prvides a graphical and intuitive approach to explore discrete, funicular networks by using the form and force diagrams of graphics statics to control the geometry of the projection of a chosen force layout and its horizontal equilibrium.”3 This approach allows the designer to explore structural form, using a form diagram and a force diagram. The result is a clear and readable shell structure showing the relationship between compression forces, the material and the construction. The underside of the shell is left unfinished to save time, but the direction of the unfunished surface on the inside of the shell is the same for all slabs. To get a better understanding of how the Armadillo vault is designed I will reverse engineer the project using Rhinovault for the form and grasshopper for the tesselation of the vault.
Amy Frearson, Armadillo Vault is a pioneering stone structure that supports itself without any glue, (2016), <https:// www.dezeen.com/2016/05/31/armadillo-vault-block-research-group-eth-zurich-beyond-the-bending-limestone-structure-without-glue-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/>, [accessed on 13 april 2018]. 2 Amy Frearson, Armadillo Vault is a pioneering stone structure that supports itself without any glue. 3 Philippe Block, Tom Van Mele and Matthias Rippmann, ‘Geometry of Forces: Exploring the Solution Space of Structural Design’, (2016), p. 50 1
Reverse engineering process 1. Formfinding
1.1 Drawing form
1.2 Setting the boundaries
1.3 Form Diagram
1.4 Setting weight nodes and openings
1.5 Form relaxation (+ force diagram)
1.6 Finding horizontal equilibrium
MeshMachine and PlanktonMesh
2.1 Divide shell by meshes Weaverbird’s Dual graph
2.2 Draw hexagons on shell
2.3 Make seperate planes from hexagons Weaverbird’s Mesh Thicken
2.4 Make slabs from hexagon planes
Part B.4 Technique: development Vault Height Scale
For the design of the student precinct we have decided to make an informal study space shell structure. For this space the following selection criteria are of importance: -
Part B.5 Technique: Prototypes Glass fibre concrete vs transparant pattern in concrete (refer to Litracon)
Part B.6 Technique: Proposal
Part B.7 Learning objectives and outcomes
Part B.8 Algorithmic sketches
Bibliography Adriaenssens, Sigrid, Philippe Block, Diederik Veenendaal and Chris Williams, Shell structures for Architecture: Form Finding and Optimization, 1st edn, (Routledge: New York, 2014), pp. 2 - 38 Block, Philippe, Tom Van Mele and Matthias Rippmann, ‘Geometry of Forces: Exploring the Solution Space of Structural Design’, (2016), p. 50 Chilton, John and Chu-Chun Chuang, ‘Rooted in Nature: Aesthetics, Geometry and Structure in the Shells of Heinz Isler’, Nexus Network Journal, 19.3 (2010), p. 65 Frearson, Amy, Armadillo Vault is a pioneering stone structure that supports itself without any glue, (2016), <https://www.dezeen. com/2016/05/31/armadillo-vault-block-research-group-eth-zurich-beyond-the-bending-limestone-structu re-without-glue-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/>, [accessed on 13 april 2018]. University of Melbourne, 2018, https://students.unimelb.edu.au/student-precinct#design-and-development