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AIR Journal

Studio Air 2018 - semester 1 Beatrijs Kostelijk 925273 Alessandro Liuti

Introduction About me I’m Beatrijs, a third-year exchange student from the Netherlands. I study Architecture and the Built Environment at the Technical University of Delft and I’m doing my final semester at the University of Melbourne before I graduate. In the past 2,5 years in my home university I did 6 design studio’s including renovating an apartment building, designing a rowing club and designing a museum, so the main focus of my study so far has been on studio’s similar to Studio Fire. I chose to do Studio Air because it is a subject that the TU of Delft doesn’t offer. During my first year at the Technical University of Delft I was disappointed that the curriculum focussed mainly on the aesthetics of exterior architecture and I found that architecture and architects can be very self-centred in their designs. I am, however, more interested in the technical field of architecture and my dream is to contribute to a more sustainable and liveable built environment for the future. In my opinion we, as designers, have the responsibility to do so since we are the ‘futurists’ of our built environment. I find that computation gives you a lot more freedom and therefore potential to design a better and more integrated building in terms of aesthetics, structure but also in terms of sustainability. I believe that computational design will become crucial in the future since our living environments became more and more complex and we are shifting towards a more digital world. During my time at the TU of Delft I was taught a lot of Revit and AutoCAD skills. In the 2nd year of the bachelor programme I did a subject that introduced me to the software Rhino and Grasshopper. During this subject I found out how helpful computational design can be and I found that I really liked using the software. Unfortunately the subject was very superficial since it was just an introduction to the software and I barely used it afterwards because my knowledge of the software was too little. I’m really looking forward to doing this subject and I hope I’ll learn not only to use the software, but also about the mathematical structures behind the software.



01 Revit model - Design studio 4: Renovating an apartment building (2017)

02 Rhino and Grasshopper model - Visualising Environments (2016)


Part A / Conceptualization

A.1 Design Futuring A.2 Design Computation A.3 Composition/Generation A.3 Conclusion A.5 Learning outcomes A.6 Appendix - Algorithmic sketches

Part B / Criteria Design

B.1 Research Field B.2 Case study 1.0 B.3 ...

Part C / Detailed Design ...

Part A Conceptualization

Part A.1 Design Futuring With the growth of the world population to it’s current numbers, the impact of our existence on the environment has also grown to an uncontrollable extent. Humanity is using up all the resources on earth, climate is changing and it is no longer certain that humanity has a future. The condition of unsustainability is still accelerating and this causes what Tony Fry calls: ‘defuturing’.1 According to Fry ‘defuturing’ can only be stopped by design as design is a world-shaping force. Humanity can not live of nature alone anymore and we have become too independent upon the artificial world. It is time to find new ways of building to change the condition of unsustainability. ...

Lightweight structure By




Geodetic shpered floating on the water © 2015 Drijvend Paviljoen

... © Public Domain Architecten

Rotterdam Floating Pavilion By Deltasync and PublicDomain Architects The Rotterdam Floating Pavilion is a floating venue in the city center of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. It consists of three spheres, wich are connected to eachother, made from ETFE foil. The geodetic structure is extremely light. Not only does this cut down the use of material but it is also in favour of the buoyancy. Rotterdam is a Delta city, located on the banks of the Maas river. Therefore it is a vulnerable city for climate change and sea leven rice. The pavilion is designed to be a climate change proof building as it is resilient to sea level rise and flooding. The pavilion is a pilot and a catalyst for floating construction in Rotterdam.1 It is a prototype for future floating structures such as floating homes. The Rotterdam Floating Pavilion has an innovative, sustainable character and is a pioneer in the field of building on water. When the pavilion was built is was planned to stay ther at least until 2019. It is unlikely that the structure will be removed after that, since it is such a succesfull and innovative building.

Part A.2 Design Computation Computating has caused a major shift in the architectural design process. Computing created a lot of possibilities in the field of architecture and civil engineering. In this chapter some of the possibilities are discussed and 2 case studies will be presented. Firstly, computers created the possibility to create graphics to share ideas. Creating 3D computer simulations makes it easier to present our ideas to others. Unfortunately, our language falls short when it comes to talking about design, form and experience of space. Because of the 3D computer simulations it became way easier to communicate about designs and to work on the same project with multiple designers. Secondly, computers have a big memory and because of that they are way better and faster at calculating complex structures than the human mind. Computers are able to make very accurate calculations on stresses and tensions and because of that we are able to design more complex and free forms. Making a change in the form of the building is way easier because the computer simply recalculates the stresses for the new form. The computer can even make the designer aware of errors in the structure. A huge benefit of calculating faster and more accurate is that it can minimise the material usage, wich creates the possibility of building leightweihgt structures more easy. Designing digitally demands close collaboration with a structural engineer wich establishes a much more integrated design in terms of structure and details. Lastly computers aso changed the structure industry. Because of computing we are now able to fabricate buildings with 3D printers and drones. With the development of the 3D-printer the possibility to 3D-print structures became available and there are even examples of buildings that are completely built by the computer with this technique.



Construction of Palazzeto dello Sport Š Atribune

Construction form the concrete roof of Palazzetto dello Sport. Š ArchDaily 2008-2018

Palazzetto dello Sport By Pier Luigi Nervi The Palazzeto dello Sport is a conrete shell structure, constructed 1958 by Pier Luigi Nervi in Rome. The building is rather extraordinary for it’s time. The concrete shell is made from intertwined concrete ribs. Because of the dome shape, the loads are evenly divided and carried by the Y-shaped columns. Pier Luigi Nervi was not only a structural engineer but also had a great imagination and talent for architecture. The Palazzeto dello Sport is an amazing outcome of this combined interest and talent.



Concrete shell resembles a water drop that just landed into the landscape of Teshima Island. ŠBenesse Art Site Naoshima

Underneath the concrete shell is a serene, open space, devoid of beams and free of edges. ŠBenesse Art Site Naoshima

Teshima Art Museum By Ryue Nishizawa Teshima Art Museum is a concrete shell structure situated on Teshima Island in Japan. It was designed by Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA) and resembles a water drop that falls into the landscape of the island. The shell hosts a single piece of art by Rei Naito, called Matrix, which is committed to water, like the architectural concept itself. The building is highly appreciated by many architects, the local community and visitors. The organic shape, the integration of art and architecture and the natural surroundings, seen through the oval holes in the structure, create a feeling of happiness and serenity. The space underneath the shell, completely devoid of beams, is 40 to 60 meters wide and 4 meters tall at its highest point. The thickness of the shell itself is only 250 mm. It was built in collaboration with structural engineer Sasaki in 2010. “The curve was unlikely to be constructible until engineers were able to fine-tune the form into infinite numbers of analytic iterations, and contractors could accurately and cheaply set out 3,500 points for an unusual and non-orthogonal profile.”1 The concrete shell eventually was realised by pouring concrete continuously for 22 hours over a mortar-finished earth formwork, which was later excavated from the concrete shell. This created a beautiful and serene open space totally free of beams and edges. The integration of structure and architecture is a very important aspect of the building. “The digital linkage established an advanced environment for interactive digital generation and performance simulation as a paradigm of collaborative design between the architect and the engineer.”2 Without computing and without the close collaboration between architect and strucutural engineer, the building couldn’t have been as light and beautiful as it is now. The concrete shell by Rye Nishizawa is considered highly revolutionary since a structure like this is very experimental and innovative. The Teshima Art Museum proves that it is possible to design non-orthogonal buildings and inspires architects to make organic designs and to use computing for designing buildings in collaboration with structural engineers.

Dana Buntrock, ‘Teshima Art Museum by Ryue Nishizawa, Teshima Island, Japan’, The architectural review, (2011), <https://> [accessed 8 march 2018] 2 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, ‘Theories of the Digital in Architecture’ , (London; New York: Routledge), (2014), pp. 4 1

Part A.3 Composition/generation

Kostelijk beatrijs 925273 parta draft1  
Kostelijk beatrijs 925273 parta draft1