Issuu on Google+

People andorplants in Bangalore Greening Graying the City? Urban Biodiversity and Challenges of Urban Conservation

Harini Nagendra ATREE Harini Nagendra With - Madhumitha Jaganmohan, Lionel Sujay Vailshery, Divya With - Madhumitha Jaganmohan, Lionel Sujay Vailshery, Divya Gopal, Sajid Gopal Pareeth, Suparsh Nagendran


• Indian cities contain 11% of world’s urban population • Population growth is mostly going to come from cities • What shapes biodiversity in congested Indian cities?


Long history of tree cutting in cities Lebanon 8th cent. B.C.; Mahabharatha – Khandava forests


But people – especially children – in cities need places to experience greenery – else how will they grow up to have a concern for nature?


Reference: Sudhira and Nagendra (2013)


Forgotten Histories‌ 2 hand drawn maps of 1799


Multiple patches of garden‌?

Mavalli - Lake

Islamic-landscape gardens


Colebrook painting – Lal Bagh with multiple patches


Aerial “fly through” based on Digital Elevation Model, 2 paintings, landmarks – multiple patches outside current boundary


Location of H ome painting

Location of C olebrooke painting


Figure 2

Location of H ome painting

Location of C olebrooke painting


Land cover change

Urban trees

Green networks

Lakes

Urban collective action Parks

Biodiversity


Within the city, most stable green cover related to educational, army, government, public sector, or religious institutions Small patches of new greening within the city – new city parks How does land use shape biodiversity?


Street trees of Bangalore  Study of 152 roads with 2400 avenue trees  Rich in species compared to other cities including Chicago, Mexico City, Bangkok and Hong Kong  Density is very low  Largest trees on wide roads  Changes in species preferences over time


IKONOS satellite image, Jayanagar


Changing preferences for tree planting  Older trees – rain tree, copper pod, African tulip, gulmohar etc  Younger trees – honge, neem, mast tree etc  Preference for narrow canopied trees with less of a “nuisance” factor for roots, leaf fall, flowering…


Environmental significance

Road without trees

Road with trees

Suspended Particulate Matter


Roads without trees have mostly motorized traffic Road without trees

Tree lined streets provide ecological services, biodiversity habitat, and corridors to network green patches Also - important social places for congregation with urban character

Street with trees

Promote walking, bicycling‌


Parks in Bangalore  Study of 1400 trees from 98 parks  80 species, 80% exotic  Old parks are more wooded, new parks are more ornamental  No systematic planting policy  Large tree species being phased out in favor of palm, mast tree etc.


Home gardens of  Bangalore


Preference for plants

Fruiting Religious Plants Plants 20% 25% Medicinal Ornamental Plants Plants 19% 30%

Other 6%

Cooking 4% Shade 1% Hobby 1%


 Decreased garden       size  Change in the  architecture  Hybrid varieties  Preference of non  flowering  plants Changes to  apartments with  preference for palms  and ornamentals 


Slums and biodiversity (Gopal, 2012)


Activities under the canopy Adults playing 3% Flower vending 3% M aking incense sticks 5%

Others 10% Socializing 30%

Washing Dishes 6% Washing clothes 6% Grooming 8%

Cooking 10%

Children playing 19%

• Trees are centres of activity in slums

• Ficus religiosa - Activity hotspot (Gopal, 2012)


Trees ‐ Pillars of support – figuratively and literally! Utility

Proportion

Clothes line

35.3

Wires

4.9

Tent support

4.5

Photograph stand

0.5

Switch board

0.5

Hoardings

0.2

Lamp post

0.2

Puncture shop

0.2

Storage area

0.2

(Gopal, 2012)


Slums vs other land use types  Largely native (65% native vs 3035% in streets, parks)  11 trees/ha vs 28 trees/ha in wealthier residential areas  Older slums have larger sized species – rain tree, peepal – giving way to drumstick and coconut in new slums


Institutions protect trees


Sacred trees


Other religious sites


Hosur Road Cemetery


Hosur Road Cemetery


Biodiversity in Bangalore  Rich variation  Differs across streets, parks, slums, home gardens, apartments…  Strong impact of cultural and social preferences on plant density and species selection  Strong role of Government institutions – BBMP/State Govt, military, public sector, educational, religious etc


Tree of Life


1. H. Nagendra, H. Unnikrishnan and S. Sen (2014). Villages in the city: spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rurality and urbanity in Bangalore, India. LAND 3: 1-18. 2. M. Jaganmohan, L.S. Vailshery and H. Nagendra (2013). Patterns of insect abundance and distribution in urban domestic gardens in Bangalore, India. Diversity 5: 767-778. 3. M. Jaganmohan, L.S. Vailshery, D. Gopal and H. Nagendra (2012). Plant diversity and distribution in urban domestic gardens and apartments in Bangalore. Urban Ecosystems 15: 911-925. 4. H. Nagendra, S. Nagendran, S. Paul and S. Pareeth (2012). Graying, greening and fragmentation in the rapidly expanding Indian city of Bangalore. Landscape and Urban Planning 105: 400-406. 5. M. Iyer, H. Nagendra and M.B. Rajani (2012). Using satellite imagery and historical maps to investigate the contours of Lalbagh. Current Science 102: 507-509. 6. H. Nagendra and D. Gopal (2011). Tree diversity, distribution, history and change in urban parks. Urban Ecosystems 14: 211223. 7. H. Nagendra and D. Gopal (2010). Street trees in Bangalore: Density, diversity, composition and distribution. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 9: 129-137.

Questions?


People and plants in bangalore