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About Our Work This book has grown out of the post-graduate research program Resources conducted at the School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Arts in Stockholm. In a three-year project – Cities and Energy – we have investigated how necessary changes in energy consumption and production influence and inform our cities and our ways of life. Resources enlists working professionals from different academic fields and creates a multi-disciplinary breeding ground for the exchange of ideas. Together with a vast number of inter­nationally renowned individuals and firms such as Arup, David Cook/Behnisch Architekten, Kjell Aleklett, Fredrik Höök, Susannah Hagan, Edward Soja, Carolyn Steel, Philipp Rode, Mathias Rudolph/Transsolar, the L.A. Urban Rangers – architects, scientists, economists, engineers and artists, we have developed methods which focus on the need for architectural responses.

About the School The School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Arts in Stockholm is a forum for post-graduate education in architecture and urban studies. The school concerns itself with current issues relevant for the general public and investigates how these are connected to an architectural and urban discourse. The goal of the School of Architecture is to engage society through the generation of relevant and tangible projects, as well as the creation of working networks for all involved that continue outside the academic realm.

Editorial Team Mania Aghaei Meibodi, architect, Johan Berg, architect, Björn Berglund, civil engineer and historian, Michael Dudley, architect and teacher, Pernilla Glaser, writer, Karl Hallding, social scientist and engineer, Sergio Montero Bravo, designer, Henrietta Palmer, professor in architecture, Sara Peny, architect and planner, Måns Tham, architect, Philippe Vandenbroeck, systems thinker and scenario planner. For further information: henrietta.palmer@kkh.se

Telephone: +468 614 40 24, www.kkh.se

RESOURCES.

Beyond Fossil

Re-fabricating Urbanity The world as we have known it is changing. The fossil fuels, that have predicated the matchless expansion of the 20th century, are running out. Continued use of remaining deposits is pushing the world towards climate changes that will have consequences far beyond our imagination. Cities will be drastically affected by these changes, but will also be the potential sources of solutions for them. ­ any of the radical cultural and social changes of M modernism were made possible through exploitation of fossil fuels. Within the coming three decades four out of five global citizens will be living in urban settings. This will dramatically change our concepts of civic life. The complex intertwined nature of climate change and urban develop­ ment requires a new creative, multi­disciplinary and crosscultural mindset. We need an alternative way of discussing a re-fabricated urbanity that is already being established. Beyond Fossil will explore the integration of the civic society with the efforts for a sustainable environment. A book project initiated by Resources/School of Architecture, Royal Institute of Art, Stockholm.


ADD & RECLAIM

WE PROPOSE A CITY SIGNIFIED BY

is cleaned locally - Heat is re-used or re-distributed - Trade with used goods is developed, integrated and valued

The Terraced Clean Slope cleans the water and makes the river bank an accessivble public space

Resources are gettingSYNCHRONIZE morePROCESSES and more expensive, but innovation is moving on. Existing blocks AND ACTIVITIES need new functions and improved spaces beyond oil. An add-on architecture is the answer. LEARNINGsocial FROM INDIA

- synergy of systems - synchronised processes and activities - symbiosis of people, communities and enterprises - synthesis of new ideas and structures

A Green Ray is an optical phenomena occurring shortly after sunset or before sunrise. Numerous attempts have been made in literature, film, music and art to try and capture its elusive nature. The Green Ray phenomenon only occurs when the air is clean. The Green Ray is a signage of the Spectacular City.

- Access to goods and services supplements ownership - Things, spaces and functions are increasingly shared - Co-use and multi-functionality is promoted, both in space and in time

The urban rainforest

Beyond Fossil will stress the need for new architectural approaches to urban futures and their social possibilities.

How will our cities develop beyond oil? We can assume that cheap energy will no longer be available, but what other challenges face us? Some claim that we will have to return to more rural lifestyles

WATER AND FOG HARVESTING

CO-ORDINATE TO PROMOTE SYNERGY

BEYOND OIL SCENARIOS What consequences does this have for the shape and organisation of the city? We have identified four possible scenarios for cities beyond oil.

while others argue that we will cramp together in ever-tighter environments. Will we all need to become a jack-of-all-trades and increasingly self-sufficient or will we specialize even more?

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POTENTIAL

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- Tasks are solved on the appropriate level and scale - Different parts of the city specialize in different tasks - The waste of one process is the resource of another

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PHOTO VOLTAGE

19

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SYN CITY

Table of Contents

The Indian city, a possible source of urban solutions

HIGHWAYS >C8G:6H:9HE:8>6A>H6I>DC

In order to reach beyond the classic “vision-approach” deployed by architects and planners alike since the 15th century, this book will show the utility of scenarios as a means to explore, describe and thereby gain deeper understanding of urban futures.

The elevated highways of Shanghai - once a symbol of a car based utopia – are transformed into a new kind of synergetic infrastructure that connects the different parts of the city, distributes goods & energy and provides the basis for new structures.

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SYN-CELLS The large-scale superblocks that compose the city grid are turned into Syn-Cells – local cycles that can develop independently and collaborate to form a city where different solutions are allowed to co-exist.

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The Furry Hub

HETEROGENEITY

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The diverse structure of the city is developed and remains compact –Themixing Furry Hub is an infracultural structure linkW3, Presentation Worskshop III; Helena, Viktor & Ola ing mobility, transparent recycling and cultural different activities, livelihoods and building typologies. This prevents sprawl exchange. Fromand here you can take the California High Speed train across the state and the nation. From the platform you reach the Food Pier that creates a density of potentials. crosses the river and reconnects East 3rd Street.

Its basis has emerged from the post-graduate research recently conducted at the School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Arts in Stockholm – Cities and Energy – in which we have investigated how necessary changes in energy consumption and production will inform our cities and our ways of living. From Shanghai’s explosive growth, to the crisis-burdened motopia of Los Angeles, and further on to the multi-layered complexity of the Indian city, we have studied the three most energy consuming nations in the world. Our belief is that the specificness of the local should be harnessed for the benefit of a sustainable global society.

SYN CITY

SHORTAGES A mesh as a functional skin AND CREATIVITY

SYN CITY

EXISTING BUILDING MATERIALS BECOME MORE EXPENSIVE BEYOND OIL

EXPENSIVE

WE SEE PEAK OIL AS AN OPPORTUNITY THE SUBCONTINENTAL - SYSTEM to question faulty assumptions in global systems BREAKING POINT FOR COMMERCIALIZATION

BEYOND OIL: SHANGHAI

LEARNING CURVE MAKES NEW TECHNOLOGY CHEAPER

ADD-

Sparetime: ONS - population growth and urbanisation; crowded residential areas - people spend time in their neighbourhood - economical regression and hard times; strengthening of tradition and culture. The ethnical group becomes the extended family - use of toys that generate power are very popular

- to reshape our living environments - to build a future society no longer lives Peak oil providesthat challenges for the city. above its assets CHEAP

To meet higher energy costs, the existing building stock has to become much more energy efficient. At the same time WATER AND FOG the cost of traditional building materiHARVESTINGhave While cities are the great consumers the world they also als, such as concrete, steel andofasphalt become increasingly the dynamicwill and density it takes expensive to build aand resource-efficient society shortages will likely occur.

WE EMBRACE THE CITY

However, harsh situations force us to innovate – we will develop new materials and systems that solve our problems. - synergy of systems This will lead to new types of archi- synchronised processes and activities tecture; which emphasize lightweight - symbiosis of people, andthat enterprises materials andcommunities intelligent systems bothideas save and energy and - synthesis ofcan new andcollect structures resources. An architecture that can be easily applied onto existing structures, like add-ons on facades or along streets can be initiated and owned by the inhabitants. This will provide a rich variety of expression and new forms of social life.

WE PROPOSE A CITY SIGNIFIED BY

Water Management Water plays a key role as it cycles through the adjoining structures. Grey plumbing water from the residential units is reused to irrigate the crops on the Agrimid. What is not absorbed by the plant life passes through the building’s cooling system. From there it travels along an underground channel towards the Los Angeles River. Before navigating through the Wetland Slope system, the water is collected in shaded pools where lilies are grown. Here, the water is cleansed by the lily’s natural filtration process and they in their turn are used to create bio energy. Business Concept Small-scale California farmers are able to collaborate and invest in energy-efficient, food-producing gardens in the downtown food distribution district. This central access enables the distribution of healthy, fresh food to the whole of Los Angeles. Development of the Agrimids is partially financed with income from the residential units, markets and exhibition halls. Individual housing units can be rented to workers or sold as group lots. Wholesalers can rent space in the different markets for further distribution. These market spaces can also be used as exhibition halls and rented out for events throughout the year. The city of Los Angeles, in an effort to reduce its high number of barren parking lots, contributes funding as well. As the city becomes less dependent on cars, these spaces become natural sites for development and the source for sustained cash becomes more concentrated within the city. Additional contributions will come from film production studios and retail outlets. The spectacular nature of the pyramids lends itself perfectly to use in cinema and television. They become iconic set pieces in the next generation of films. The local garment industry could also use the flare and charm of these structures to attract business and boost sales.

How will our cities develop beyond oil? We can assume that cheap energy will no longer be available, but what other challenges face us?

Social Benefits Introducing gardens in an industrial area improves the environment and provide opportunities for community involvement in a place where concrete, steel, and abandoned buildings currently dominate. The Agrimid pyramids are a great vehicle for educating kids and adults on food production and ignite a renewed interest in Californian horticulture. By providing an opportunity for cooperative projects, they develop a new agricultural tradition. The garden-pyramids house cafés, libraries, workshops, and exhibition spaces.

ADDONS

60

Some claim that we will have to return to more rural lifestyles

CLIMATE CONTROL

LOCALIZE IT

LEARNING CURVE MAKES NEW TECHNOLOGY CHEAPER

<AD76A8>IN

The book will convey a sense of future direction that will embrace all ideas, be they tried and tested or new and Better use and distribution of resources is crucial beyond oil. The city is a complex ecosystem made of people, flows and relations that are impossible to rationalize. By dividing it into smaller units, experimental, in order to gain momentum towards a newuplarger than normal blocks but smaller than a whole district, different solutions can co-exist, local loops can be created and synergy effects achieved. direction of development. A central premise will be the idea of low-carbon development as a motor for multiple processes of change. At foot along the Los Angeles River

CAR POOLS/ PORTABLE FUEL CELLS

faeces

BIOGAS PLANT

biogas

EXCESS IS SOLD

organic waste

fertilizer

urine

KunGL. KOnsTHöGsKOLAn: rEsOurCEs.08

27

STORAGE

DWELLINGS greywater

URBAN AGRICULTURE

water

water

LOCAL WATER TREATMENT

vegetables

food greywater

LOCAL SHOP

ca 250 m

organic waste food

faeces

food

0m

ca 25

ADD & RECLAIM

The Syn-Cell model: Loops are closed locally Population: 5000 - 10 000

Resources are getting more and more expensive, but innovation is moving on. Existing blocks need new functions and improved social spaces beyond oil. An add-on architecture is the answer.

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BEYOND OIL: SHANGHAI

OPTIMIZE THE USE OF SPACE AND STRUCTURES - More buildings, more greenery, more cultivation and more public space - Left-over spaces are recognized and developed

WASTE NOTHING - Existing structures are renovated, retro-fitted or converted. - Organic waste is used for energy production Grey water

After work on fridays we are few neighbours that usually Light and strong Lightweight structures that climb the is cleaned locally sings karaoke together, lately some climbers has started Peak-oil presents challenges for buildwalls can perform functions, such as to compete on the wall behind us. We think they look Heatasis re-used or re-distributed ings in Shanghai. Problems- such elevators, terraces, extra guest rooms quite funny. Trade with used goods isThe developed, and valued insufficient insulation and -inefficient and balconies. new add-onsintegrated will air-conditioning systems are particularly encourage heterogeneity injecting life acute. We can find inspiration in other into the existing city. LED-lighting in the mesh can provide industries, such as aeronautics and the effect of a starry sky at night. space technology. A new, extremely efThe mesh Equipped with Organic-LED sheets, the fective insulation material -called aerogel Imagine a material, softsupplements as textile, mesh could be used to display pictures Access to goods and services ownership is made almost entirely of -airThings, (up to spaces which could be used to shadow, collect shared and information in a large scale format. and functions are increasingly 99,5%). Strong carbon-fibre structures energy, protect from wind, harvest fog, Organic-LEDs could also be used to light - Co-use and multi-functionality is promoted, both developed for airplanes could eliminate illuminate and project images. darkinareas, such as under motorways. space the need for concrete and steel in and in time The mesh surfaces are stretched over buildings. Traditional materials, such as This mesh is made of transparent solar streets and between buildings, creating bamboo, certainly hold new possibilities. cells, complete with fog-collecting func- a temperate half shaded environment New materials inspire new architecture. tions for the supply of drinking water. comfortable for people.

SYN CENTER

as a functional skin AND CREATIVITY PROBLEMS AREA mesh SOLVED ONSHORTAGES APPROPRIATE LEVEL

REAL ESTATE OWNER

Managing The Syn-Cell can be implemented, owned and managed in three different ways. Providing different models for implementation is important so that local conditions are considered.

- The waste of one process is the resource of another kilometres to find a good shop or and water cleaning systems, the

“When we moved here 15 years ago our block was still gated. We had a guard to protect us and our young daughter from criminals, and we liked it that way. We had only one entrance for passing in and out, and the entire neighbourhood used it. We used notice every unknown face that entered our yard.

gate was torn down. We still have a sense of privacy though, since the ground-level is higher than the street. The difference is that we can move more freely through our block now and it’s easy to reach the streets and shops in the neighbourhood.

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LOCAL WATER TREATMENT

PERSONAL RECYCLER

BEYOND OIL: SHANGHAI

LOCAL BIOGAS PLANT

RETROFITTING

URBAN AGRICULTURE

The slopes create exciting spaces that accommodate new commercial spaces. It is so much nicer now with all the new cafés and restaurants around here. Before, we had to walk at least two

Feng Jiannfang, 41, Self-employed

POTENTIAL

These days, things have changed, and I didn’t expect it to be for the better, but it really is! When the ground floor was developed to incorporate service, energy

Before

After

The slopes create exciting spaces that accommodate new commercial spaces. It is so much

Beyond Desire – Los Angles  A concept for governance and post-materialism Beyond Development – Pune  A concept for infinitesimal and infinite change

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A new public space?  Access in a time of limited resources What is density actually?  Examining density as a part of civic life Thinking in systems  Creative ways of seeing it all come together The need for mobility  Energy- and mobility interdependency and  how to make the most of it

SYN-CELLS

You are what you produce  Increasing wellbeing with non-material growth

The large-scale superblocks that compose the city grid are turned into Syn-Cells – local cycles that can develop independently and collaborate to form a city where different solutions are allowed to co-exist.

HETEROGENEITY

Per, Emma & Helena

The diverse structure of the city is developed and remains compact – mixing different activities, livelihoods and building typologies. This prevents sprawl and creates a density of potentials.

Governance, democracy and people  How do we do it? Conclusion

LOCAL APPLICATIONS

DISTRICT COOLING

$

These days, things have changed, and I didn’t expect it to be for

Beyond Oil – Shanghai  A concept for density and self-sufficiency

The elevated highways of Shanghai - once a symbol of a car based utopia – are transformed into a new kind of synergetic infrastructure that connects the different parts of the city, distributes goods & energy and provides the basis for new structures.

DISTRICT HEATING

nomically and environmentally. The Financing EMMA HOULIHAN PER STENHOLM CARINA SULE KARL ZETTERHOLM WORKSHOP 1: THE OBJECT Some functions and components The economic drivers for the like sun-condenser coolers will introduction and operation of the have a payback time of just a few Syn-Cell can be divided into two years. Others, like grey water treat- If a joint venture between an categories: market economy and EQUITY GOVERNMENT HOUSING ment have a fridays lengthy payback, equity investor and housing governmental subsidizations work on we are few neighbours that usually Light and strong Lightweight structuresand that climb the willAfter sings karaoke together, lately some climbers has started PARTNER BANK ENTREPRENEUR COOPERATIVE Peak-oil presents challenges for buildwalls can perform functions, such as all. to if at loans. compete on the wall behind us. We think they look cooperative build a system with However, harsh situations force us to inelevators, terraces, extra guest rooms quite funny. high sustainable performance The Joint Venture ings in Shanghai. Problems such as The Housing Cooperativenovate – we willThe Private Company develop new materials insufficient insulation and inefficient and balconies. The new add-ons will However, all components are of market economy part is they should get long-term loans A new company is created. It is systems areThe A housing cooperative is formed A privately owned investment and systems that solve our problems. air-conditioning particularly encourage heterogeneity injecting life will lead tocompany new types ofisarchiacute.cooperative We can find inspiration in other coupled into the city. LED-lighting thecreate mesh can importance in orderin to a providewith partly or fully reduced strongly toexisting increasing owned by the housing and with help from experts This they contracted by the which emphasize lightweight industries, such as aeronautics and for resources and energy. effect of a starryand sky at functionaltheSynergy-Cell, innight. interest rates and subsidizations. prices together with an equity partner. start planning the Syn-Cell tecture; by Syn-Cell. By contracting a private materials and intelligent systems that space technology. A new, extremely efThe mesh Equipped with Organic-LED sheets, the order to design and implement a The subsidization loan part is textile, The performance is evaluated The joint venture company is material called evaluating the local conditions. company they and sell the right can both save and collect energy fective insulation aerogel Imagineand a material, soft as mesh could be used to display pictures the Chinese authoribased reduction China’s continuously and the interest rate that can and own the responsible for dailyis made management. Based on this analysis they resources. build An architecture to build, operate almost entirely of air (up toon thewhich could beof used to shadow,total collectsystem and information in a large scale format. onto existing struc99,5%). Strong carbon-fibreexternal structurescosts energy, protect from wind, harvest could alsolegislabe used to light tiesfog, needOrganic-LEDs to introduce new related to resource is adjusted accordingly. The dividends are divided between the system. The day-to-daybe easily applied components of the Syn-Cell. The tures, like add-ons on facades or along developed for airplanes could eliminate illuminate and project images. dark areas, such as under motorways. tion and economic incentives. instability and environmental the owners. After athe predetermined management can be operated bycan be resources are then streets initiated and owned by traded within need for concrete and steel in The mesh surfaces are stretched over The economic incentives should creating Based on this principle the stress. period of time the ownership of materials, the cooperative itself or bethe outalso on the inhabitants.the ThisSyn-Cell will provideand a rich buildings. Traditional such as This mesh is made of transparent solar streets and between buildings, variety of expression and new certainly hold new possibilities. cells, complete with fog-collecting a temperate halfcomponents’ shaded environmentChinese government needs to be funcconnected to the the joint venture isbamboo, transferred sourced to a specialized company. Synergy Grid.forms of social life. New materials inspire new architecture. tions for the supply comfortable for people. and the systems’ sustainable While the introduction of theof drinking water. introduce a fund financed by to the housing cooperative. The Syn-Cells vital functions and infra- performance - the better percarbon dioxide emission fees, the key driver for the equity partner is structure is a massively expensive formance the better economic People’s Fund for a better city, price developments inBREAK resources THE GATES – RECLAIM THE SOCIAL SPACES incentive. process, it is necessary, both ecobetter life. and energy. and water cleaning systems, the gate was torn down. We still have a sense of privacy though, since the ground-level is higher than the street. The difference is that we can move more freely through our block now and it’s easy to reach the streets and shops in the neighbourhood.

Three specific stories  Explaining why specificness matters

A matter of scale  Finding the right places

something to eat.”

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“When we moved here 15 years ago our block was still gated. We had a guard to protect us and our young daughter from criminals, and we liked it that way. We had only one entrance for passing in and out, and the entire neighbourhood used it. We used notice every unknown face that entered our yard.

Scenarios – What is next for our cities?  How we will talk about our urban future

Adaptopia  A non-utopian utopia?

SYNERGY SELLS - A FINANCIAL MODEL Peak oil provides challenges for the city. To meet higher energy costs, the existing building stock has to become much more energy efficient. At the same time the cost of traditional building materials, such as concrete, steel and asphalt will become increasingly expensive and LOCAL shortages will likely occur.

Modernity as a fossil condition  Why we must talk about our urban future

Thematic crossroads

- Different the city specialize in different tasks BREAK THE GATES – RECLAIM THE parts SOCIALofSPACES

THE SYN-CELL TOOLBOX SUPERBLOCK

Who do we think we are?  Why we want to talk about our urban future

Three specific stories

HIGHWAYS

All resources don’t need to be handled on the large scales they are today. By introducing a few new components, like local biogas plants and greywater cleaning, local cycles are created which >C8G:6H:9HE:8>6A>H6I>DC minimize transports, engage the users and generate income. In keeping with the existing infrastructure, Luwan is divided into 117 Syn-Cells which take on the responsibility for these issues. They can be run by developers or the local communities and different Syn-Cells can be configured in different ways according to local conditions, desires and financial abilities. In this way new incentives and frameworks are created that encourage a multitude of solutions, initiatives and actors to co-exist and develop simultaneously.

HE6GH:8>IN

A mesh as a functional skin

What consequences does this have for the shape and organisation of the city? We have identified four possible scenarios for cities beyond oil.

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The Syn-Cells are JG76C6G8=>E:A6<D not completely selfsufficient, but rather connected by those "Adc\igVkZai^bZh systems that work better on larger sca"CVggdlgVc\Zd[igVchedgihnhiZbh les, such as district heating and cooling. The key is that all"9ZXZcigVa^hZYjgWVchViZa^iZh things are solved on the appropriate level in order to minimize "9ZeZcYVcidcheZX^[^XiZX]cdad\n transport and administrative distances. ":miZgcVah]dee^c\XZcigZh A development that is driven by local actors puts more"AVg\ZhXVaZV\g^XjaijgZl^i]^cX^inhigjXijgZ stress on the information system, and therefore a system for distributing information, resources and flows between the Syn-Cells is developed. These systems and the coordination of them is the responsibility of the authorities that also have an important role to play in the initial start-up phase. Altogether this generates a new city structure that is more adaptable and resilient to change and less restricted by top-down planning directives.

RESTAURANT

OFFICES

Luwan is divided into 117 Syn-Cells Small and larger cycles interact

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CHEAP

STRATEGIES

- Tasks are solved on the appropriate level and scale

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BREAKING POINT FOR COMMERCIALIZATION

Introduction

CO-ORDINATE TO PROMOTE SYNERGY

61

EXISTING BUILDING MATERIALS BECOME MORE EXPENSIVE BEYOND OIL

EXPENSIVE

A sweeping roof covers the platform and stretches between the Food Pier and 1st Street Bridge. The roof is covered with solar-cell threads creating an energy producing fur-like surface visible from afar. The Food Pier has room for everyone! Resting across the river, it unites the two parts of East 3rd street and creates a funky link between Boyle Heights and Downtown. East 3rd Street on both sides of the pier develops into an informal continuation of the Food Pier. As you take the escalator from the tracks and step into the Food Pier, you are welcomed by the true scent of the Los Angeles soul. Here the whole array of the LA cuisine and diversity is found in a great bazaar-like tube. The Food Pier has two levels, one for storage and processing and one for cooking and eating. Goods and groceries arrive with the trains and are loaded from underneath straight into the structure. Grey water from food-processing is re-used for cooling of the storage rooms. The waste goes straight into the Contain-O-Pod system on the strip and turns into energy at Sears Palace biogas facility.

SYNCHRONIZE PROCESSES AND ACTIVITIES

while others argue that we will cramp together in ever-tighter environments. Will we all need to become a jack-of-all-trades and increasingly self-sufficient or will we specialize even more?

KunGL. KOnsTHöGsKOLAn: rEsOurCEs.08

THE FIFTH ECOLOGY. BEYOnd dEsIrE: LOs AnGELEs

Shanghai The city benefits from production and transports on regional and global scale

PHOTO VOLTAGE

BEYOND OIL SCENARIOS

Beyond Fossil will carry a strong message about urgency, but the focus will be on ways out of the present dilemma.

Beyond Fossil is a book for everyone interested in the world of today and its possible future. It will be beautiful, scary, funny, accessible, informative and burning with inspirational hope.

You can watch the silent and solar powered, transparent Contain-O-Pod system transporting waste and Angelinos on elevated rails. The garbage has the Sears Palace biogas facility as its final destination. The Cyclovia, on the east side, is a cluster of bikes and biking services. You can connect to the new Metro Gold Line stop on 1st Street Bridge. The train station and the Food Pier hybrid consists of simple and strong elements. The train station is conceived with a minimum-impact strategy by using existing structures as efficient as possible. This major infrastructural hub connects to all levels of transport – local, regional and trans-American. A new platform is added above the existing tracks. From this level a bike bridge reaches across to the east side where it connects the station with the Strip and the Cyclovia. Ticket counters are concentrated to 1st Street Bridge and on the Food Pier.

ADDONS

9:CH:8>IN

Beyond Fossil will be about the compelling search for sustainable forms of civic life.

CLIMATE CONTROL

wHat if you could cHange trains and Habits in tHe same place?

kilometres to find a good shop or something to eat.”

Feng Jiannfang, 41, Self-employed

SYN CITY


Beyond Fossil