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Ethnic Minorities in Law 1

Research Sources and Assumptions

1.1

Source

The data used in this factsheet is from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) student record database. The data covers the academic year of 2007 – 2008. Definitions of the various subject areas used in this factsheet can be found at:

http://www.hesa.ac.uk/index.php/content/view/102/136/1/4

1.2

Assumptions

l

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The data used refers to UK domiciled students only; it does not include overseas students who are studying in the UK. Students falling under the ‘Unknown’ category have not been added to the White group or any of the ethnic minority groups. Instead, these have either been disregarded or represented as ‘Unknown’ in the analysis.

1.3

Definitions

The ethnic minority category groupings are based on Census 2001 categories. Please note in particular that:

l

l

l

l

White includes: White Irish Traveller Mixed includes: Mixed – White and Black Caribbean Mixed – White and Black African Mixed – White and Asian Mixed – other Other includes: Other ethnic background Not Known includes: Not Known Information refused

02 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Law


Ethnic Minorities in Law 2

Ethnic Minorities in Law

2.1

Representation of Ethnic Minority Students in Law

Our research shows that amongst the various ethnic minority groups studying Law at UK universities during 2007–08, students of Indian and Pakistani origin had the highest representation (6.0 percent and 5.8 percent respectively), followed closely by Black African students (5.0 percent). On the other hand, students from ‘Other Black’ backgrounds and students of Chinese origin had the least representation among ethnic minority groups (see figure 1).

Figure 1: Representation of Ethnic Minority Students Studying Law (2007-08)

1.9%

Black Caribbean

5%

Black African Black Other

0.5% 6%

Indian

5.8%

Pakistani

1.6%

Bangladeshi

0.9%

Chinese

1.4%

Other Asian

2.9%

Mixed

1.4%

Other

Source: HESA Student Record (2007-08)

The total ethnic minority representation of students studying law in 2007-08 was

27.4% compared to 68.6% of the White student

population studying law during 2007-08.

03 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Law


Ethnic Minorities in Law

Ethnic Minorities in Law

We found that all ethnic minority groups had a higher representation of students studying Law, 1.9% Black Caribbean than of students studying all subjects. Pakistanis1.4% and Indians had the maximum percentage point increase (3.9 percentage points and 2.7 percentage points respectively - see figure 2) Black African

0.5%

BlackofOther Figure 2: Representation Ethnic Minority 0.3% Groups among Students Studying Law vis-à-vis All subjects (2007-08) Indian

Black Caribbean Black African

Bangladeshi

Black Other

0.5% Chinese 0.3%

Indian

Other Asian

Pakistani

Mixed

Bangladeshi

Other 0.6%

Other Asian

1.9%

5.8%

1.9% 1.6% 3.2%

0.6%

5.0%

0.9% 0.9% 6.0%

1.4% 3.3% 1.2% 1.9% 1.6%

2.1%

5.8%

2.9%

Law

1.4% 0.9%

All Subjects

0.9% 0.9%

White Representation: Law – 68.6% All Subjects – 79.0%

1.4% 1.2%

Mixed Other

2.1%

2.9% Law

1.4% 0.9%

All Subjects

Total Ethnic Minority Representation: Law – 27.4% All Subjects – 16.0%

Source: HESA Student Record (2007-08)

FAST FACTS

68.6%

79.0%

Earnings and ethnic minority pay gaps for all private practitioners for 2007/08 In 2007-08, median annual earnings for White solicitors were £55k and £45k for black and minority ethnic (BME) solicitors. 79.0% Taking no account 68.6% of other factors that might be related to earnings, the 27.4% median ethnic16.0% minority pay gap in yearly earnings was 18% for 2007/08 (NB: hourly and per billed hour pay gaps were very slightly larger). Source: The Law Society - Ethnicity and earnings in private practice; Findings from the 2008 salary survey June 2009

27.4%

04 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Law

6.0%

3.3%

Pakistani1.4%

Chinese

5.0%

3.2%

16.0%


Ethnic Minorities in Law

In 2007/2008 there were 1.9 million UK domiciled students at UK universities of which just under 4 percent (70,975.5) were studying law as a subject1 .

2.2 UK Universities with the Highest Proportion of Ethnic Minority Students studying Law

Other

Asian or

Asian

Asian or

British

Asian

Asian or

Other

Indian

Pakistani

1

Backgrou

Asian

Ethnicity

Mixed nd

% of Total

Table 1 shows the top 25 universities ranked by the proportion of students from ethnic minority groups studying law (2007-08). Middlesex University had the highest proportion (83.6 percent) of students from ethnic minorities, followed by the University of Bradford (79.3 percent) and University of Bedfordshire (76.0 percent). These 25 universities constitute 47.7 percent of the total population of ethnic minority students studying Law at UK universities.

Black or

British

Other

Table 1: Universities Ranked by the Proportion of Ethnic Minority Students studying Law (2007–08) Black or

Asian

Chinese

Table 1: Universities Ranked by Proportion of Students from Ethnic Minorities studying Law (2007–08) All

British

Bangladeshi

3.5%

Black

Pakistani

5.4%

0.8%

Backgro

Indian

0.4%

2.6%

Black

und

6.4%

1.1%

1.3%

British African

16.8%

0.3%

5.2%

Students

Source: HESA Student Record

Whites

White

BAME Law

13.8%

Caribbean

13.5%

2.8%

3.1%

4.7%

19.3%

0.9%

58.6%

0.0%

5.3%

2.7%

22.9%

6.1%

5.2%

5.8%

0.8%

6.4%

7.3%

0.9%

28.8%

2.2%

2.7%

16.2%

5.6%

3.5%

2.0%

3.5%

3.8%

1.8%

0.6%

2.6%

10.7%

0.8%

4.6%

22.7%

18.8%

20.4%

3.7%

2.3%

5.3%

0.9%

7.4%

1.1%

33.0%

0.5%

4.7%

24.2%

15.2%

11.7%

7.3%

7.8%

3.3%

2.5%

8.2%

0.8%

9.3%

0.3%

5.0%

19.5%

16.4%

5.0%

0.9%

4.0%

0.8%

0.5%

1.6%

3.4%

9.0%

1.0%

4.2%

25.9%

29.8%

11.2%

6.7%

2.3%

5.2%

4.0%

7.3%

2.5%

5.6%

1.0%

8.3%

20.8%

19.6%

7.4%

5.2%

7.7%

1.2%

1.2%

10.3%

1.7%

25.4%

3.1%

3.2%

30.5%

25.9%

16.0%

5.4%

1.2%

4.8%

2.4%

9.5%

0.3%

10.6%

0.4%

5.7%

30.7%

4.8%

11.6%

2.3%

4.8%

4.4%

3.0%

8.2%

1.0%

20.3%

1.0%

3.9%

31.4%

10.6%

26.3%

1.8%

4.2%

6.4%

0.9%

3.7%

1.1%

9.1%

1.9%

4.2%

32.3%

3.8%

15.4%

12.4%

2.7%

9.4%

4.5%

5.2%

1.0%

8.6%

1.4%

7.9%

30.8%

14.4%

6.6%

6.4%

3.2%

0.0%

2.8%

6.8%

1.0%

9.9%

0.0%

5.1%

31.4%

16.8%

11.9%

2.0%

1.7%

4.4%

1.4%

4.5%

1.6%

6.7%

1.7%

4.3%

37.2%

12.5%

8.7%

0.9%

4.2%

1.4%

5.5%

5.3%

1.6%

31.4%

1.1%

3.6%

37.8%

16.6%

9.0%

2.5%

1.2%

0.0%

0.1%

4.8%

0.0%

8.2%

0.5%

6.1%

39.8%

8.1%

14.3%

2.9%

6.1%

0.9%

0.4%

2.6%

0.9%

15.4%

0.0%

1.8%

40.4%

15.0%

14.5%

0.0%

1.6%

10.0%

3.3%

4.3%

1.0%

6.1%

0.7%

0.0%

42.4%

13.7%

6.1%

3.2%

0.0%

4.0%

1.7%

3.7%

12.1%

33.1%

0.0%

5.3%

47.8%

21.2%

3.9%

0.0%

3.7%

3.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.9%

0.0%

2.4%

6.8%

40.0%

2.5%

20.0%

4.0%

3.8%

0.0%

2.0%

1.6%

0.0%

6.8%

8.6%

5.9%

38.5%

10.0%

11.8%

2.7%

0.0%

1.2%

0.0%

10.0%

0.3%

5.3%

0.0%

2.0%

48.5%

9.0%

11.8%

5.9%

1.7%

1.4%

3.3%

1.9%

1.9%

0.0%

29.4%

0.4%

2.9%

4.1%

52.9%

4.7%

0.0%

1.2%

1.4%

3.1%

0.8%

1.5%

0.0%

6.2%

0.9%

1.2%

52.7%

0.0%

24.4%

1.6%

4.1%

0.0%

5.9%

0.4%

5.8%

14.5%

% of total BME Law Students

32.9%

5.8%

6.0%

14.0%

Other

3.5%

2.6%

1.2%

Mixed

68.6%

0.5%

Other Asian

47.7% 5.0%

12.6%

Chinese

100.0%

5.1%

Black

83.6% 79.3% 76.0% 75.5% 75.0% 73.3% 71.7% 70.3% 68.4% 67.2% 65.0% 64.7% 64.2% 62.2% 60.8% 60.5% 59.3% 58.0% 57.6% 50.2% 50.0% 49.2% 48.2% 47.1% 45.9% 63.2% 27.4%

1.9%

British

Black Other

ties

Black African

Minori

Bangladeshi

Top 25 Universities Top Universities

Middlesex University The University of Bradford University of Bedfordshire Brunel University Buckinghamshire New University The University of East London Thames Valley University London South Bank University Birmingham City University The School of Oriental and African Studies The University of Wolverhampton Kingston University The University of Greenwich The University of Westminster St Mary's University College, Twickenham The University of Bolton University of Hertfordshire Coventry University Roehampton University The University of Huddersfield University of London (Institutes and activities) Queen Mary and Westfield College LSE Leeds Trinity and All Saints De Montfort University Top 25 Universities All Universities (UK)

Black Caribbean

The most popular areas of study for this cohort were ‘subjects allied to medicine’ (14%) followed by Business & Administrative Studies (11%) and Education (10%). The least popular subject was Veterinary Science (0.2%).

Source: HESA Student Record

All Ethnic Minorities


Ethnic Minorities in Law

2.3 Russell Group Universities with the Highest Proportion of Ethnic Minority Students studying Law

0.0%

0.6%

0.5%

1.0%

0.7%

0.8%

0.3%

1.7%

1.3%

0.9%

0.8%

1.5%

Caribbean

British

Black

Black or

1.2%

1.2%

2.6%

1.2%

1.9%

2.2%

1.3%

2.5%

2.9%

4.0%

3.9%

3.8%

2.8%

4.7%

African

British

Black

Black or

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.1%

0.3%

0.0%

0.2%

0.1%

0.0%

0.3%

0.8%

0.2%

0.4%

0.2%

0.0%

und

Backgro

Black

Other

1.3%

0.9%

2.3%

2.4%

2.3%

2.3%

2.5%

3.8%

3.6%

3.2%

4.6%

4.8%

5.1%

5.7%

8.0%

9.6%

13.0%

11.8%

Indian

British

Asian

Asian or

1.1%

0.6%

0.7%

1.1%

0.6%

2.5%

0.8%

4.6%

1.4%

4.1%

1.7%

4.0%

0.7%

2.3%

3.5%

2.6%

9.0%

5.3%

Pakistani

British

Asian

Asian or

0.0%

0.3%

0.3%

0.2%

0.5%

1.3%

0.6%

0.1%

0.2%

0.4%

0.1%

0.4%

0.3%

0.6%

0.6%

0.4%

0.8%

2.7%

Bangladeshi

British

Asian

Asian or

0.7%

0.9%

0.8%

1.1%

1.1%

0.7%

1.5%

0.6%

1.9%

1.5%

2.1%

1.9%

1.7%

1.4%

2.4%

3.2%

0.9%

8.6%

0.0%

0.5%

0.3%

0.2%

0.7%

1.7%

0.8%

2.1%

0.6%

1.9%

1.2%

1.2%

1.2%

1.4%

2.1%

3.2%

3.0%

0.9%

3.8%

0.1%

4.1%

2.4%

0.4%

0.9%

1.5%

1.4%

1.3%

nd

1.9%

1.6%

3.0%

3.8%

5.1%

3.0%

6.4%

3.1%

5.1%

2.5%

3.9%

3.6%

2.5%

3.5%

4.1%

2.8%

2.0%

1.5%

1.2%

0.4%

-

3.1%

2.9%

1.4%

1.0%

-

0.4%

0.1%

0.4%

0.5%

0.5%

0.8%

0.6%

1.5%

0.9%

1.5%

0.8%

0.6%

1.3%

1.2%

0.5%

1.6%

4.2%

0.6%

Other

3.2%

6.8%

Other

0.2%

0.3%

0.5%

0.2%

0.4%

0.4%

0.3%

0.6%

0.5%

1.1%

0.6%

0.9%

0.6%

0.6%

1.7%

0.9%

1.0%

0.8%

-

94.8%

94.7%

91.5%

89.5%

89.0%

77.1%

85.5%

84.6%

82.3%

75.4%

81.1%

77.7%

76.0%

77.2%

74.0%

65.5%

62.9%

61.4%

48.5%

68.6%

80.1%

Students

11.7%

Source: HESA Student Record

100.0%

Whites

0.1%

White

BAME Law

-

% of Total

Table 2 shows the percentage of Law students from each ethnic group at Russell Group universities. London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) had the highest proportion (48.2 percent) of students from ethnic minorities, followed by the University of Birmingham (32.3 percent) and University College London (31.9 percent). Russell Group universities constitute 11.7 percent of the total ethnic minority students studying Law in UK universities.

0.5%

0.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.6%

5.8%

Mixed

No data on law as a subject was available for Imperial College of Sc., Tech. and Medicine

6.0%

Bangladeshi

0.5%

% of total BME Law Students

Table 2: Russell Group Universities Ranked by Proportion of Students from Ethnic Minorities studying Law (2007–08)

0.3%

1.3%

0.0%

0.0%

-

Other

0.2%

0.5%

0.0%

-

Mixed

0.6%

0.2%

0.1%

-

Ethnicity

0.0%

0.0%

-

Asian

0.0%

0.0%

-

Backgrou

0.1%

-

Other Asian Pakistani

5.0%

Black Other

1.9%

Chinese

-

Chinese Indian

All

Minorities

48.2% 32.3% 31.9% 29.6% 22.1% 20.4% 20.1% 17.5% 17.1% 16.6% 16.4% 14.3% 13.5% 12.6% 9.1% 8.6% 5.5% 5.2% 1.1% 16.4%

Black African

Table 2: Russell Group Universities Ranked by Proportion of Students from Ethnic Minorities studying Law (2007–08)

Russell Universities Top Universities

London School of Economics and Political Science The University of Birmingham University College London King's College London The University of Warwick The University of Nottingham The University of Manchester The University of Oxford The University of Sheffield The University of Cambridge The University of Leeds The University of Southampton The University of Liverpool The University of Bristol The University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne Cardiff University The University of Edinburgh The University of Glasgow The Queen's University of Belfast Imperial College of Sc., Tech. and Med. Russell Universities

27.4%

Black Caribbean

Source: HESA Student Record No data on law as a subject was available for Imperial College of Sc., Tech. and Medicine

All Universities (UK)

All Ethnic Minorities


Ethnic Minorities in Law

Russell Group Universities What’s Class got to do with it

82%

An analysis of the educational background of top legal professionals by the Sutton Trust found that, in 2004, 82% of UK-educated barristers, 81% of judges and 53% of the partners in ‘magic circle’ law firms had attended Oxford or Cambridge. Two-thirds of barristers and threequarters of judges also went to fee-paying schools, and there has been little change in this since the late 1980s! Source: The Educational Backgrounds of the UK’s Top Solicitors, Barristers and Judges, Sutton Trust briefing note, June 2005

Barristers

81% Judges

53% Partners

FAST FACTS More ethnic minority differences in private practice In 2008, BME solicitors, on average, had less post qualification experience: the mean for White solicitors was 13.26 compared to 7.88 for BME solicitors. l

l

l

l

BME solicitors tended to be younger with an average age of 36.7 compared to an average of 40.5 for the White group. (Both the PQE and age differences confirm lower levels of BME participation in the market historically.) Tenure in their current job was also lower, on average, for BME solicitors than for White solicitors (4.51 years compared with 7.28). BME solicitors were much more likely to work in smaller firms with 2-5 solicitors and less likely than White solicitors to work in larger firms with 41 to 170 solicitors. BME solicitors were more than twice as likely to work in majority-femaleowned firms.

Source: The Law Society - Ethnicity and earnings in private practice; Findings from the 2008 salary survey June 2009

07 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Law

l

l

l

Over one-quarter of BME solicitors (29%) worked in firms which were owned by a majority of BME partners/owners but this was the case for just 0.2% of White solicitors. Over one-quarter of BME solicitors worked with legally aided clients in the preceding 12 months compared to 16% of White solicitors; and of those working with legal aid clients, BME solicitors were much more likely to spend over 50% of their time on legal aid than White solicitors – 80% of BME legal aid solicitors spent more than 50% of their time on legal aid compared to 44% of ethnic legal aid solicitors (but this calculation is based on an unweighted base of just 39 BME solicitors). BME solicitors were less likely to undertake work in business and commercial affairs cases and more likely to work in the areas of crime, family and personal and financial management.


Ethnic Minorities in Law

Key facts on the solicitors’ profession Ethnic minority participation Solicitors of ethnic minority origin have entered the profession in larger numbers in recent years. At 31 July 2008, there were 14,892 ethnic minority solicitors on the Roll, of whom 11,249 (75.5%) held current practising certificates.

No. Solicitors from ethnic minority groups on the Roll as at 31 July 2008

14,892

Solicitors from ethnic minority ethnic groups with pcs as at 31 July 2008

No.

11,249

In other words, excluding those for whom the ethnicity is unknown, solicitors from ethnic minority groups accounted for 10.7 percent of all solicitors on the Roll, 10.0 percent of all solicitors with practising certificates, and 9.5 percent of all solicitors in private practice.

Trends in the last ten years The solicitors’ profession Ten years ago the percentage of practising certificate holders drawn from ethnic minority groups was 4.9%, - it is now 10%. Source: The Law Society 2008 – Fact sheet series Key Facts on the solicitors’ profession.

08 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Ethnic Minorities in Law

% of all solicitors

10.7%

% of all solicitors

10.0%


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