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Regional Factsheet Ethnic Minorities in the UK - North West

Celebrating 15 years of Action on Race 1995-2010


About Race for Opportunity (RfO) RfO is committed to improving employment opportunities for ethnic minorities across the UK. It is the only race diversity campaign that has access to and influence over the leaders of the UK’s best known organisations. The campaign aims to: • make clear the economic and business argument for organisations investing in race diversity; • highlight the responsibility and role of leaders in delivering race diversity; •

communicate the need to speed up progress on the introduction of policies that further better representation of ethnic minorities;

• raise awareness of the barriers preventing the BAME community from making progress in the workplace.

“There is an overwhelming opportunity for employers who embrace race diversity and inclusion to harness the diverse talent that exists in the UK today. The Race for Opportunity campaign in collaboration with its network members will continue to set the stage for race equality and progression in the UK and this challenge is one that I am very pleased to be part of.” Ruby McGregor-Smith CEO, MITIE Group PLC and Chair, Race for Opportunity.


Regional Factsheet • North West This factsheet is all about ethnic minority people in the North West of England and contains information that is available in the public domain.

Inside

[ 1 ] Landscape Data............................................................................................................ 04

1.1 The North West picture............................................................................................... 04

1.2 An overall snapshot of the UK.................................................................................. 04

[ 2 ] Where do ethnic minority people live in the North West?............................ 05 [ 3 ] Focus on Manchester.................................................................................................. 06 [ 4 ] Education.........................................................................................................................07

4.1 Where do ethnic minority students study in the North West?........................ 08

[ 5 ] Religion............................................................................................................................ 09

5.1 A snapshot of the North West................................................................................... 09

5.2 The UK overall picture................................................................................................. 09 [ 6 ] Employment.................................................................................................................... 10

6.1 Ethnic minority employment rate in the North West.......................................... 10

6.2 Employment Rate - UK.................................................................................................. 10 [ 7 ] Simple steps to get started on race equality.......................................................11

Acknowledgements...................................................................................................... 12

Race for Opportunity Members...............................................................13


Regional Factsheet • North West [ 1 ] Landscape Data 1.1 The North West picture • The North West has the fourth largest ethnic minority population in the UK. • Half a million (543,500) of its population is from an ethnic minority background. • The population is increasing in ethnic diversity. While the population remains predominantly White (White British is the majority ethnic group), the proportion of White individuals in the North West decreased from 94% in 2001 to 92% in 2007 compared with the rest of England which decreased from 91% to 88% over the same period. The largest component increase has been within the Asian population which has increased by 1 percentage point since 2001 in the North West.

Source: Diversity and Difference in England’s Northwest 2009 - NWRDA

• Ethnic diversity varies geographically within the North west. Greater Manchester is the most diverse sub-region in the North West with only 89% of individuals from White groups compared to Cumbria at 98% which is the least diverse sub-region. The second most diverse sub-region is Lancashire although this is mostly due to a large Asian population rather than an even ethnographic mix.

Source: Diversity and Difference in England’s Northwest 2009 - NWRDA

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North West Population By Ethnic Group Ethnic Group

Number of People

Percentage of North West population (92.2% of North West Population is White British)

White British

4,537,892

92.2%

White Irish

73,136

1.2%

White Others

63,268

1.1%

White/Caribbean

39,782

0.3%

White/African

3,680

0.1%

White/Asian

18,160

0.3%

Other Mixed

11,600

0.2%

Indian

178,691

1.1%

Pakistani

154,550

1.7%

Bangladeshi

31,401

0.4%

Other Asian

20,931

0.2%

Caribbean

82,282

0.3%

African

11,983

0.2%

Other Black

9,765

0.1%

Chinese

16,099

0.4%

Others

14,083

0.2%

Total

5,267,303

100%

Source: NOMIS – number and proportion of ethnic minority population in NUTS1 regions in the UK - 2008

1.2 An overall snapshot of the UK Distribution of Ethnic Minority Population UK 2008. Number, Representation and Proportion of Ethnic Minority Population in NUTS1 Regions in the UK - 2008 Representation of Ethnic Minorities

Proportion of UK Ethnic Minority Population 6.7% 5.7% 42.3% 1.6% 8.4% 0.5% 2.3% 9.0% 2.5% 1.4% 12.3%

Region

Ethnic Minority Population

East of England East Midlands London North East North West Northern Ireland Scotland South East South West Wales West Midlands Yorkshire and the Humber

435,400 371,100 2,735,800 100,900 543,500 29,800 145,700 583,700 163,400 91,500 792,500

7.7% 8.5% 36.2% 4.0% 8.0% 1.7% 2.9% 7.1% 3.2% 3.1% 14.8%

471,900

9.2%

7.3%

United Kingdom

6,465,100

10.7%

100.0

Source: NOMIS – number and proportion of ethnic minority population in NUTS1 regions in the UK - 2008


Regional Factsheet • North West [ 2 ] Where do ethnic minority people live in the North West? Of the 39 districts in the North West, Manchester has the largest concentration of ethnic minority people. Split of Ethnic Minority Population by Districts

Stockport - 3.3% Pendle - 3.6% Split of Ethnic Minority Population by Districts

Birmingham - 48.9% Sandwell - 9.7% Wolverhampton - 8.9% Coventry - 8.1%

Districts with the highest ethnic minority populations

Birmingham - 48.9%

Districts with the highest ethnic minority populations

Birmingham - 48.9% Sandwell - 9.7% Wolverhampton - 8.9% Coventry - 8.1% Walsall - 5.8% Dudley - 3.3% Stoke-on-Trent - 2.1% Solihull - 1.8% Warwick - 1.5% Telford and Wrekin - 1.4% Rest of West Midlands - 8.6%

Sandwell - 9.7% Wolverhampton - 8.9% Coventry - 8.1% Walsall - 5.8% Dudley - 3.3% Stoke-on-Trent - 2.1% Solihull - 1.8% Warwick - 1.5% Telford and Wrekin - 1.4% Rest of West Midlands - 8.6%

Walsall - 5.8% Dudley - 3.3% Stoke-on-Trent - 2.1% Solihull - 1.8% Warwick - 1.5% Telford and Wrekin - 1.4% Rest of West Midlands - 8.6%

Trafford - 4.7% Preston - 5.0% Rochdale - 6.3% Liverpool - 6.7% Bolton - 7.7% Oldham - 8.0% Blackburn with Darwen - 8.1% Manchester - 20% Rest of North West Region - 26.6%

Source: 2001 Census, NOMIS

More than 10% of the UK workforce is from an ethnic minority background and over 20% of the emerging workforce (children in primary and secondary school education), are from an ethnic minority background. In addition to this, 16% of UK-domiciled students at university in the UK are from an ethnic minority background. Britain’s current and future talent pool is racially diverse and progressive employers understand that it makes good business sense to utilise and grow this pool of talent. 05 I Race for Opportunity (RfO) | Regional Factsheet


Regional Factsheet • North West [ 3 ] Focus on Manchester In 2001, 44% of the total Black Caribbean and 42% of the total Black African population in the North West resided in Manchester. Proportion of Ethnic Minority Population in Manchester Ethnic Minority group

Percentage living in Manchester

Mixed

20%

Indian

8%

Pakistani

20%

Bangladeshi

14%

Other Asian

22%

Caribbean

44%

African

42%

Other Black

38%

Chinese

19%

Others

25% • Migration from the ‘Accession 8’ countries that joined the EU in 2004 has had a significant impact on the make-up of the North West’s population, labour pool and cultural mix, mainly concentrated in the urban centres. Although working in low skilled positions, migrants workers are not necessarily low skilled, and the opportunity exists to better utilise their skills sets by addressing language barriers and difficulties in interpreting overseas qualifications.

Source: Northwest Regional Development Agency Regional Strategy 2010

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Regional Factsheet • North West [ 4 ] Education 1 in 4 of pupils in primary school education in England are from an ethnic minority background.

Source: DCSF release May 2009, ‘number of pupils in state maintained schools’

1 in 5 of pupils in secondary school education in England is from an ethnic minority background.

Source: DCSF release May 2009, ‘number of pupils in state maintained schools’

Almost 1 in 6 (16%) of UK-domiciled students studying at UK universities is from an ethnic minority background. Source: 2007-08 ‘HESA Student Record’ published by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA).

Source: Diversity and Difference in England’s Northwest 2009 - NWRDA

• The age profiles of different ethnic groups vary, with most ethnic minority groups having a younger age structure than the White British population. The Mixed, Black Other, Bangladeshi and Pakistani groups have the youngest age profiles and the White Irish group has the oldest profile.

Source: Diversity and Difference in England’s Northwest 2009 - NWRDA

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Regional Intelligence Unit M ix ed A si an Bl ac k Ch in es e O th er Un cl as si fie N d u of m Pu be pi r ls

te

Primary School Pupils by Ethnic Composition & Area

W hi

• Primary school age children show a greater degree of ethnic diversity than the total population. In the North West, 14% of school children in maintained schools were from non-White ethnic groups compared to 19% in England. At a sub-regional level Greater Manchester shows a high level of diversity with 76% of primary aged children white, 14% Asian and 4% Black. Lancashire, as with its adult profile has a large proportion of Asian children (10%), Merseyside, Cumbria and Cheshire have larger white populations within their schools than the regional average.

England

79.2 4.1

9.3

4.9

0.3

1.4

0.7

Northwest

85.2 2.6

8.7

1.7

0.4

0.9

0.6 452,530

Cheshire

95.5 1.9

1.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.6

42,770

Cumbria

96.8 0.9

0.5

0.1

0.2

0.1

1.4

29,890

Greater Manchester

76.0

4

14

4

0.5

1.4

0.6

176,270

Lancashire

86.6 2.1

10

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.4

74,080

Merseyside

93.4 2.2

1.3

1.3

0.5

0.9

0.4

94,970

Source: Pupil Characteristics and Class Sizes in Maintained Schools in England: January 2009 (Provisional), DCSF


Regional Factsheet • North West 4.1 Where do ethnic minority students study in the North West? The representation of ethnic minorities at universities in the North West, including the University of Manchester and the University of Liverpool, was mixed. While only four out of 14 universities were above the national average of 16.0%, nearly half (six) had a higher percentage of ethnic minority students than their representation in the local population. Ethnic Minorities at Universities in the North West (2007 - 08) The University of Salford

19.4%

The Manchester Metropolitan University

19.3% 18.3%

The University of Bolton The University of Manchester

17.1%

The University of Keele

13.0% 12.4%

The University of Central Lancashire The University of Liverpool

10.6%

Liverpool John Moores University

9.4%

University of Cumbria

6.0%

Edge Hill University

5.7%

Royal Northern College of Music

4.9%

Total Ethnic Minority Representation

The Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts

4.8%

All UK Unis. - 16.0% NW Pop. (18-24) - 10.7%

The University of Lancaster

4.4%

University of Chester

4.1%

5

10

15

20

Source: 2007-08 ‘HESA Student Record’ published by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA).

“More BAME students join the unemployed after graduation than White graduates and male Chinese and Pakistani students are twice as likely as the average to be unemployed” (2006) Source: www.aimhigher.ac.uk/sites/practitioner/resources/Conf%20Summary%20Report%20final%20(2).pdf

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Regional Factsheet • North West [ 5 ] Religion 5.1 A snapshot of the North West The second largest religion outside Christianity in the North West is Islam where 3% of the population is Muslim. Religions within North West

Christian - 78.0% Buddhist - 0.2% Hindu - 0.4% Jewish - 0.4% Muslim - 3% Sikh - 0.1% Other - 0.2% No Religion - 10.5% Religion not stated - 7.5%

Source: Census 2001, based on data released on or before 13 February 2003

5.2 The UK overall picture

Religions within the UK

In the UK, 2.7% of the population stated their religion as Muslim making this the most common religion after Christianity. Figures for England, alone, show that 3.1% of the population stated their religion as Muslim.

Christian - 71.6% No Religion/ Religion not stated - 23% Other - 0.3% Sikh - 0.6% Muslim - 2.7% Jewish - 0.5% Hindu - 1% Buddhist - 0.3%

Source: Census 2001 – Profiles - UK

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Regional Factsheet • North West [ 6 ] Employment 6.1 Ethnic minority employment rate in the North West The working age employment rate for ethnic minorities in the North West is 55% - the equivalent rate for England is 61%. None of the Northern regions meet the England rate. Source: Diversity and Difference in England’s Northwest 2009 - NWRDA

• The highest employment rate by ethnic minority group is amongst Indians at 69% although this is below the England rate of 70.3%.

Source: Diversity and Difference in England’s Northwest 2009 - NWRDA

• The lowest employment rate by ethnic group is amongst Pakistanis and/or Bangladeshis at 47.3%. This is consistent with other regions and is above the England average of 45.7%. This is the exception – for every other ethnic minority group the North West’s rate is lower than for England.

Source: Diversity and Difference in England’s Northwest 2009 - NWRDA

• Looking at occupational groups by ethnicity shows that in the North West as a proportion of those employed there are proportionately more ethnic minority employees in elementary positions, process and plant work, sales and services and personal services. By contrast there are proportionately more white employees in management and senior officiate positions, associate and technical and administrative and secretarial. The only anomaly in this trend is for professional occupations where there are proportionately slightly more ethnic minority employees than white.

Source:Diversity and Difference in England’s Northwest 2009 - NWRDA

• While 72% of the total population of working age was in employment in the North West in 2007, for Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups the rate was 55%. There are also significant intra-regional disparities, for example in a number of districts BME groups are less likely to be in employment than the population as a whole, including Lancaster (47% less likely), Hyndburn (46%), and Chester (40%).

Source: Northwest Regional Development Agency Regional Strategy 2010

• Unemployment levels of BME communities may become disproportionately higher than their White counterparts during recession, which will impact on districts with significant ethnic minority populations, particularly Asian/Asian British such as Burnley, Oldham, and Blackburn with Darwen. These areas are among the region’s most deprived , and all Indices of Multiple Deprivation rankings (which include employment, education and skills) for these areas declined between 2004 and 2007.

Source: Northwest Regional Development Agency Regional Strategy 2010

• The BME population is heavily concentrated in some of the most deprived areas and people of Asian origin have the lowest unemployment rates: Bangladeshi and Pakistani people are 30% less likely to be in employment in the North West.

Source: Northwest Regional Development Agency Regional Strategy 2010

6.2 Employment Rate - UK The UK ethnic minority employment rate is 59.2% Source: Ethnic Minorities in the Labour Market: Quarter 3, 2009 - Ethnic Minority Analysis Team, November 2009

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Regional Factsheet • North West [ 7 ] Simple steps to get started on Race Equality Leadership

Community Involvement

• Consider appointing a Diversity / Race Diversity Champion to lead on the race agenda within your organisation.

• Review the community impact work being done by your organisation and check whether they impact on diverse communities.

• Develop a clear business case for working on race and link it to business objectives.

• As education and skills are the critical components of any workforce, consider partnering with a local school where ethnic minority children could benefit from increased educational attainment.

• Develop an action plan on race and integrate it into the key performance indicators of your managers.

People and Employees • Tell your recruitment agencies, recruitment consultants and head-hunters that your organisation is committed to racial equality and ask them to send you lists containing diverse candidates. • Explicitly state in your recruitment marketing materials that individuals from diverse backgrounds are welcome in your organisation. • Monitor the ethnicity of your workforce and compare it to the local population.

Customers, Clients and Service Users • Ensure your marketing teams or policy makers are signed up to your organisation’s commitment to race equality. • Review your advertising and promotional material to ensure they reflect the diverse marketplace, both in the content and images used. • Consider including ethnic minorities in your focus groups and evaluation sessions for promotional or marketing campaigns.

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• Develop links with local universities that have relatively high proportions of ethnic minority students and offer work placements/experiences.

Supplier Diversity • Do an audit of your current suppliers to find out whether you have awarded any contracts to ethnic minority owned businesses. • Consider publishing clear guidance notes to help ethnic minority businesses tender for contracts with your organisation. • Send your procurement officers to local supplier events to raise their awareness of products/services available from local ethnic minority suppliers.


Regional Factsheet • North West

“We cannot afford to become complacent when it comes to creating a great place to work. Increasingly businesses are recognising that diversity leads to innovation and in furthering this Business in the Community has a crucial role to play in sharing best practice among employers ensuring that all employees, whatever their race, can work to their full potential in a positive and inclusive environment.” Raksha Pattni, Regional Director North West, Business in the Community

Contact details: North West Regional Office Amazon House, 2nd Floor 3 Brazil Street Manchester M1 3PJ Tel: 0161 233 7750

Acknowledgements This publication has been made possible through funding from the Department for Local Communities and Government (DCLG) Tackling Race Inequalities Fund (TRIF)

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Race for Opportunity Members 2010 Accenture Addecco Addleshaw Goddard LLP Advantage West Midlands American Express PLC Arriva plc ASDA Aston Carter Avon & Somerset Constabulary Avon Fire Brigade B&Q Baker & McKenzie Bank of England Barclays Bank PLC BBC BDO Stoy Hayward BIS (Department for Business, Innovation & Skills) Biotechnology & Biological Science Research Council Birmingham City University BP International Britannia Building Society British Airways British Army British Energy British Library Bristol City Council BT BUPA Capgemini Capital One Centrica Cisco Citi Citizens Advice Communities & Local Government Co-operative Financial Services plc Co-operative (The) Credit Suisse Cummins Engine Company Ltd Deloitte LLP Department for Children, Schools and Families Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs Department for Work and Pensions Department of Health Derby College Deutsche Bank East of England Development Agency EDF Energy

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Education Leeds English Partnerships Enterprise Rent-A-Car Environment Agency Ernst & Young LLP Eversheds Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer FSA Fujitsu Services GlaxoSmithKline Goldman Sachs International Government Office For The North West Google Guardian Media Group Healthcare Commission Herbert Smith Home Office HM Revenue & Customs HM Treasury HSBC Bank Plc IBM UK Ltd John Lewis Partnership JP Morgan KPMG Law Society England and Wales Learning & Skills Council Legal & General Investment Mgmt Leicestershire Constabulary Linklaters Lloyds Banking Group London 2012 London Ambulance London Borough of Brent Lovells Marks & Spencer plc McDonald’s Restaurants Ltd Merrill Lynch Europe Metropolitan Police Michael Page Financial Services Midcounties Co-operative (The) Midlands Heart Ministry of Defence Ministry of Justice MITIE MDPGA (MoD Police & Guarding Agency) Morgan Stanley International Ltd National Grid National Museum of Science and Industry National Portrait Gallery Nationwide Building Society Network Rail NHS Employers

Northumbrian Water North West Development Agency Nottingham Trent University OCS Group OfCom Office of Fair Trading Office of National Statistics One NorthEast Open University Orange PCS OTC Computing Ltd Pearson plc Pertemps Recruitment Partnerships PricewaterhouseCoopers Procter & Gamble Provident Financial Prudential Rolls-Royce Military Aero Engines Royal Air Force Royal Bank of Scotland Group Royal Navy Sainsbury’s Supermarkets Ltd Santander Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) Severn Trent Sheffield Hallam University Shell Companies in the UK Simmons & Simmons Slaughter & May Sodexho State Street Corporation The Insolvency Service Thomson Reuters Transport for London UBS Investment Bank University of Bradford University of Bristol University of Central Lancashire University of Durham University of Teesside University of West of England Unum Provident Vodafone Ltd Welsh Assembly Government West Midlands Police Westminster City Council WPP Wragge & Co

Champion Members are in BOLD List of RfO Members 08/03/2010


Race for Opportunity Board Members MITIE Ms Ruby McGregor-Smith CEO and Chair RfO

Appointment Commission Ms Anne Watts CBE, Chair

ASDA Ms Sarah Dickins Retail People Director

Paradoes Mr Denys Rayner CEO

Barclays Bank PLC Mr Vivek Ramachandran Head of UK Cash and Trade

Pertemps People Management Ms Carmen Watson, Managing Director - Commercial Division

British Army Colonel Mark Abraham Assistant Director Employment

Roast Mr Iqbal Wahhab CEO

BT Mr Ray Lerclerq Chief Financial Officer, Global Services

Sainsbury’s Supermarkets Ltd Mr Jat Sahota Head of Corporate Responsibility

EDF Energy Mr Patrick Clarke Director of Connections

Shell Companies in the UK Mr James Smith, Chairman

KPMG Ms Michelle Quest Head of People for the UK

The Royal Bank of Scotland Group Mr Ron Teerlink Chief Administrative Officer

Department of Health Mr Surinder Sharma National Director for Equality & Human Rights

Transport for London Mr Andrew Quincey Director of Group Procurement

For further information on the Race for Opportunity campaign. Please visit www.raceforopportunity.org.uk or telephone 020 7566 8661

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Race for Opportunity Fact Sheet: Ethnic Minorities in the North West