Page 1


Welcome and Objectives Professor Martin Freer, Director, Birmingham Energy Institute Adam Chase, E4tech, chair for the day


THE NEED AND CHALLENGES OF COOLING “BRINGING COOLING IN FROM THE COLD” Sir David King, former Special Representative for Climate Change Pawanexh Kohli, National Centre for Cold-chain Development, India


Cooling Needs: the Climate Change Context SIR DAVID KING • Partner, SYSTEMIQ Limited • Former UK Govt CSA and Climate Envoy

• 1st International Congress on Clean Cooling University of Birmingham •

Wednesday 18th April 2018

• Twitter: Sir_David_King


European Summer Temperatures1900-2100

Source: Hadley Centre


NASA GISS Temp. 01/1880 – 04/2016. Base 1901 - 2000


Climate change: the risks


Risk of Crop Failure (Rice)


Probability of exceeding 2°C


Sea ice decline


Arctic Sea Ice Gone 2016 ?


Consequences of Arctic Warming

Melting

Meandering Methane

All Accelerating


Long-term commitment to sea level rise


The Paris Agreement Long Term Goal

Emissions

Review Mechanism

The Paris agreement aims to hold the increase in global average temperatures well below 2°C and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C.

To achieve the temperature goal greenhouse gas emissions should peak as soon as possible and rapidly reduce thereafter to achieve a balance between emissions and ‘sinks’ in the second half of this century.

Every five years Parties will update their Nationally Determined Contributions informed by a stock-take of global progress. Successive Contributions shall represent a progression beyond the existing Contribution.


COP21 International INDCs to 2030, compared with global carbon budgets

OFFICIAL


David King, John Browne, Richard Layard, Gus O’Donnell,

Martin Rees, Nicholas Stern, Adair Turner


Mission Innovation • High-profile initiative to strengthen public funding of clean energy RD&D. • 22 nations, committed to doubling by 2020/2021: annual spend of approx $30bn. • Breakthrough Energy Coalition, 29 investors pledged to invest $20bn in solutions.


The 7 initial areas for Collaborative Research • • • • • • •

1. Smart grids, electricity & heat storage 2. Electricity access to off-grid communities 3. Capturing sunlight to create liquid fuels 4. CCUS 5. 2nd generation biofuels 6. Materials to replace steel, concrete 7. Heating & cooling


VariaLift Airship


Functionality:


UNLOCKING ACCESS TO COOLING Ian Crosby, Cooling for All


Cooling for ALL! Cool World Congress, Birmingham 18 April 2018

Ian Crosby, Head of Energy Productivity and Cooling Sustainable Energy for ALL


What is Cooling for All? • Convened by SEforALL and funded by the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program • Global Panel draws on high level representatives from National Governments, International Organizations, Philanthropy, Academia, Industry • Scoping Report to be produced outlining baseline data, barriers, solution pathways, technology options • Final Report a call to action: • Increase awareness of the issues across a broad range of stakeholders • Increase the flow of funds into sustainable cooling solutions

• Draws on core competence of SEforALL: gather the evidence, understand the problems, issue a call to arms, convene partnerships


Focus Areas Thermal comfort/ Productivity Medicine

Food

PEOPLE


Risk proxies: Heat exposure plus lack of electricity Hottest month average level of occupational heat stress Afternoon values in shade or indoors, 30-year averages 19802009 Not shown but important Dangerous Heat Day = mean temperature > 35 C

More than 1 billion people lack access to energy A crude proxy for access to cooling Use to determine those most at risk But how many really need cooling and why? 30


Group 0 – no access to electricity

75m

Group 2: deduced from other numbers and total population = 51.5m

183.5m

Group 1– Poverty line

Group 3: 3.5 million Nigerians (1.9%) in middle-income level

128.5m

3.5m

Group 2– low income

53.5m

Group 3 – Choice

51.5m

Constructing a Risk Model for Thermal Comfort - Nigeria

Group 1: 70% people live below poverty line, of which 75 million have no electricity = 53.5m

Group 0: 75 million without access to electricity


Country Rankings based on Group 0 Top 5 countries in each ranking list

Top 5

1

2

3

4

5

Buildings

India

Nigeria

Bangladesh Sudan

Niger

Food

China

India

Brazil

Iran

Egypt

Vaccines

India

Nigeria

Pakistan

Philippines

Brazil

Top 7 Countries that are present in all three risk categories India, Nigeria, Philippines, Guinea, Benin, Guinea-Bissau Aggregate Risks for Top 30 Countries Category

Number

Unit

Buildings

523 million

people at risk

Food

410 million

Tons food wasted

Vaccines

581 million

# people not vaccinated


Two Broad Groups plus Groups ‌. Urban

Rural

Group 0

may have access to electricity but housing quality is very poor and their income may not be sufficient to purchase or run even a fan. They may own a fridge but intermittent electricity supplies may mean that food often spoils and there is a high risk of food poisoning.

may not have access to electricity and probably has no access to an intact cold chain which would enable them to sell their products at market at a high price. Medical cold chains may also not be intact putting lives at risk from spoiled vaccines. (perhaps 5-600 million people)

Group 1

An increasingly affluent lower-middle class that aspires to own an air conditioner but is on the brink of buying the cheapest and least efficient. Poor purchasing decisions by these people will see stratospheric increase in energy consumption generated by dirty technology.

Farmer Producer or Village Producer cold chains to urban consumption centres; but could be choosing traditional diesel intensive solutions

Group 2

People that already own an air conditioner but may be in the market to replace it. People that might be attracted to living in new housing developments that could be designed in a more sustainable way.

Transitioning to and investing in in agribusinesses creating growing, rural economies with multiple spin-out businesses; possible international trade


How to approach solutions? Group 3 Subsistence Farmers

Very High Density Urban (slums)

Group 2 People and climate Needs Group 1

Cool Cucumbers

Carbon Time Bomb

Group 0

Moving up a ladder?

Solving for the needs of each community in a systemic way


Four Broad Groups Categorise Issues – and Response Strategies Subsistence farmers

may not have access to electricity and probably has no access to an intact cold chain which would enable them to sell their products at market at a high price. Medical cold chains may also not be intact putting lives at risk from spoiled vaccines. (perhaps 5-600 million people)

Slum dwellers

may have access to electricity but housing quality is very poor and their income may not be sufficient to purchase or run even a fan. They may own a fridge but intermittent electricity supplies may mean that food often spoils and there is a high risk of food poisoning.

Carbon Time-bomb

An increasingly affluent lower-middle class that aspires to own an air conditioner but is on the brink of buying the cheapest and least efficient. Poor purchasing decisions by these people will see stratospheric increase in energy consumption generated by dirty technology.

Cool Cucumbers

People that already own an air conditioner but may be in the market to replace it. People that might be attracted to living in new housing developments that could be designed in a more sustainable way. Cooling part of leisure.


What is already being done? Implementation:

• The majority government/international organizations bodies e.g. GIZ, FAO; • Partnership approaches to promote and incentivize new or more efficient technologies/policies; • Platforms for exchange of best practices, joint R&D and pushing a joint agenda;

• Local government heavily involved. Gaps: • Grass-root organizations or civil society organizations seem absent; • Private sector development gets little attention; • Few organizations have a core program which focuses solely on cooling • Not yet considered a development priority. Funding and finance: • Since 2000, an estimated US$886.5 million to cold chain ($610.5m), urban environment ($35m) and building sectors ($9m), multi-sector ($232m)– not all of which goes directly towards cooling; • Funders: EU, Germany, UK, US governments. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Environment Facility (GEF)


What is needed? • Change perceptions: it is not “all about the box”. We need to ensure that new construction pays attention to passive design principles to reduce the cooling demand within a building. • Think about the cooling needs of buildings and how they fit together as a system – if 40% of buildings in India are yet to be constructed then why not design urban areas for district cooling systems; • Ensure that new appliances are designed to be efficient as possible and that the energy needed to power up some of these solutions is generated as sustainably as possible; • Upgrade efforts to connect stakeholders, nurture new business models, provide education and training, create a fertile enabling environment. Well-designed and enforced policies are essential to transform markets; • Encourage and support smaller, more local manufacturers to build to higher performance standards so that efficient technology is affordable for all and not just the better off; • Shift mindsets and action on many fronts rather than merely a singular, technology focused approach; • Create a platform for the honest brokering of information and creation of partnerships for action.


Core recommendation

Cool Cucumbers

Carbon Time Bombs

Slum dwellers

KM

Subsistence Farmers

Set of initiatives designed around core needs of demographic groups. Secured by funding for 36 months at least for each

Central Cooling for All Secretariat Monitor progress, knowledge management, coordination of initiatives, strategic support on project design Core funding to be secured for at least 40 months

KM


Next Steps • May 2-3, SEforALL Forum, Lisbon: discussion with stakeholders/audience to think through market solutions, test-drive some of the material and messaging, with comments feeding into the second draft of the public report (HINT: COME TO LISBON, the climate is better than Birmingham); • July 9-13, High Level Political Forum, New York: launch week for the public report. Announcement on secretariat? • September 2018, Climate Week – announcement of first new programs

Thank You and See you in Lisbon


PLENARY DISCUSSION ONE COOL CITIES GETTING READY FOR 6BN URBAN RESIDENTS Ingo Wagner, CoolingEU (chair) Professor Graeme Maidment, London South Bank University Guillermo Martinez, Araner


LATEST COOLING TECHNOLOGIES DISTRICT COOLING INTEGRATION


AGENDA Introduction to District Cooling Integrating the Production of Different Energy Types Integrating different consumers in the same central cooling plant Integrating the central cooling plant with the environment


AGENDA Introduction to District Cooling Integrating the Production of Different Energy Types Integrating different consumers in the same central cooling plant Integrating the central cooling plant with the environment


DISTRICT COOLING  Centralized production and distribution of Cooling Energy  District cooling is an integral energy infrastructure to reduce strain on the electric grid caused by increasing demands for air

conditioning, which typically create 50%-70% of peak electricity demand  Industrial-grade equipments and industrial practices ensure the reliability and safety  Adding a thermal energy storage can reduces the costs and the environmental impact (green technology)


BENEFITS OF DISTRICT COOLING Reduction in peak Electricity Demand

Reduction in CO2 Emissions

Recognized Green Technology with Carbon Credit

Optimization of the installed cooling capacity

Operation and Maintenance Services provided by experts

Higher Reliability & Efficiency Esthetical benefits

Possibility of Energy Storage


AGENDA Introduction to District Cooling Integrating the Production of Different Energy Types Integrating different consumers in the same central cooling plant Integrating the central cooling plant with the environment


BIGENERATION: HEAT PUMP BIGENERATION  A lot of consumers need heating and cooling energy at the same time: eg. Hotels, Hospitals  Combining the production of both can result in a very efficient solution. HEAT PUMP

 Production of cooling and heating energy from electrical source  Cooling and heating energy must be balanced  It can be combined with Thermal Energy Storage


ABSORPTION

BI-GENERATION

100 kW 99 kW

100 kW

66 TR

34 TR

15 kW 35 kW High Temperature Heat Low Temperature Heat

7 TR

* Typical energy conversion rates

* Typical energy conversion rates

Absorption

Bi-generation

Medium

Medium

High

Medium

FUEL EFFICIENCY

Medium

Very High

MAINTENANCE

Medium

Medium

FOOTPRINT WATER CONSUMPTION


TRI-GENERATION 100 kW

BI-GENERATION

42 kW 100 kW

66 TR

64 TR 15 kW 35 kW Low Temperature Heat

15 kW

High Temperature Heat

35 kW High Temperature Heat Low Temperature Heat

7 TR

7 TR

* Typical energy conversion rates

* Typical energy conversion rates

Tri-generation

Bi-generation

High

Medium

Medium

Medium

FUEL EFFICIENCY

High

Very High

MAINTENANCE

High

Medium

FOOTPRINT WATER CONSUMPTION


BIGENERATION: HEAT PUMP BIGENERATION  A lot of consumers need heating and cooling energy at the same time: eg. Hotels, Hospitals  Combining the production of both can result in a very efficient solution. HEAT PUMP

 Production of cooling and heating energy from electrical source  Cooling and heating energy must be balanced  It can be combined with Thermal Energy Storage


AGENDA Introduction to District Cooling Integrating the Production of Different Energy Types Integrating different consumers in the same central cooling plant Integrating the central cooling plant with the environment


DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES NEED COOLING TYPICAL TEMPERATURES OF DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS  District Cooling Temperatures: 5 / 13 ºC  Polystyrene Plant: 9 / 15 ºC

 Pharmaceutical Process 1: 5 / 15 ºC  Pharmaceutical Process 2: -30 / -20 ºC  Dairy Plant: 2 / 8 ºC  Fish Cold Stores: -23 ºC (evaporation at -30 ºC)  Fruit Cold Stores: 5 ºC (evaporation at -2 ºC)


DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES NEED COOLING Temperature use of Different Applications Fruit Cold Storages

Fish Cold Storages

Dairy Plant

Pharmaceutical Process 2

Pharmaceutical Process 1

Polystyrene Plant

District Cooling

-35

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

Operation Temperatures (ยบC)

5

10

15

20


AGENDA Introduction to District Cooling Integrating the Production of Different Energy Types Integrating different consumers in the same central cooling plant Integrating the central cooling plant with the environment


DISTRICT COOLING HEAT REJECTION

COOLING TOWER EVAPORATIVE  Low electrical consumption  High water consumption (can work with TSE)  Cooling Water required  Periodical chemical treatment required  Potential risk of Legionella Contamination

DRY CONDENSATION  Higher Electrical Consumption  Better efficiency at night with low peak tariff  No water consumption  No Cooling Water pumps  Low and economical operation and maintenance  Clean system with no potential risk of contamination

SEA WATER  Low Electrical Consumption  No water consumption (water is passed through)  Special materials are needed (Titanium)  The river or the sea water must be close to the power plant


DISTRICT COOLING HEAT REJECTION COMPARISON OF TECHNOLOGIES WORST DESIGN CONDITIONS (WB: 31 ยบC, DB:47 ยบC, SW TEMP: 33 ยบC)

Electrical Consumption KW/TR

Water Cons l/TRh

Technology

Chiller

CW Pumps

Fans

CHW Pumps

Total

for TSE water

Cooling Tower + Water Cooled Chiller

0.65

0.04

0.03

0.12

0.84

12.00

Air Cooled Industrial Direct Condensation

0.98

0

0.13

0.12

1.23

0

Sea Water Cooled Chillers Ti Condensers

0.63

0.05

0

0.12

0.8

0


DISTRICT COOLING HEAT REJECTION


DISTRICT COOLING HEAT REJECTION


DISTRICT COOLING HEAT REJECTION COMPARISON OF TECHNOLOGIES YEARLY AVERAGE

Electrical Consumption KW/TR

Water Cons l/TRh

Technology

Chiller

CW Pumps

Fans

CHW Pumps

Total

for TSE water

Cooling Tower + Water Cooled Chiller

0.58

0.04

0.03

0.12

0.73

12.00

Air Cooled Industrial Direct Condensation

0.74

0

0.13

0.12

0.99

0

Sea Water Cooled Chillers Ti Condensers

0.52

0.05

0

0.12

0.69

0


THANK YOU

FOR YOUR

TTENTION

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION info@araner.com

www.araner.com


COLD CHAIN DEVELOPMENT FOR RURAL TRANSFORMATION Rosa Rolle, UNFAO


Cold Chain Development for Rural Transformation Rosa S. Rolle, Ph.D

Senior Enterprise Development Officer Nutrition and Food Systems Division


Overview • Overview of trends that create opportunities and which warrant the development of cold chain systems. • Cold chain systems and their contribution to rural transformation.


Population Growth is Taking Place Across All Regions of the Globe 12000

2.50

10000

2.00

8000 1.50

6000

millions 1.00

4000

0.50

2000

0.00 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2055 2060 2065 2070 2075 2080 2085 2090 2095 2100

0

developed NothAfrica and the Middle East South Asia percentage annual growth rate (right scale)

Sub-Saharan Africa Latin America and Caribb Eastern Asia

Source: UN,2011


Rapid Urbanization is taking place in developing countries 7.0

Linked to :

6.0

5.0 4.0

billions

3.0 2.0

1.0

Rural

Source: UN, 2011

Urban

2050

2045

2040

2035

2030

2025

2020

2015

2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

1975

1970

1965

1960

1955

1950

0.0

• Increased incomes • Changing lifestyles and diets • Demand for food that is safe and of good quality; • Demand for convenience • Emphasis on environmental sustainability


Changing Retail Landscape in Urban Centers of Developing Countries


High levels of losses in

perishables: a major challenge to be tackled


Underlying causes of losses in developing regions

Modern Supply Chains

Traditional Supply Chains

• Consumer/demand driven

• Production oriented • Lack of a cold chain • Limited use of post-harvest technology • High level of inefficiency • Poor quality • Questionable safety • High levels of losses

• Logistics and cold chain systems • Make use of post-harvest technology • High level of efficiency • Low level of losses


Perishables in Developing Countries are Handled Under Ambient Conditions


Rising temperatures driven by

climate change could contribute to an increase in post-harvest losses in many developing countries


Implications of these trends? Needs: ď ą Make more efficient use of the natural resource base.

ď ąImprove efficiency and sustainability in supply chains. ď ąDevelop supply chains that deliver on quality and safety.


Cold Chain Systems Empower Agriculture: Improve supply chain efficiency. Reduce farm to market losses.

Maintain the quality and safety of food.  Ensure the health security of populations.  Create added value


Cold Chain Systems Create Added Value Value


Cold Chain Systems: Generate Economic Development • Connect farmers to higher value market options (urban and export).

• Contribute positively to income growth in rural areas.


Case of Value Chain Development in Champasak Province, Lao PDR • Small farmer groups organized and capacitated to produce certified (GAP and organic) high value produce. • Land donated by the Government for construction of a (project-funded) GMP compliant pack-house facility. • Equipment and installation of electricity undertaken by the project.

FAO-RAP 2016


Case of Value Chain Development in Champasak Province, Lao PDR • Smallholder produce pre-cooled, prepared and retail-packaged at the packhouse. • Packaged produce is transported via a cold chain to the airport in Bangkok, for export.

FAO-RAP 2016


Benefits Derived • Reduced post-harvest losses, reduced transport and logistic costs and improved quality. • Improved market access for farmers (EU and middle East). • New employment opportunities were created in a very rural location. • A majority of new employees are women.

• Leasing income generated for the Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office (PAFO). FAO-RAP 2016


Success Factors: Public and Private Sector Investments were Vital Inputs

PPP Agreement signed to lease the pack-house and operate a cold chain system

81


Key Elements of the Enabling Environment To Support Cold Chain Development • Government support for the development and strengthening of small holder organizations. • Public goods that support cold chain development. • Rural infrastructure, electricity, transport systems, communication technology

• Mechanisms to facilitate • the ease of doing business • access to finance


Economic: • Presents economic benefits for entrepreneurs. • Increased incomes for producers

Environmental: • Efficient use of valuable raw materials and resources • Reduce pollution and waste

Social:

• Increased food security • Increased nutrition and health • Increased employment

Cold Chain Benefits


It follows that…. • Cold chain systems offer considerable potential for rural transformation. • Greater attention is needed to scale up and develop these systems toward maximizing value added toward enhancing rural transformation.


Thank You Rosa.Rolle@fao.org


PLENARY DISCUSSION TWO COOLING IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD – MAKING LIVELIHOODS Dr Tim Fox, IMechE (chair) Dr Lisa Kitinoja, The Postharvest Education Foundation Sean Roche, ICL


COOLING IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD MAKING LIVELIHOODS Dr Tim Fox CEng FIMechE Chair, IMechE Food and Drink Engineering Committee Independent Consultant 18 April 2018 www.imeche.org


Food loss a major opportunity • Rather than a major problem • Different perspective • Consider food loss not as a problem but as an opportunity to make livelihoods and improve well-being.

• Size of the opportunity

• Possibly 650-700 million tonnes or more of produce per annum. • Globally US$100’s billion per annum of lost economic value.

• Engineering knowledge and technologies • Plenty of engineering knowledge and technology available to use to take the opportunity, increasingly including cleantech and sustainable options.


Access to markets the BIG prize • Economic opportunity • Asia and Africa projected to experience biggest growth in absolute population numbers. • Increased urbanisation on these continents drives demand for more rural-urban food supply chains. • Increased affluence driving dietary preference changes and demand for higher quality food products and convenience foods – frozen; chilled; semi-chilled. • Urban infrastructure development increasing availability of ports and airports with gateways to export markets.


Making livelihoods in developing economies • What does it mean? • Understand what making livelihoods means in an economic sense - reduced poverty; more job opportunities; increasing incomes; gender equality; improved health; reduced migration? • What are the possible unintended outcomes, who will be the losers, what might be the potential ripple effects through rural communities and society? • Most farmers are smallholders and often unaware of available technologies and business models, unlikely to invest alone in new innovative technologies. • Access and adoption requires affordable, reliable and scalable technologies, awareness, cooperation, viable business models and demonstrated benefits. •


Business Models pathways to success • Increasing levels of sophistication • Business model case studies

• Dr Lisa Kitinoja will explore three business model examples for clean cooling enterprises in the developing world.

• The role of the technology developer

• Sean Roche will share his experience of developing affordable, reliable and scalable technology with viable business models and demonstrated benefits.

• The needs for education and training

• Dr Ali Mohammed Ibrahim’s insights into the role of education and extension support.


Business models for clean cooling enterprises in the developing world Dr. Lisa Kitinoja The Postharvest Education Foundation A Cool World– International Clean Cooling Conference University of Birmingham, UK. 18-19 April 2018


On-farm cooling options Low cost options • Use of shade • Evaporative cooling

Benefits • Reduced food losses • Extended shelf life • Increased marketing options • Increased income Kitinoja 2018


Higher cost cooling/cold storage options • Small-scale off-grid solar powered cold rooms (with batteries or phase change material based storage) • CoolBot equipped cold rooms • CoolBot equipped trailers

• Reefer vans (traditionally diesel powered)

Matched with a window style A/C unit

Kitinoja 2018


Business Model 1: Individual farms Low cost, low tech cooling options such as ZECC or charcoal cool room • Capital cost: US$100 to $300 per unit including shade structure • Operating costs: water, labor • Low environmental impacts • Best results in dry areas, where there may be limited water Zero Energy Cool Chamber (ZECC) 100kg to 1 MT capacity

Kitinoja 2018


Business Model 1: Individual farms Low cost, low tech cooling options such as ZECC or charcoal cool room • Benefits: Storage temperature decreased by 15 to 20 C from 35 C

• Shelf life increased by 2 to 3x compared to ambient • Reduced postharvest losses

• Quality maintained, good market price maintained • Provide increased access to markets

Kitinoja 2018


Business Model 2: Small business enterprises

Off-grid solar powered cold room

• Capital cost: US$20,000 to $50,000 or more per unit (depends on capacity)

• Operating cost: labor • Customers pay a fee per crate • Low environmental impacts Additional Support Services • Packing into plastic crates • Refrigerated transport • Links to markets Nigeria: COLD HUBS “Keeping it Fresh” www.coldhubs.com Kitinoja 2018


Business Model 2: Small business enterprises Off-grid solar powered cold room

• Benefits: Storage temperature decreased to 15 to 20 C from 35 C • Plastic crates reduce physical damage to less than 5% • Shelf life increased by 4x or more compared to ambient • Reduced postharvest losses • Quality maintained, good market price maintained • Access to new markets • Provides increased incomes (evaluated to be 25% higher) • an integrated ‘clean’ cold chain solution with a ‘service’ (‘Cold Economy’) approach

Nigeria: COLD HUBS “Keeping it Fresh” www.coldhubs.com

Kitinoja 2018


Business Model 3: Cooperative business enterprises Agricultural value addition centers • Offers cooling/cold storage options, processing options, training

• Capital cost: US$200,000 or more per unit • Operating cost: electricity, labor, training staff, market linkage staff • Self-help group members pay a fee per crate or kg Cooling/cold storage services • Zero Energy Brick/sand Cooler 1.5 MT

• Charcoal cool room 3 MT • CoolBot Cold Room 5 MT Processing options for mangoes

• Solar drying, jam, pulp, juice

Kenya: Smallholder Horticulture Aggregation and Processing Center at Karurumo, Embu County Kitinoja 2018


Business Model 3: Cooperative business enterprises Agricultural value addition centers • Benefits: Storage temperature decreased to 15 to 20 C from 35 C • Storage in plastic crates • Shelf life increased by 4x or more compared to ambient • Reduced postharvest losses • Quality maintained, good market price maintained • Processing and packaging to add value • Potential access to export markets • Provides increased incomes

Kenya: Smallholder Horticulture Aggregation and Processing Center at Karurumo, Embu County Video link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bnNu9njlejg Kitinoja 2018


Inviro Choice Limited


Introduction Vacuum Cooling Bespoke design and manufacturing new machines (2015) Service and maintenance of Vacuum Cooling machines Parts sales and distribution

Air conditioning Installation Service and maintenance


What is vacuum cooling? Vacuum cooling is the most rapid and efficient cooling technique for most porous produce that contain water. • Pressurised reinforced chamber • Vacuum Pulled • Boiling point of water reduced • Phase change takes place • Latent heat provides energy • Field heat removed within 30 min • Vapour is caught and condensed on evaporator coil


Benefits of vacuum cooling Reduces post harvest loss by up to 100% Extends shelf life of the product Increases the product demand Opens doors to exporting as the product can last longer during transportation Reduces water waste Relieves duty required on the rest of the cold chain

Reduces C02 Emissions


2015 onwards

•Same design for 40+ years •Improve energy efficiency •Improve time efficiency •Give our customers more value for money ROI •Open to new avenues to markets where previously not able to operate a vacuum cooler


Climate Change Effects climate change has on farming in developing countries

Shocking facts • • • • • • • •

Climate change increasing field heat Post harvest loss increases Lack of cold chain Up to 50% loss case studies Water stress Population increasing Hunger increases Profits reduced


2018

Commercial Vacuum Cooling

Humanitarian

Social Enterprise

Small hold farmer

groups/co-operatives Continue with core business activities Eco Range

Eco-Range Off Grid Cooling equipment -

Aid Projects

Pilot partner

Funding/ Investment


THANK YOU


Postharvest business development support • Training on best practices for postharvest handling, cooling, cold storage, cold chain logistics from farm to market • Use of returnable plastic crates (requires systems for cleaning, rental, returns) • Investments in missing infrastructure (cold storage and processing facilities, power/energy, roads) • Linking producers to markets (reefer van or insulated trailer transport, alternative markets, meeting quality standards)

Rwanda retail market in Kigali Urban fresh produce delivery

Kitinoja 2018


Clean cooling systems development requires: • Appropriate cooling, cold storage and cold chain technologies • Vetted business models for small, medium and large scale enterprises

• Access to reasonably priced equipment, tools, supplies • Trained technicians for maintenance and repairs • Enabling support – finance options, basic infrastructure

• Incentives such as duty free imports, low interest rates, corporate tax breaks • Educational support – training opportunities and rural extension systems

Kitinoja 2018


COOLING TO SHARE Professor Toby Peters, University of Birmingham


Cooling - A Growing Market

Source: Green Cooling initiative

Annual sales of cooling equipment are worth $140bn in 2018 (globally). Will grow to over $260bn by 2050


Cooling – CO2 impact


Cooling Penetration


Cooling Energy demand


Cooling Penetration


The Ladder of Opportunities Given demand, need for both urgent intervention as well as long-term sustainable strategies, we need a roadmap and pathways based on a ladder of opportunities. “must have” – ensure basic needs are met for all people whilst living within our natural limits and mitigating future risks to our planet

Now! Ensuring lowest GWP and highest energy efficiency of current technologies – maintenance, best in class adoption

Active steps to reduce demand for cooling Mitigate need (building design, passive cooling, food packaging) Behavioural changes

Think thermally, rather than default to electricity – turn waste heat and cold into a value

Develop! Think system and how to harness waste energy to meet cooling needs

Needs-driven leapfrog new technologies

“future proofing” –improving quality of life for all whilst equally creating abundance from our natural resources.


Harnessing “Waste Cold”


Cold Economy - Systems Approach Making cold Harness waste/unused resources e.g.: ‘wrong time’ renewable energy (e.g. wind), waste cold (e.g. LNG) ambient heat & cold (e.g. ground source) Storing cold Thermal energy storage to warehouse Moving cold New energy vectors and material to shift cold Using cold Reduce cold loads Increase efficiency and reduce GWP of conventional technologies New technologies to harness new stores and vectors Managing cold Monitoring, controls and management


Need to reset the energy strategy


Need to reset the energy strategy

The key question is ‘what is the service we require, and backcasting how can we provide it in the least damaging way’, rather than ‘how much electricity do I need to generate?’


System, not just the technology


Cold Economy - Systems Approach

Cold Chain (food, pharmaceuticals)

Buildings & Cities

Mobility

Data


Global science – local solutions 1. International Clean Cold Consortium


Global science – local solutions 2. Clean Cooling Centres of Excellence


Clean cooling ….


THINK THERMALLY FOR DEMAND – SIDE MANAGEMENT Ian Tansley, Surechill


Ian Tansley Inventor & Co-Founder ian.tansley@surechill.com

THINK THERMALLY FOR DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT Our partners


The problem

The current system is unbalanced.

The new cool.

200MW The huge drain kettles put on the UK grid at 7pm every day.


The current solutions

The solutions are limited, inefficient, and often remote.

The new cool.

200miles from an urban area, means much power is lost during transfer.


The part cooling can play

Distributed cooling is simple, cheap, and effective. Domestic cooling

The new cool.

Commercial cooling


The future is a mix

A mix of of energy storage is essential. Electric cars

The new cool.

Coolers

Hydrogen storage


Let’s work on this together.

Ian Tansley, CTO, Sure Chill Ian.tansley@surechill.com

www.surechill.com hello@surechill.com @sure_chill


FROM WASTE TO HIGH-VALUE COOLING – AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO ENERGY Jan Grimbrandt, Boson Energy


From waste to high-value cooling – an integrated approach to energy Jan Grimbrandt CEO and Founder JGR@bosonenergy.com

Also here in Birmingham: Aditya Sharma Senior VP Asia ASH@bosonenergy.com


Waste is an exploding global problem driven by prosperity. However, prosperity is probably the best thing that can be given to a family for health, education, food quality and so much more.

Air pollution

Water pollution

Climate change

Waste to cooling

Global prosperity 138


No energy harnessed from waste – 9.85m tons of waste over 30 years Today, most cities or islands in Asia and Africa send waste to landfill + burn coal for energy

CO2

NOx

Coal Generation

4.1 million tons ($ 290 million) worth of coal used to replace the wasted energy for power and cooling

That coal also emits 8.2 million tons of CO2 ($165 million at $ 20/ton)

OBS! NOx & PM from millions of polluting and congesting truck kilometers transporting waste to one location

Major pollution from landfill affecting health and environment

NIMBY / BANANA Grid Power

NOx

NOx PM CH4

PM

NIMBY / BANANA

NOx PM

200yrs…

70yrs ...

Landfill NOx PM

NOx PM

NIMBY Community

1 million people | 1000 tons of waste / day 30 year time frame

139


Only power harnessed while thermal energy lost (>40% of potential lost) Alternatively, the waste is incinerated and the toxic ash sent to landfill – only concentrating and moving the waste problem to future generations • 9.85 million tons of waste means 1.2 million tons of toxic ash for (treatment?) and deposit (473 Olympic size swimming pools)

CO2

NOx

Coal Generation

Same NOx and PM from millions of polluting and congesting truck kilometers transporting waste and toxic ash

Less than 25% of energy potential harvested as power only

Electricity from 1.4 million tons ($ 97million) worth of coal instead used to produce electric cooling

That coal also emits 2.8 million tons of CO2 ($55m) Treatment & Deposit

NIMBY / BANANA Grid Power Grid Power

NOx PM

Thermal un-used Central Incineration

Air Pollution?

NOx PM CH4

Toxic bottom ash NIMBY / BANANA

200yrs…

70yrs ...

Landfill

NIMBY / BANANA

NOx PM

NOx PM

NIMBY Community

1 million people | 1000 tons of waste / day

140


Both power AND thermal energy fully harnessed (65-75% of total) IMBY solution with full responsibility towards future generation and both in terms of clean and efficient waste treatment AND sustainable energy diversification • 9.85 million tons of waste diverted from landfill •

0.6 million tons of clean ready-to-use IMBY Rock™ for art and local infrastructure – NO residues for treatment or deposit

Full 65-75% of energy potential harvested as power and heat or thermal cooling for local use

70-90% reduction of waste transportation/pollution/congestion

4.1 million tons ($290m) of coal stays in the ground.

8.2 million tons ($165 million) of CO2 emissions from coal avoided

Zero-footprint underground plant

200k people within 4km radius at global density average of 3800 people / sqkm Emissions ‘cleaner than ambient air’ Local targeted heat

Local power

Local targeted thermal cooling

IMBY ROCK

Zero residues (value added material)

IMBY Community

5 x 200k people | 1000 tons of waste / day WEU = Waste to Energy Unit

141


Follow BOSON ENERGY on Twitter and Linkedin! Jan Grimbrandt CEO and Founder JGR@bosonenergy.com Also here in Birmingham: Aditya Sharma Senior VP Asia ASH@bosonenergy.com


Feedback Stephen Gill, Institute of Refrigeration


DAY 1 SUMMARY, THOUGHTS AND CLOSE Professor Richard Williams, Heriot-Watt University


A Cool World – Day 1 Summary thoughts Professor Richard A Williams Heriot-Watt University


1. Energy transition requires “radical innovation� in technology and systems


A global call to innovate to close the gap…

“While important progress has been made in cost reduction and deployment of clean energy technologies, the pace of innovation and the scale of transformation and dissemination remains significantly short of what is needed” 30th November 2015 at COP21


2. Accelerating innovation in clean cooling offers major societal benefits for future sustainable lifestyles – one of the few examples of revolution since COP21


3. Aim for ‘radical innovation’ solutions not just incremental fixes Innovation is:

“an invention or discovery that has been put into use resulting in significant benefits”

A radical innovation is:  “one that offers a radical beneficial impact on society, and it does this since the invention itself is often extraordinary” N.B. Of course incremental solutions that are deployed widely can also be transformative, but are likely to be insufficient


4. Recognise the characteristics of radical cooling innovations – and plan accordingly

 Initially unbelievable?!  Often involves simple concepts

 Daring and ambitious  High risk - low chance of success, requires resilient team work

 Hard to fund - disrupt existing markets or have no existing market  Scales slowly - market growth rates, manufacturability, talent bottlenecks, needs to connected to adopting communities


5. Challenges drive change – let us determine to engage to solve the global cold challenge! “When you are face to face with a difficulty you are up against a discovery” LORD KELVIN


DAY ONE CLOSE


DAY TWO WELCOME


Product Nominations: deadline: 25.05.2918

http://globalleap.org/


THE COOLING LANDSCAPE Michael Ayres, Flexible Power Systems To include HOT, COLD AND FLEXIBLE Professor Eddie Owens, Heriot-Watt University


Renewables are not enough! Professor Edward Owens Director of Heriot Watt Energy Academy School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society


Current Energy Issues include

Resource depletion and concerns over climate change Fast growing demand for energy Expanding intermittent renewable generation


German Wind Generation 2012 Capacity Factor = 18%

http://theenergycollective.com/schalkcloete/259876/intermittent-renewables-andelectricity-markets


Orkney January 2013 27/01/2013 00:00

25/01/2013 00:00

23/01/2013 00:00

21/01/2013 00:00

19/01/2013 00:00

17/01/2013 00:00

50 20

45 18

40 16

35 14

30 12

25 10

20 8

15 6

10 4

5 2

0 0

Wind speed - height corrected for turbin hub height (m/s)

est output

15/01/2013 00:00

Output

13/01/2013 00:00

11/01/2013 00:00

09/01/2013 00:00

07/01/2013 00:00

05/01/2013 00:00

03/01/2013 00:00

01/01/2013 00:00

Wind generation output (MW)

Grid Curtailment / Too much wind Wind Speed (m/s) - not height corrected


Flexibility in demand timing will increase the proportion of renewable energy that we use. Supply management “stores” energy Demand management “stores” demand

Sara Campagna


Living with Intermittent Generation traditional production

renewable production

+

traditional consumption

=

flexible consumption

+ 163


ORIGIN Project • Demand Side Management at a community scale – automated and active participation


• Encouragement of “Active” participation via variable tariffs • High Carbon 17p/kWh, low Carbon = 4.19p/kWh Performance

Forecast


Demand response project

Type of response

Percentage increase in use of Community Renewables 5.8%

Household electrical demand (Findhorn) Household thermal demand (Findhorn) Community electrical demand (Findhorn)

Informational – incentivised Actuated (Modelled) 11%

Informational - with 2.5% feedback (Measured) Total Response with 16.8% tariff incentive (Findhorn)

GHG Emissions Savings / kgCO2e per annum 12,900 24,400 5,500

37,300


What are the “demand response” opportunities? Most impact from automated systems: • Electric Vehicles (7kW x 10m = 70GW Peak) • Heat Pumps • Hot Water Tanks • Other truly dispatchable Loads


Sustainable Building – 40% of energy use is in the built environment End users do not want to buy electrons They want to buy services – heat, cold, lifestyle Avoid disrupting their lifestyle


How do we make it happen? • Variable Tariffs to reward “flexibility” • New ways of selling energy • Invisibility or “positive” visibility to the client • Sell services – not energy! • Build flexibility into the energy system


Cooling versus

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.051 (Isaac and Van Vuuren 2009) Heating

Demand for heating in the built environment is expected to stabilise by 2030 Demand for cooling is expected to continue to grow until 2100


Where does “Clean Cold” come into this? • Cooling is often dispatchable • It is therefore flexible within limitations and can be “orchestrated” with intermittent energy generation • Cold Production – potentially valuable by-products including heat, and grid flexibility • We have been focussed on heat – but its time to think clearly about cold


Professor Edward Hugh Owens

• School or Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society • e.h.owens@hw.ac.uk


The Cooling Landscape April 2018 – Cool World 1st International Congress on Clean Cooling University of Birmingham


Objectives of the Work Develop a ‘clean cooling landscape study for the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Programme to support impact investors [and others] to enter into the clean cooling (refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC) sector – built environment and transport/logistics . The project will deliver: • An understanding of the size of the challenge we need to address through clean cooling • A market overview, incorporating potential disruptive technologies, applications, impacts (SDGs), growth projections, technology segmentation and an assessment of barriers to deployment • An understanding of step-change technologies and cooling solutions • A review of investment activity and levels, and perceived barriers to investing in the space • An assessment of the interaction between social and policy factors and investing in the space • A framework through which to assess technology oriented investment opportunities to understand their potential, impact and current status • A web-based dissemination package =>

“clean cooling” as a defined category within clean tech, show the importance and opportunity and give an accessible start point for philanthropic investors who wish to learn more and then become active in the space


Engagement • Over and above desk-based research, so far we have: • Profiled ~60 technology developers • Consulted several OEMs and Tier1s from cooling and refrigeration sectors. • Spoken to NGOs and trade associations with interests in energy efficiency and cooling. • Had input from financial professionals from private equity, intragovernmental, impact and philanthropic backgrounds. • Initiated dialogue with academics with technical, economic and policy backgrounds. • Engaged with a series of technology developers at different stages of the readiness cycle to build and test an assessment framework.


Flexible Power Systems • Energy networks are changing as a result of very significant changes on both the supply and the demand side. • At the same time, these networks are becoming ever more integrated. • Even larger change is required to meet decarbonisation targets in many sectors – especially transport. • FPS focuses on understanding the interaction between transport, thermal and electrical energy systems. • We also study the changing technology and market landscapes in these sectors. • Our understanding of market requirements and emerging technologies means we can bring a holistic systems approach to the design, delivery and management of energy, transport and thermal systems.

• We use this approach to help our customers improve their operations and develop new products.

European Environment Agency


This Session We are working on a landscape study for Kigali Cooling Efficiency Programme (K-CEP) with Professor Toby Peters. The study focuses on market dynamics, emerging technologies, the investment climate and potential for impact. We have also been asked to develop an assessment tool to aid in understanding new technology offerings. One of our objectives is to find disruptive new technologies that can add to existing work on efficiency and natural refrigerants.

We would like to share and test some of our initial findings. In many respects the sector suffers from scarce data, as a result we would welcome any feedback you have whether you want to give it at this session or offline. We are going to talk about: • Applications & Markets • Technologies with the potential to address cooling • Barriers


Cooling Applications

The segmentation on the right is the most common and is widely used in market assessments. Stakeholders engaged to date have proposed no substantial revisions. Equipment Stocks are approximate as in many territories only limited sales records are kept. Growth projections are typically interpolated from factors like GDP growth, income distributions, access to electricity and urbanisation etc

AC segmentation is more technology driven. We believe this is the result of scale factors

Application

Segments

Air Conditioning

Heat Pumps (reversible)

160m

Unitary Air Conditioners

600m

Chillers

2.8m

Mobile Equipment

700m

Domestic Refrigeration

1.5bn

Commercial Refrigeration

~90m

Refrigeration

This segment covers an extremely disparate selection of equipment

Industrial Refrigeration

Data seems particularly poor in relation to this strand These sectors included for completeness, but not the focus of the study

Number

Transport Refrigeration Road

4m

Transport Refrigeration – Containers

1.2m

Marine Refrigeration & Processing

~88k*

Health

MRI Scanners

25k

Energy

LNG Receiving Terminals

110

Liquefaction Trains Tanker Fleet Leisure

Ice Rinks

92 421 13.5k

IIR/IIF market segmentation & estimates


Cooling Application Questions

• Is there a data set beyond those offered by GIZ Proklima, IIR, Japanese Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Association we should be considering? • Is the segmentation appropriate or should we be looking at something different like services or needs? • What can be done to improve our understanding of: • Where we are today?

• Where we are headed?


Technology Landscape There is though a wide and growing toolkit of technologies with the potential to address cooling needs: Cooling Technologies Cooling Demand Reduction

Cooling Provision Vapour Comp. Cycles

Alternate Cooling Methods

Cold Networks

Cold Storage

LNG Cold Recovery

Absorption Chilling

Evaporative

Adsorption Chilling

Peltier Effect

Thermo-elastic refrigeration

Thermo-acoustic Refrigeration

Magnetic Refrigeration

New Cycles

Controls & Cycle Optimisation

Refrigerant

Air Handling

Coatings & Treatments

Heat Exchangers

Shade/Reduced Solar Gain

Compressors

Insulation

Ice Cryogenics

Heat Sinks Other PCM Renewables Integration


Technology Questions

• Are we missing any major areas of current development? • Is the segmentation appropriate? • None of these technologies is a complete solution on its own. Do we currently have all the tools we need to match technologies to applications and energy sources to combine them into systems? • Where do you think the gaps are in our technology toolkit (i.e. where do you think needs driven fundamental R&D may be required)?


Barriers – Cooling Equipment Uptake • Access to cooling has enormous positive impacts from a human development perspective (e.g. comfort and health, food security, rural incomes).

Issue

Description

Access to finance

Cost of cooling equipment too high for consumers

• Even over a time horizon of decades access to cooling equipment is projected to remain low by many stakeholders over a period of decades.

Culture vs. Refrigeration

Lack of understanding of need for cold chain*

• A number of barriers have been identified during the study have been proposed.

Electricity Availability

Lack of reliable electricity to power devices

Skills

Shortages of skilled individuals who can install and maintain equipment and correctly use in service

Policy Impacts

Lack of understanding of potential +ve health, productivity & carbon impacts of access to cooling

*several stakeholders have indicated AC uptake seems to “just happen” with GDP growth; refrigeration requires cultural change


Barriers – Efficiency Implementation • Very substantial improvements in cooling efficiency are required to meet climate change targets. • Cooling equipment often has a lifetime of over a decade or more and so equipment purchase decisions made now could still be affecting emissions from the sector in 2030. • A number of barriers to implementing current and future technologies have been proposed during the study.

Issue

Description

Purchase Price vs TCO

Consumer bias towards cheaper (& often) less efficient equipment

Service Networks

Often current service networks cannot cope with new technology – this can be real or customer perceived

National interest vs. MEPS

A national appliance manufacturer may lose market share if efficiency standards increase

Skills

Skills shortages may be exacerbated by more complex new technologies

Customer Education

Technology development is driven by customer requests, not all customers understand what to ask for.

Emissions measures

Not always understood that direct and indirect emissions are important

Pipeline

Lack of truly disruptive technologies in development from R&D to scale-up (many reasons for this)

Integration

Lack of real world proof of systems/integration benefits


Barriers Questions

Access to cooling • Do you think that we are correct that access to cooling will not be universal even by 2050? • Are there other barriers preventing this from happening? • What should we do about it? Cooling Efficiency • Is there a problem? • Are there other barriers we should be considering? • What should we do about it?


Carrying on the Conversation

• So far we have: • Profiled ~60 technology developers. • Consulted several OEMs and Tier1s from cooling and refrigeration sectors. • Spoken to NGOs and trade associations with interests in energy efficiency and cooling. • Had input from financial professionals from private equity, intragovernmental, impact and philanthropic backgrounds. • Initiated dialogue with academics with technical, economic and policy backgrounds.

• We would welcome your input on anyone else we should be speaking to or on any of the focus areas.

Michael Ayres Michael.Ayres@Flexpowerltd.com Tel: +44 (0)7714 513 653

www.flexpowerltd.com


Back-up


Assessment Tool

• The tool does not replace due diligence, it is intended to provide a start point for discussions between impact investors and innovators. • It is intended to provide a holistic set of questions for people new to the space to ask so that they can understand where in the development cycle an innovation is.

• Some questions are inherent to applications and technology types whereas the “readiness” related questions are more progressive. • Renewable and up-stream and down-stream considerations are derived from application and technical focus.

Proposition Assessment factors: • Applications/Markets – Which application is being addressed and how big is it? • Innovation Family – Does this fall into one of the technology categories & are “classic” challenges being addressed • Competitors – What does the innovation compete with and are its advantages significant? • Impact – Does the innovation offer a significant opportunity to impact on achievement of the sustainable development goals? Development Status Assessment Levels • Technical Readiness – how proven is the technology? • Manufacturing & Supply Chain Readiness – can it be made? Can it be installed and serviced? • Commercial Readiness – is the path to market defined? • Enterprise Readiness – is the business that is developing the innovation sufficiently mature to achieve its goals?


Assessment Questions

• Is this a rational way to approach new innovations? • Should we be looking at other factors? • How do we manage the transition from a simplistic process driven assessment like this and detailed expert led due diligence?

• Are there other stakeholders that could make use of this tool?


Objectives of the Work We have working with Toby Peters to develop a landscape study for the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Programme to support impact investors enter into the clean cooling (refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC)) sector. The project will deliver: • A market overview, incorporating potential disruptive technologies, applications, impacts (SDGs) growth projections, technology segmentation and an assessment of barriers to deployment

• An understanding of step-change technologies and cooling solutions • A review of investment activity and levels, and perceived barriers to investing in the space • An assessment of the interaction between social and policy factors and investing in the space

• A framework through which to assess technology oriented investment opportunities to understand both their potential and current status • A dissemination package (most likely a web tool) The goal is an accessible start point for philanthropic investors who wish to learn more and then become active in the space


The Audience

The work has been commissioned from Professor Toby Peters by the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Programme (K-CEP). K-CEP represent a group of 18 foundations who have pledged $52m to help increase the energy efficiency of cooling in developing countries. The group was formed to support the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol. More information about K-CEP is available at http://www.k-cep.org/. K-CEP’s parent organisation is ClimateWorks Foundation, a global NGO that seeks to strengthen philanthropy’s response to climate change. Its core funders are The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, KR Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Oak Foundation, and The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. More information about ClimateWorks is available at http://www.climateworks.org/ The work is intended to inform philanthropic organisations like these who wish to make investments to support deployment of efficient and clean cooling technologies.


Flexible Power Systems works with customers to reduce their energy and fuel costs. We combine cutting edge technologies and systems thinking with a deep understanding of customers’ operations and objectives to develop transformative energy strategies for our clients. We then help our clients implement and manage energy technology strategies for maximum benefit.

To find out more visit us at www.flexpowerltd.com or contact us at Michael.Ayres@flexpowerltd.com +44 (0) 7714 513 653

Private and Confidential


REDUCING THE ENERGY DEMAND FOR COOLING A REAL WORLD CASE STUDY FROM INDIA

Helge Schramm, Danfoss


REDUCING THE ENERGY DEMAND FOR COOLING – CASE STUDY FROM INDIA International Congress on Clean Cooling - April 19th, 2018 Helge Schramm, Sustainability & LCA Expert, Danfoss A/S


Content About Danfoss India and the cold chain Cold storage facility in Sonipat, Haryana Sustainable cooling Engineering tomorrow’s cold chain in India Sum up


Innovation that makes a difference

• More than 26,000 employees dedicated to engineering solutions that make a difference to people and businesses worldwide • The right technology can keep the world cool, hot, and powered up with the least amount of energy Massive investments in innovation: 4.0% of net sales in 2017

50 product lines that meet needs and make a difference

Customer involvement from start to finish

On average, Danfoss is granted a new patent every day


India and the cold chain New Delhi

Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

• World’s second largest producer of fruits and vegetables (nearly 260 million MT) • Approx. 18% wastage in fruits and vegetables annually • Establishing a cold chain infrastructure using best available technology (BAT) could feed additional 15-30% of the population


Cold storage facility in Sonipat, Haryana • Multi commodity store, temp. range -25°C to +10°C

• Total investment of INR 250 million (~3.1 million EUR) • Large capacity of 5000 MT • Reduces energy footprint of cold store by 20% • Fully automated storage center


Sustainable cooling Society

? Economy

Environment


Sustainable cooling Population growth – approx. 60% more food needed by 2050

Population growth - 60% more food needed by 2050

Roughly one third of food produced every year gets lost or wasted Food loss and waste results in roughly $940 billion economic losses globally per year

Food loss and waste result in estimated GHG emissions of 4.4 Giga tons CO2eq


Industry addressing challenges through innovation / education Training Centre offered to GoI for training State Govt. Officers Establishing Centres of Excellence (CoE) at Universities; R&D with institutes

Working with local farmers/FPOs through state specific initiatives/ innovations (Banana Festival, Mango)

Engineering Tomorrow’s Cold Chain

Recognizing early adaptors of efficient cold chain technology through Danfoss ICE / CII cold chain awards

Supporting Entrepreneurs with Technology – Model Cold Storage with best global technology developed


Building an Ecosystem – University Engagement YMCA, Faridabad, Haryana College of Engineering, Pune, Maharashta Vellore Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu PSG Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu


Sum up Improving the cold chain in India

• by establishing a cold chain infrastructure using BAT could feed additional 15-30% of the population

Key messages

• by applying and optimizing BAT could reduce the energy demand of cold storage facilities by 20-30% • means to think long term, engagement with multiple stakeholders, education, living labs, and innovation that makes a difference (Start ups!)


Many thanks for your time and attention !

https://www.danfoss.com/en/ http://www.danfoss.in/cold-chain/


THE WHOLE SYSTEM IS GREATER THAN THE SUM OF THE PARTS THE SYSTEMS LEVEL IMPACT OF CLEAN COLD CHAIN – FINDINGS FROM A NEW GFCCC REPORT

Juergen Goeller, Global Food Cold Chain Council To include questions with Helge Schramm (Danfoss), Juergen Goeller (GFCC) and Dr Lisa Kitinoja (The Postharvest Education Foundation). Dr Tim Fox to chair (IMechE)


LIQUID AIR AS EXAMPLE OF NOVEL ENERGY VECTOR / CAN WE HARNESS THE WASTE COLD OF LNG? Dr Rob Morgan, University of Brighton, Professor Milind Atrey (IIT Bombay) Professor Judith Evans (LSBU – the Cryohub Project) and Scott MacMeekin (Dearman)


206

1970’s

2005-2009

Highview

2010-2014

2015-2020

Dearman

Copyright University of Brighton 2018


The CryoHub project Judith Evans (LSBU)

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No 691761.

A Cool World 19.04.18


EU aim to generate 20% of the energy used in Europe from renewable sources by 2020

More RES

“A next-generation smart grid without energy storage is like a computer without a hard drive: severely limited.� Katie Fehrenbacher, GigaOm


The CryoHub concept

Generation

Fast freezing

Hub Vehicles

Cold store


Further information:

www.cryohub.eu Judith Evans – project coordinator: j.a.evans@lsbu.ac.uk

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No 691761.


THE VALUE OF MAINTENANCE Andy McPhun, Wave Refrigeration


The Value of Refrigeration Maintenance Andy McPhun MInstR Technical Consultant, Wave Limited 19th April 2018


The Value of Maintenance Overview  About the Presenter and  Sustained Performance – uptime & efficiency  Refrigerant Leakage  Example Findings  Summary


Andy McPhun  Joined the industry in 2009 as a trainee Design Engineer working in the retail sector.  Learned technical refrigeration as a Design Engineer and gained some experience in the industrial sector.  Joined Wave Refrigeration in July 2017  Keen on energy efficient solutions, latest technologies, and longevity of solutions through proper design engineering

 James Bailey began Wave in 2015 working as a freelance refrigeration consultant to several well known retailers  Wave has a branch in India which supports our UK operation with a range of capabilities including CAD operators, technical design reviews, system equipment selections and many others  5 senior Design Engineers and Project Managers in the field but we are growing every day  Not just Design Engineers and Consultants, Wave can also offer services such as pressure test witnessing, Fault finding and investigation, and can act as Professional Witness in legal cases


The Value of Maintenance Sustained Performance – uptime & efficiency (Indirect Emissions)

 

Suction pressure (bar) Discharge pressure (bar)

 

Discharge temperature (°C) Ambient temperature (°C)

 

Control temperature (°C) Superheat (K)


The Value of Maintenance Refrigerant Leakage (Direct Emissions)

To put the above into perspective the direct carbon emission savings are equivalent to a Boeing 747 carrying 346 passengers flying from London to New York a staggering 489 times! – Based on 1.2 TCO2e per passenger (source www.eta.co.uk)


The Value of Maintenance Example Findings


The Value of Maintenance – Example Findings Example Findings


The Value of Maintenance – Example Findings Example Findings


The Value of Maintenance – Summary  Q = M. x cP x ΔT - This fundamental formulae is for calculating work achieved in a system. It is clear from this formulae that any reduction in Mass flow must result in an increased temperature differential to achieve the same duty  Every 1°C in rise in condensing temperature or 1°C drop in evaporating temperature results in approximately 3 - 4% increase in energy consumption  Undercharged / leaking refrigeration systems will cause a significant increase in energy consumption as well as lost gas contributing to the global warming crisis  Simple things like degraded suction line insulation, blocked condenser coils etc will have a detrimental energy impact  Good maintenance will provide tangible energy benefits & promote environmental stewardship through reduced carbon emissions  Regular maintenance visits and checks also help with pre-planned maintenance as the engineers can better assess the expected lifespan of components and can schedule the replacement of items accordingly


The Value of Maintenance

Questions

Andy McPhun AndyM@wave-refrigeration.com M. +44 7540 261474


PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF A TRANSITION TO CLEAN COOLING IN RETAIL Dr Thomas Tomski, Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions


PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF A TRANSITION TO CLEAN COOLING IN RETAIL Dr. Thomas Tomski

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions 1st International Congress on Clean Cooling 18th – 19th April 2018, University of Birmingham


Emerson (2016): 2 Business Platforms: Automation Solutions and Commercial & Residential Solutions, $14.5B Turnover, 74k Employees

Our Brands include Copeland

Alco Controls Dixell InSinkErator ProAct

RIDGID


EU F-gas Regulation Creating Impact Through Its First Major HFC Quota Cut in 2018

• EU F-gas Regulation targets are ambitious but achievable • EPEE* Gapometer Roadmap suggesting focus on four core measures

CO2 equivalent based on average quantity placed on EU market between 2009 and 2012

• Use of lower GWP refrigerants in new equipment • Reduction of leakage from existing equipment • Retrofit of high GWP refrigerants in certain types of existing equipment • Recovery and reclaim of waste refrigerant • EU F-gas price rise (>500% for R404A) driving fast market reaction – immediate choice may not be best • Centralized CO2 booster system the preferred „futureproof“ solution in large retail but market overall still dominated by solutions >>150 GWP • Survey findings showing gap between EU policy maker intentions and market activities

*EPEE European Partnership for Energy and the Environment

Phase-down of HFC refrigerants allowed to be placed on the EU market


Survey Highlighting Retail End User Gaps Between Willingness and Ability to Tackle the HFC Transition Fast Enough

• 81% of European retailers see a shift to lower GWP refrigerants as a positive change

• Only 56% have started transferring, small businesses are struggling and there are gaps in awareness of regulatory changes • Key decision making criteria are safety, energy efficiency & environmental sustainability • Retailers who are making the shift, haven’t gone with their first choice, indicating they may be rushing into the wrong decisions Survey conducted by on behalf of Emerson, August 2017, 140 participants with retail purchase decision making responsibility, Germany, France, UK


EU Commission Calls For Acceleration in Natural Refrigerants Training to Close Skill Gap

EU Commision survey on training for natural/alternative refrigerants covering 22 EU member states

Hydrocarbons (large systems – split/chillers)

Ammonia

CO2

Hydrocarbons (small hermetic)

Training available in country

71%

52%

48%

35%

Proportion of certified F-gas personnel training in natural refrigerants

2.3%

2.2%

0.7%

0.05%

From European Commission Report (2016) on availability of training for service personnel regarding the safe handling of climate-friendly technologies replacing or reducing the use of fluorianted greenhouse gases, survey covering 22 EU member states

• 160,000 certified F-gas technicians serving EU-22 population of 400 mio people (approximate EU-22 population covered by survey)

• 8,000 – 10,000 technicians trained on natural refrigerants in 2015 (Shecco, Guide to Natural Refrigerants Training in Europe, 2017)

• How would this translate to emerging economies like India with a population >1.3 bio people?

Designing technology for simplicity in operation, service and maintenance can help further in closing the skill gap! 1st International Congress on Clean Cooling, 18th – 19th April 2018, University of Birmingham, Practical Aspects of a Transition to Clean Cooling, Emerson/Tomski

227


Converting the Legacy Remote System Architecture From HFC to CO2 Is One Answer

• Our industry is great in finding solutions....  Ejectors  Parallel compression  Standstill pressures

...to technical challenges  Seasonal Efficiency  System resilience  Rising pressures

• Increasing complexity is the price!

But it may not be the best possible answer to all needs! 1st International Congress on Clean Cooling, 18th – 19th April 2018, University of Birmingham, Practical Aspects of a Transition to Clean Cooling, Emerson/Tomski

228


The Proliferated European Market Requires More Than One Technology Solution to Match Individual Needs Oeko Recherche survey indicating particular types of Investment Cost Lifecycle Cost

Operating Cost

Space Constraints

Refrigerant Charge

Skill (Design)

Skill (Installation)

Local Regulations

Cases Door

Budget (Capital)

Skill (Operation)

Safety Aspect

Ease Of Installation

Revenue Impact

94% 75%

82%

Regional Service Infrastructure

Supermarket Format Store Opening Re-opening Speed

75% 55%

36% End User (Retailer)

Regional supply Infrastructure Refrigerant Cost

Mismatch!

Manufacturer

Regulatory Updates

Reluctance Retrofitability to Change

Compliance & Sustainability

alternative technologies that areSurvey 2022 Low GWP capable Oeko Recherche - Retail

Stand-alone system CO Stand-alone systems Transcritical CO2 2 Transcritical System systems

Indirect System Indirect

Data from Öko-Recherche Briefing Paper: Availability of alternatives to HFCs in commercial refrigeration in the EU, Nov 2016 Technology Proliferation

Remodeling Frequency

Component Availability

End users need to carefully analyse their needs and make a conscious decision – taking into account their own needs as well as their supply chain 1st International Congress on Clean Cooling, 18th – 19th April 2018, University of Birmingham, Practical Aspects of a Transition to Clean Cooling, Emerson/Tomski

229


Three System Architectures That Should Be Thoroughly Assessed By Retailers Before Making A Technology Decision De-centralized


Self-contained Display Case & Cold-Room Store Architecture With Waterloop Condenser • Refrigeration system integrated into cabinet

• Natural hydrocarbon refrigerant pre-charged in factory • Condenser heat dissipated via waterloop

• Free-cooler / chiller option • Heat recovery / heat pump option • Reduced overall store refrigeration charge • F-gas compliance beyond 2022 • Factory producted & tested – avoiding on-site refrigeration engineering • Enhanced flexibility during store construction and refurbishment improving business results! Emerson self-contained diplay case solutions accelerate time-to-market and optimize system design

Comparison versus CO2 booster system


Quantitative Assessment of R290 Self-contained System Architecture Vs Remote R744 (CO2) System – Lifecycle Cost 10 Year life cylce cost, avg 10 display cases per store (€)

System A

System B

System B

R744 Remote

R290 Integral

Saving

Investment Energy Service, maintenance, insurance Decommissioning 3 days earlier opening Cost of shut down due to refurbishment Loss of performance due to leaks 10 Years saving per store

142,294 148,928 35,104 6,296

113,090 139,835 28,675 4,282

332,622

285,882

29,204 9,093 6,429 2,014 1,800 1,800 715 51,055

510 M€ lifecycle cost saving 1st International Congress on Clean Cooling, 18th – 19th April 2018, University of Birmingham, Practical Aspects of a Transition to Clean Cooling, Emerson/Tomski

232


Study Assumptions Discounter Store, Munich Area • Discounter store, Munich/Germany area, medium temperature display cases only, 1,000 m2 vending area, integral Copeland Scroll compressors, comparative CO2 booster system using 3 x Stream CO2 transcritical (1 x inverter); minimum condensing: 10°C, 50 kW useful refrigeration capacity

Investment

Energy Consumption

Service & Maintenance

Planning, rack, free cooler, cost adder for ref circuit in display cases

Temperature profile, Munich/Germany, compressor power, free cooler, condenser, pumps

Maintenance contract for regular service, hygenic cleaning, reactive maintenance according to VDI2067/1

Decommissioning

Earlier Store Opening

Loss of Performance / Leakage

Both systems out of service after 10 years

During refurbishment, daily turnover 20 k€, EBIT 3%

Deteriorating system performance due to running at lower evaporating temperature for the remote rack, 2 K lower for accumulated 1 year during 10 year lifespan

Study for Investment, Energy, Service & Maintenance & Decommissioning conducted by independent institute ILK Dresden/Germany


With Natural Refrigerants Direct GWP Becomes Negligible - With Transitional Refrigerants Charge Reduction Has Significant GWP Impact 2920 LT Leak MT Leak

Leakage driven 2097 1680

LT Power

1618 LT Power

1628

1471

MT Power

MT Power

R 4 0 4HFC A / R4 0 4 A

A14 8 A R HFO 4 4 8 A / R4

R404A

R448A

CO2 R 7 4Booster 4/R 744 R744

Central system TEWI [tons CO2e] – transitioning from HFC over HFO to CO2

R 1 3 4 A ( MHFC T )/ R4 0 4 A( L T )

A1 R 5 1 3 AHFO ( M T )/ R4 4 8 A( L T )

( RHC 2 9 0)

R134a/R404A

R513A/R448A

R290

Self-contained system TEWI [tons CO2e] – transitioning from HFC over HFO to HC

TEWI Analysis, Source: Emerson, Right Balance Tool; Northern Europe, MT: 89 kW, LT: 12 kW, leakage rate central system: 10%, leakage rate selfcontained: MT/LT 1%/3%, centralized system using Copeland Stream/Discus compressors, self-contained system using Copeland Scroll compressors

• Reduced charge systems are an important contributor to GWP emission reduction as the industry transitions from HFCs to Natural refrigerants • Leakage avoidance is important also with Naturals – as it affects safety, system reliability and efficiency


Impact Of Energy Initiative

Sustain Savings Through Oversight Time

1

Store 1 • 3 - 5 Yrs Asset Age

5-15% Energy Reduction

• Parallel Refrigeration • Reactive Maintenance Store 2 • 5 - 10+ Yrs Asset Age

15-20% Energy Reduction

2

• Parallel Refrigeration • Limited Maintenance

Energy Savings With Remote Oversight System Upgrad Retrofit Recomissioning

Energy Savings Without Remote Oversight

Without continuous Oversight Benefits Are Compromised Within 12-18 1st International Congress on Clean Cooling, 18th – 19th April 2018, University of Birmingham, Practical Aspects of a Transition to Clean Cooling, Emerson/Tomski

235


Conclusions • F-gas transition is a challenge but also an opportunity • End users should not rush into quick technology decisions but analyse carefully total business impact for their individual case • Integral display cases may have significant saving potential for retailers with more than 50 k€ per store over its lifespan – more than 500 M€ for 10 000 stores • Recommended features for any technology of choice are: • Increased degree of factory production and avoid on-site refrigeration engineering • Reduced refrigerant charge and piped joints – even for natural refrigerants! • Complexity reduction and simplicity of design, service and maintenance help to address skill shortages


Thank You!


WHAT SHOULD COOLING LOOK LIKE IN 2030 AND HOW MIGHT WE ADVANCE MANUFACTURING TO GET THERE – GLOBAL SCIENCE, LOCAL SOLUTIONS? Professor Yulong Ding (University of Birmingham), Dr Kamelia Atefi Monfared (University at Buffalo) and Peter Corby (Manufacturing Technology Centre) To include questions with Dr Thomas Tomski (Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions)


BCES Dark cold sky ~-270oC

Cooling technologies for 2030 Yulong Ding Chamberlain Professor of Chemical Engineering Royal Academy of Engineering - Highview Professor of Cryogenic Energy Storage

Birmingham Centre for Energy Storage (BCES) University of Birmingham Birmingham, UK y.ding@bham.ac.uk

Bright hot sun surface ~+6000oC


Main research areas: thermal energy storage (2004-Present)

TES materials manufacture & scale-up: composite phase change materials

Composite PCM Industrial scale: >1000 tons per year

System integration and applications: composite phase change materials

Lab scale 25kW/100kWh cold storage based on CO2 (2004-2008)

Pilot scale 200kW/2MWh heat and electrical storage (2009-2013)

Industrial scale 6M / 36MWh discarded wind power for space heating (2010-2016)


Main research area - liquid air energy storage (2005-Present)

Invented 12 years ago by my team - currently in commercial demonstration stage

Next 5 years • Larger scale systems e.g. 200MWh/1.2GWh • Enhancement of round trip efficiency by 15-20%


Essential requirements for mankind Thermal comfort, quality of life & healthcare • Winter – heating, not relevant to this conference! • Summer – cooling, highly relevant to this conference! • All seasons – cold chain for food and medicine, highly relevant to this conference!

Unfortunately, • these requirements are not always what the nature is made to give us! • technologies are therefore needed to meet the human needs, which are currently highly energy intensive and hence the problems facing us – environmental pollution and global warming!


Less essential requirements for mankind Device reliability & functionality and pleasure • X-band radar • Computer chips

• High power laser • Data centres • 5G/6G communications

• High power lasers • Weapon systems • Space exploration • High power battery thermal management

• …. ….


Cooling technologies essential for mankind •

Smart, flexible, adaptive, clean and economical technologies for • Generation of cold • Storage of cold

• Transport of cold • Utilization of cold including waste cold • Efficient management of cold

• •

Some talks yesterday indicated technologies are there already My view is that current technologies are far from good enough either or both economically and technologically!


Something on technologies for discussion (I) Mission Innovation challenges -

Affordable Heating and Cooling of Buildings Innovation Challenge No 7 led by the UK • Objectives are not ambitious enough! • The implementation plan does not go far enough to achieve the objectives! • This one is - could a £400bn plan to refreeze the Arctic before the ice melts really work?


Something on technologies for discussion (II) Generation / Harvest of cold: all seasons +6000oC

Waste cold

Waste heat

Refrigeration

This could also be a solution to ‘refreeze the Arctic


Something on technologies for discussion (III) Harvest/Storage of cold: summer and winter

Across season thermal energy storage


Something on technologies for discussion (IV) Transportation/Utilisation/Management of cold • Electrical batteries + Thermal Batteries; • Electrical and thermal charge in energy charging station; • Air conditioning in energy charging station; • Range increase by up to 3040%; • COP increase by >2-3 times; • Use of AI & Telecommunication

Thermal energy based temperature regulation technologies for Electrical Vehicles including delivering trucks


THE RIPPLE EFFECT AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES Dr Rosie Day, University of Birmingham


Ripple effects and unintended consequences Dr Rosie Day School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Birmingham


Cooling system (simplified)


Cooling system (simplified)


Cooling system (simplified)


Cooling system (simplified)


Socio-technical assemblage


This means that: • Society and technology co-evolve and co-construct each other • Changes in one element have all kinds of knock-on effects that might be quite unpredictable • We need to be thinking about social and technical elements from the start, and the ways in which they interact • Needs adequate social science and real interdisciplinary engagement


• Positive outcomes may not be quite as expected • There will almost certainly be unexpected disbenefits (and potentially unexpected benefits) • While research might allow us to anticipate some effects, others will be more unknowable • They will unfold over time


Example 1: Urban building cooling • Intended benefits: • • • • •

Better health Improved comfort Increased productivity Improved quality of life Economic growth


Redacted for copyright reasons – picture of older southern US house with many sash windows and a large sub porch running the length of the house


Redacted – new house in Alabama with double garage at the front of the house, no porch, small windows. Designed for mainly internal living with air con.


Redacted – image of men in Indonesia wearing traditional sarong and loose shirt, as is common across SE Asia


Redacted – image of office workers in Kuala Lumpur wearing western style suits and ties (in an air conditioned environment)


Example 2: food chains • Intended benefits: • • • •

Reduced food wastage Improved farmer income Improved food safety and nutrition Positive impact on economy and health


Possible ‘knock-on effects’ • Cold storage makes different crops viable: farmers switch to higher value crops that demand more water • Change in crop patterns affect soil fertility • Landscape change • Refrigerated transport enables reaching new markets: increased transport including air freight • Farmers reach markets better as organised groups: potential exclusion of some due to gender, ethnicity, caste, religion increased inequalities • Change in available food plus more refrigeration leads to change in diets: more processed food, more meat and dairy


Categories of knock-on effects Category

Example knock-on effect

Energy demand

Exponential increase in demand outstrips ‘clean’ provision: increase in fossil fuel use

Transport (including air)

Increased freight : increased congestion and emissions

Other environment (including water, soil, forest)

Overuse of groundwater; salt incursion; changes in soil fertility; nitrate pollution; deforestation; resource use for packaging, and linked increase in litter and pollution

Health

Decreased exercise as more time indoors (air con); increased intake of processed and higher calorie foods

Social capital

Decreased community as more time indoors

Social equality including gender

Existing inequalities may be exacerbated by differential access to technologies etc; accumulation of land and increase in farm size following rural capital accumulation

Architecture

Building styles change; building skills lost; lock-in

Landscape

Urban and rural landscape change

Culture

Changes in temporal organisation of activity; changes in clothing; less time spent outdoors

Local economy

Small businesses suffer due to various changes in eating, clothing, shopping and other activities


Ways forward • Understand that cooling means social transformation • Wider impacts need anticipating but also ongoing monitoring • Demand management is crucial and demand needs unpacking • Consider the wider sustainability impacts: how clean cooling connects to other systems. Develop sustainable systems e.g. freight, local supply chains. • Prioritise needs and proceed carefully • Pay attention to social inequalities before, during and after introduction of cooling • Consult widely about needs, preferences and impacts


GLOBAL COLLABORATION AND NEXT STEPS TO DELIVER ACCELERATED SOLUTIONS TO ACCESS TO COOLING FOR ALL Professor Toby Peters, University of Birmingham Ian Crosby, Cooling for All


CONCLUSION AND CLOSE Professor Martin Freer, Birmingham Energy Institute

Profile for Birmingham Energy Institute

A Cool world World Clean Cooling Congress presentation slides  

On 18 and 19 April 2018, the University of Birmingham hosted the first international congress dedicated to clean cooling. During this congre...

A Cool world World Clean Cooling Congress presentation slides  

On 18 and 19 April 2018, the University of Birmingham hosted the first international congress dedicated to clean cooling. During this congre...

Advertisement