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SMOG TOWER

SCHOOL OF PERFORMING ARTS

RAND CAMPUS

ITALY STUDIES

YEAR: FALL 2012 DURATION: 15 WEEKS PROFESSOR: R. WAHLROOS-RITTER

YEAR: SPRING 2011 DURATION: 14 WEEKS PROFESSOR: J. DUTTON

YEAR: FALL 2011 DURATION: 15 WEEKS PROFESSOR: P. DANNA PROFESSOR: J. PALACIOS PROFESSOR: C. TICKTIN

YEAR: SPRING 2012 DURATION: 16 WEEKS PROFESSOR: K. COLEMAN PROFESSOR: M. CIGOLLE PROFESSOR: D. GHIRARDO

LOCATION: LOS ANGELES PROGRAM: FARMING, OFFICE

LOCATION: LOS ANGELES PROGRAM: INSTITUTION

LOCATION: SAN JOSE PROGRAM: CORPORATE CAMPUS

LOCATION: ITALY PROGRAM: HAND DRAWING

BENJAMIN IRINAGA WORK SAMPLES + 1 415 517 7202 irinaga@usc.edu 640 DAVIS STREET #32 SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA 94111


SMOGTOWER LOS ANGELES IS NOTORIOUS FOR ITS SMOGGY SKIES, BROUGHT ON BY ITS BASIN GEOGRAPHY, LARGE POPULATION, AND PERSISTENTSEA BREEZES. THE SMOG CULTIVATION TOWER IS A PROPOSAL FOR AN ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTION WHICH ASSISTS IN THE CLEANING OF SMOG. USING A PROVEN TECHNOLOGY, SMOG IS CATALYTICALLY CONVERTED INTO NITRATE: A BASIC AND COMMONLY USED FERTILIZER. THE NITRATE GENERATED IS EASILY HARVESTED BY WATER AND THEN USED AS FERTILIZER. THE FERTILIZER IS RECYCLED WITHIN THE BUILDING TO GROW PRODUCE AND OTHER TYPES OF PLANT LIFE WITHIN THE BUILDING’S VERTICAL FARM PROGRAM. THE TOWER IS SPLIT BETWEEN OFFICE AND FARM SPACES AND IN MANY INSTANCES THE PROGRAMS SHARE SPACE VERTICALLY VIA ATRIUMS. THE BUILDING IS FORMED FROM A RECTANGULAR MASS ORIENTED TO WORK EFFICIENTLY WITH THE PREVAILING WIND. THE MASS IS THEN SPLIT ALONG TWO CURVILINEAR PATHS TO CREATE A LUNG LIKE SPACE THAT MAXIMIZES THE SURFACE AREA OF THE INTERIOR SEPERATION. THIS SPACE IS CLAD IN ALUMINUM PANELS THAT ARE COATED IN THE SMOG-CONVERTING MATERIAL. THE LARGE SURFACE AREA OF THIS SMOG EATING FACADE ALLOWS FOR MORE SMOG TO BE SCRUBBED OUT OF THE AIR AND FOR MORE NITRATE TO BE CREATED. THE PREVAILING WIND WORKS AS AN ENGINE TO PROVIDE A CONSTANT SUPPLY OF SMOG TO THE INTERIOR FACADES FOR CONVERSION. THE SPLIT MASS OF THE BUILDING IS BRIDGED ON EACH FLOOR TO REUNITE THE TWO SIDES FOR EGRESS EFFICENCY, TO PROVIDE COLLABORATIVE SPACES BETWEEN THE TWO TOWERS, AND A SMOG-CATCHING WEB TO FURTHER INCREASE CLEANING CAPACITY.


SMOG CAPTURE

WIND ORIENTATION

N

WIND PROVIDES SMOG TO SCRUBBING FACADE. NITRATE IS FORMED VIA PHOTOCATALYTIC REACTION

CE

NI

VE

VD BL

W

E 5%

WATER RINSES SURFACE. SUPERHYDROPHILIC COATING CAUSES WATER TO SHEET DOWN FACADE TO COLLECT NITRATE

10% 15% 20% 25%

WEST L.A. WIND ROSE S

PANEL LAYERS 1

1

2 3

SMOG

ALCOA REYNOBOND ALUMINUM 2 PAINT COATING AVAILABLE IN NUMEROUS FINISHES

NITRATE RICH WATER IS PROCESSED AND DISTILLED TO CREATE A BALANCED FERTILIZER

FERTILIZER IS SUPPLIED TO VERTICAL FARMS IN THE TOWER

ALCOA REYNOBOND ALUMINUM PANEL PRESS AND CUT TO SPECIFIC PROFILES

3

ALCOA ECOCLEAN TITANIUM DIOXIDE COATING IS SUPERHYDROPHILIC AND SMOG NEUTRALIZING. GLOSSINESS IS INCREASED SLIGHTLY

NITRATE PROCESS

1. ELECTRON EXCITEMENT

2. IONIZATION H20 eeH20 O2 ee- H20 H20 H20 eO2 eee- O2 O2 eeO2 H20 eeeH20 H20 O2 eeH20 H20 H20

eee- ee- eee- ee- e- e- e- eeee-

Ti02+ SUNLIGHT EXCITES ELECTRONS IN TiO2

H+

OH H+

O2-

H20

OH H+ OH O2OH H+ H+ OH O2H+ H+ H+ H+ O2- OH OH O2H+ H+ H+ O2H+ OH OH H+ O2H+ OH O2H+ H+ OH H+ OH

Ti02+ ELECTRONS TRANSFER TO WATER AND OXYGEN MOLECULES IN THE AIR

5. NITRATE BUILD UP

4. SMOG SUPPLY

OH H+ OH O2H+ OH H+ O2H+ OH

3. FREE RADICALS

Ti02+ WATER SPLITS INTO OH AND H+ AND OXYGEN IONIZES

6. COMPLETE COVERAGE

H+

H+ O2-

H+

O2H+

H+ OH

OH H+ O2OH H+

O2H+ H+ OH H+ OH OH

Ti02+ SMOG PASSES OVER PANEL VIA WIND

Ti02 NITRATE IS FORMED VIA FREE RADICALS REACTING WITH SMOG. TiO2 MOLECULES EVENTUALLY RETURN TO AN UNEXCITED STATE. COATING NEVER DEGRADES

NO3NITRATE IS PRODUCED AT 5.5 MILLIGRAMS PER SQUARE METER A DAY.


MORPHOLOGY

START WITH MASSING BLOCK

ORGANIC CUT #1 TO SPLIT MASS

ORGANIC CUT #2 TO MAKE SPLIT DYNAMIC

CREATE SPACE FOR AIR PASSAGE

SHEAR HORIZONTALLY FOR SUN EXPOSURE

SHEAR VERTICALLY FOR STREET POROSITY

SUBTRACT ATRIUMS FOR SECTIONAL LINKING

STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURE

BRIDGES TO UNIFY TOWERS


PERSPECTIVE SECTION


2 1

3

4

7

8

1 CRANE ON RAILS 2 STNL STL FLASHING 3 W6 SUBSTRUCTURE 4 ALCOA ECOCLEAN INSULATED ALUMINUM PANEL 5 MOUNTED SPRAY NOZZLE WITH FLEXIBLE SUPPLY HOSE 6 2” STEEL ANGLE 7 ROOF SEALANT AND FINISH 8 WATERPROOFING 9 COMPOSITE CONCRETE DECK 10 W18 STRUCTURAL BEAM 11 2 PLY GBX FIREPROOFING 12 W4 SUPPORT BEAM 13 CUSTOM DRAINAGE TUBING

5

6

9 10 11 12

13

1

2

1 DOUBLE PANE GLAZING 2 CUSTOM DRAINAGE TUBING 3 W4 SUPPORT BEAM 4 W6 SUBSTRUCTURE 5 ALCOA ECOCLEAN INSULATED ALUMINUM PANEL 6 2 PLY GBX FIREPROOFING 7 STNL STL FLOOR VENT 8 FLOATING FLOOR & AIR PLENUM 9 CONCRETE AND STEEL DECKING FLOORSLAB 10 MOUNTED SPRAY NOZZLE WITH FLEXIBLE SUPPLY HOSE 11 W18 STRUCTURAL BEAM 12 STRUCTURAL STEEL FIN 13 2 PLY GBX FIREPROFFING

3 4 7

5

6

10

12

9 11 13

2

1

3 5 6

4

7

10

9 11

12

13

15

14

1 W6 SUBSTRUCTURE 2 CUSTOM DRAINAGE TUBING 3 MOUNTED SPRAY NOZZLE WITH FLEXIBLE SUPPLY HOSE 4 STRUCTURAL STEEL FIN 5 STNL STL FLOOR VENT 6 FLOATING FLOOR & AIR PLENUM 7 CONCRETE AND STEEL DECKING FLOORSLAB 8 CHILLED AND HEATED WATER LOOPS 9 CONCRETE COMPOSITE PANEL 10 W18 STRUCTURAL BEAM 11 2 PLY GBX FIREPROOFING 12 STEEL TRUSS 13 VACUUM DRAIN 14 CUSTUM STNL STL GUTTER 15 STL C CHANNEL 16 1/2” METAL GRATING 17 SUSPENDED GYP CEILING 18 FLUORESCENT LIGHT NETWORK 19 DOUBLE PANE GLAZING

16

17 19

18

INTERIOR FACADE WALL SECTION


ECHO PARK SCHOOL OF PERFORMING ARTS

THE ECHO PARK SCHOOL OF PERFORMING ARTS IS AN AFTERSCHOOL FACILITY THAT TEACHES CHILDREN VARIOUS VISUAL AND VOCAL ARTS AND HOUSES A 300-PERSON PERFORMANCE VENUE. THE PROJECT IS AN EXERCISE IN UNITING INFLUENCES FROM THE URBAN CONTEXT WITH A UNIQUE PROGRAM ORGANIZATION TO CREATE AN EFFICIENT AND INHERENT CULTURAL ADDITION TO THE ECHO PARK NEIGHBORHOOD. THE SITE IS LOCATED ONE LOT NORTH OF THE JUNCTION OF SUNSET BLVD AND GLENDALE BLVD IN LOS ANGELES. THE UNIQUE CONDITION OF THE SITE LIES IN THE 26’ GRADE SEPARATION BETWEEN THE TWO STREETS, AS SUNSET BRIDGES OVER GLENDALE WITH NO DIRECT CONNECTION. INSTEAD OF A PHYSICAL CONNECTION VIA INFRASTRUCTURE, THE SCHOOL IS DESIGNED TO ARCHITECTURALLY CONNECT THE TWO STREETS BY REPLICATING THE MORPHOLOGY OF SUNSET IN THE HOPE OF INFLUENCING FUTURE SIMILARLY SCALED DEVELOPMENT ON GLENDALE. THE SCALE OF THE BUILDING MASS CREATED BY THIS CONTEXTUAL MOVE WORKS SYNONYMOUSLY WITH THE PROGRAMMATIC CONCEPT OF CREATING A LIVE “BILLBOARD” FOR THE SCHOOL BY ARRANGING THE REHEARSAL SPACES ON THE STREET FRONT. THIS “BILLBOARD” ORGANIZATION PLAYS TO THE HIGH-COMMUTER VOLUME THAT TRAVELS ON GLENDALE BLVD AND CREATES A NEW MODEL FOR HOW ARCHITECTURE, PERFORMANCE, AND EDUCATION CAN INTERFACE WITH THE CITY.


SITE CONTEXT

BUILDING CONTEXT

ORIGINAL SITE

EMBED THEATER

EXTEND THEATER ROOF PLANE GLENDALE BLVD

SUNSET BLVD

EXTRUDE PRACTICE PROGRAM “BILLBOARD”

EQUAL HEIGHT TO CORNER BUILDING

FIGURE GROUND SITE PLAN


URBAN CONTEXT MODEL PHOTO FROM GLENDALE BLVD

PRIMARY SECTION

20FT


SITE PLAN 15FT


FOURTH FLOOR PLAN

20FT

ELEVATION

10th


THEATER SEQUENCE AND REAR FACADE (1/4”)


RANDCAMPUS

LOCATED NEAR THE SAN JOSE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, THIS NEW CAMPUS PROPOSAL FOR THE RENOWNED THINK TANK, THE RAND CORPORATION, IS AN EXERCISE IN PROGRAMMING, SCALE, MASTER PLANNING AND PRODUCTIVITY. THE GOAL IS TO CREATE A 1,500,000 SQFT CAMPUS TO HOUSE 3,000 EMPLOYEES WITH A VARIETY OF PROGRAMS THAT WILL SUPPORT AN INNOVATIVE AND COLLABORATIVE ATMOSPHERE. UNIQUE PROGRAMMATIC FEATURES INCLUDE INCUBATOR WORKSPACES AND VARIOUS SCALES OF EVENT SPACES MEANT TO BRING NEW, DIFFERENT, AND CREATIVE PEOPLE ONTO THE CAMPUS TO LIVE AND WORK SYMBIOTICALLY WITH RAND. THE DIVERSITY OF PROGRAM THEN INFLUENCES THE ARCHITECTURE, AS THE CAMPUS IS A LANDSCAPE OF SMALL STRUCTURES ARRANGED INTO VILLAGES THAT CONTAIN THEIR OWN GATHERING SPACES, INTIMATE SPACES, PARKING ACCESS, AND SLEW OF PROGRAMS. THESE SMALL STRUCTURES ALSO ALLOW FOR MORE PRIVATE WORKSPACES, ALLOWING FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY. DUE TO A NEED FOR LARGER CENTRAL PROGRAMS AND A HIERARCHICAL CENTER, TWO LARGE BUILDINGS ARE PROPOSED TO ACT AS THE HEART OF THE SITE. ON THE INSIDE, THESE LARGE PROGRAM ENVELOPES BORROW THE VILLAGE IDEA BUT ORGANIZE THE FIELD OF STRUCTURES IN SECTION INSTEAD OF IN PLAN. OVERALL, AT EVERY DIFFERENT SCALE OF THE PROJECT, THE VILLAGE CONCEPT ACTS AS A GUIDING ARCHITECTURAL STRATEGY AND PROVIDES THE CAMPUS WITH A UNIQUE SENSE OF HETEROGENEITY, YET COMMUNITY.


SINGULARITY VS. AGGREGATION

CONTINUOUS CAMPUS MODERNIST, RADIAL ORGANIZATION

INFINITE LOOP CIRCULATION CROSS ACCESS TO EXTERIOR

TWO OPEN SPACES MASSIVE, UNSCALED

SINGLE WORKPLACE INFLEXIBLE, DISTRACTING SOCIAL SPACE = WORKSPACE

DIVERSE OPEN SPACE LARGE TO INTIMATE SPACES

ARRAY OF WORKSPACES HYPERFLEXIBLE, PRODUCTIVE SOCIAL SPACE IS THE FABRIC FOR WORKSPACE

VERSUS

AGGREGATE CAMPUS URBAN DIVERSITY ORGANIZATION

MEANDERING ORGANIZATION HIERARCHY CREATED BY SPACE

PROGRAM ORGANIZATION

RAND AND NON-RAND RELATIONSHIP RAND

WORK MEET

REST

LEARN

WORK

PUBLIC

PLAY

MEET TEACH EAT

WORK EAT

PLAY

MEET

REST

WORK

LEARN

TEACH

RAND PUBLIC

PROGRAM IS SHUFFLED OVER THE SITE TO CREATE “VILLAGES” AND DECENTRALIZE THE CAMPUS

EMPLOYEES MOVE THROUGH PUBLIC INCUBATOR SPACES FOR TO GET TO AMMENITIES AND THE MAJOR SPACES, FORCING SOCIAL INTERACTION

PROCESS IDEAS

FLUID CANOPY

MAT CARVING

HIERARCHY

CENTRAL BUILDINGS


E AG TP

N

LA

TP

X NE

CU

SITE PLAN 100ft


RESEARCH SPACE

INCUBATOR LIVE/WORK SPACE

RESEARCH AND OFFICE SPACE

PRESENTATION SPACE

LOBBY AND SUPPORT SPACE

CUT PLAN

25ft


INTERIOR RENDERING

PERSPECTIVE SECTION


ITALYSTUDIES FROM JANUARY TO MAY 2012, I STUDIED ABROAD WITH 21 OF MY PEERS IN MANY ITALIAN CITIES INCLUDING ROME, MILAN, FLORENCE, COMO, FERRARA, VENICE, AND VICENZA. TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE ARCHITECTURE AND URBANITY OF THESE ANCIENT PLACES, MUCH OF MY TIME WAS SPENT DRAWING AND DIAGRAMING TO DISSECT ALL THE SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY THAT I OBSERVED. I BELIEVE DRAWING IS AN AMAZING TOOL ARCHITECTS NEED FOR BOTH UNDERSTANDING AND COMMUNICATING EVERYTHING FROM THE CONCEPTUAL TO THE MINUTIAE OF THE BUILT AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. I USED PLAN, SECTION, ELEVATION, AND PERSPECTIVAL DRAWINGS TO STUDY A DIVERSITY OF ELEMENTS I FOUND INTERESTING OR IMPORTANT. MY TIME SPENT ABROAD WAS AN AMAZING EXPERIENCE AND THESE DRAWINGS WILL ALWAYS REMIND ME OF SOME OF THE REMARKABLE PLACES I SAW.

VILLA D’ESTE


VILLA ADRIANA

BASILICA DI SANTA CROCE

TORRE VELASCA


Benjamin Irinaga Work Samples