DIGITAL DESIGN + FABRICATION SM1, 2016 YOUR PROJECT TITLE Insert your names
(student number in small font size) Tutor Name + Group Number
Contents: (below is the basic requirements and you are free to add more or change to suit. Throughout the journal cross reference relevant precedents, lecture materials, required readings, independent research & personal design work) 1.0 Ideation 1.1 Object: Measured drawing set of selected object. Image/s of digital Rhino model of selected object. 100 words describing how object was physically measured + later modelled in Rhino 1.2 Object + System Analysis: Analytical sketches/drawings abstracting the rule/material logic in the found object 1.2 Volume: Images of developmental sketch model produced after Making workshop ( reconfigured material system). 1.3 Sketch design proposal: Include all your 3 ideas of your second skin Integrate images with approx. 200 words of critical analysis describing the work of this module & reflecting on key themes raised in M1 reading questions 2.0 Design (list your teamâ€™s member name on this cover page) 2.1 Design development intro: 100 words that outline what aspect of your phase 1 proposal is taken forward at this stage? 2.2 Digitization + Design proposal v.1 : 1 or 2 ideas of your second skin ideas as modelled in Rhino using the digitized mesh of the body as a base. Plan, Elevation and Axonometric drawings required. Describe each proposal summarising and rationalising design decisions 2.3 Precedent research: Images + Concept Diagrams 2.4 Design proposal v.2: Two version of design showing digital development in Rhino and exploring key words from chosen precedent Plan, Elevation and Axonometric drawings required for each proposal . Describe each proposal summarising and rationalising design decisions 2.5 Prototype v.1+ Testing Effects: Document prototyping one segment or fragment of design. Describe desired effects of your second skin in relation to personal space + Include photographic sequence testing these effects. Integrate images with approx. 200 words of critical analysis describing the work of this module & reflecting on key themes raised in M2 reading questions 3.0 Fabrication (list your teamâ€™s member name on this cover page) 3.1 Fabrication intro: 100 words that review your design after M2 If you have split from the group you will need additional text + images to communicate what concepts or ideas you have taken from the groupwork and how you have evolved the design 3.2 Design development & Fabrication of prototype v2: Sketches/Diagrams of design development in reponse to feedback Plan, Elevation and Axonometric drawings of updated Rhino model. Photographs of physical prototype v.2. 3.3 Design development & Fabrication of prototype v3: Sketches/Diagrams of design development in response to prototype v2. Photographs of physical prototype v3 3.4 Final Prototype development + optimisation: Pictures, diagrams + text explaining how design was optimised for fabrication/material usage and effects.(include vector linework of unrolled + nested cut file) Include text and images describing how research/readings/precedents influenced prototype development 3.5 Final Digital model Plan, Elevation and Axonometric drawings of final Rhino model. 3.6 Fabrication sequence: This should be images showing the construction process presented as a storyboard sequence. We suggest the team to set up a static camera position that fully record the entire building process. 3.7 Assembly Drawing: Vector image of Assembly Drawing of whole or part of model ( Exploded Iso/Axo) annotated with assembly instructions 3.8 Completed 2nd Skin: Images of project photographed on body and in detail Integrate images with approx. 300 words of critical analysis describing the work of this module & reflecting on key themes raised in M3 reading questions. How has the reading changed your views or thoughts on the making process? 4.0 Reflection. This section should be a critical reflection of your overall design process and experience. What have you learnt, what aspect of the studio did you find challenging? How can you improve your design and where do you think things went wrong or well? Include a reflection on the key themes raised in the M4 reading questions. max 500 words in total. 5.0 Appendix: You can include the below as an appendix or as in text footnoting and image captions 5.1 Credit: Credit every drawings / models / diagrams in your book to the appropriate member/s of the team - See example on p18 5.2 Bibliography: Use Harvard system; http://www.lib.unimelb.edu.au/recite/citations/harvard/generalNotes.html - See M4 tasks appendix for details
0.0 Introduction Softness is what creates a warm and comfortable space. Hardness is what provides protection and s sense of secure. Our deisgn in the sleeping pod explores the unity of the two opposites in the form of the â€œwingâ€œ. We have had many tries, many failures, and many harvests in the process.
ELEVATION 1 SCALE 1:3
THE DIMENSIONS ARE MEASURED BY THE TAPE. THE MEASURED DRAWINGS ARE THEN SHRINKED TO THE RIGHT SCALE.
PLAN SCALE 1:2
ELEVATION 2 SCALE 1:3
CUTTING PATH FOR SECTION 1
CUTTING PATH FOR SECTION 2
1.1 OBJECT-DIGITAL VERSION
MAKING PROCESS: The digital model was made by positioning the endpoints of the montain folds and valley folds of the object according to the geometry shape of the hyerbolic paraboloid and then drawing the surfaces between them. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES: Though the section of this geometric shape looks like curve, it is actually all straight lines within this object. Therefore, using the command ‘flow with curve’ in the beginning results in the distortion of this object.
1.2 SYSTEM ANALYSIS MAKING PROCESS
ROTATING FORWARD ROTATING BACKWARD
There are two folding patterns in the making process of the object. 1. The sequence of triangular folding in the four corners 2.The sequence of bar shape foldings along the four sides 1.
TRANSFORMATION & COMPONENTS
Such an repetitive shape could be extractedfrom the hperbolic paraboloid geometric folding. It is the most basic and representative pattern of the origami.
This sequence of picture demonstrates the elasticity of this object, which is enabled by rhe repetition of the folding patterns on the paper.
The reconfigured models focus on exploring the different possibilities that the folding patterns could generate.
To reconfigure the original object and create volume, I combine the two folding patterns that I extracted from the hyperbolic paraboloid origami. Those two pictures shows the testing fragments of my reconfigured models, and the key consept of panel and fold is the repetition of a certain feometry pattern. After sketch modeling and testing, there are mainly two ways to create a volume.
The first one is by changing the direction of the folding pattern so as to change the folding trends of the object. MOUNTAIN FOLD VALLEY FOLD
The second one is by bending a folded sheet to form a closed circular space.
1.4 SKETCH DESIGN PROPOSAL
Sketch Design #1
Sketch Design #2
sleep at desk, compressible PROPOSAL 1_ PORTABLE, SLEEP AT DESK,Portable, COMPRESSIBLE
PROPOSAL 2_PORTABLE, SLEEP IN CHAIR, RESILLIENT
Portable, sleep in chair, r
What is your idea? [Maximum 5 key words]
What is your idea? [Maximu
�uppor�ng chest when sleeping at desk
�uppor�ng hand and wrist
�uppor�ng head and neck
A blinder is added to prevent light
When the head lyin giving a compressin terforce is created t So the whole system of �xed, giving more fort to the person w
How does this respond to your personal space?
Precedent� �he shape bowknot o�ers a feeling of cozy and relaxed.
Whe need devi ches
With the edges stretching out, an encompassed environment and a sense of security are created around the head, which is most vonunerale part of the body and needs the most personal space. Precedent: I can always see students leaning against a tree and fall asleep. So I minimize it and put it behind the neck to creates a similar e�ect.
With the edges stretching out, an encompassed environment and a sense of security are created around the head, which is the most vulnerable part of the body and the personal space here is nedded most.
When sleep sitting down, the front part of the bod ed within the perspnal space. The projection of th around the head, neck, shoulder and chest.
PROPOSAL 3_IMPORTABLE, SLEEP LYING DOWN, PUBLIC
Sketch Design #3
um 5 key words]
importable, sleep lying down, public What is your idea? [Maximum 5 key words] Precedent: The shape of shell could always give people a feeling of security
ng on the device and ng force on it, a counto support the head, m is resilient instead e �exibility and comwears it.
There can be more than one person lying in this sleeping pod, and the obstruct enables privacy and enough personal space between each other
How does this respond to your personal space? en sleep si�ng down, the front part of the body is exposed and d to be protected within the personal space. �he pro�ec�on of the ice addresses the personal space around head, neck, shoulder and st.
dy is exposed and need to be protecthe device addresses the persoanl space
How does this respond to your personal space? Cushions could be added to increase the level of comfort.
With the edge extending and poking down, the ‘sleep pod’ froms a nearly enclosed area when people sleep in it. The personal space is protected all around the body.
With the edge extending and poking down, the sleeping pod forms a nearly enclosed area when people sleeping in it. The personal space is protected all around the body.
In the first module of this subject, I have conducted a careful and detailed research about the â€œpanel and fold â€œmaterial system of the hyperbolic parabolic origami. A variety of methods were used here including physically and digitally modelling it. By doing so, according to Health et al (2000), a higher level of accuracy will be achieved, so that we can understand the formation of the object and its qualities as well as specialties very thoroughly. On carefully investigating the object, I could find out and conclude the logic behind the material system. Thus when it comes to design, my knowledge about the project naturally became the source of my inspirations, as is suggested by Heath et al (2000), creation comes from observation. I have created a series of reconfigured models on the basis of the two folding patterns that I extracted from the object and further developed them into three sketch designs. On reflecting the three designs, I find the first idea is strongest in that it not only includes the pattern of the object, but also the elasticity of it which enables flexibility and movement in the design.
2.1 DIGITALIZATION + DESIGN PROPOSAL V.1
This design concept is inspirited from the transformation and deformation of the geometric shapes. The small pieces polygon pieces are connected together that creating a floating skin texture, in order to achieve the effect of strongly protective armor, in both appearance and function way. In addition, this design concept also provided a second skeleton for the users external human body. 1.NECK PART: following the arc along the circular column, which acutely is contributing a support for the head that shaking in different direction due to the weight during the sleeping period. 2. BACK PART: This extended tail gives a good support of the upper part of the bod; the users can keep a normal sitting position even during deep sleep, by leaning the weights on this additional support.
2.1 DIGITALIZATION + DESIGN PROPOSAL V.2
When proplr sleeping, the feeling of secure is one of the most important things to consider. Such image as little birds always stay under their motherâ€™s wing for protection is mainly where the inspiration came from. With the long feathers, enough personal space will be created under the wing. An eye mask is added to avoid the unwanted light in the daytime as well as providing a support for the face.
SLEEPING ON THE DESK
SLEEPING SITTING DOWN
2.2 PRECEDENT RESEARCH
FOLDABILITY, FLUENCY, DUCTICITY PERFORMANCE, REFLECTIVENESS The characteristic of ducticity of the product system, as well as the fluency effect applied by each single block surfaces; together create the senses of flowing and smoothie. To be a design piece is a backdrop for the dancing performance, California not only work successfully as a part of the set design, contributing the acting space for the performing language, but also become the combination of performance itself, which drawn audience eye to the spirit of spirituality and encourages creativity though the visible expression. The primary material used for the California stage sets are polycarbonate, maintaining translucency and reflectivity. The material system, panel and floating, provides a highly flexibility for the design work, in order to achieve the portable effect, breaking the classic rule of fixing stage backdrop. As special material system used by the design work, the whole set can be built upon stage in a real short period, and itâ€™s a surprising acceleration compared with the traditional sets. Even easily broken down to small pieces that can be packed into box after the performance.
2.2 PRECEDENT RESEARCH FOLDABILITY FLUENCY DUCTICITY PERFORMANCE REFLECTIVENESS The folding system of this precedent inspires our design work especially in terms of its foldability, which intrigures us to think about adding such a kind of mechanism into our design that enables the stretch and contraction of the wing structure, making it easy to carry in the final product.
To realize the stretching and contracting effect of the wing, we came with the idea of adding a wire structure under it as is shown in the drawings. By add a little ring in the end, each component is able to be connected with another linearly. Add to that, such kind of system enables the rotation between the components as well, which gives more flexibility to the wing.
PROPOSED EFFECT OF CONTRAC
PROPOSED EFFECT OF STRETCHING
2.3 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL V.1
There are mainly two developments from the previous proposal: 1. Add the back part of the wing ro provide a more complete protection of the body. 2. Add the moving mechanism into the wing structure.
Here shows the primary testing prototype of the mechanism. Hot glue gun was used for the connection between different lines.
2.3 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL V.2
CONNECTION DETAIL 1
CONNECTION DETAIL 2
On developing the design development version 1, we deleted the masking part because it looks somehow irrelevant from the main body of our wings. In order to avoid unexpected light and create enough personal space around the head and the face, we designed a hood-like device, which is able to rotate up and cover the head when needed.
CONNECTION TO THE PAD WIRE
CONNECTION TO THE PAD
Besides that, we also wanted to make the shape of those feathers to be variable intead of unified. From top to bottom, the size of the unit becomes smaller to better fit the body shape. Since the shoulder part is bigger than the wrist.
2.3 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL V.2
The device is designed to fit into the shape of the arm, it can curve inwards along with the movements of the arm and form a shell to cover the user from outside world. The fabrics in the end of the device is designed to provide further shelter to the head and face, and increase the area of the personal space. When the device is fitted into the body, it creates a zone that protects the userâ€™s privacy and provides a sense of security. Therefore, the user can have a undistrubed and comfortable rest wearing the device.
The best position using the device is by sleeping at the desk. Therefore the device can naturally wrap around half of the userâ€™s body. Users would feel not being exposed to the outside world. Besides the hard and sharp structure of the device, the fabrics on the neck also add up to a sense of softness and comforty. When standing up and not using the device, the user can adjust the length of the device by pulling it upwards, and the device will be folded. In this status, the user can easily carry and store the device without taking up unneccessary space.
2.4 REFLECTION The most important progression we have made in module two is adding the moving mechanism into our design, which in turn induces more possibilities in our future design, and lays the foundation of the self-movability in the next stage of prototyping. For the first time we tried out the digital fabrication method in our design process by using the card cutter to cut out the repetitive component unit in our design and for the first we get to know the convenience and efficiency that the digital fabrication method could have. After connecting the feathers into a linear shape, we tried two different kinds of connections between the different lines. The first one is by using the hot glue gun. However, the glue may leave exposed and the white color is very obvious on the black surface. Then we tried the second method by drilling holes on the connecting position on the feather and uses the jewelry clasps to link them. We regard this a better solution and the little metal wires add a sense of industry fabrication on the design outlook. We also tested the materiality of the design as well. Comparing to the black cardboard, the black polypropylene performs stronger in tension and compression so as not o break easily in the modelling making process as well as the usage of it. Add to that, we also prefer the lustrous effect of the polypropylene.
3.1 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT & FABRICATION PROTOTYPE V.2
The purpose of the second prototype is to figure out how to add ELASTICITY into our design.
We found a problrm that when people naturally hang down their arms beside their body, the length of the wing that is needed to cover their arm is actually shorter than bending their arms in front of their chest or covering around their heads when sleeping on the desk. Therefore, by adding the elasticity to the wing’s existing moving system, the “wing“ could shrink automatically when the length needed is less, and could stretch by force wen the length needed is more.
To add elasticity in the design's movement mechanism system, we decided to use rubber band to connect the top end of each piece. As is demontrated in the detailed model.
However, in this version, there were two significant DRAWBACKS:
Rubber band connection details
1.The rubber bands are shown outside. 2.Though the elasticity of each rubber band is normal, when dozens of them are used, the composition of the force is too high. A great force is needed to stretch the wing.
3.2 PROTOTYPE V.2 OPTIMISATION
At the second stage, we improved the mechanism of elasticity. Rubber bands were hidden beneath the pieces. Therefore, it looks more neat and regulated. Add to that, the elasticity of the previous version of the rubber band is too tense, so we substitute that with more loose ones to enable more conrol of the wing.
Drill a hole to enable the fixation of the wire as well the passage of the rubber band.
Rubber band connection details
3.3 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT & FABRICATION PROTOTYPE V.3 The purpose of the third prototype is to figure out how to add COMFORTNESS into our design.
We used polypropylene as the material for the pieces. The black semi-transparent SILKS underneath the pieces were our first choice for providing the touch of softness, comfort, warmth and relaxation. The DRAWBACKS of the choic are also obvious: 1.It is too thin to cover the sharp edges. 2.Its lack of elasticity also constraints the movement of the wing pieces to a great extent, which results in the relatively messy appearance in the end.
3.4 PROTOTYPE V.3 OPTIMISATION V.1
Followingly, we tried the real black FEATHERS, and we found it can deliver a stronger expression of desired effects and atmospheres in a more elegant way. By putting the black hard piece on the exterior and the soft feathers in the inside, we wish to create a contrast between the sharpness on the exterior, and warmth in interior. We also used BLACK as the main tone of our design. Black is the main color surrounding us when we are asleep. Black is able to keep most lights out and create the quiet atmospheres when the user is wearing the wing.
3.4 PROTOTYPE V.3 OPTIMISATION V.2
When we try the wing on we found another PROBLEM that is was hard to keep the wing flow with the movement of the arm smoothly. So we decided to use the elastic nylon band as the connection between the wing and body and arm.
It is also an efficient way to keep the feathers in control and avoid being everywhere outside the wing by fixing those elastic nylon band along the wing. Add to that, in order to ensure the wing is on the on the correct position on the body, we also utilized the nylon band to fit the wing on our body.
3.5 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT & FABRICATION PROTOTYPE V.4 The purpose of the third prototype is to figure out how to add DEFENCE into our design.
At this stage, we want the back part of our design to be more than just a static protection. We wish to enlarge the personal space in our design by letting every piece in the back part to be able to spike up.
The PROBLEM of this prototype is that, to do this, we can only connect each row of the pieces on the top tips, and this way of connection is not stable enough. When we pull the spiking pieces up using the wires, the angles and directions of each piece could not be effectively controlled, thus the whole piece looks loose and irregular.
3.6 PROTOTYPE V.4 OPTIMISATION V.1
At the second stage, we came up with the idea of a double-layer design. The first layer would be the spiking pieces with a more stable connection with the second layer. And the second layer were the same structure with the arm part. The spiking pieces were not only connected through the top tips to the adjacent row, they were also connected by iron wires to the second layer in the top corners. Moreover, the rotating mechanism was also improved. By fixing one end of an iron wire on the second layer and letting its top end sliding on the cuts of the first layer, and by pulling the wires fixed on the top end of the iron wire, the spiking pieces were able to be rotated upwards in regular angle and direction.
The PROBLEM of this deisgn is that the spiking pieces need to be cut so as toconnect the supporting wire underneath to the spiking pieces as well as to procide pathways for the movement. The two parallel cuts are in the middle of the pieces, which damages the appearance to a great extent, as is shown on the right.
3.6 PROTOTYPE V.4 OPTIMISATION V.2
To hide the cuts and wires, we made a 3rd design for the spiking pieces.
Similar to the structure of pieces of arm & backâ€™s wing, we made an iron wire under each piece as the pathway to the support. The pathway wires were fixed on the top and bottom part of each piece. Therefore by connecting the top end of the supporting wires, it can slide freely along the pathway wires. We connect a thread to the top of each supporting wires, and laced the threads into a strand. By pulling the strand, the spiking pieces can be rotated upwards at the same time and with the same angle.
3.7 FINAL DIGITAL MODEL
3.8 FABRICATION SEQUENCE
1. Addition to the module 2 prototype, more pieces were added to the wing.
2. Rubber bands and feathers connections.
3. Elastic nylon bands tie the feathers.
4. Connections by elastic bands to arm and body. 5. Bottom long feathers. 6. 2nd and 3rd version of spiking pieces.
Instead of laser cutter, we used the card cutter to cut each pieces of the wing. hat is because our material is relatively easy to cut, and it doesnâ€™t need to queue up. At our module 2, we first tried to lay out each piece parallel to each other, and used these pieces to form half of the wing on the arm. Then we found we can utilise the material more efficiently by changing the orientation of the piece to make each piece very close. Therefore more pieces can be cut and use only 2/3 of the material.
3.9 ASSEMBLY DRAWING Spiking pieces / First layer Pathway iron wire Back part / Second layer Controling string
Supporting iron wire
Wing on the arm
Bottom long feathers Basic pieces for wing
3.10 COMPLETED SECOND SKIN
3.10 COMPLETED SECOND SKIN
3.10 COMPLETED SECOND SKIN
3.11 REFLECTION In module I think I have been engage myself in the mode of “problem discovering “and “problem solving” back and forth. Through the continuous development and optimization, no matter it is a detailed or a big problem, my model was pushed into the next stage step by step. The materiality is further explored in this module in terms of the extent of elasticity and the comfortless created underneath the wing. By changing the quality of the connecting bands, an adequate level of elasticity is maintained. By adding the real feathers underneath, the sense of comforters created was surprisingly ideal for us. A second mechanism is added into our design. Three different prototypes were made to test the effects. It has been very struggling when we found one method simply doesn’t work and we have to find a new solution. However, it is in this process that our design is becoming strong and our ability is being improved.
Within the semesterâ€™s study in Digital Design and Fabrication, I have studied, experienced and explored the role that the digital fabrication method plays in the ideation and realization of our design. There is no doubt that the digital methods are critical in the process from design to fabrication. In the design process, the rhino modelling helps my design to a great extent because it could visualize my design ideas instantly as I designing. This is of extreme importance when we have our initial design idea and making revisions on it. As is justified by Rifkin and Macmillan(2011), the digital models is more than just arepresenting tool, but more importantly an idea generating and refineing tool. For example, in the development of the proposed design, we were recommended to vary the size of the feathers. It is impossible for us to come up with the suitable size out of our mere imagination, or making several physical models to test the effect. Thus manipulating our model digitally is a great solution here. Simply by scaling up or down of the feather, I can have the sense of what the model would actually look like directly and accurately. In the fabrication process, the digital fabrication enables a great efficiency and precision of my model making, especially for the models that has a great number of repetition of the components. I have used the cutter to cut out the pieces as well as scoring on them to make folding patterns. It would have taken me ages to fabricate them with my own hand and the results may still be not as good as the digital fabrication in that both laser cutter and card cutter would leave beautiful finishes on the cutting edges of the model pieces Nevertheless, however helpful and the convenient the digital design and fabrication are, we cannot manage to make the final model with only digital methods. The complementation of handcraft since there always something that cannot be fabricated by machine, for example, in our design, the joints between the lines of feathers were all installed by hand. A series of delicate work is needed within the processes. A hole needs to be drilled on all the feathers in lines correspondingly, and an iron wire circle was penetrated though the holes and closed. By doing that repetitively, several lines of the feathers can be jointed together. The complementation of prototyping is also needed in terms of materiality, user experience, and potential problems. Take our process of prototyping in the module 3 as an example, on fitting the model to our real body, we found out that sometimes the ideal form in the digital model cannot be realized. Therefore, instant adjustment and refinement are needed through the process of the assemblage of the model. All in all, I have experimented the possibilities and limitations of the digital design and fabrication, which enables me to think more critically and objectively towards it. Use the digital method when it is needed and never over rely on it as the solution to every problem.
Heath, A., Heath, D., & Jensen, A. (2000). 300 years of industrial design: function, for, technique. New York: Watson-Guptil. Rifkin, J 2011, The third industrial revolution, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, USA
Published on Jun 8, 2016