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Annual Report

2012


Cover photo: Kenyan mother preparing traditional leafy vegetables Credit: Bioversity International/S. Collins


Table of Contents 01 Foreword 02 Highlights 04 Looking at wild foods to improve cost and nutrition of diets in Kenya 05 Moving sustainable diets and food systems forward 06 Biodiversity conservation brings livelihood benefits to farmers in the Andes 07 Beyond timber 08 Crop diversity for climate change adaptation 09 A holistic landscape approach to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity in Nepal 10 Working with farmers to mitigate devastating banana disease in Africa 11 Science to tackle the illegal timber trade 12 CGIAR Partnerships 14 Gearing up for the new CGIAR Research Programs 15 Spicing up the market for chilli 16 Joining forces to stem banana pests and diseases in the Asia-Pacific 17 Biodiversity for food and nutrition 18 No chocolate without viable cacao farms 19 Crop diversity for pest and disease management 20 A strategic action plan for Mesoamerica’s plant genetic resources 22 Events 24 Rio+20 – The future we want 25 IUCN World Conservation Congress - Bringing conservation and agriculture together 26 Neglected and underutilized species to fight hunger and rural poverty 27 The Economist explores Feeding the World – Africa 28 Research Products 30 Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors – a universal language for plant genetic resources 31 Banana genome sequence – a major achievement 32 Applying forest genetic resources research in the field 33 Malaysia’s implementation of the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing 34 Crop genetic resources as a global commons: challenges in international law and governance 36

Financial Information

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Funding Partners

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Research Partners

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Scientific Publications


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Foreword Achieving food and nutrition security requires agricultural innovation and research. Bioversity International’s unique role in this endevour is to research the conservation and use of agricultural and forest biodiversity. Bioversity International is committed to a world in which smallholder farming communities are thriving and sustainable. We are building evidence that agricultural and forest biodiversity is part of the key to achieving long-term success in this quest. In early 2012, we launched a 10-year research strategy to increase the exploration of the potential of biodiversity to provide the means to improve nutrition, sustainability, livelihoods of poor smallholder farmers and to ensure that ecosystems are productive and resilient. This year we are proud to share many of our research advances which are featured throughout this report. Here are a few highlights: • Agustin Molina, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator for Asia and the Pacific, received a Guangdong International Friendship Award from one of the largest banana-producing regions of China for his partnership work to help combat banana disease, an important crop for this region. • We collaborated in a project to sequence the first genome of cultivated bananas – a huge step forward in science – which will give more options to the millions of people who depend on bananas for income or for food. • Coordinated by Bioversity International, the new Global Timber Tracking Network was launched, bringing together scientists, policymakers and stakeholders to curb illegal and unsustainable logging. • One of our former senior scientists, Jessica Fanzo (now an Honorary Research Fellow with Bioversity), was named the first recipient of the Premio Daniel Carasso for her work in the area of nutrition and sustainable diets. • The Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition Project started this year, to investigate how the conservation and use of agricultural biodiversity can improve nutrition, providing critical evidence and raising awareness of the nutritional value of local diversity. • The new Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao was published. This work provides a foundation for prioritizing cacao research to help meet the needs of the millions of smallholder farmers who depend on this cash crop. • The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) gave its 2012 Award for Best KARI Implemented Project to a collaborative research effort to mitigate Banana Xanthomonas wilt, one of several major diseases threatening banana crops. This effort was led by Bioversity International and funded by the McKnight Foundation. Our research in agricultural and forest biodiversity is resonating with policymakers, scientists, international organizations and donors. We participated in many international events in 2012, including the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the IUCN World Conservation Congress and The Economist’s Feed the World Africa Conference. These events were turning points for connecting research on biodiversity to global challenges such as climate change, malnutrition, food insecurity and productivity; and we are continuing this dialogue in opinion pieces published in major media outlets. Furthermore, we have built important partnerships that are already reaping benefits. As a member of the CGIAR Consortium, Bioversity International is proud to contribute to ten CGIAR Research Programs. You will read many examples in this report about the progress we are making with CGIAR partners to achieve a sustainable, food secure future. We thank you for your continued support and partnership.

Emile Frison Director General

Paul Zuckerman Board Chair

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Highlights


Read about some of our research highlights in 2012 and find out how agricultural and forest biodiversity can help achieve a sustainable future.

Photo: Organic banana grower in the Chira Valley of Peru Credit: Bioversity International/A. Vezina

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Looking at wild foods to improve cost and nutrition of diets in Kenya actual nutrient intake and the recommended nutrient intake for a healthy diet) in both the dry and wet seasons and for all age groups, these findings show that it is possible to make a positive impact on the cost and quality of diets by adding accessible, nutritious local foods, found at low cost. The research model shows that the integration of the five wild foods in the diet can reduce the daily cost of a woman’s diet by $US 1.5 to 2 per day. “Other approaches are still needed to meet nutrient requirements throughout the year, especially for infants between 6-11 months,” says Bruce Cogill, Programme Leader, Nutrition and Marketing Diversity, Bioversity International. “More research is required about the use of local foods to meet nutrient gaps and about how these foods can be produced, processed and marketed at scale.” Research to identify novel approaches to improving nutrition and diets of women and children in Kenya has yielded new clues. In 2012, Bioversity International scientists with partners from Save the Children UK and the National Museums of Kenya researched how five wild, neglected and underutilized fruits and vegetables can reduce the cost and improve the nutrient content of modelled diets.

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Photo: A Kenyan mother with her daughter Credit: Bioversity International/S. Mann

By adding the five selected locally available wild foods, especially Berchemia discolor fruits, the modelled diets were nutritionally richer and culturally acceptable. They were also less expensive and met recommended nutrient intakes for women and for children between 12-24 months, especially in the wet season. While the five wild foods added to the modeled diets did not close the nutrient gap (the gap between

This project is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Additional support for this initiative is provided by the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is also funding a Bioversity project in Kenya and Benin that is investigating the market potential of highly nutritious traditional foods, which tend to be abandoned due to socio-economic changes occurring with market globalization.


Highlights

Bioversity International is working with partners to describe, measure and influence policy and programmes on sustainable diets and food systems with the ultimate goal of improving nutrition and health. Sustainable diets and food systems are constructed around human needs, but with a view to sustainability, low environmental impact and food that is accessible, culturally relevant and nutritionally adequate. In 2010, Bioversity International and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN held an international scientific symposium on Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets, which resulted in the development of a consensus definition and additional efforts, including a book – Sustainable Diets and Biodiversity: Directions and Solutions for Policy, Research and Action, released online as an open-access publication in 2012. Later in the year, Bioversity published a Technical Brief on the need for measures and indicators of sustainable diets with the Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation and the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health. Both publications provide important foundations for additional research in this new and challenging area. “Through a better understanding of the measurement of sustainable diets, innovative policies and programmes

Moving sustainable diets and food systems forward can be developed and promoted that emphasize the positive role of biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainable production systems on human health and nutrition,” comments Bruce Cogill, Leader of the Nutrition and Marketing Diversity Programme, Bioversity International.

A key contributor to these two publications was Jessica Fanzo, former Senior Scientist and now an Honorary Research Fellow with Bioversity. In November, Fanzo was named the first recipient of the Premio Daniel Carasso for her outstanding work on sustainable food and diets for long-term human health.

Photo: Assortment of traditional Sri Lankan dishes Credit: Bioversity International/S. Landersz

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Biodiversity conservation brings livelihood benefits to farmers in the Andes On-farm conservation initiatives intend to maintain native crop species and their varieties by providing incentives for farmers to cultivate them. In this way, valuable traits contained in their genetic diversity, such as resistance to crop pests and diseases, can be conserved for future use.

Many interventions have been implemented worldwide, but a lack of a systematic approach hampered the evaluation of their success. In 2009, Bioversity International started a research project to identify best practices and tools to assess the success of on-farm conservation projects in delivering conservation and livelihood outcomes.

Carlos Perez, Liaison Scientist of McKnight Foundation who funded the initiative, describes this work as making an “enormous contribution” to the effort to improve assessment methods for on-farm conservation. “A key component was to develop a framework, methodology and guidelines to measure interventions, such as seed fairs that promote cultivation of native crops, to see if they delivered on conservation, livelihoods and wider public benefits,” explains Mauricio Bellon, Project Leader, Bioversity International. Data was gathered from an initial review of 26 projects focused on maintaining the diversity of various native crop species in the High Andes. This was followed by an in-depth assessment of six case studies in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador representing a range of crops and conditions. “We found evidence from the study completed this year that increased agricultural biodiversity does lead to more perceived livelihood benefits for farmers,” continues Bellon.

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Photo: Farmers preparing soil for planting quinoa in Bolivia Credit: Bioversity International/A. Camacho


Highlights

Many non-timber forest products are critical for the subsistence of rural communities in Central Africa, providing fruits or other nutritious foods for diversified diets and other products important to household economies. However, many of the forests upon which these communities depend have been granted under concessions to logging companies for the extraction of trees for timber. Many tree species provide both non-timber products and timber, but these are conflicting uses: once harvested for timber, the trees no longer provide fruits or other products. Conflict over resource access and use between local communities and logging companies is a problem for the forest sector in all countries in the Congo Basin. The Forest Genetic Resources Programme of Bioversity International is leading ‘Beyond Timber’, a project funded by the Congo Basin Forest Fund and carried out in three countries of the Congo Basin (Gabon, Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo), in partnership with the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). ‘Beyond Timber’ aims to produce information, tools and guidelines that will be adopted by concessionaires and government agencies so that local peoples’ access to nontimber resources is safeguarded even within timber concessions. Bioversity International’s scientists are carrying out research on the nutrition, genetics and availability of priority tree species used for both timber and food. “This project highlights the role forests play in providing food security – a fundamental aspect

Beyond timber

of forest management that has so far received little attention,” said Julius Tieguhong Chupezi, project coordinator, Bioversity. The Congo Basin forests include a diversity of indigenous trees that are vital to the nutrition and health of local populations. As Cameroon’s Minister of Scientific Research and Innovation stated, “Forest genetic resources and edible forest fruits in particular have important nutritional and medicinal roles for populations in sub-Saharan countries.” Local partners – researchers at Cameroon’s Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement, Gabon’s Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale and the Université de Kisangani in the Democratic Republic of Congo, are actively participating in the project, along with 16 university

students from those countries who are carrying out their Masters or PhD theses within the project. Representatives of the Ministry of Forestry in each country and of the Central African Forest Commission will play key roles in promoting the adoption of guidelines and other results of the project. Based on field research under way in 2013, forest scientists from Bioversity and CIFOR will develop operational guidelines that incorporate local knowledge to integrate the management of timber and non-timber forest resources. This process will raise policymakers’ and concessionaires’ awareness of local values and provide them with tools to generate a new way of ‘doing business’ in the forest sector. These will be validated in selected sites in Cameroon, Gabon and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Photo: Sliced wood from the forest, Cameroon Credit: Bioversity International/L. Snook

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

and get feedback from farmers on the varieties. The ‘Seeds for Needs’ team has also begun installing digital sensors called ‘iButtons’ in individual fields to measure local temperature and humidity levels. This will allow scientists to correlate exact local weather data with feedback from the farmers, for a more precise analysis on how particular varieties deal with weather fluctuations.

Crop diversity for climate change adaptation The ‘Seeds for Needs’ project works on strengthening seed systems in the face of climate change by exposing farmers to more varieties of the same crop through participatory trials. The project uses exciting new methodologies, such as crowdsourcing – a means of finding patterns or results by

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Photo: Farmers in their field in Bihar, India Credit: Bioversity International/C. Zanzanaini

collecting a small amount of feedback from large groups of people. In the case of ‘Seeds for Needs’ in India, hundreds of farmers were each given three out of ten varieties of wheat to plant and test for yield, taste and other traits. The project has begun experimenting with mobile technology to communicate with

“‘Seeds for Needs’ is about getting a lot of diversity out to farmers in their fields and having farmers choose different types of materials. We are looking at both local and improved varieties in different situations, and we are using new approaches to get more diversity and more farmers involved in participatory work around agricultural biodiversity,” comments Jacob van Etten, Senior Scientist, Bioversity International. The project, which is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, is carried out in Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea and Tanzania. In 2013 ‘Seeds for Needs’ will be also rolled out in Cambodia, Laos, Honduras, Rwanda and Uganda.


Highlights

A holistic landscape approach to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity in Nepal 2012 saw the end of the ‘Western Terai Landscape Complex Project’, an 8-year innovative project to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity at the landscape level while addressing the livelihood needs of farmers living near protected areas in Nepal. The project is a joint initiative of the Government of Nepal and seven national and international organizations, including Bioversity International. Bioversity worked closely with the Nepal Agriculture Research Council and local nongovernmental organization LI-BIRD on implementing community-based biodiversity management practices in the region.

of local biodiversity and its sustainable use.

together to support community conservation efforts.

A community biodiversity management fund was also set up with a start-up contribution from the project and farmers’ monthly savings. The fund acts as a lowinterest loan system for farmers and local women’s groups to conduct income generating activities such as goat and pig rearing, poultry farming and vegetable production, with the condition that they work

“An important lesson from the project,” continues Sthapit, “is the challenge of getting stakeholders to work together when different interests are involved. But understanding the perspectives of different sectors is also important for finding holistic solutions that match community priorities.”

“The purpose of our participation was to mainstream good farming practices and agricultural biodiversity management at a landscape scale,” says Bhuwon Sthapit, Bioversity International. Farmers’ organizations responsible for management and conservation of agricultural biodiversity, called Biodiversity Conservation and Development Committees, were set up in six villages. A series of training workshops, diversity fairs, participatory seed exchanges, participatory plant breeding and community seedbanks were organized to strengthen farmers’ awareness

Photo: Tharu women participating in seed exchange, Nepal Credit: Bioversity International/B. Sthapit

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Working with farmers to mitigate devastating banana disease in Africa Banana Xanthomonas Wilt is a devastating disease threatening banana production in Africa, causing up to 80-100% crop losses in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo. To fight its spread, Bioversity International and partners are looking for better ways to manage the disease – from planting, to harvesting, to transportation and consumption – in East Africa and the Horn of Africa.

By studying how the disease spreads and working with different people and groups involved in the process, researchers are identifying the best control measures possible to curb the disease. This knowledge is being shared with relevant policymakers and stakeholders, to ensure that the necessary institutional frameworks are put in place to support management efforts such as quarantine and surveillance protocols. Farmers are also being informed of cost-

effective management options through regional meetings, farmer exchange visits and farmer field schools. In 2012, six new farmer field schools were formed, and members from established ones are helping to train newcomers. The Banana Xanthomonas Wilt project, funded by the McKnight Foundation, was awarded the best ‘KARI (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute) Implemented Project 2012’ for solving farmers’ constraints and increasing food and income security through innovative and participatory approaches, working across different levels, disciplines and gender, from the farm to the marketplace. In addition to the KARI award, one of the farmers who participated in the project has been honoured by the Kenya Government and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) as ‘Best Farmer, Ugunja District’ for his efforts towards enhancing food security in Kenya. In his community, George Ouma is now a keen advocate of using clean planting materials to help fight the disease. He supplies healthy banana seedlings, through KARI and FAO, to people who want to start banana enterprises, advising them also to diversify crops to spread risk and maximize income opportunities, and not just rely on bananas. “This award means a lot to me and my community. We have a motto on the farm: ‘Work like a donkey and dine like a king or queen.’ It is true that running a good farm involves a lot of hard work, and to have this recognition gives us the incentive to continue,” said Ouma.

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Photo: George Ouma sharing his knowledge during a Farmers’ Field School Credit: Bioversity International/E. Karamura


Highlights

According to the World Bank, an area of forest the size of a football pitch is cleared by illegal loggers every 2 seconds around the world. Illegal logging damages forests, can deprive local communities of livelihood resources and undermines national economies. It is a serious and growing problem for both producer and consumer countries, contributing to deforestation and biodiversity loss and furthering corruption. “Although a global movement to curb illegal logging is growing, the current reliance on paper-based tracking of timber is insufficient to eradicate fraud from the global supply chain. Practical control tools are needed to identify the species and origin of wood so that importers can be confident they are buying legal timber,” says Laura Snook, Leader of the Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International. This challenge is being addressed through ‘Development and implementation of a species identification and timber tracking system using DNA fingerprints and stable isotopes’, a Bioversity International project which will produce tools to reduce the illegal timber trade.

Science to tackle the illegal timber trade In April 2012, the Global Timber Tracking Network (GTTN) was launched to bring together scientists, policymakers and other key players to develop such tools, which can be applied both to logs and to wood products. GTTN is coordinated by Bioversity International with support from the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, and the CGIAR

Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry. This year the network laid the groundwork for collaborative development of DNA and isotope-based tools for identifying key timber species and their origins so that customs inspectors and others can confidently determine the geographic origin of logs and wood products.

Photo: A logging concession in Ghana Credit: Bioversity International/M. Ekue

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CGIAR Partnerships


Bioversity International is a member of the CGIAR Consortium, a global research partnership for a food secure future. Discover some examples of how our work contributes to ten CGIAR Research Programs.

Photo: Albizia caribea tree Credit: Bioversity International/P. Bordoni

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Systems and the CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Systems, with some specific research activities, such as: • Studies to look at: household nutrition, early childhood nutrition, seed sources and seed systems, household agricultural biodiversity use, role of local markets, agroecological intensification characterization and role of bananas and cocoa in household livelihood strategies. • Field evaluation of diverse varieties with farmers; providing farmers access to seed/planting material of local species, particularly vegetable and fruit species.

Gearing up for the CGIAR Research Programs Bioversity International is contributing to CGIAR research to improve the productivity, profitability, sustainability, and resilience of farming systems.

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In 2012, Bioversity contributed to the CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics, the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural

Photo: Scientist and farmers examining wheat varieties in Bihar, India Credit: Bioversity International/T. Rastogi

• Baseline assessment of agricultural biodiversity in focus regions; a partnership programme with key stakeholders across all regional sites, for common learning and capacity strengthening. • Participation in scoping studies, research programme design and stakeholder consultation. • Identification and establishment of key partnerships in focus regions.


CGIAR Partnerships

Spicing up the market for chilli Peru and Bolivia are home to the largest and most diverse concentrations of chilli (Capsicum) in the world, but while it has been cultivated for thousands of years by farmers in Peru and Bolivia as a spice, vegetable and for medicinal purposes, much of its diversity remains neglected and undervalued. Recent increases in market demand for new and unique flavours have provided an opportunity for smallholder farmers to generate higher income by using native chilli diversity. Bioversity International is leading a 3-year initiative, supported by the German government, to link smallscale producers with processing and marketing companies that supply local and international markets. This collaboration includes non-governmental organizations, research institutes and universities in Bolivia, Peru and Germany. In addition we collaborated with smallholder farmers, entrepreneurs, farmer associations, the public sector and local and regional governments to

develop and map the Capsicum value chain. Esaú Hildago del Águila, a Peruvian agroforesty farmer explains: “Growing chilli (for the market) is a new development for us, but it is actually a forgotten crop that has

been revived due to public interest and by big organizations like the Peruvian Association of Chefs.” This work is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets.

Photo: Selecting chilli for the market and food industry, Peru Credit: Bioversity International/X. Scheldeman

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Joining forces to stem banana pests and diseases in the Asia-Pacific

More than 400 million people worldwide depend on banana for their food and livelihoods. However, banana production is seriously jeopardized by pests and diseases. Asia-Pacific is a region where smallholders are particularly dependent on the production, commercialization and consumption of banana. “Asia is the centre of diversity of banana, but it is where we also find many pests and diseases afflicting the crop. In addition, climate change is affecting the dynamics of pest and disease problems,” says Agustin Molina, Senior Scientist and Regional Coordinator for Asia and the Pacific. In December, 16

Molina received a Guangdong International Friendship Award from one of the largest bananaproducing regions of China for his work in helping to combat banana diseases. Bioversity International, through the Banana Asia-Pacific Network (BAPNET), engages national partners in mitigating devastating diseases. Resistant varieties and other mitigating measures have been evaluated with research organizations, industry partners and farmers’ cooperatives in the Philippines. Partnerships with researchers, government agencies and companies from Australia, China, and the Taiwan Banana Research Institute have been

Photo: Local varieties of banana sold at the Solok market in Sumatra, Indonesia Credit: Bioversity International/A. Molina

instrumental for the adoption of disease-mitigating measures in Indonesia, China and the Philippines. Strong collaboration between BAPNET and the private sector has also helped to map the distribution of a particularly virulent disease to prevent spread in the region and beyond. These public-private partnerships have improved the supply of affordable clean planting material and farmers’ incomes. Bioversity and partners are now scaling out this innovative partnership model in Asia-Pacific. This work contributes to the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas.


CGIAR Partnerships

Bioversity International is coordinating ‘Mainstreaming Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use for Improved Human Nutrition and Well-being’, a Global Environment Facility (GEF) project launched in 2012. The GEF Implementing Agencies for this project are the United Nations Environment Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. The initiative, led by Brazil, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Turkey, addresses growing concerns over the rapid disappearance of agricultural biodiversity, particularly traditional crops and wild species with nutritional value. Also of concern is the loss of traditional knowledge associated with their use. Local plants and animals, which can be more nutritious than their introduced counterparts, are increasingly being recognized as playing an important role in supplying the diversity of nutrients needed in human diets for healthy growth and living.

document and raise awareness on agricultural biodiversity losses in the study sites. Additional technical and financial support is being provided by the countries and by international partners such as the World Food Programme, AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center, Crops for the Future, the Earth Institute at

Columbia University, the World Agroforestry Centre and the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health. This global partnership will ensure the upscaling of methods and tools for measuring biodiversity for food and nutrition as well as increased awareness and information sharing among partners, scientists and policymakers.

Biodiversity for food and nutrition

Partnerships are key in this initiative. For example, Kenya and Brazil are exploring collaboration through the Agricultural Innovation MKTPlace to develop value chains for underutilized indigenous fruit trees, while Sri Lanka has teamed up with the Global Master’s in Development Practice Program to

Photo: Market seller in Sri Lanka Credit: Bioversity International/S. Landersz

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

resistant to pests and diseases and adapted to changing climatic conditions. The genetic diversity of cacao can increase income options available to smallholder farmers offering greater market options but its potential is little understood and under threat from environmental degradation and habitat destruction. As part of a collaborative effort addressing these urgent needs and emerging opportunities, A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources was published in 2012 by the Global Cacao Genetic Resources Network (CacaoNet), coordinated by Bioversity International.

No chocolate without viable cacao farms Ninety percent of cacao comes from 5-6 million smallholder farmers in tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America, who supply an industry worth $US 8-10 billion a year; and worldwide demand is increasing. Yet the cacao industry is facing challenges. Many producers experience pest and disease outbreaks which threaten

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Photo: Cacao diversity, Ghana Credit: Bioversity International/J. Raneri

their livelihoods – around 30-40% of global production is lost due to pests and diseases. As production is centred in some of the poorest parts of the world, securing higher yields that are sustainable can offer a viable pathway out of poverty for cacao growers. This requires access to improved cacao varieties that are

“We consulted widely with experts from all sectors of the global cacao community to develop this strategy,” says Brigitte Laliberté, Bioversity International. “Now we have an informed and realistic foundation for prioritizing cacao genetic resources research to help meet farmers’ needs.” This work is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry and is supported by the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS), The Cocoa Research Association Ltd., UK (CRA Ltd.), Mars Inc. and The World Cocoa Foundation (WCF).


CGIAR Partnerships

As an alternative to pesticide use, Bioversity International has been working since 2004 with partners in China, Ecuador, Morocco and Uganda, to investigate the most effective ways to use crop diversity for pest and disease management. The research focuses on six major staples that are important to food security: rice, maize, barley, common bean, faba bean and banana. In 2012, researchers worked with farmers to plant different varieties of the same crops next to each other, to see which combinations provide the most effective control against which pests and diseases. These sites are still being monitored and the results are already making an important contribution to other pest and disease management practices. Another important component of this initiative is training and raising awareness. Seed fairs, demonstrations and workshops were held in the different countries to teach farmers how to use diversity and other ways to control pests and diseases throughout the production cycle. These included seed cleaning, post-harvest crop protection, seed selection for future use, and even ways to use pesticides more wisely. Guideline booklets, posters and radio programmes were also part of the awareness-raising process.

Crop diversity for pest and disease management The work is funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN and is based on ‘Conservation and use of crop genetic diversity to control pests and diseases in support of sustainable agriculture’, a global multi-country Global Environment

Facility (GEF) supported project in China, Ecuador, Morocco and Uganda. The project was implemented by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and coordinated by Bioversity as the project executing agency. This research contributes to the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems.

Photo: Variety of bean seeds Credit: Bioversity International/E. Dulloo

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

A strategic action plan for Mesoamerica’s plant genetic resources Researchers also identified relevant policies and initiatives to take into account while developing the plan’s framework, and created maps to visualize the potential effects of climate change on the distribution of crops and their wild relatives, from now until 2050.

In 2012, Bioversity International scientists brought together a wide range of partners and stakeholders to develop a ‘Strategic Action Plan’ to strengthen the conservation and use of plant genetic resources in Mesoamerica for climate change adaptation.

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In order to develop the plan, scientists first wanted to have a better understanding of the current status of plant genetic resources in the region. This was done by collating information on ten designated crops from crop databases as well as carrying out surveys with various farming communities.

Photo: Women and children dehusking maize in the village of Quilinco, Guatemala Credit: Bioversity International/ M. Ramirez

A First Stakeholders’ Consultation was then held in Guatemala to bring together different actors important for the design and implementation of the plan. This included more than 70 participants from nine countries representing several branches of government, academia, international and regional organizations, civil society and farmers. The meeting provided a much needed space for different sectors to interact with each other, understand each other’s perspectives and roles, set priorities, and develop concrete actions to help the conservation and use of plant genetic resources in Mesoamerica. This work is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and is supported by the Benefit-sharing Fund of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.


Photo: Photo: Woman Description holding of root thefrom photo herif homegarden, appearing in the Ecuador. page Credit: Credit:Bioversity BioversityInternational/E. International/ Author Gotor


Events


In 2012 Bioversity International participated in many key events to raise awareness about the potential of agricultural and forest biodiversity to improve nutrition, livelihoods, sustainabilty and to enable productive and resilient ecosystems.

Photo: Fetching water in front of fields of diverse crops, India Credit: Bioversity International/C. Zanzanaini

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Rio+20 – The future we want The consensus that different approaches in agriculture are urgently required if we are to achieve food security in a sustainable manner is no longer in dispute. 1.3 billion people are living in poverty, 900 million are chronically undernourished, an additional 1 billion are suffering from vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and the population is increasing rapidly.

The question of how to change agricultural approaches so we can grow enough nourishing food for all without further depleting the resources of our planet, was at the heart of several urgent high level discussions in 2012. Bioversity International was there to ensure that the potential contribution of the use of agricultural biodiversity was a key part of discussion agendas and subsequent action plans.

Speaking from the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June, Emile Frison, Director General of Bioversity International explained: “Agriculture has to change in order to provide food and nutrition security for a growing population under threat of climate change, land degradation, biodiversity loss and water scarcity. Agricultural biodiversity has the potential to change lives and sustain our world by diversifying livelihoods, increasing the resilience and sustainability of production systems, and by providing access to a diverse and nutritious diet.” Frison was a speaker at several events at Rio+20, such as the high level official event Food for Life & Life of Food and Aiming for a Food-Secure Future – Think Global, Act Local, both organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the International Fund for Agricultural development, the World Food Programme and Bioversity International; From New Nordic Food to New Rural Economy, organized by the Nordic Council of Ministers; the Private Sector Discussion Forum organized by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture; and the Indigenous Peoples’ International Conference On Sustainable Development And Self-Determination.

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Photo: The Rio+20 banner in front of the UN building in New York City Credit: gearsofchange.org


Events

IUCN World Conservation Congress – Bringing conservation and agriculture together Bioversity International took part in several side events at the IUCN World Conservation Congress, held in September 2012 in Jeju, Korea. One of these was organized by a partner, the Christensen Fund, and focused on bringing two seemingly divergent agendas together: agriculture and biodiversity conservation. The event resulted in a ‘Call to Action for Agriculture and Conservation to work together’. Emile Frison, Director General of Bioversity International, explains: “For some time, agriculture and conservation have operated in separate worlds with separate agendas. Agriculture has been seeking ways to increase production to feed a growing population, while conservation has been in a race to save more land for preservation purposes.” Through the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity, Bioversity International’s research brings together agriculture and conservation to meet both targets of food security and conservation. As Emile Frison, Cristián Samper (President and CEO of the Wildlife Conservation Society and Bioversity International Board of Trustees Vice-chair) and Ken

Wilson (Executive Director and CEO of The Christensen Fund) stated in a National Geographic NewsWatch opinion piece after the event: “If we are to find long-term sustainable solutions to food and nutrition security and biodiversity conservation, the policies we need

in the future require conservation and agriculture sectors to collaborate. It is not enough just to increase production. Agriculture and conservation have to come together to work with rural communities if we are to have a food secure future.”

Photo: Terraced farmland to reduce soil erosion, Peru Credit: Bioversity International/A. Camacho

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

In December 2012, Bioversity International co-organized an international seminar on Old and New Crops to Meet the Challenges of the XXI Century in collaboration with the Chair of Studies on Hunger and Poverty of the University of Córdoba, Spain, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN and the International Fund for Agricultural Development. The event was attended by numerous organizations and stakeholders, who discussed how neglected and underutilized species can be best mobilized to support the fight against hunger and rural poverty in the world.

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Photo: Field of finger millet, India Credit: Bioversity International/S. Padulosi

Neglected and underutilized species to fight hunger and rural poverty The Córdoba Declaration, which resulted from the seminar, represents an important contribution “to raise policymakers’ attention on neglected and

underutilized species. These crops have a great potential to increase income, enhance nutrition and are often better adapted to grow in marginal areas, where poor people live, with little need for irrigation, pesticides and fertilizers. The Declaration also sets the basis for a global agenda on the sustainable conservation and use of these crops,” said Stefano Padulosi, Senior Scientist at Bioversity International and part of the working group that developed the Declaration which will be shared at the UN General Assembly in 2013.


Events

More than 180 delegates from 25 countries attended The Economist Conference Feeding the World, Africa summit on 15-16 November 2012 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Bioversity International’s Director General Emile Frison was one of the invited speakers and shared insights on both days at the conference. During The Big Nutrition Challenge meeting on 15 November, he focused on the importance of dietary diversity and sustainable diets. Frison also spoke as part of a panel on 16 November entitled R&D and Science – Technology’s role in African food security. He explained why research on the potential of agricultural biodiversity is critical to provide food and nutrition security in Africa and throughout the world, and the importance of science and traditional knowledge coming together. “Global attention is turning to investments in agricultural research and development to solve the biggest global dilemmas of today – increasing population, malnutrition, poverty, climate change and environmental degradation. This investment in research is vital, but equally important is the need to bring together science and traditional knowledge about agriculture,” Frison said.

The Economist explores Feeding the World – Africa

Photo: Cooking traditional food in Kenya Credit: Bioversity International/P. Sands

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Research Products


Our research on agricultural and forest biodiversity results in knowledge and information that is used by policymakers, development workers, scientists and smallholder farmers.

Photo: Young people at a trial field during a focus group discussion in Melba village, Hageresalam, Ethiopia Credit: Bioversity International/J. van de Gevel

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors – a universal language for plant genetic resources The descriptors list provides an international format and a universally understood language for exchanging data on plant genetic resources. Originally published in 2001, the list of

Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors was developed to provide consistent coding schemes for common passport descriptors across crops and is widely used as the international standard to

facilitate germplasm passport information exchange. After 11 years, in order to ensure the Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors standard meets the community’s emerging needs, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and Bioversity International initiated a consultation process for a revision that would enhance the applicability of the Descriptors without having any detrimental effect on the previously published version or its use for data exchange. Two significant developments since the 2001 version were the entry into force of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, together with its associated Multi-lateral System for Access and BenefitSharing, and the impact of using spatial information (geographic information systems, or GIS) to document plant genetic resources better. The revision process involved consultation with some 300 people from 187 institutions in 87 countries. The broad perspective gained from CGIAR research centers, US Department of Agriculture, the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources and numerous national programmes in the Global South, together with the collaboration of FAO, gives this revised descriptors list the status of a valid and neutral international standard.

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Photo: From top left to right: Wild onion; Potato and other tubers; Male coconut flowers; Chilli peppers Credit: Bioversity International/D. Hunter; S. Padulosi; V. Johnson; L.Quiñones


Research products

A 10-year research project to sequence one of the founding genomes of cultivated bananas, Musa acuminata, is now complete. The research – published in Nature – was carried out by the French International Research Centre (CIRAD) and the French National Sequencing Centre (Genoscope), within the framework of the Global Musa Genomics Consortium.

Banana genome sequence – a major achievement

“The publication of the sequence of the banana genome is a major achievement for a crop that is still neglected by research, despite being a staple food and a vital source of income for hundreds of millions of people in the tropics,” says Emile Frison, Director General of Bioversity International. The genetic information revealed by the sequencing project will help scientists exploit the crop diversity, such as resistance to pests, diseases and droughts, which is becoming increasingly urgent as climatic changes threaten food security and livelihoods for poor rural communities in the bananaproducing regions. Mathieu Rouard, Bioversity International, who contributed analyses and is one of the coauthors of the published paper, explains: “Scientists now have the template that will make future sequencing of other varieties quicker and more cost effective to carry out.” This work also opens up the opportunity of resequencing the accessions held at the Bioversity Musa Germplasm Transit Centre, the world’s largest collection of banana germplasm.

Photo: Peeling bananas under a tree, Uganda Credit: Bioversity International/P. Sands

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Sustainable forest management ensures that goods and services derived from forests and trees meet our needs today while safeguarding their future availability. To ensure long-term

adaptive potential in the face of climate change and other challenges, the genetic diversity of trees must be sustained. This means that knowledge of forest genetic resources must

Applying forest genetic resources research in the field

be integrated into management practices for forests, agroforests, and conservation areas. To address this need, David Boshier, Honorary Research Fellow with Bioversity International, and his colleagues at Bioversity have revamped the textbook approach to teaching and created an ‘off the shelf’ Forest Genetic Resources Training Guide made up of teaching modules that make forest genetic resources training relevant, attractive and accessible to nonspecialists. Organized in a modular format, the guide provides case studies, teacher notes, exercises and audiovisual materials that are flexible and easy to use in a range of formal or informal training and learning situations. In 2012, the team worked on case studies for the third and fourth modules of the Forest Genetic Resources Training Guide, one on Seed supply chains and another on Forest management. In the future, the publication will also be available in Spanish, French, Chinese and Russian.

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Photo: Forest in Ghana Credit: Bioversity International/M. Ekue


Research products

Malaysia’s implementation of the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture is the first international, legally-binding agreement promoting the sustainable use and conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, and the sharing of benefits derived from their use. As such, it represents a breakthrough in the international community’s understanding of the importance of plant genetic resources and the need for countries to work together to make sure those resources are not lost or used unfairly. A paper published by Bioversity International and the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute focuses on the issues related to Malaysia’s implementation of the multilateral system of access and benefitsharing. “It is source of information for policymakers, academics and researchers who are involved in the implementation of the multilateral system in other countries,” says Michael Halewood, Policy Theme Leader at Bioversity International. The paper suggests a three-stage approach to addressing these

issues. First, it establishes a process for ascertaining which of Malaysia’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are under government management and control. Second, the paper examines existing laws to ascertain whether they include provisions for implementing the multilateral system. Finally, the study examines a national law on access and benefit-sharing in accordance to the Convention on Biological Diversity and provides

recommendations on the creation of a legal and policy space for implementing the multilateral system. The publication also provides updated information related to Malaysian agriculture and plant genetic diversity, conservation, research and use, origin of germplasm, regional and international collaboration and legal and policy frameworks.

Photo: Seeds collected from the wild Credit: Bioversity International/ D. Hunter

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Crop genetic resources as a global commons: challenges in international law and governance Farmers have engaged in collective systems of conservation and innovation – improving crops and sharing their reproductive materials – since the earliest plant domestications. As crops have moved around the world, and agricultural innovation and production systems have expanded, so too has the scope and coverage of pools of shared plant genetic resources that support those systems. The range

of people and groups involved in their conservation and use has also increased dramatically. The book Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons: Challenges in International Law and Governance investigates how the collective pooling and management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture can be supported through laws regulating access to genetic resources and the

sharing of benefits arising from their use. The book analyzes tensions that are threatening to undermine the potential of access and benefit-sharing laws to support the collective pooling of plant genetic resources, and identifies opportunities to address those tensions in ways that could increase the scope, utility and sustainability of the global crop commons. Over 40 academics and practitioners working in the field of agricultural biodiversity contributed to this title, which is the fourth title in the ‘Issues in Agricultural Biodiversity’ series co-published by Routledge and Bioversity International. “This volume makes a strong case for governing plant genetic resources in ways that promote the evolution and conservation of agrobiodiversity, and to ensure that they are available to be used by all regions to adapt better to a changing environment. Yet, it is more than just another book about the governance of natural resources by the best experts in the field: it is also an indispensable tool to understand the future of agriculture in a world of dwindling resources and biodiversity loss,” said Olivier de Schutter, UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food.

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Photo: Farmers involved in participatory plant breeding of rice in Nepal Credit: Bioversity International/ B. Sthapit


Photo: Showing a species collected fromPhoto: the wild Description in the forest of the reserve photoofifOueme-Boukou, appearing in theBenin page Credit: Credit: Bioversity Bioversity International/ International/ B. Vinceti Author


Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Financial Information Bioversity International’s good financial health and stability continued in 2012. With robust internal controls and a risk management framework that engages the Board, management and staff, Bioversity received an unqualified audit option from PricewaterhouseCoopers SpA. Revenue in 2012 amounted to $US 37.7 million (2011: $36.9 million) against expenditures of $37.1 million (2011: $36.2 million) resulting in an operating surplus of $564,000 for 2012. Financial support for our research programmes comes from a wide variety of government, foundation, corporate and private supporters, with the majority of our research support received through our participation and membership in the CGIAR Consortium. A list of our financial supporters can be found on page 38. Our business plan calls for substantial growth over the next several years, as we diversify our funding base to implement the priority research programmes that will address risks to food and nutrition security, reduce rural poverty and ensure more sustainable management of natural resources. We are seeing positive signs that a wider range of donors want to invest in the important agenda Bioversity International is pursuing. In 2012, we saw a significant rise in bilateral grants pledged, which will be realized in 2013 and onwards. Some highlights of donor’s investments include: • The International Fund for Agricultural Development for their support to improve productivity and resilience for the rural poor through better use of crop diversity, and a range of other ongoing projects. • The Global Environment Facility (GEF) for their support on a wide range of initiatives, such as the ‘Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition Project’. • The Government of Belgium for their steadfast partnership and major financing of our work on banana. • The Government of Switzerland for a grant that is advancing Bioversity’s global programme on seed systems resilience and participatory farmer research. • The Government of Luxembourg for their new, 3-year commitment for work in Central Asia on local fruit tree genetic resources. • The Government of Finland for their partnership in the framework of the FoodAfrica initiative, launched in 2012. We were also able to further build our private philanthropy networks and reach out to new potential donors. In 2012 ,we were in positive dialogue with many significant trusts and foundations about flagship Bioversity initiatives, and expect to see some of these partnerships come to fruition in 2013. The Trustees of our UK charity were active in raising the profile of Bioversity International’s work, hosting two events to connect our organization to partners and donors, and to share information about how our research is making a difference to smallholder farmers in developing countries. Through the UK charity we received a significant pledge of support for our work to enable smallholders farmers to access seed to help them cope with the effects of climate change.

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Photo: Description of the photo if appearing in the page Credit: Bioversity International/ Author


Financial Information

Statements

2012

LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS

2011

Current liabilities Accounts payable

STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION At December 31 ($US 000s) 2012

ASSETS

Donors

8,744

7,887

Employees

1,534

1,432

363

566

8,935

7,580

1,815

1,633

153,950

132,815

175,341

151,913

7,482

6,318

Other CGIAR Centres

2011

Others

Current assets Cash and cash equivalents Endowment fund

41,086

36,539

137,965

117,446

Investments

210

Accruals Funds in trust Total current liabilities

5,296

Non-current liabilities

Accounts receivable Donors

Accounts payable

12,600

7,700

Other CGIAR Centres

517

467

Employees

Others

443

238

Total non-current liabilities

419

319

Total liabilities

193,240

168,005

1,305

1,384

1,305

1,384

Total net assets

194,545

169,389

Prepaid expenses Total current assets

Total non-current assets Total assets

STATEMENT OF ACTIVITIES At December 31 ($US 000s)

6,318 158,231

Undesignated

8,707

8,102

Designated

3,015

3,056

Net assets

Non-current assets Property and equipment, net

7,482 182,823

Total liabilities and net assets

Unrestricted

Restricted GIAR Research Programs

11,722

11,158

194,545

169,389

Total

Total

2012

2011

35,976

35,936

1,749

916

Other

CGIAR Fund Windows Window 1&2 3 Bilateral

Total CRPs

Total Bilateral Restricted

Revenue and gains Grant revenue

1,753

Other

1,749

Total revenues

20,155

572

10,083

30,810

3,413

34,223

3,502

20,155

572

10,083

30,810

3,413

34,223

37,725

36,852

17,016

510

9,326

26,852

2,917

29,769

31,158

30,438

6,003

5,739

37,161

36,177

37,161

36,177

564

675

Expenses and Losses Research expenses

1,389

General and Administration expenses

6,003

Sub total expenses and losses

7,392

Indirect cost recovery Total expenses and losses NET SURPLUS / (DEFICIT)

17,016

510

9,326

26,852

2,917

29,769

(4,454)

3,139

62

757

3,958

496

4,454

2,938

20,155

572

10,083

30,810

3,413

34,223

564

Expenses by natural classification Personnel

4,124

7,686

234

2,668

10,588

1,591

12,179

16,303

18,094

Supplies and services

2,422

6,032

110

2,200

8,342

926

9,268

11,690

9,377

289

289

289

289

74

Collaborators CGIAR Centers Collaborators- Partners

2,878

151

3,684

6,713

296

7,009

7,009

6,739

433

288

14

477

779

103

882

1,315

1,387

Depreciation

307

132

1

8

141

1

142

System Cost (CSP)

106

Travel

Sub total Indirect cost recovery Total expenses

7,392

17,016

510

9,326

26,852

2,917

29,769

(4,454)

3,139

62

757

3,958

496

4,454

2,938

20,155

572

10,083

30,810

3,413

34,223

449

349

106

157

37,161

36,177

37,161

36,177

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Funding Partners CGIAR

Croatia (Ministry of Agriculture)

CGIAR Fund

Cyprus (Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment)

Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) Generation - Challenge Program Harvest Plus - Challenge Program International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)

Denmark (AgriFish Agency; Ministry of the Environment, Nature Agency) Estonia (Ministry of Agriculture; Ministry of the Environment) European Commission Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

International Water Management Institute (IWMI)

Finland (Ministry for Foreign Affairs; Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry)

Governments and intergovernmental institutions

Fontagro (Regional Fund for Agricultural Technology)

Albania (Agricultural University of Tirana)

Georgia (The Georgian Academy of Agricultural Sciences)

Armenia (Ministry of Agriculture) Australia (Australian Center for International Agricultural Research, ACIAR) Austria (Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management; Federal Ministry of Finance and Austrian Development Cooperation) Azerbaijan (National Academy of Sciences) Belarus (National Academy of Sciences) Belgium (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and International Cooperation; Service Public Féderal Santé Publique, Sécurité de la Chaîne Alimentaire et Environnement Direction Générale Animaux, Végétaux & Alimentation) Biodiversity for Agriculture Commodities Program (BACP) through Armajaro Trading Co Bosnia and Herzegovina (Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations) Brazil (through the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA) Bulgaria (Institute of Plant Genetic Resources “K. Malkov”) Bulgaria (Ministry of Agriculture and Food) China (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)

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Czech Republic (Ministry of Agriculture)

France (Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche)

Germany (Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ); Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV); Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH; Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE)) Global Environmental Facility through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP-GEF) Greece (Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change; Ministry of Rural Development and Food) Hungary (Ministry of Rural Development) Iceland (Ministry of Industries and Innovation) India (Ministry of Agriculture - Dept. of Agricultural Research and Education) International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Ireland (Department of Agriculture and Food; National Council for Forest Research and Forestry Development and Promotion, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, COFORD) Israel (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) Italy (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricultura CRA; Department of Agronomy, Forestry and Land Use (DAF), Agricultural Research Council of Italy (CRA); Ministry of Foreign Affairs)


Funding Partners

Japan (Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)) Korea, Republic of (Rural Development Administration) Latvia (Ministry of Agriculture) Lithuania (Institute of Agriculture; State Forest Service) Luxembourg (Administration de la Nature et des Forêts; Ministry of Finance) Macedonia FYR (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy) Malaysia (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)) Montenegro (Phytosanitary Directorate) Netherlands (Centre for Genetic Resources; Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Norway (Forest and Landscape Institute; Genetic Resources Centre)

of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Agricultural Research and Policy) Uganda (National Agricultural Research Organization) Ukraine (Yuryev Institute of Plant Production - National Centre for PGR) United Kingdom (Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs; Forestry Commission, Corporate and Forestry Support) USA (United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)) World Bank Foundations The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation The Christensen Fund Fondation Daniel et Nina Carasso The McKnight Foundation

Peru (through the Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agraria - INIA)

Corporations

Philippines (Ministry of Agriculture)

Barry Callebaut

Poland (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; Ministry of the Environment)

Belcolade

Portugal (Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agraria e Veterinaria; through the Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical - IICT)

Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc.

Mars Inc.

Russian Federation (Ministry of Agriculture)

Other funding partners

Serbia (Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment; Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management)

Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD)

Slovakia (Ministry of Agriculture) Slovenia (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food) Spain (INIA, Area de Relaciones Cientificas Internacionales)

Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) Congo Basin Forest Fund (CBFF) EcoAgriculture Partners Global Forum on Agricultural Research

Sweden (Ministry of Rural Affairs)

Global Crop Diversity Trust

Switzerland (BUWAL-Swiss Forest Agency; Federal Department of Economic Affairs FDEA, Office Fédéral de l’Agriculture; Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, SDC)

Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC), Australia

Thailand

Wageningen University

Turkey (Ministry of Environment and Forestry; Ministry

World Cocoa Foundation

Bioversity International United Kingdom Fundraising Initiative

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Research Partners Academy of Agricultural Science, Almaty, Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences, Uzbekistan ADEDRA Zagora, Morocco Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, Turkey AFORNET AFREA Africa Rice Center (WARDA), CGIAR African Forest Research Network (AFORNET) Agency for Agricultural Quarantine, Indonesia AGI, Hanoi, Vietnam Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Tanzania Agricultural Research and Extension Authority, Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Yemen Agricultural Research Council, Sudan Agricultural Research Institute Maruku, Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute, Cambodia Agricultural Research Institute, Tanzania Agricultural Research Organization, Israel Agrobiotec, Burundi Agroindustrial Union and Association of Farmers , Kazakhstan Amazon Initiative Consortium, Brasil APLARI, Nicaragua APROCAV, Peru ARC Seibersdorf research GmbH, Austria Argan Biosphere Reserve, Morocco ASARECA, Uganda Asia Pacific Association of Forest Research Institutions, Malaysia Asia Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions Asia Pacific Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Malaysia Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre, Taiwan, China Asociación de Agricultores de Quinua – Puno, Peru Asociación de Agroindustriales de Granos Andinos, Peru Asociación de Productores de Azangaro, Peru

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Asociación Especializada para el Desarrollo (AEDES-Arequipa), Peru Assam Agricultural University, India Association des Conseillers Agronomiques du Sahel (ACASGao), Mali Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern & Central Africa Association for strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) Association of Agricultural Research Institutes in Near East and North Africa, Lebanon Association of Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East and North Africa (AARINENA) Association of Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East and North Africa, Jordan Association of farmers - Abyan Governorate, Republic of Yemen Association of Forestry Research Institutions of Eastern Africa Association of herbalists Hadramout Governorate, Republic of Yemen Ateneo School of Government, Philippines AUGURA-URABA, Colombia Australian Council for International Agricultural Research Austrian Research Centers Banana Research Station, Kerala, India Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Belgium Government Belize Banana Board Biosphere Reserve Management Committee, Thailand BOKU, Austria Bolama-Bijagos Archipelago Biosphere Reserve, Guinea-Bissau Botanic Gardens Conservation International, UK Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) British Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance Bureau of Plant Industry, Philippines Bushyeni Farmers Association, Uganda

Bvumbwe Agriculture Research Station, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi CACAONICA, Asociación Cacaotera Nicaragüense de Waslala (Cacao Farmers Association of Waslala) Cameroon Gatsby Foundation CAPGERNET - Caribbean Plant Genetic Resources Network CARE, Africare, Mozambique CARE, Peru Caribbean Plant Genetic Resources Network (CAPGERNET) Case Western Reserve University, USA Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Thailand Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Industrial Property Law and Economics, University of Buenos Aires Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), CGIAR Central Advisory Service on Intellectual Property, CGIAR Central American And Mexico Coniferous Resources Cooperative (CAMCORE) Central Asia Trans-Caucasus Network on Plant Genetic Resources Central Asian and Trans-Caucasian Network on Plant Genetic Resources (CATCN-PGR) Central Food Technology Research Institute, Mysore, India Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, India Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Ankara, Turkey Centre Africain de Recherche sur Bananiers et Plantains (CARBAP) Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), France Centre de Recherche Agronomique de Loudima, Congo Centre de Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann, Luxembourg Centre for Genetic Resources The Netherlands Centre National de Gestion des Réserves de Faune, Benin Centre National de la Recherche


Research Partners

Appliquée au Développement Rural (FOFIFA) Centre National de Recherche Agronomique, Côte d’Ivoire Centre of Agrarian Science and Consultancy Services of the Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources Management and Processing Industry, Turkmenistan Centre on Science and Technologies under the Cabinet of Ministers of Uzbekistan Centre Régional d’Enseignement Spécialisé en Agriculture, Niger Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Brazil Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan, Mexico Centro de Investigación de Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, Peru Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CINVESTAV, Mexico Centro de Investigaciones Fitoecogenéticas de Pairumani, Bolivia Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical/ Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (CNPMF-EMBRAPA) Centro para el Desarollo Agropecuaria y Forestal, Dominican Republic Centro Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural (CRIDER), Peru CEPICAFE CGIAR Genetic Resources Policy Committee CGIAR Inter-center Working Group on Genetic Resources CGIAR System-wide Genetic Resources Programme (SGRP) Chiang Mai University, Thailand CIP-UPWARD Cocoa and Coconut Institute, Papua New Guinea Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria Cocoa Research Unit of the University of the West Indies,

Trinidad and Tobago Coconut Research Institute, Sri Lanka Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira, Brazil Comité National Man and the Biosphere, Guinea Bissau Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, FAO, UN Committee for Forestry and Hunting, Ministry of Agriculture, Kazakhstan Common Fund for Commodities Conference of the agricultural research leaders in West and Central Africa (CORAF) Congressional Hunger Center, USA Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain Consorcio para el Desarrollo Sostenible de Ucayali (CODESU), Peru Consortium on Spatial Information, Sri Lanka, CGIAR Convention on Biological Diversity, Secretariat Cooperativa Huacullani, Bolivia Cooperativa Irpa Chico de la Comunidad de Jalsuri, Bolivia Cooperative Research Center for Tropical Plant Pathology, Australia Coordination Nationale du Projet parc W, Burkina Faso CORAF, Forestry network, Cameroon Cornell University, USA Corporación Bananera Nacional (CORBANA), Costa Rica Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (CORPOICA) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Ghana Cuban Institute for Fundamental Research on Tropical Agriculture (INIFAT) Délégation générale à la recherche scientifique et technologique, Congo Department of Agricultural Research & Technical Services, Malawi Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Research, Philippines Department of Agriculture, Tanzania Department of Agriculture, Thailand

Department of Science and Technology, Philippines Departments of Ministries of Agriculture & Environment Protection in the Almaty, Jambyl & South-Kazakhstan provinces, Kazakhstan Desarrollo Integral Campesino, Bolivia Desert Research Center, Egypt Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Direction de la Faune, de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, Niger Directorate General for Development Cooperation, Begium Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT), Australia East African Plant Genetic Resources Network (EAPGREN) Eastern Africa Plant Genetic Resources Network (EAPGREN) Ecoregion for Paramos, Ecuador Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Brazil Empresa Altiplano, Peru Empresa Fortigrano, Peru Environment and Forestry Department, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Cameroon Escuela Agrícola Panamericana, Zamorano, Honduras Escuela Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Ecuador Estacion Biologica del Beni, Bolivia Estación Experimental Andenes (INIA, Cuzco), Peru Estación Experimental Illpa (INIA, Puno), Peru Estacion Experimental Santa Catalina, Ecuador Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization European Commission European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks European Cooperative Programme for Genetic Resources Networks (ECPGR)

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN) Ezemvelo KwaZulu Natal Wildlife, South Africa Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia Farmers Union of Malawi Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Development and Marketing, Ethiopia Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Germany Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Austria Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil Field Crop Research and Development Institute (FCRDI), Department of Agriculture, Grain Legume and Oil Crops Research Center (GLORC), Sri Lanka Fondation pour le Developpement du Sahel Fondo Ecuatoriano Populorum Progressio Fontagro Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Forest Research Centre of the National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology (CIFOR-INIA), Spain Forest Research Institute Malaysia Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria Frankfurt University, Germany Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agrícola Fundación para el Desarrollo Agropecuario (FUNDAGRO), Ecuador Fundación Promoción e Investigación de Productos Andinos (PROINPA), Bolivia Fundación Servicio para el Agricultor (FUSAGRI), Venezuela G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, India Garrygala Research and Production

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Centre of Plant Genetic Resources, Turkmenistan General Office of Forestry under the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Uzbekistan Generation Challenge Programme, CGIAR Global Crop Diversity Trust Governing Body of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, UN Government of Australia Graz Technical University, Austria Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fruit Tree Research Institute, China Guittard Chocolate Company, USA Hanoi Agricultural University, Vietnam HarvestPlus, CGIAR Haut Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts, Morocco Hohenheim University, Germany Honduran Coffee Institute (IHCAFE) Horticultural Crop Research and Development Institute, Sri Lanka Horticulture Research Institute, Thailand Huazhing Agricultural University, Wuhan , China INDACO S.A., Peru Indian Council of Agricultural Research Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Indonesia Fruit Research Institute Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development Insituto Nicaraguense de Tecnologia Agropecuaria Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, Morocco Institut Centrafricain de la Recherche Agricole, Central African Republic Institut d’Economie Rurale, Mali Institut de l’Environnement et de la Recherche Agricole, Burkina Faso Institut de Recherche Agronomique de Guinée Institut de Recherche Agronomique et Zootechnique, Burundi

Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, Gabon Institut de recherche pour le développement, France Institut de Recherches Agronomiques et Forestières, Gabon Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda Institut National d’Etudes et de Recherches Agricoles, Congo Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Algeria Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Morocco Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tunisia Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger Institut National de Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, INRAB/CRA-SB Institut National des Etudes et des Recherches Agricoles, Burkina Faso Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin Institut National pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomique, Democratic Republic of the Congo Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles Institut Togolais de Recherche Agronomique Institute for Agrobiotechnology, IFA Tulln, Austria Institute for Genomic Research, USA Institute for the Promotion of Horticultural Exports, Sudan Institute for Tropical and SubTropical Crops (ARC-ITSC), South Africa Institute of Agri Biotechnology and Genetic Resources, National Agricultural Research Center, Pakistan Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, Ethiopia Institute of Botany of the Tajik Academy of Sciences Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Crop Science, Chinese


Research Partners

Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Experimental Botany, Czech Republic Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology, Academy of Sciences, Uzbekistan Institution of Agricultural Research and Higher Education IRESA, Tunisia Instituto Boliviano de Investigación Forestal Instituto de Biotecnología de las Plantas, Cuba Instituto de Ecologia de la Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia Instituto de Innovación Tecnológica y Promoción del Desarrollo (PIWANDES), Peru Instituto de Investigação Agrária de Moçambique Instituto de Investigação Cientifica, Centro de Ecofisiologia, Bioquímica e Biotecnologia Vegetal (IICT), Portugal Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria de Panamá, Panama Instituto de Investigaciones Agrícolas y Forestales, Dominican Republic Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, Cuba Instituto de Investigaciones de Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT), Cuba Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical, Cuba Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical, Cuba Instituto de Investigaciones y Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Peru Instituto Nacional Autónomo de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP), Ecuador Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria, Peru Instituto Nacional de Investigaçao e Tecnologia Apligada, GuineaBissau Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agraria, Spain Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agrícola, Bolivia

Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Extensión Agraria, Peru Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Venezuela Instituto Nacional de Investigaciónes Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, Mexico Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa Agraria, Guinea-Bissau Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Argentina Integrated Rural Development Center, China Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) International Center For Agricultural Research in The Dry Areas (ICARDA), CGIAR International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), CGIAR International Center for Underutilized Crops, Sri Lanka International Cocoa Organisation, UK International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), CGIAR International Development Research Centre, Canada International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), CGIAR International Fund for Agricultural Development, UN International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), CGIAR International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), CGIAR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), CGIAR International Potato Center (CIP), CGIAR International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), CGIAR International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura, Italy Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, UN Julius Kühn-Institut -

Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen, Germany Kastom Gaden Association, Solomon Islands Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Kazakh National Agrarian University Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Kenya Forestry Research Institute Kenyatta University, Kenya Kerala Agricultural University, India Khorezm Academy of Mamun, Uzbekistan Khorog State University named after Acad. M. Nazarshoev, Tajikistan Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, China La Coronilla, Bolivia Lapanday Foods Corporation, Philippines Latin American Forest Genetic Resources Network (LAFORGEN) Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LIBIRD), Nepal Makerere University, Uganda Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute Malaysian Cocoa Board Man and Biosphere National Committee, Cuba Maradi Integrated Development Program managed by Serving in Mission, Niger Masterfoods, UK Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Germany McGill University, Canada Michigan State University, USA Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Secretaria di Biodiversidade e Florestas, Brazil Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, General Directorate of Agricultural Research, Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources Management, Uzbekistan Ministry of Agriculture, Kazakhstan Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Trinidad and Tobago

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Ministry of Agriculture, Malawi Ministry of Agriculture, Tajikistan Ministry of Agriculture, Turkmenistan Ministry of Ecology and Emergency, Kazakhstan Ministry of Economics, Uzbekistan Ministry of Education and Science, Kazakhstan Ministry of Education, Syrian Arab Republic Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Sri Lanka Ministry of Environment Protection, Kazakhstan Ministry of Environment, Cuba Ministry of Environment, Ecuador Ministry of Forestry and Soil Conservation, Nepal Ministry of Nature Protection, Armenia Ministry of Nature Protection, Turkmenistan Movimondo, Italy MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, India MTT Agrifood Research Finland Musa Instituto Politécnico Loyola, Dominican Republic Myanmar Agriculture Service, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Department of Agricultural Planning, Myanmar N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR), Russian Federation Namulonge Crops Resources Research Institute, Uganda National Academy of Science, Kazakhstan National Agricultural Research Coordinating Council, Sierra Leone National Agricultural Research Institute, Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Organisation, Uganda National Banana Research Centre, India National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, India National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), Nigeria

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National Forestry Resources Research Institute (NaFORRI), Uganda National Genebank of Tanzania (TPRI) National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Nigeria National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Japan National Parks, Wildlife and Conservation Department, Thailand National Plant Genetic Resources Centre, Tanzania National Quarantine and Inspection Authority, Papua New Guinea National Research Centre for Banana (NRCB-ICAR), India National Research Centre for Soybean, Indore, India National Science Foundation, USA Naturaleza y Cultura Internacional, Ecuador Nebek Municipality, Syrian Arab Republic Nepal Agricultural Research Council Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DGIS) Nicaraguan Agricultural Research Center (INTA) Nordic Council of Ministers Nordic Genetic Resource Center (Nordgen) Nunhems B.V., Netherlands Office Régional de Mise en Valeur Agricole de Ouarzazate, Morocco Office Régional de Mise en Valeur Agricole du Tafilalet (ORMVA/TF), Morocco Oregon State University, USA Outma Natural Conservation Association, Republic of Yemen Pairumani, Bolivia Philippine Coconut Authority Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Phu Ho Fruit Crop Research Center, Vietnam Plant Genetic Resource Network for South American Tropics (TROPIGEN)

Plant Genetic Resources Network for North America (NORGEN) Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, Ghana Plant Protection Institute, Vietnam Plant Research International, Wageningen University, Netherlands Pro Mundo Humano, Germany Programa Campesino a Campesino, National Agrarian University, Nicaragua PROMARENA Project, Bolivia Proyecto de Investigación en Waru Warus (PIWA), Peru Queensland Department of Primary Industries (QDPI-South Johnstone), Australia Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F), Australia Queensland Horticultural Institute, Australia Queensland University of Technology, Australia Quirino State University, Philippines Rainforest Alliance Red Andina de Recursos Fitogeneticos (REDARFIT) Red de Recursos Genéticos del Cono Sur (REGENSUR) Red Mesoamericana de Recursos Fitogenéticos (REMERFI) Republican Self-Sustained Association ‘Tajiknikholparvar’ of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tajikistan Research and Production Association, Tajikistan Research Institute for Economy of Agroindustrial Complex and Development of Rural Territories, Kazakhstan Research Institute for Fruits, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesia Research Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction, Kazakhstan Research Institute of farming, Bishek, Kazakhstan Research Institute of Horticultural and Viticulture of the Research and Production Centre of Processing


Research Partners

and Food Industry of the Ministry of Agriculture, Kazakhstan Research Institute of Plant Physiology, Genetics and Bioengineering, Kazakhstan Réseau des Association de la Réserve de Biosphère de l’Arganier, Morocco Reserva de la Biosfera Cuchillas del Toa, Unidad de Servicios Ambientales de Guantánamo, Cuba Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Rosario, Centro de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales Ecovida, Cuba Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, UK Rural Development Administration, National Institute for Agricultural Biotechnology, Republic of Korea Samah Agriculture Cooperative, Dhamar, Republic of Yemen Save the Children, UK SCC-VI, Uganda Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey Secretaria del Estado de Agricultura, Dominican Republic Secretariat of the Pacific Community Sekem, Egypt ServiceXS BV, Netherlands Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria (SENASA), Peru Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China Sichuan Academy of Social Sciences, China Silo National des Graines Forestières, Madagascar Sime Darby Technology, Malaysia Sociedad de Provincial de Productores de Quinua (SOPROQUI), Bolivia Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Ambiental South China Agricultural University, Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Research Laboratory Southern African Development Community, Namibia Southern African Development Community, Plant Genetic Resources Centre, Zambia Stanfilco, Dole, Philippines

State Committee for Nature Protection and Forestry, Tajikistan State Committee for Nature Protection, Uzbekistan State Forest Service, Kazakhstan Stellenbosch University, South Africa Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek - DLO (Foundation for Agricultural Research Service), Netherlands Strategic Initiative on Urban and Periurban Agriculture (Urban Harvest), CGIAR Sub Saharan Africa Challenge Programme, Malawi, CGIAR Sub Saharan Africa Challenge Programme, Mozambique, CGIAR Sub-Saharan African Forest Genetic Resources Programme (SAFORGEN) Supreme Council of Science, Syrian Arab Republic Swedish University of Agricultural Science Taiwan Banana Research Institute Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences Tajik Institute of Forest Research and Management of the State Committee for Nature Protection and Forestry Tajik Research Institute of Economics and Agricultural Production of the Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences Tajik State Commission on Agricultural Crop Varieties Testing and Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) Tashkent State Agrarian University, Uzbekistan Texas A&M University, USA The John Innes Centre, UK The Mickey Leland International Hunger Fellows Program, Congressional Hunger Center, USA Third World Network, China UCODEP, Italy UNESCO

Union of Indigenous Organization from Cotacachi, Ecuador United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition United Nations University United States Department of Agriculture Universidad Católica Boliviana Universidad del Zulia, Venezuela Universidad EARTH, Costa Rica Universidad Nacional de la Selva, Peru Universidad Nacional de Nicaragua Leon Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Peru Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brazil Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy Université Catholique du Graben, Democratic Republic of the Congo Universite de Agadir, Faculty Of Agronomy, Morocco University Central Florida, USA University of Aden, Republic of Yemen University of Agricultural Sciences, India University of Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic University of Birmingham, UK University of Biskra, Algeria University of Bonn, Germany University of Cambridge, UK University of Costa Rica University of Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic University of Gembloux, Belgium University of Georgia, USA University of Ghana University of Gottingen, Germany University of Hannover, Germany University of Hohenheim, Germany University of Kassel, Germany University of Kinshasa, Democratic

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Republic of the Congo University of Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa University of Leicester, UK University of Liege, Belgium University of Malawi University of Malaya, Malaysia University of Mauritius University of Minnesota, USA University of Nottingham, UK University of Panama University of Philippines – Los Baños University of Philippines – Los Baños, Institute of Plant Breeding (NPGRL-UPLB) University of Puerto Rico University of Queensland, Australia University of Reading, UK University of Samarqand, Uzbekistan University of Sana’a, Republic of Yemen University of Tuscia, Italy University of Wageningen, Netherlands University of Witwatersrand, South Africa University of Wuppertal, Germany University Southern Mindanau, Philippines USAID USC Canada Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Industry Viceministerio de Biodiversidad, Recursos Forestales y Medio Ambiente, Bolivia Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute Volunteer Efforts for Development Concerns (VEDCO), Uganda Washington State University, USA Wazer Farmer Cooperative, Hadramout Governorate, Republic of Yemen West and Central Africa Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF/WECARD) Women Economics Empowerment Association, Republic of Yemen

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World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), CGIAR World Bank World Cocoa Foundation, USA World Intellectual Property Organization, UN World Vegetable Centre (AVRDC), Taiwan World Vegetable Centre (AVRDC), Tanzani World Vision World Vision International, Mozambique Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China Yunnan Academy of Social Sciences, China Yunnan Agricultural University, China Zambia Agriculture Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Zambia 2 Self Help Group Associations from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu State, India 3 Self Help Group Associations from Balia, Jeypore, Orissa State, India 3 Self Help Group Associations from Chembuthuvalavu, Kolli Hill, Tamil Nadu State, India 3 Self Help Group Associations from Padasolai, Kolli Hill, Tamil Nadu State, India


Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Scientific Publications

Scientific Publications Book chapters Carmona, N.E., F. DeClerck. 2012. Payment for ecosystem services for energy, biodiversity, conservation and poverty reduction in Costa Rica. In: J.C. Ingram, F. DeClerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. Integrating ecology and poverty reduction. The application of ecology in development solutions. Springer, pp. 191-210. DeClerck, F, C. Rumbaitis del Rio. 2012. Introduction to integrating ecology and poverty reduction. In: J.C. Ingram, F. DeClerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. Integrating ecology and poverty reduction. The application of ecology in development solutions. Springer, pp. 1-12. DeClerck, F., J.C. Ingram. 2012. Introduction: gender, education and ecology. In: J.C. Ingram, F. DeClerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. Integrating ecology and poverty reduction. The application of ecology in development solutions. Springer, pp. 13-16. Dias, S., M.E. Dulloo, E. Arnaud. 2012. The role of EURISCO in promoting use of agricultural biodiversity. In: N. Maxted et al., eds. Agrobiodiversity conservation: securing the diversity of crop wild relatives and landraces. UK: CABI, pp. 270-277.

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Engels, J.M.M.; L. Maggioni. 2012. AEGIS: a regionally based approach to PGR conservation. In: N. Maxted et al., eds. Agrobiodiversity conservation: securing the diversity of crop wild relatives and landraces. UK: CABI, pp. 321-326. Fanzo, J., F. Mattei. 2012. Ensuring agriculture biodiversity and nutrition remain central to addressing MDG1 hunger target. In: B. Burlingame, ed. Sustainable diets and biodiversity. Directions and solutions for policy, research and action. Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium. Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets United against Hunger. Rome (Italy), 3–5 Nov 2010. Rome: FAO, pp. 44-53. Frison, E. 2012. Opening address. In: B. Burlingame, ed. Sustainable diets and biodiversity. Directions and solutions for policy, research and action. Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium. Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets United against Hunger. Rome (Italy), 3–5 Nov 2010. Rome: FAO, pp. 16-19. Hunter, D., L. Guarino, C. Khoury, H. Dempewolf. 2012. A community divided: lessons from the conservation of crop wild relatives around the world. In: N. Maxted et al., eds. Agrobiodiversity conservation: securing the diversity of crop wild relatives and landraces. UK: CABI, pp. 298-304.

Ingram, J.C., F. DeClerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio. 2012. Conclusion: integrating ecology and poverty reduction. In In: J.C. Ingram, F. DeClerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. Integrating ecology and poverty reduction. The application of ecology in development solutions. Springer, pp. 303-310. Maxted, N., Z.I. Akparov, M. Aronsson, A. Asdal, A. Avagyan, B. Bartha, D. Benedikova, T. Berishvili, R. Bocci, Z. Bullinska-adomska, J. Cop, T. Curtis, K. Daugstad, S. Dias et al. 2012. Current and future threats and opportunities facing European crop wild relative and landrace diversity. In: N. Maxted et al., eds. Agrobiodiversity conservation: securing the diversity of crop wild relatives and landraces. UK: CABI, pp. 333-353. Milder, J.C., L.E. Buck, F. DeClerck, S.J. Scherr. 2012. Landscape approaches to achieving food production, natural resource conservation, and the Millennium Development Goals. In: J.C. Ingram, F. DeClerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. Integrating ecology and poverty reduction. The application of ecology in development solutions. Springer, pp. 77-108.


Scientific Publications

Rana, R.B., B.R. Sthapit. 2012. Sustainable conservation and use of neglected and underutilized species: A Nepalese perspective. In: S. Padulosi et al., eds. On farm conservation of neglected and underutilized species: status, trends and novel approaches to cope with climate change. Proceedings of an International Conference, Frankfurt, 14-16 June, 2011. Rome: Bioversity International, pp. 225-237. Remans, R., J. Fanzo, C.A. Palm, F. DeClerck. 2012. Ecology and human nutrition. In: J.C. Ingram, F. DeClerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. Integrating ecology and poverty reduction. The application of ecology in development solutions. Springer, pp. 53-75. Remans, R., D.F.B. Flynn, F. DeClerck, W. Diru, J. Fanzo, K. Gaynor, I. Lambrecht, J. Mudiope, P.K. Mutuo, P. Nkhoma, D. Siriri, C. Sullivan, C.A. Palm. 2012. Exploring new metrics: nutritional diversity of cropping systems. In: B. Burlingame, ed. Sustainable diets and biodiversity. Directions and solutions for policy, research and action. Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium. Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets United against Hunger. Rome (Italy), 3–5 Nov 2010. Rome: FAO, pp. 134-149. Rouard, M., S.C. Carpentier, S. Bocs, G. Droc, X. Argout, N. Roux, M. Ruiz. 2012. Role of bioinformatics as a tool. In: M. Pillay et al., eds. Genetics, genomics, and breeding of bananas. Science Publishers/CRC Press, pp. 194-216.

Smukler, S.M., S.M. Philpott, L.E. Jackson, A.M. Klein, F. DeClerck, L. Winowiecki, C.A. Palm. 2012. Ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. In: J.C. Ingram, F. DeClerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. Integrating ecology and poverty reduction. The application of ecology in development solutions. Springer, pp. 17-51. Sthapit, B., S. Padulosi. 2012. On-farm conservation of neglected and underutilized crops in the face of climate change. In: S. Padulosi et al., eds. On farm conservation of neglected and underutilized species: status, trends and novel approaches to cope with climate change. Proceedings of an International Conference, Frankfurt, 14-16 June, 2011. Rome: Bioversity International, pp. 31-48. Subedi, A. R. Devkota, I. Poudel, S.R. Subedi, P. Shrestha, B. Bhandari, B. Sthapit. 2012. Community biodiversity registers: empowering community in management of agricultural biodiversity. In: S. Padulosi et al., eds. On farm conservation of neglected and underutilized species: status, trends and novel approaches to cope with climate change. Proceedings of an International Conference, Frankfurt, 14-16 June, 2011. Rome: Bioversity International, pp. 77-90.

Vanlauwe, B., P. Pypers, E. Birachi, M. Nyagaya, B. van Schagen, J. Huising, E. Ouma, G. Blomme, P. van Asten. 2012. Integrated soil fertility management in Central Africa: experiences of the Consortium for Improving Agriculture-based Livelihoods in Central Africa (CIALCA). In: C.H. Hershey, P. Neate eds. Ecoefficiency: from vision to reality. Cali, CO: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), pp. 81-97.

Books Alercia, A., S. Diulgheroff, M. Mackay. 2012. FAO/Bioversity list of multi-crop passport descriptors V.2. Rome: Bioversity International. Beed, F., T. Dubois, R. Markham, eds. 2012. A strategy for banana research and development in Africa - A synthesis of results from the conference banana2008, held 5-9 October 2008, Mombasa, Kenya. ISHS. Fanzo, J., M. Holmes, P. Junega, E. Musinguzi, I.F. Smith, B. Ekesa, N. Bergamini. 2012. Improving nutrition with agricultural biodiversity. Rome: Bioversity International. Halewood, M., I. LĂłpez Noriega, S. Louafi, eds. 2012. Crop genetic resources as a global commons. Challenges in international law and governance. Earthscan. Ingram, J.C., F. De Clerck, C. Rumbaitis del Rio, eds. 2012. Integrating ecology and poverty reduction. The application of ecology in development solutions. Springer.

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Maxted, N., M.E. Dulloo, B.V. Ford-Lloyd, L. Frese, J.M. Iriondo, eds. 2012. Agrobiodiversity conservation: securing the diversity of crop wild relatives and landraces. UK: CABI. Negri, V., N. Maxted, R. Torricelli, M. Heinonen, M. Vetelainen, S. Dias. 2012. Descriptors for webenabled national in situ landrace inventories. University of Perugia. Ruiz, M., R. Vernooy, eds. 2012. The custodians of biodiversity: Sharing access and benefit to genetic resources. Earthscan. Sthapit, B.R., R.V. Rao, S.R. Sthapit, eds. 2012. Tropical fruit tree species and climate change. Rome: Bioversity International. Wuensche, J.N., L.G. Albrigo, H. Gubbuk, D.H. Reinhardt, C. Staver, I. Van den Bergh, eds. 2012. XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on Citrus, Bananas and other Tropical Fruits under Subtropical Conditions. Lisbon (Portugal), Aug 22-27 2010. ISHS.

Journal articles Adéoti, K., A. Dansi, L. Ahoton, R. Vodouhè, B.C. Ahohuendo, A. Rival, A. Sanni, A. 2012. Agromorphological characterization of Sesamum radiatum (Schum. and Thonn.), a neglected and underutilized species of traditional leafy vegetable of great importance in Benin. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 7(24), pp. 3569-3578. Agnoun, Y., S. Samadori, H. Biaou, M. Sié, R.S. Vodouhè, A. Ahanchédé. 2012. The African rice Oryza glaberrima Steud, knowledge distribution and prospects. International Journal of Biology. 4(3), pp.158-180. Agnoun, Y., M. Sie, G. Djedatin, K.N. Drame, B. Toulou, S.A. Ogunbayo, K.A. Sanni, D. Tia, A. Ahanchede, R.S. Vodouhe, M.N. Ndjiondjopp. 2012. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice progenies resulting from crosses between TOG5681 and TOG5674 (Oryza glaberrima) and IR64 (Oryza sativa). International Journal of Biology. 4(3), pp. 19-28. Avelino, J., A. Romero-Gurdian, H.F. Cruz-Cuellar, F.A. DeClerck. 2012. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes. Ecological Applications. 22(2), pp. 584-596. Avouhou, H.T., R.S. Vodouhe, A. Dansi, M. Bellon, B. Kpeki. 2012. Ethnobotanical factors influencing the use and management of wild edible plants in agricultural environments in Benin. Ethnobotany Research and Applications. 10, pp. 571-592.

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Scientific Publications

Bajracharya, J., A.H.D. Brown, B.K. Joshi, D. Panday, B.K. Baniya, B.R. Sthapit, D.I. Jarvis. 2012. Traditional seed management and genetic diversity in barley varieties in high-hill agro-ecosystems of Nepal. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 59(3), pp. 389-398. Balvanera, P., M. Uriarte, L. Almeida-Lenero, A. Altesor, F. DeClerck, et al. 2012. Ecosystem services research in Latin America, the state of the art. Ecosystems Services. 2, pp. 56-70. Carpenter, S.R., C. Folke, A. Norstrom, A., O. Olsson, L. Schultz, B. Agarwal, P. Balvanera, B. Campbell, J.C. Castilla, W. Cramer, R. DeFries, P. Eyzaguirre, T.P. Hughes, S. Polasky, S., Z. Sanusi, R. Scholes, M. Spierenburg. 2012. Program on ecosystem change and society, an international research strategy for integrated socialecological systems. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 4, pp. 134-138. D’Hont, A., F. Denoeud, J.M. Aury, F.C. Baurens, F.C. (et al.) [et al. includes M. Rouard, V. Guignon, M. Dita, N. Roux]. 2012. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants. Nature. 488, pp. 213-219. Dansi, A., R. Vodouhè, P. Azokpota, H. Yedomonhan, P. Assogba, A. Adjatin, Y.L. Loko, I. DossouAminon, K. Akpagana. 2012. Diversity of the neglected and underutilized crop species of importance in Benin. The Scientific World Journal. Article ID 932947.


Scientific Publications

De Boef, W.S., M.H. Thijssen, P. Shrestha, A. Subedi, R. Feyissa, G. Gez, A. Canci, M.A.J. Da Fonseca Ferreira, T. Dias, S. Swain, B.R. Sthapit. 2012. Moving beyond the dilemma: Practices that contribute to the on-farm management of agrobiodiversity. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 36(7), pp. 788-809. Delisle, H., G. Ntandou-Bouzitou, V. Agueh, R. Sodjinou, B. Fayom. 2012. Urbanisation, nutrition transition and cardiometabolic risk, the Benin study. British Journal of Nutrition. 107(10), pp. 1534-1544. Dessimoz, C., T. Gabaldón, D.S. Roos, E.L.L. Sonnhammer, J. Herrero, the Quest for Orthologs Consortium [includes M. Rouard]. 2012. Toward community standards in the quest for orthologs. Bioinformatics. 28(6), pp. 900-904. Dias, S. 2012. Pieces of the puzzle—Trait Information Portal. Crop Wild Relatives. 8, pp. 28-30. Ekesa, B., M. Poulaert, M.W. Davey, J. Kimiywe, I. Van den Bergh, G. Blomme, C. Dhuique-Mayer. 2012. Bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids in bananas (Musa spp.) and derived dishes in African countries. Food Chemistry. 133, pp. 1471-1477. Ekesa, B., J. Kimiywe, M.W. Davey, C. Dhuique-Mayer, I. Van Den Bergh, D. Karamura, G. Blomme. 2012. Banana and plantain (Musa spp.) cultivar preference, local processing techniques and consumption patterns in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 4(8), pp. 312-319.

Gaidashova, S., A. Nsabimana, D. Karamura, P. van Asten, S. Declerck. 2012. Mycorrhizal colonization of major banana genotypes in six East African environments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 157, pp. 40-46. Galluzzi, G., M. Halewood, I. LopezNoriega, R. Vernooy. 2012. Keeping germplasm flowing. Journal of Public Interest in Intellectual Property. 1(2), pp. 1-13. Gao, F., Z. Zhang, B. Wu, 2012. Construction and application of SSR molecular markers system for genetic diversity analysis of Chinese tartary buckwheat germplasm resources. Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 45(6), pp. 1042-1053. Garbach, K., M. Lubell, F.A.J. DeClerck. 2012. Payment for ecosystem services, the roles of positive incentives and information sharing in stimulating adoption of silvopastoral conservation practices. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 156, pp. 27-36. Gixhari, B., H. Ismaili, H Vrapi, F. Elezi, S. Dias, H. Sulovari. 2012. Geographic distribution and diversity of fruit tree species in Albania. International Journal of Ecosystems and Ecology Sciences. 2(4), pp. 355-360. Guignon, V., G. Droc, M Alaux, F.C. Baurens, O. Garsmeur, C. Poiron, T. Carver, M. Rouard, S. Bocs. 2012. Chado Controller, advanced annotation management with a community annotation system. Bioinformatics. 28(7), pp. 10541056.

Guo, Y., Y. Li, Y. Huang, D. Jarvis, K. Sato, K. Kato, H. Tsuyuzaki, L. Chen, C. Long. 2012. Genetic diversity analysis of hulless barley from Shangri-la region revealed by SSR and AFLP markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 59(7), pp. 1543-1552. Herradura L.E., A.N. Lobres, D. De Waele, R.G. Davide, I. Van den Bergh. 2012. Yield response of four popular banana varieties from southeast Asia to infection with a population of Radopholus similis from Davao, Philippines. Nematology. 14(7), pp. 889-897. Hippolyte, I., C. Jenny, L. Gardes, F. Bakry, R. Rivallan, V. Pomies, P. Cubry, K. Tomekpe, A.M. Risterucci, N. Roux, M. Rouard, E. Arnaud, M. Kolesnikova-Allen, X. Perrier. 2012. Foundation characteristics of edible Musa triploids revealed from allelic distribution of SSR markers. Annals of Botany. 109(5), pp. 937-951. Hodgkin, T., P. Bordoni. 2012. Climate change and the conservation of plant genetic resources. Journal of Crop Improvement. 26(3), pp. 329-345. Hunter, D., N. Maxted, V. Heywood, S. Kell, T. Borelli. 2012. Protected areas and the challenge of conserving crop wild relatives. PARKS, The International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation. 18(1), pp. 87-98.

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Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Kadua, C.A., A. Parich, S. Schueler, H. Konrad, G.M. Muluvi, O. EyogMatig, A. Muchugi, V.L. Williams, L. Ramamonjisoa, C. Kapinga, B. Foahom, C. Katsvanga, D. Hafashimana, C. Obama, B. Vinceti, R. Schumacher, T. Geburek. 2012. Bioactive constituents in Prunus africana, geographical variation throughout Africa and associations with environmental and genetic parameters. Phytochemistry. 83, pp. 70-78. Keller, E.R.J., B. Panis, F. Engelmann. 2012. In vitro storage and cryopreservation as substantial complements in concerted actions to better maintain and use crop germplasm. Acta Horticulturae. 961, pp. 35-50. Kubiriba, J., E.B. Karamura, W. Jogo, W.K. Tushemereirwe, W. Tinzaara. 2012. Community mobilization, a key to effective control of banana Xanthomonas wilt. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 4(5), pp. 125-131. Mala, W.A., J.C. Tieguhong, O. Ndoye, S. Grouwels, J.L. Betti. 2012. Collective action and promotion of forest based associations on non-wood forest products in Cameroon. Development in Practice. 22(8), pp. 1122-1134. Mercer, K.L., H.R. Perales, J. Wainwright. 2012. Climate change and the transgenic adaptation strategy: Smallholder livelihoods, climate justice, and maize landraces in Mexico. Global Environmental Change. 22(2), pp. 495-504.

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Missihoun, A.A., C. Agbangla, H. Adoukonou-Sagbadja, C. Ahanhanzo, R. Vodouhe. 2012. Gestion traditionnelle et statut des ressources genetiques du sorgho (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) au Nord-Ouest du Bénin. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. 6(3), pp. 1003-1018. Mulumba, J.V., R. Nankya, J. Adokorach, C. Kiwuka, C. Fadda, P. De Santis, D.I. Jarvis. 2012. A risk-minimizing argument for traditional crop varietal diversity use to reduce pest and disease damage in agricultural ecosystem of Uganda. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 157, pp. 70-86. Narloch, U., U. Pascual, A.G. Drucker. 2012. Collective action dynamics under external rewards, experimental insights from Andean farming communities. World Development. 40(10), pp. 20962107. Ndabamenyea. T., P.J.A. Van Astenb, N. Vanhoudtc, G. Blommed, R. Swennenc, J.G. Annandalea, R.O. Barnarda. 2012. Ecological characteristics influence farmer selection of on-farm plant density and bunch mass of low input East African highland banana (Musa spp.) cropping systems. Field Crops Research. 135, pp. 126-136. Niyongere, C., T. Losenge, E.M. Ateka, D. Nkezabahizi, G. Blomme, P. Lepoint. 2012. Occurrence and distribution of banana bunchy top disease in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology. 6(1), pp. 102107.

Scientific Publications

Kane N., S. Sveinsson, H. Dempewolf, J.Y. Yang, D. Zhang, J.M. Engels, Q. Cronk. 2012. Ultrabarcoding in cacao (Theobroma spp., Malvaceae) using whole chloroplast genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany. 99(2), pp. 320-329. Pagnotta, M.A et al. [et al. includes A. Alercia]. 2012. Characterization of the Cynara European genetic resources. Acta Horticulturae. 942, pp. 89-93. Pautasso, M., G. Aistara, A. Barnaud, S. Caillon, P. Clouvel, O.T. Coomes, M. Deletre, E. Demeulenaere, P. De Santis, T. Doring, L. Eloy, L. Emperaire, E. Garine, I. Goldringer, D. Jarvis, H.I. Joly, C. Leclerc, S. Louafi, S. et al. 2012. Seed exchange networks for agrobiodiversity conservation. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 33(1), pp. 151-175. Podevin, N., A. Krauss, I. Henry, R. Swennen, S. Remy. 2012. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR expression studies of the non-model crop Musa. Molecular Breeding. 30(3), pp. 1237-1252. Salaj, T., I. Matusikova, R. Swennen, B. Panis, J. Salaj. 2012. Longterm maintenance of Pinus nigra embryogenic cultures through cryopreservation. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 34(1), pp. 227-233. Shrestha, R., L. Matteis, M. Skofic, A. Portugal, G. McLaren, G. Hyman, E. Arnaud. 2012. Bridging the phenotypic and genetic data useful for integrated breeding through a data annotation using the Crop Ontology developed by the crop communities of practice. Frontiers in Plant Physiology. 3, 326.


Scientific Publications

Sié, M., K. Sanni, K. Futakuchi, B. Manneh, S. Mande, R. Vodouhe, S. Dogbe, K.N. Drame, A. Ogunbayo, M.N. Ndjiondjop, K. Traore. 2012. Towards a rational use of African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) for breeding in Sub-Saharan Africa. Genes, Genomes and Genomics. 6 (Special Issue 1), pp. 1-7. Singh, D., G. Jackson, D. Hunter, R. Fullerton, V. Lebot, M. Taylor, T. Iosefa, T., Okpul, J. Tyson. 2012. Taro leaf blight - A threat to global food security. Agriculture. 2(3), pp. 182-203. Sthapit, B., A. Subedi, D. Jarvis, H. Lamers, R.V. Ramanatha, B.M.C. Reddy. 2012. Community based approach to on-farm conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity in Asia. Indian Journal Plant Genetic Resources. 25(1), pp. 97-110. Thomas, E. 2012. The impact of traditional lifestyle, provenance and contact history on plant use knowledge and management, a cross-cultural comparison of two small-scale societies from the Bolivian Amazon. Human Ecology. 40(3), pp. 355-368. Thomas, E., M. van Zonneveld, J. Loo, T. Hodgkin, G. Galluzzi, J. van Etten. 2012. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in Pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal. PLoS ONE. 7(10): e47676.  Thormann, I., H. Gaisberger, F. Mattei, L. Snook, E. Arnaud. 2012. Digitization and online availability of original collecting mission data to improve data quality and enhance the conservation and use of plant genetic resources. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 59(5), pp. 635-644.

Thormann, I., Q. Yang, C. Allender, N. Bas, G. Campbell, M.E. Dulloo, A.W. Ebert, U. Lohwasser, C. Pandey, L.D. Robertson, O. Spellman. 2012. Development of best practices for ex situ conservation of radish germplasm in the context of the crop genebank knowledge base. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 60(4), pp. 1251-1262. Tieguhong, J.C., O. Ndoye, S. Grouwels, W.A. Mala, J.L. Betti. 2012. Rural enterprise development for poverty alleviation based on non-wood forest products in Central Africa. International Forestry Review. 14(3), pp. 363-379. Tieguhong, J.C., E.M. Nkamgnia. 2012. Household dependence on forests around Lobeke National Park, Cameroon. International Forestry Review. 14(2), pp. 196212. Ureta, C., E. Martínez-Meyer, H.R. Perales, E.R. Álvarez-Buylla. 2012. Projecting the effects of climate change on the distribution of maize races and their wild relatives in Mexico. Global Change Biology. 18, pp. 1073-1082. Van den Bergh, I., J. Ramirez, C. Staver, W.D. Turner, A. Jarvis, D. Brown. 2012. Climate change in the subtropics, the impacts of projected averages and variability on banana productivity. Acta Horticulturae. 928, p.89-99. van Heerwaarden, J., D. Ortega Del Vecchyo, E.R. Alvarez-Buylla, M.R. Bellon. 2012. New genes in traditional seed systems, diffusion, detectability and persistence of transgenes in a maize metapopulation. PLoS ONE. 7(10), e46123.

Van Zonneveld, M., X. Scheldeman, P. Escribano, M.A. Viruel, P. Van Damme, W. Garcia, C. Tapia, J. Romero, M. Siguenas, J.I. Hormaza. 2012. Mapping genetic diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources. PLoS ONE. 7(1), e29845. van Zonneveld, M.J., J.R. Gutierrez, M. Holmgren. 2012. Shrub facilitation increases plant diversity along an arid scrubland-temperate rain forest boundary in South America. Journal of Vegetation Science. 23(3), p.541-551. Vanhove, A.C., W. Vermaelen, B. Panis, R. Swennen, S.C. Carpentier. 2012. Screening the banana biodiversity for drought tolerance, can an in vitro growth model and proteomics be used as a tool to discover tolerant varieties and understand homeostasis. Frontiers in Plant Science. 3(176). Vernooy, R. 2012. For food security, China tries an alternative to industrial agriculture. Solutions Journal. 3(1), pp. 62-69. Vos, C., S. Claerhout, R. Mkandawire, B. Panis, D. De Waele, A. Elsen. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce root-knot nematode penetration through altered root exudation of their host. Plant and Soil. 354(1-2), pp. 335345. Vos, C., K. Geerinckx, R. Mkandawire, B. Panis, D. De Waele, A. Elsen. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect both penetration and further development of root-knot nematodes in tomato. Mycorrhiza. 22(2), p.157-163.


Bioversity International ­– Annual Report 2012 ­– www.bioversityinternational.org/annualreport2012

Vos, C., A.N. Tesfahun, B. Panis, D. De Waele, A. Elsen. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induce systemic resistance in tomato against the sedentary nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the migratory nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Applied Soil Ecology. 61, pp. 1-6. Wang, Y., Z. Zhang, G. Li, E. Zhang, B. Wu. 2012. Identification of genetic diversity and redundancy in recently collected oat accessions. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources. 13(1), pp. 16-21. Wu, B., P. Lu, Z. Zhang. 2012. Recombinant microsatellite amplification, a rapid method for developing simple sequence repeat markers. Molecular Breeding. 29, pp. 29-53. Wu, B., Z. Zhang, L. Chen, M. He. 2012. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for Avena sativa (Poaceae) (oat). America Journal of Botany. 99(2), pp. e69-e71. Zhang, X. 2012. Access to plant genetics resources for food and agriculture and benefit sharing in China, legal framework, current practices and future developments. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law. 21(2), pp. 137-148. Yu-ping, R., C. Zhe, Z. Ling-ling, Z. Min, Z. Yong-juan, B. Ke-yu. 2012. Genetic variation patterns of Medicago ruthenica populations from Northern China. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11(22), pp. 6011-6017. Zhao, M., L. Zhu, K. Bai. 2012. Effects of grassland management practices on soil organic carbon, An analysis with three objective weighting methods. Chinese Journal of Ecology. 31(4), pp. 1-7. 54

Pre-published online in 2012 Graefe, S., D. Dufour, M. van Zonneveld, F. Rodriguez, A. Gonzalez. 2013. Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) in tropical Latin America: implications for biodiversity conservation, natural resource management and human nutrition. Biodiversity and Conservation. 22(2): pp. 269-300. Ingram, V., J.C. Tieguhong. 2013. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon. Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment. 42(3): pp. 320-333. Jensen, H.R., L. Belqadi, P. De Santis, M. Sadiki, D.I. Jarvis, D.J. Schoen. 2013. A case study of seed exchange networks and gene flow for barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) in Morocco. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 60(3), pp. 1119-1138. Kovacs, G., L. Sagi, G. Jacon, G. Arinaitwe, J.P. Busogoro, E. Thiry, H. Strosse, R. Swennen, S. Remy. 2013. Expression of a rice chitinase gene in transgenic banana (‘Gros Michel’, AAA genome group) confers resistance to black leaf streak disease. Transgenic Research. 22(1), pp. 117-130. Mijatovic, D., F. Van Oudenhoven, P. Eyzaguirre, T. Hodgkin. 2013. The role of agricultural biodiversity in strengthening resilience to climate change: towards an analytical framework. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 11(2): pp. 95-107.

Scientific Publications

Niyongere, C., T. Losenge, E.M. Ateka, N. Ntukamazina, P. Ndayiragije, A. Simbare, P. Cimpaye, P. Nintije, P. Lepoint, G. Blomme. 2013. Understanding banana bunchy top disease epidemiology in Burundi for an enhanced and integrated management approach. Plant Pathology. 62(3), p. 562–570. Pinheiro de Carvalho, M.A.A., P.J. Bebeli, E. Bettencourt, G. Costa, S. Dias, T.M.M. Dos Santos, J.J. Slaski. 2013. Cereal landraces genetic resources in worldwide GeneBanks. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 33(1), pp. 177-203.


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Credits Director General Emile Frison Head of Communications Kirsten Khire Writing and Editing by Nora Capozio, Samantha Collins, Kirsten Khire, Marta Millere and Camilla Zanzanaini Design and Layout by Nora Capozio and Pablo Gallo Printed by Progress Press Co Limited, Malta, on FSC certified paper


Annual Report

2012 Bioversity International is a member of the CGIAR Consortium. CGIAR is a global research partnership for a food secure future. Bioversity International is registered as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization in the US. Bioversity International (UK) is a Registered UK Charity No. 1131854. Š Bioversity International 2013

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ISBN: 978-92-9043-938-7


Bioversity International Annual Report 2012