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Diﬀerent Types of Species in Their Habitats • Hexac9nellida
– Glass sponges – siliceous Spicules consis9ng by six rays intersec9ng at right angles – reefs oﬀ the coast of Bri9sh Columbia, Canada, in waters 180-‐250 meters deep some tower as 18 meters above surrounding sea ﬂoor
– Barrel sponge – Have one to four rays not at right angles, and have axial canals that are triangular in cross sec9on – Found in many environments, from warm high-‐energy inter9dal seMngs to quiet cold abyssal depths
– Calcareous sponges – Characterized by eight-‐rayed calcareous spicules – Found in shallow waters from a depth of 4,000 meters Nicholas
Color and Size • Asconoid sponges-‐simple tube perforated by pores • Syconoid-‐tend to be larger than Asconoid
– Tubular body with single osculum – Thicken and pores penetrate longer forming system of simple canals
– Largest and most complex – Made up of masses of 9ssues penetrated by numerous canals – Canals lead to small chambers lined with ﬂagellated cells Elana
Predators and Prey • Capture food that is brought close by water currents created by choancytes • Taken into individual cells by phagocytosis, diges9on occurs within individuals cells • Eat detritus par9cles, plankton, bacteria • For humans: beneﬁcial pharmaceu9cal eﬀects including compounds with respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointes9nal, an9-‐inﬂammatory, an9tumor, an9bio9c ac9vi9es • Rela9onship with bacteria and algae-‐symbio9c • Excavate surface of corals and mollusks, but sponges probably seeking protec9on for itself sinking into hard structures it erodes Elana
How They Eat • laZer traps small par9cles, which are passed to the cell body and ingested • Larger par9cles that have been able to pass through the dermal pores are ingested by the Archaeocytes and Collencytes that form a re9culum in the inhalant canals or by the cell bases of the choanocytes • Par9cles that are too large to enter the os9a can be ingested by the pinacocytes of the dermal epithelium. Cameron
Reproduc9on • both sexual reproduc9on and asexual • The forma9on of asexual bodies, or gemmules, is characteris9c of most freshwater species • The germ cells may arise from the ﬂagellated cells of the larva, from choanocytes, from archeocytes, or from pinacocytes • The sperm enters the egg not directly, but through the intermediary of a choanocyte, which loses its collar and ﬂagellum and migrates from the ﬂagellated chamber to a posi9on adjacent to the egg. Cameron and Chris
Get Oxygen • most sponges rely on maintaining a constant water ﬂow through their bodies to obtain food, oxygen and remove wastes.
Excre9on • Par9cles are trapped in the os9a, which taper from the outer to inner ends • These par9cles are consumed by pinacocytes or by Archaeocytes which par9ally extrude themselves through the walls of the os9a • Bacteria-‐sized par9cles, below 0.5 micrometers, pass through the os9a and are caught and consumed by choanocytes • Since the smallest par9cles are by far the most common, choanocytes typically capture 80% of a sponge's food supply. Archaeocytes transport food packaged in vesicles from cells that directly digest food to those that do not.
Non-‐segmented Animalia • Porifera are neither protosome nor deuterosome because they are not segmented animals. They don’t form mouth ﬁrst (Protosome) or anus ﬁrst (deuterosome) Cameron
Closest Rela9ves • Cnidarians are closely related to sponges because they have an outside epidermis that is similar to sponges epidermis. Cnidarians have swimming sperm which is the same thing that some sponges have. Chris
Characteris9cs • Sponges have dense skeletons which help the sponge adapt to any environment. Some of the sponges can live in fresh water because they are adapted to it. Sponges can live in hard or sob sediment because of its skeletons. Spores move water around which is a way that sponges get food, they adapted to this ea9ng style a long 9me ago. Chris
Beneﬁts • Sponges “inhale” and consume toxins and harmful chemicals produced by fellow ocean inhabitants, then convert them to other uses. This prac9ce beneﬁts not only ﬁsh and creatures that feed on sponges but also humans. • Scien9sts are con9nually discovering more pharmaceu9cal applica9ons for sponge-‐modiﬁed and produced chemicals, which have already proven eﬀec9ve in comba9ng AIDS, cancer, and a host of other ailments. Nicholas
Real Life Example •
Sponges are very important to the ecosystems of Florida’s coastal waters. They provide a habitat for many of our important creatures, such as one of our most important ﬁsheries, spiny lobsters. They inhabit our reefs and live in our mangroves. They are very important pieces in the puzzle of our ocean environment. Our economy and culture has been impacted by sponges as well. The sponge exchange in Tarpon Springs, Florida was created in 1907. It was the largest industry in Florida for 30 years. It con9nues today due to the history, and is a very important part of culture, especially demonstra9ng Greek inﬂuence. Studies have shown that sponges can be used to make drugs and products that may prolong lives. Some sponges that have not been commercially used may provide pharmaceu9cal advances. Currently, scien9sts are working to develop drugs from sponges meant to ﬁght cancer. Sponges were once plen9ful, but popula9ons are geMng smaller. Although they can regenerate poaching and disease has somewhat depleted the supply. Sponges are harvested a lot in Florida, and are very commonly used. Florida harvests ﬁve diﬀerent kinds of sponge; two of them are not primarily marketed. Bath sponges are probably the ﬁrst non-‐edible product harvested out of the sea.
Maddie (also provided all the photos)
WORKS CITED • • • • • • • • • • • • •
“All About Sponges.” Tree of Life Web Project. Tree of Life, 2005. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <hZp://tolweb.org/ treehouses/?treehouse_id=3431>. Cloud Sponges. 2007. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <hZp://tolweb.org/ onlinecontributors/;jsessionid=7D5C319390FBE4A333C64D8F19133F11? page=ViewImageData&service=external&sp=27167>. “The Historic Tarpon Springs Sponge Docks.” Tarpon Springs History. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <hZp:// fcit.usf.edu////.htm>. “Introduc9on to Porifera.” University of California Museum of Paleontology . N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <hZp:// www.ucmp.berkeley.edu//.html>. McDarby, Michael. “Sponges.” An Online IntroducBon to the Biology of Animals and Plants . N.p., 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <hZp://faculty.fmcc.suny.edu//&plantsbook//-‐Sponges&Cnidaria.htm>. Niphates Digitalis. 2006. Guru NgeBlog. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <hZp:// gurungeblog.ﬁles.wordpress.com///.jpg>. Porifera. N.d. Badger Link, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <hZp://www.ecb.org/videolink>. Visual Learning Company (Producer) “Porifera.” Access Science. McGraw Hill, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <hZp://www.accessscience.com/abstract.aspx? id=538500&referURL=hZp%3a%2f%2fwww.accessscience.com%2fcontent.aspx%3fsearchStr%3dporifera%26id %3d538500>. “Porifera.” Animal Diversity Wed. University of Michigan , n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <hZp:// animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu//accounts//.html>. “Porifera.” Maui Ocean Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <hZp://www.mauioceancenter.com//.pdf>. Stevely, John, and Don Sweat. “Florida’s Marine Sponges.” Sea Grant. Florida Sea Grant College Program, Nov. 2008. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <hZp://www.ﬂseagrant.org/library//%20Sea%20Grant%20Publica9ons_ﬁles/ _169_Floridas%20Marine%20Sponges_web.pdf>. Stubbleﬁeld, Michael. Stove-‐pipe Sponge -‐ Aplysina archeri. N.d. About Animals/Wildlife. About.com, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <hZp://animals.about.com////.htm>. Titonopsis Calcarea. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <hZp://exonity.ﬁles.wordpress.com///_calcarea.jpg>.
- There are over 10,000 Species in the phylum,
Common colors of coral include: greens, yellows, reds, oranges, pinks, blues, tans, and purples All jellyfish have stinging cells called nematocysts in the tentacles and body wall. Each nematocyst cell contains a coiled thread under pressure, which is ejected from the cell.
Cnidarians Effect Humans By: - Hosting over 4,000 species of fish, we benefit from the fish as a food source - Used for medicine - Jewelry - Natural barrier
Cnidarians live in aquatic environments
They eat small fish and plankton with their one hole which is their mouth and anus. Their closest relatives are sponges
Cnidarians reproduce depending on weather they are polyps, adults, or medusae: -Polyps reproduce by budding (growing another organism off themselves and eventually just dropping it) or through sexual reproduction.
All medusae do reproduce sexually, Cnidarians exhibit openwater fertilization (The male organisms release sperm into the water and it is collected by the female.
The fact that Cnidarians have free swimming larvae allows the sessile creatures to spread their colonies rather than pile up on top of each other
Sources: - www.coral.org - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria
Click Here for species of Mollusca Phylum
What are their bodies like?
How do Mollusks help/harm people?
Mollusks closest relative
What adaptations do they have? What is their symmetry like?
What do Mollusks eat? How do they reproduce?
How do they excrete?
How do mollusks eat? What do they eat/ what eats them?
What are the different types of species in the Mollusca phylum? Cephalopoda, which includes squids, cuttlefish, octopuses, and the chambered nautilus Bivalvia, which includes oysters, clams, scallops, mussels, and teredos Gastropoda, which includes snails, slugs, limpets, abalones, and conches Scaphopoda, the tooth shells Polyplacophora, chitons, the most primitive mollusk class Monoplacophora, represented by the living Neopilina and numerous extinct forms of the phylum.
How do Mollusk's help humans? ď€Ş Clams make pearls which we can turn into jewelry ď€Ş We can eat clam, octopus, and snails so they give us food
What type of habitat do Mollusk's live in? They live in marine environments but those environments are very different Some live in freshwater, like snails Some live in very deep ocean water, like octopus
What is a Molluskâ€™s closest living relative? ď€ŞTheir closest living relatives are the annelids, which are segmented worms, and the platyhelminths, which are nonsegmented worms or flatworms
How do Mollusk's eat? Have toothed tongue called radula made of chitin Scrapes off algae and other food Conveys them backward in the digestive tract Food is taken up by cells lining digestive glands (from the stomach) and from there into the blood
What adaptations do they have to fit in their environment? a. Long antennae for enhanced senses of smell and touch b. Lubricated(slimy) surface for extra mobility c. In emergency’s the snail can fully retract into it’s shell for added protection d. Eyes for sight e. Producing of sticky gum to climb walls f. An operculum that most univalves have for protection g. A radula of the moon snail that is used to drill through other shells to get their food, h. The jet propulsion movement and ink sac of cephalopods to escape predators.
What do Mollusk’s eat? They are herbivores They graze on algae
What eats Mollusk’s? Humans Otters Marine animals
How do Mollusk's excrete? Carried out by tube like structures, nephridia, that collect fluid Exchange salts and other substances with body tissue as fluids pass along the tubes Tubes are emptied into the mantle
How do Mollusk's How many babies reproduce? do Mollusk’s have? Mantle cavity is where the reproductive organs are located The reproductive organs are gonads Sexually Gonochoristic
Octopus Lay 150,000 eggs Guards eggs with her life Eggs float to the surface and then a month later eggs become larvae and sink to the bottom of the sea to become octopus
What are Mollusk’s bodies like? They have soft bodies that consist of three parts: a foot, a visceral mass and a mantle Some of them also have a protective shell made of chitin, proteins and calcium carbonates Mollusk's are very different so it’s hard to categorize them all
Are Mollusk’s a Do Mollusk’s have symmetry? protosome or Start out with bilateral symmetry When they get older… Some lose it (oysters, clams, scallops) Some keep it (lugs, snails, octopus, squid)
Protosome, meaning their mouth develops first from a primary embryotic opening
Interesting Facts The giant African snail grows to a length of 6 inches (15 centimeters) Female oysters can produce as many as 500 million eggs in a year Some squids can swim up to 25 miles per hour If an octopus loses one of its eight arms, it grows a new one in its place An octopus has three hearts
• Phylum Arthropoda- a large group of animals that have legs with several joints and a body divided into two or more parts • Over 1,000,000 different species • Horseshoe Crabs - Can be found all throughout beaches in Florida.
• Important part of the food chain because they are eaten by migrating animals such as shorebirds, finfish, and Atlantic loggerhead turtles. • Eat phytoplankton, marine worms, and clams • Used as bait for conch and eel • Live for an average of 14 to 20 years • Horseshoe crabs were alive 350 million years before the dinosaurs • Horseshoe blood is used for testing vaccines to guarantee that the product is free of bacterial contamination
Centipedes• Grow up to a foot long • Brown and Black Wasps• Three inches as an adult • Generally yellow and black Butterflies• Wings are made up of tiny little scales that each has their own color • Their wingspan can get up to four inches long Ants• Have thousands of bumps on them • Brown, yellow, red, and black • Grow up to be two and a half inches long • For safety, they have spikes all over their exoskeleton
â€˘ BENEFITS: -link in food chain -pollination, most seed plants would not exist, ~65% done by insects -human food -silk -arthropods help control insect pests Ex. lady bugs -soil dwelling arthropods scavengers and decomposers HARM: *Ticks, mites, mosquitoes, fleas, lice; look upon people, their pets and livestock as just another meal -more people die of bee and scorpion stings than by snakebite (or shark attacks!) -Sources of disease: Tick- Lyme disease, Rocky Mt. Spotted fever; Mosquito- malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, filarial worms (tsetse flies ---> trypanosoma; rat fleas ---> bubonic plague) -destroy wooden structures; termites
• They have an exoskeleton made of cuticle • Some terrestrial crustaceans have developed means of storing minerals since on land they cannot rely on a steady supply of dissolved calcium carbonate • Some arthropods have a like an outer armor allows animals to grow larger and stronger • Muscles attached to inside of exoskeleton to flex limbs • Can replace exoskeletons by molting
â€˘ Largest and most successful of the animal Phylum
â€˘ Comes from the word Arthron which means jointed leg
• Feed on different kinds of plant and animal matter, living and dead • Use all different parts of their bodies to gather food: Centipedes• Worms, spiders, some insects, slugs, sometimes they eat each other. • Their own babies. • Fruit and potatoes. Wasps• Nectar • Blueberry’s Butterfly• Nectar of the flower • As a caterpillar they eat lots of milkweed. Ants• Leaves
Centipedes • Lizards, scorpions, tarantulas, some birds Wasps • Poisonous arachnids Butterfly • Frogs, birds, spiders, and other animals Ants • Ant eaters
â€˘ The use spiracles to obtain oxygen â€˘ Oxygen levels are the limiting factor on arthropod size, as their open circulatory systems are not as efficient at circulating blood as the closed circulatory systems of many other animals.
• Undigested food becomes solid waste • Leaves the anus of the animal • Terrestrial arthropods remove nitrogen-containing wastes by... >Using a set of Malpighian tubules >Found in the body sinuses >Remove waste from blood, concentrate them, and then add undigested food allowing it to leave through anus • Aquatic arthropods remove nitrogen-containing wastes by... --->through a pair of green glands found by base of antennae --->eliminated through a pair of opening on the head
• Most begin as eggs hatch into larvae and then metamorphose into adults. • In some species, the young are born live. Certain arthropods reproduce by parthenogenesis, the process by which the young develop from unfertilized eggs. • Example: • Monarch Butterfly the average female lays about 700, laying one at a time, but this varies year to year due to climate. Beetles can lay up to 275 eggs each.
• http://www.baysoundings.com/sum02/creature.html • http://www.horseshoecrab.org/info/ecology.html • http://www.tropicalbiology.org/admin/documents/pdf_files/Madagascar%20abst racts/Claudia_Evelien-ed.pdf • http://lsned.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/0117arthropods.png • http://www.english-for-students.com/Arthropods.html • "Segmented Body." Understanding Evolution. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/_0_0/arthrop ods_05