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Porifera Â

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Different Types  of  Species  in  Their   Habitats   •  Hexac9nellida  

–  Glass sponges   –  siliceous  Spicules  consis9ng  by  six  rays  intersec9ng  at  right  angles   –  reefs  off  the  coast  of  Bri9sh  Columbia,  Canada,  in  waters  180-­‐250   meters  deep  some  tower  as  18  meters  above  surrounding  sea  floor    

•  Demospongia

–  Barrel sponge   –  Have  one  to  four  rays  not  at  right  angles,  and  have  axial  canals  that  are   triangular  in  cross  sec9on     –  Found  in  many  environments,  from  warm  high-­‐energy  inter9dal   seMngs  to  quiet  cold  abyssal  depths    

•  Calcarea

–  Calcareous sponges     –  Characterized  by  eight-­‐rayed  calcareous  spicules     –  Found  in  shallow  waters  from  a  depth  of  4,000  meters     Nicholas    

Color and  Size   •  Asconoid  sponges-­‐simple  tube   perforated  by  pores   •  Syconoid-­‐tend  to  be  larger  than   Asconoid    

–  Tubular body  with  single  osculum     –  Thicken  and  pores  penetrate   longer  forming  system  of  simple   canals    

•  Leuconoid

–  Largest and  most  complex   –  Made  up  of  masses  of  9ssues   penetrated  by  numerous  canals     –  Canals  lead  to  small  chambers   lined  with  flagellated  cells     Elana    

Predators and  Prey   •  Capture  food  that  is  brought  close  by  water  currents   created  by  choancytes     •  Taken  into  individual  cells  by  phagocytosis,  diges9on  occurs   within  individuals  cells     •  Eat  detritus  par9cles,  plankton,  bacteria     •  For  humans:  beneficial  pharmaceu9cal  effects  including   compounds  with  respiratory,  cardiovascular,   gastrointes9nal,  an9-­‐inflammatory,  an9tumor,  an9bio9c   ac9vi9es     •  Rela9onship  with  bacteria  and  algae-­‐symbio9c     •  Excavate  surface  of  corals  and  mollusks,  but  sponges   probably  seeking  protec9on  for  itself  sinking  into  hard   structures  it  erodes     Elana  

How They  Eat   •  laZer  traps  small  par9cles,  which  are  passed  to   the  cell  body  and  ingested   •   Larger  par9cles  that  have  been  able  to  pass   through  the  dermal  pores  are  ingested  by  the   Archaeocytes  and  Collencytes  that  form  a   re9culum  in  the  inhalant  canals  or  by  the  cell   bases  of  the  choanocytes   •  Par9cles  that  are  too  large  to  enter  the  os9a  can   be  ingested  by  the  pinacocytes  of  the  dermal   epithelium.   Cameron  

Reproduc9on •  both  sexual  reproduc9on  and  asexual     •  The  forma9on  of  asexual  bodies,  or  gemmules,  is   characteris9c  of  most  freshwater  species   •   The  germ  cells  may  arise  from  the  flagellated   cells  of  the  larva,  from  choanocytes,  from   archeocytes,  or  from  pinacocytes   •  The  sperm  enters  the  egg  not  directly,  but   through  the  intermediary  of  a  choanocyte,  which   loses  its  collar  and  flagellum  and  migrates  from   the  flagellated  chamber  to  a  posi9on  adjacent  to   the  egg.     Cameron  and  Chris  

Get Oxygen   •  most  sponges  rely  on  maintaining  a  constant   water  flow  through  their  bodies  to  obtain   food,  oxygen  and  remove  wastes.    


Excre9on •  Par9cles  are  trapped  in  the  os9a,  which  taper  from  the   outer  to  inner  ends   •   These  par9cles  are  consumed  by  pinacocytes  or  by   Archaeocytes  which  par9ally  extrude  themselves  through   the  walls  of  the  os9a   •  Bacteria-­‐sized  par9cles,  below  0.5  micrometers,  pass   through  the  os9a  and  are  caught  and  consumed  by   choanocytes   •   Since  the  smallest  par9cles  are  by  far  the  most  common,   choanocytes  typically  capture  80%  of  a  sponge's  food   supply.  Archaeocytes  transport  food  packaged  in  vesicles   from  cells  that  directly  digest  food  to  those  that  do  not.    


Non-­‐segmented Animalia   •  Porifera  are  neither   protosome  nor   deuterosome  because   they  are  not   segmented  animals.   They  don’t  form   mouth  first   (Protosome)  or  anus   first  (deuterosome)       Cameron  

Closest Rela9ves   •  Cnidarians  are  closely   related  to  sponges   because  they  have  an   outside  epidermis  that   is  similar  to  sponges   epidermis.  Cnidarians   have  swimming  sperm   which  is  the  same   thing  that  some   sponges  have.     Chris  

Characteris9cs   •  Sponges  have  dense  skeletons  which  help  the   sponge  adapt  to  any  environment.  Some  of   the  sponges  can  live  in  fresh  water  because   they  are  adapted  to  it.  Sponges  can  live  in   hard  or  sob  sediment  because  of  its  skeletons.       Spores  move  water  around  which  is  a  way  that   sponges  get  food,  they  adapted  to  this  ea9ng   style  a  long  9me  ago.     Chris  

Benefits •  Sponges  “inhale”  and  consume  toxins  and   harmful  chemicals  produced  by  fellow  ocean   inhabitants,  then  convert  them  to  other  uses.   This  prac9ce  benefits  not  only  fish  and  creatures   that  feed  on  sponges  but  also  humans.     •  Scien9sts  are  con9nually  discovering  more   pharmaceu9cal  applica9ons  for  sponge-­‐modified   and  produced  chemicals,  which  have  already   proven  effec9ve  in  comba9ng  AIDS,  cancer,  and  a   host  of  other  ailments.   Nicholas  

Real Life  Example   • 

Sponges are  very  important  to  the  ecosystems  of  Florida’s  coastal  waters.  They   provide  a  habitat  for  many  of  our  important  creatures,  such  as  one  of  our  most   important  fisheries,  spiny  lobsters.  They  inhabit  our  reefs  and  live  in  our   mangroves.  They  are  very  important  pieces  in  the  puzzle  of  our  ocean   environment.  Our  economy  and  culture  has  been  impacted  by  sponges  as  well.  The   sponge  exchange  in  Tarpon  Springs,  Florida  was  created  in  1907.  It  was  the  largest   industry  in  Florida  for  30  years.  It  con9nues  today  due  to  the  history,  and  is  a  very   important  part  of  culture,  especially  demonstra9ng  Greek  influence.  Studies  have   shown  that  sponges  can  be  used  to  make  drugs  and  products  that  may  prolong   lives.  Some  sponges  that  have  not  been  commercially  used  may  provide   pharmaceu9cal  advances.  Currently,  scien9sts  are  working  to  develop  drugs  from   sponges  meant  to  fight  cancer.  Sponges  were  once  plen9ful,  but  popula9ons  are   geMng  smaller.  Although  they  can  regenerate  poaching  and  disease  has  somewhat   depleted  the  supply.  Sponges  are  harvested  a  lot  in  Florida,  and  are  very  commonly   used.  Florida  harvests  five  different  kinds  of  sponge;  two  of  them  are  not  primarily   marketed.  Bath  sponges  are  probably  the  first  non-­‐edible  product  harvested  out  of   the  sea.    

Maddie (also  provided  all  the  photos)  

WORKS CITED   •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  • 

“All About  Sponges.”  Tree  of  Life  Web  Project.  Tree  of  Life,  2005.  Web.  25  Apr.  2012.  <hZp:// treehouses/?treehouse_id=3431>.   Cloud  Sponges.  2007.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  23  Apr.  2012.  <hZp:// onlinecontributors/;jsessionid=7D5C319390FBE4A333C64D8F19133F11? page=ViewImageData&service=external&sp=27167>.   “The  Historic  Tarpon  Springs  Sponge  Docks.”  Tarpon  Springs  History.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  23  Apr.  2012.  <hZp://>.   “Introduc9on  to  Porifera.”  University  of  California  Museum  of  Paleontology  .  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  25  Apr.  2012.  <hZp://>.   McDarby,  Michael.  “Sponges.”  An  Online  IntroducBon  to  the  Biology  of  Animals  and  Plants    .  N.p.,  2011.  Web.  25   Apr.  2012.  <hZp://­‐Sponges&Cnidaria.htm>.   Niphates  Digitalis.  2006.  Guru  NgeBlog.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  23  Apr.  2012.  <hZp://>.   Porifera.  N.d.  Badger  Link,  n.d.  Web.  23  Apr.  2012.  <hZp://>.  Visual  Learning  Company   (Producer)   “Porifera.”  Access  Science.  McGraw  Hill,  n.d.  Web.  25  Apr.  2012.  <hZp:// id=538500& %3d538500>.   “Porifera.”  Animal  Diversity  Wed.  University  of  Michigan  ,  n.d.  Web.  25  Apr.  2012.  <hZp://>.   “Porifera.”  Maui  Ocean  Center.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  26  Apr.  2012.  <hZp://>.   Stevely,  John,  and  Don  Sweat.  “Florida’s  Marine  Sponges.”  Sea  Grant.  Florida  Sea  Grant  College  Program,  Nov.   2008.  Web.  25  Apr.  2012.  <hZp:// _169_Floridas%20Marine%20Sponges_web.pdf>.   Stubblefield,  Michael.  Stove-­‐pipe  Sponge  -­‐  Aplysina  archeri.  N.d.  About  Animals/Wildlife.,  n.d.  Web.  23   Apr.  2012.  <hZp://>.   Titonopsis  Calcarea.  N.d.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  23  Apr.  2012.  <hZp://>.  

- There are over 10,000 Species in the phylum,

Common colors of coral include: greens, yellows, reds, oranges, pinks, blues, tans, and purples All jellyfish have stinging cells called nematocysts in the tentacles and body wall. Each nematocyst cell contains a coiled thread under pressure, which is ejected from the cell.

Cnidarians Effect Humans By: - Hosting over 4,000 species of fish, we benefit from the fish as a food source - Used for medicine - Jewelry - Natural barrier

Cnidarians live in aquatic environments

They eat small fish and plankton with their one hole which is their mouth and anus. Their closest relatives are sponges

Cnidarians reproduce depending on weather they are polyps, adults, or medusae: -Polyps reproduce by budding (growing another organism off themselves and eventually just dropping it) or through sexual reproduction.

All medusae do reproduce sexually, Cnidarians exhibit openwater fertilization (The male organisms release sperm into the water and it is collected by the female.

The fact that Cnidarians have free swimming larvae allows the sessile creatures to spread their colonies rather than pile up on top of each other

Sources: - -

Click Here for species of Mollusca Phylum

What are their bodies like?

How do Mollusks help/harm people?

Mollusks closest relative

What adaptations do they have? What is their symmetry like?

What do Mollusks eat? How do they reproduce?

How do they excrete?

How do mollusks eat? What do they eat/ what eats them?

What are the different types of species in the Mollusca phylum?  Cephalopoda, which includes squids, cuttlefish, octopuses, and the chambered nautilus  Bivalvia, which includes oysters, clams, scallops, mussels, and teredos  Gastropoda, which includes snails, slugs, limpets, abalones, and conches  Scaphopoda, the tooth shells  Polyplacophora, chitons, the most primitive mollusk class  Monoplacophora, represented by the living Neopilina and numerous extinct forms of the phylum.

How do Mollusk's help humans? ď&#x20AC;Ş Clams make pearls which we can turn into jewelry ď&#x20AC;Ş We can eat clam, octopus, and snails so they give us food

What type of habitat do Mollusk's live in?  They live in marine environments but those environments are very different Some live in freshwater, like snails  Some live in very deep ocean water, like octopus

What is a Molluskâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s closest living relative? ď&#x20AC;ŞTheir closest living relatives are the annelids, which are segmented worms, and the platyhelminths, which are nonsegmented worms or flatworms

How do Mollusk's eat?  Have toothed tongue called radula made of chitin  Scrapes off algae and other food  Conveys them backward in the digestive tract  Food is taken up by cells lining digestive glands (from the stomach) and from there into the blood

What adaptations do they have to fit in their environment?  a. Long antennae for enhanced senses of smell and touch  b. Lubricated(slimy) surface for extra mobility  c. In emergency’s the snail can fully retract into it’s shell for added protection  d. Eyes for sight  e. Producing of sticky gum to climb walls  f. An operculum that most univalves have for protection  g. A radula of the moon snail that is used to drill through other shells to get their food,  h. The jet propulsion movement and ink sac of cephalopods to escape predators.

What do Mollusk’s eat? They are herbivores They graze on algae

What eats Mollusk’s?  Humans Otters  Marine animals

How do Mollusk's excrete?  Carried out by tube like structures, nephridia, that collect fluid  Exchange salts and other substances with body tissue as fluids pass along the tubes  Tubes are emptied into the mantle

How do Mollusk's How many babies reproduce? do Mollusk’s have?  Mantle cavity is where the reproductive organs are located  The reproductive organs are gonads  Sexually  Gonochoristic

 Octopus  Lay 150,000 eggs  Guards eggs with her life  Eggs float to the surface and then a month later eggs become larvae and sink to the bottom of the sea to become octopus

What are Mollusk’s bodies like?  They have soft bodies that consist of three parts: a foot, a visceral mass and a mantle  Some of them also have a protective shell made of chitin, proteins and calcium carbonates  Mollusk's are very different so it’s hard to categorize them all

Are Mollusk’s a Do Mollusk’s have symmetry? protosome or  Start out with bilateral symmetry  When they get older…  Some lose it (oysters, clams, scallops)  Some keep it (lugs, snails, octopus, squid)


 Protosome, meaning their mouth develops first from a primary embryotic opening

Interesting Facts  The giant African snail grows to a length of 6 inches (15 centimeters)  Female oysters can produce as many as 500 million eggs in a year  Some squids can swim up to 25 miles per hour  If an octopus loses one of its eight arms, it grows a new one in its place  An octopus has three hearts

• Phylum Arthropoda- a large group of animals that have legs with several joints and a body divided into two or more parts • Over 1,000,000 different species • Horseshoe Crabs - Can be found all throughout beaches in Florida.

• Important part of the food chain because they are eaten by migrating animals such as shorebirds, finfish, and Atlantic loggerhead turtles. • Eat phytoplankton, marine worms, and clams • Used as bait for conch and eel • Live for an average of 14 to 20 years • Horseshoe crabs were alive 350 million years before the dinosaurs • Horseshoe blood is used for testing vaccines to guarantee that the product is free of bacterial contamination

Centipedes• Grow up to a foot long • Brown and Black Wasps• Three inches as an adult • Generally yellow and black Butterflies• Wings are made up of tiny little scales that each has their own color • Their wingspan can get up to four inches long Ants• Have thousands of bumps on them • Brown, yellow, red, and black • Grow up to be two and a half inches long • For safety, they have spikes all over their exoskeleton

â&#x20AC;˘ BENEFITS: -link in food chain -pollination, most seed plants would not exist, ~65% done by insects -human food -silk -arthropods help control insect pests Ex. lady bugs -soil dwelling arthropods scavengers and decomposers HARM: *Ticks, mites, mosquitoes, fleas, lice; look upon people, their pets and livestock as just another meal -more people die of bee and scorpion stings than by snakebite (or shark attacks!) -Sources of disease: Tick- Lyme disease, Rocky Mt. Spotted fever; Mosquito- malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, filarial worms (tsetse flies ---> trypanosoma; rat fleas ---> bubonic plague) -destroy wooden structures; termites

• They have an exoskeleton made of cuticle • Some terrestrial crustaceans have developed means of storing minerals since on land they cannot rely on a steady supply of dissolved calcium carbonate • Some arthropods have a like an outer armor allows animals to grow larger and stronger • Muscles attached to inside of exoskeleton to flex limbs • Can replace exoskeletons by molting

â&#x20AC;˘ Largest and most successful of the animal Phylum

â&#x20AC;˘ Comes from the word Arthron which means jointed leg

• Feed on different kinds of plant and animal matter, living and dead • Use all different parts of their bodies to gather food: Centipedes• Worms, spiders, some insects, slugs, sometimes they eat each other. • Their own babies. • Fruit and potatoes. Wasps• Nectar • Blueberry’s Butterfly• Nectar of the flower • As a caterpillar they eat lots of milkweed. Ants• Leaves

Centipedes • Lizards, scorpions, tarantulas, some birds Wasps • Poisonous arachnids Butterfly • Frogs, birds, spiders, and other animals Ants • Ant eaters

â&#x20AC;˘ The use spiracles to obtain oxygen â&#x20AC;˘ Oxygen levels are the limiting factor on arthropod size, as their open circulatory systems are not as efficient at circulating blood as the closed circulatory systems of many other animals.

• Undigested food becomes solid waste • Leaves the anus of the animal • Terrestrial arthropods remove nitrogen-containing wastes by... >Using a set of Malpighian tubules >Found in the body sinuses >Remove waste from blood, concentrate them, and then add undigested food allowing it to leave through anus • Aquatic arthropods remove nitrogen-containing wastes by... --->through a pair of green glands found by base of antennae --->eliminated through a pair of opening on the head

• Most begin as eggs hatch into larvae and then metamorphose into adults. • In some species, the young are born live. Certain arthropods reproduce by parthenogenesis, the process by which the young develop from unfertilized eggs. • Example: • Monarch Butterfly the average female lays about 700, laying one at a time, but this varies year to year due to climate. Beetles can lay up to 275 eggs each.

• • • racts/Claudia_Evelien-ed.pdf • • • "Segmented Body." Understanding Evolution. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. ods_05

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