Page 1

04 | 2018

ISSN 1862-5258

Jul / Aug



Vol. 13

Cover Story: Vienna schoolgirls develop homecompostable coffee capsules| 34

Basics PEF | 48 Highlights Blow Moulding / Bottles | 16 Coffee Capsules & Pods | 34 ... is read in 92 co


Eastlon BIO-PET

RE-THINKING THE BOTTLE: Different Bioplastics for one Application. A fine and high-value bottle can be made from different types of bioplastics. Rebhan was spoilt for choice and finally took all for their biobased packaging portfolio GREENline: • Bio-Flex®, a PLA blend, • Eastlon, the Bio-PET by Fenc, • Braskem's Green PE. All resins are supplied by FKuR, naturally.


dear readers This year is the hottest summer in Germany that I can remember in 15 years. Unbelievably, we’ve had bright sunshine and high temperatures since the end of May. And one of the fundamental rules in weather like this is to drink a lot. Preferably water. But I prefer coffee. As I’m trying to minimize coffee-related waste at my home, I usually drink my coffee freshly brewed from freshly ground coffee beans in a modern, fully automatic coffee machine. But I must admit that there are benefits to today’s conveniently pre-dosed coffee pods and capsules: the wide variety of tastes and flavours, the different strengths available - with or without caffeine - while at home… the same coffee in each and every cup… . On the other hand, (traditional) coffee pods and capsule are causing at least some – to put it mildly – environmental concern. Could coffee pods and capsules made of biobased and/or biodegradable plastics offer a sustainable alternative? This is one of the highlight topics discussed in this issue. We’ve even included an article about a coffee capsule made of (sugar cane) paper, which are not exactly bioplastics, but in my opinion, still an alternative to aluminium worth reporting on. The other highlight topic is Blow Moulding / Bottle Applications which this time also includes the Basics section, where we have a closer look at PEF. Two more things I’d like to direct your attention to are: The 1st PHA platform World Congress on 4 and 5 September in Cologne. We are happy to have no fewer that 28 speakers lined up to present the latest PHA developments and who are looking forward to networking with you. Second, we’re currently calling for submissions for the 2018 edition of the Global Bioplastics Award. If you think your product or service from the world of biobased plastics deserves the award, or you’d like to nominate somebody else’s, please let us know. Until then, please enjoy the summer - and have a great time reading this latest issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE. Sincerely yours

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13





Jul / Aug

Publisher / Editorial Dr. Michael Thielen (MT) Samuel Brangenberg (SB)

Head Office Polymedia Publisher GmbH Dammer Str. 112 41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469 fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468

Blow Moulding

Media Adviser

14 No Message in the bottle – The bottle is the message!

18 100% biobased PET bottle closer to reality

3 Editorial


5 News

24 Natural fibres for motorsports

10 Events 26 Application News


34 Cover Story

26 20 years Tecnaro

48 Basics


52 10 years ago

thermally formable products

54 Suppliers Guide

31 New biocomposite for

33 New compound certified as biodegradable in soil

42 Multilayer transparent barrierfilms


57 Event Calendar 58 Companies in this issue

capsules & pods

36 Enjoying coffee with compostable coffee capsules

37 Replacing aluminium with paper 38 Coffee Klatch 40 Bio-PBS to increase benefits of PLA coffee capsules

41 PürPod 100

From Science & Research 43 Bioplastic from cactus 44 From coffee grounds to plastic

Samsales (German language) phone: +49(0)2161-6884467 fax: +49(0)2161 6884468 Michael Thielen (English Language) (see head office)

Layout/Production Kerstin Neumeister

Print Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd. 1004 Riga, Latvia bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on chlorine-free FSC certified paper. Print run: 3.600 copies

bioplastics magazine ISSN 1862-5258 bM is published 6 times a year. This publication is sent to qualified subscribers (169 Euro for 6 issues). bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in 92 countries. Every effort is made to verify all Information published, but Polymedia Publisher cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions or for any losses that may arise as a result. All articles appearing in bioplastics MAGAZINE, or on the website are strictly covered by copyright. No part of this publication may be reproduced, copied, scanned, photographed and/or stored in any form, including electronic format, without the prior consent of the publisher. Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily reflect those of Polymedia Publisher. bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions for publication. Submissions are accepted on the basis of full assignment of copyright to Polymedia Publisher GmbH unless otherwise agreed in advance and in writing. We reserve the right to edit items for reasons of space, clarity or legality. Please contact the editorial office via The fact that product names may not be identified in our editorial as trade marks is not an indication that such names are not registered trade marks. bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British spelling. However, in articles based on information from the USA, American spelling may also be used.

Envelopes A part of this print run is mailed to the readers wrapped in bioplastic envelopes sponsored by Minima Technology Co., Ltd. , Taiwan

Cover Photo: TGM Hetzmannseder

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Global L-lactide market set for explosive growth The global L-lactide market was valued at US$ 781.81 Mn in 2017 and is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of 14.1% from 2018 to 2026, according to a new report titled "L-lactide Market: Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth Trends, and Forecast, 2018–2026," published by Transparency Market Research (TMR). The main driver behind this growth is the rising demand for bioplastics. Polylactic acid – PLA – is a commonly used bioplastics that is derived from L-lactide. Around the globe, consumers are increasingly indicating a preference for biodegradable materials as their awareness grows about the environmental impact of the use of fossil-based materials. North America accounts for a major share of the global L-lactide market. The properties of L-lactide, such as sustainability, its barrier properties and appearance, make it ideal for use in packaging applications. Stringent regulations on plastic consumption in developed regions such as North America and Europe are expected to have a positive influence on the expansion of the L-lactide market. Next to packaging, another area that is likely to stimulate the growth of the global L-lactide market is that of biomedical applications. Demand for L-lactide from various medical fields, such as controlled drug delivery systems, tissue regeneration, and medical implants, is on the rise owing to the favourable biocompatibility and the mechanical properties of the material. L-lactide is finding increasing use in biomedical applications such as orthopaedics, drug carriers, facial fracture repair, tissue engineering, and uteral stents, which is expected to add to the growth potential of the L-lactide market. The emergence of nanotechnology and material science using biomaterials has prompted researchers and manufacturers of medical devices to come up with advanced technologies using L-lactide.

conserve moisture, increase soil temperature, and keep weeds under control. The successful replacement of petroleumbased materials will offer new value added markets for agricultural commodities and reduce the dependence on foreign crude oil and gas. The global L-lactide market is dominated by the food & beverage packaging segment. L-lactides have been used as packaging materials in the last few years, mainly as containers for dairy, bakery, and fresh food products. Food containers, bags and cups, disposable serviceware and utensils, lamination or coatings for paper and paperboard, foam products for trays, and other packaging materials and films manufactured using L-lactide are gaining popularity due to the favourable material properties and superior performance of the material. However, the low heat distortion temperature of L-lactide restricts its use to ambient temperatures. In terms of consumption, North America accounted for a major share of the global L-lactide market in 2017. Implementation of favourable government policies and regulations on plastic consumption have propelled the expansion of the L-lactide market in developed countries. The federal government aims to drive demand for biobased products through procurement programs. Increased consumer preference for biodegradable materials and rise in environmental concerns are anticipated to drive the L-lactide market in North America. MT

L-Lactides are also increasingly being applied in soil retention sheeting, agricultural films, and waste bags. Agricultural mulches, seeding strips, and tapes can today be made from PLA. Mulches help reduce evaporation and

Picks & clicks Most frequently clicked news

Here’s a look at our most popular online content of the past two months. The story that got the most clicks from the visitors to was:

Bio-based multilayer transparent barrier films are now reality (19 June 2018) Four key players in the bioplastics industry - Eurotech Extrusion Machinery, NatureWorks, Nippon Gohsei and Sukano - have successfully processed a multilayer transparent bio-based barrier film, offering a potential replacement for conventional fossil fuel-based structures in dry food packaging...

See also the full article on page 38

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13



daily upated news at

Biocomposite demand driven by global construction boom, says new report The vendor landscape for the global market for biocomposites has seen a significant rise in the number of manufacturers, leading to intense competition, writes Transparency Market Research in a recent report. As the market witnesses the entry of numerous wellestablished manufacturers of popular composites such as glass fiber and cotton fiber, the market is expected to become more competitive in the near future. Despite this, the market features a vast set of untapped growth opportunities in new applications across industries such as construction and automotive. Tapping these growth opportunities may require strategic collaborations with companies in emerging economies and expansion of manufacturing capabilities to effectively serve the rising demand. Some of the leading companies operating in the global biocomposites market are Tecnaro, UPM, FlexForm Technologies, Green Bay Decking, Universal Forest Products, and Jelu-Werk. According to the report, the global biocomposites market will exhibit an impressive 9.46% CAGR over the period between 2017 and 2025, rising from a valuation of US$4,730.4 mn in 2016 to US$10,549.4 mn by 2025. Of the key materials used to manufacture biocomposites, wood presently accounts for a dominant share in the overall market, thanks to its excellent binding properties and easy availability. The segment of flax is expected to expand at the fastest pace over the forecast period, accounting for a notable

share in the overall market by the end of the report’s forecast. From the geographical standpoint, the market in Asia Pacific is presently the leading contributor of revenue to the global biocomposites market, thanks to the rapid pace of industrialization in emerging economies. The region is also a key market for biocomposites owing to the massive demand across industries such as consumer goods, construction, and automotive. The key factors working in favor of the global biocomposites market include stringent government regulations advocating the increased use of environment-friendly products with the view of reducing the negative impacts of rising pollution on the health of environment and global warming. The recyclable nature of biocomposites, coupled with their much higher safety quotient as compared to materials such as glass fibers and carbon fiber when it comes to a number of applications, could also spell growth for the market. The easy availability of most raw materials required for the production of a variety of biocomposites across the globe is also a key factors expected to work well for the expansion of the global biocomposites market over the next few years. However, certain limitations concerning pure biocomposites in aspects such as mechanical strength, coupled with their unstable costs and fluctuating availability of raw materials could cost the market negatively to a certain degree over the forecast period. MT

Corbion CEO Tjerk de Ruiter appointed as new EuropaBio Chairman EuropaBio, the European Association for Bioindustries, has released a statement announcing that its Executive Board and General Assembly of Members this week confirmed the appointment of Tjerk de Ruiter as Chairman of the association. De Ruiter is CEO of Dutch industrial biotech innovator Corbion, a global market leader in lactic acid, lactic acid derivatives, and a leading company in emulsifiers, functional enzyme blends, minerals, vitamins and algae ingredients. Commenting on his appointment, De Ruiter said: “I am thrilled to become EuropaBio’s new Chairman at a time when our sector has a great story to tell about the solutions it can provide in response to some of the bigger questions people and planet are facing today.” EuropaBio, he added, is uniquely positioned to promote more knowledge about biotech innovation in Europe and to share the enthusiasm of biotech innovators, researchers and entrepreneurs with the wider public. “In light of next year’s European elections, one of our first priorities will be to ensure policymakers understand that Europe's biotech is globally leading with the innovative solutions the sector provides and that ensuring the right framework for its growth is key for Europe’s future.” De Ruiter’s mandate as Chairman is not remunerated and runs until 2020.. MT


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


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Used frying oil is a hazardous waste, available in large quantities around the world. If it can be used to make polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) instead of having to be treated as waste, the environment benefits.

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Professor Pavel Alexy of the STU Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology in Bratislava is currently collaborating intensively with the scientists of the Technical University of Brno and a commercial company, developing the technology for processing waste oils to secondgeneration polyhydroxybutyrate. The STU team is collaborating with a number of companies and universities on the practical application of the material. Among the commercial uses under consideration are plastic containers, cutlery, packaging foils and mulch foils. And together with a design agency called the crafting plastics! studio, the STU chemical engineers have come up with an idea of using bioplastics for sunglasses frames; their design won the 2017 National Design Award in the category of Value-added Design. It was also nominated for the German Design Award and currently is exhibited at the Venice Biennale of Design and Architecture. The young designers managed to get support for the project through the crowdfunding portal. Medical applications also present new opportunities. The STU is currently collaborating with specialists at the Comenius University Faculty of Medicine in Bratislava and the top experts in implants development at the Technical University in Košice. Bioplastics may serve as temporary implants supporting complicated fractures. Research is also being carried out in the field of tissue engineering; in the laboratories, complete substitute organs are grown on a bio-substrate that will gradually decompose. MT

bioplastics Although indigenous to the sub-tropic, Miscanthus Giganteus, or elephant grass, as it is more commonly known, has put down roots in Europe as well. In the Netherlands, it has been planted around the country’s major airport, Schiphol, to keep the geese away. A start-up company is now a making bioplastic called Vibers from it. According to Jan-Govert van Gilst elephant grass contains "‘the same energy value as coal and lots of cellulose fibers", making it suitable as an alternative resource to produce various materials. An idealist who is set on eliminating fossil-based plastic packaging, he saw potential in the crop and founded his company, NNRGY, in Honselersdijk, the Netherlands. Elephant grass is a fast-growing crop, which absorbs four times as much CO2 as a forest. It requires neither the use of pesticides or fertilizer to thrive and is not invasive. NNRGY developed a biodegradable, compostable bioplastic called Vibers that is made from elephant grass and residual product from the potato processing industry. In 2017, a new film was successfully developed for the packaging industry. It is thermoformable on existing machinery and at low temperatures, which saves energy. It can be processed as biodegradable waste. The seedling logo has been applied for, however, the testing process is still ongoing. MT

Avantium opened pilot biorefinery Avantium; Amsterdam, The Netherlands officially opened a pilot biorefinery for its Zambezi technology in Delfzijl, Netherlands. The opening ceremonies took place in Amsterdam on 10 July and in Delfzijl on 13 July.

consortium consists of AkzoNobel, RWE, Staatsbosbeheer and Chemport Europe, an incubator for green chemistry. Each brings specific expertise for the planned commercial-scale biorefinery.

The Delfzijl plant will pilot Avantium’s latest technology to convert plant-based non-food feedstock to high purity industrial sugars and lignin. The industrial sugars are used in chemistry and fermentation processes to produce a broad range of durable materials, while lignin is used in energy generation.

Gert-Jan Gruter, Chief Technology Officer of Avantium, said that “glucose is a core building block for the transition towards a bio-based economy”. He noted that all materials made from petroleum today can be replaced by with materials derived from glucose.

Tom van Aken, Chief Executive Officer of Avantium, called the opening ‘a milestone in our work to support the transition to a circular economy’. “We are already looking beyond the pilot phase. We have a consortium of partners committed to developing a commercial-scale plant,” he said. Avantium previously announced it had founded a consortium to develop an ecosystem for the biorefinery technology. The

Patrick Brouns, regional minister of the province of Groningen, is pleased to welcome Avantium to Delfzijl, and the “innovation, green chemistry and highly skilled jobs” the company is bringing to the region, which fit well with the existing local chemistry, energy and agricultural sectors and knowledge institutions. “With Chemport Europe, we also support the future commercial-scale biorefinery in Delfzijl, ” he said. MT

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13



EU project seeks to improve sustainability in aviation industry of the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt). “They typically require less energy to produce than the materials used at present.”

Collaboration with China Key to the success of this project is the collaboration with researchers in China and industrial partners such as Airbus and Comac. By working together on a global scale, experts are combining their knowledge and expertise so that sustainable composites will be available to the aviation industry globally. Modern aircraft are made from synthetic, non-renewable materials. Many of these are composites such as carbon and glass-fibre-reinforced plastics that are man-made through energy-intense processes. To improve the sustainability of the aviation industry, researchers are investigating renewable and recycled materials to replace such composites. However, biobased and recycled alternatives must meet the strict requirements required for safe and efficient flight. The EU-funded ECO-COMPASS project has identified potential bio-sourced and recycled materials that can be developed into eco-friendly composites for aircraft. Fibre reinforcements are used throughout aircraft and can contribute more than half of their structural mass. The project team set out to look for alternative materials to create fibre reinforcements in planes and found that biobased fibres from plants and recycled carbon fibres have great potential. The team has also developed a biobased resin system that has promising properties for a range of in-aircraft applications. “The bio-materials, recycled carbon fibres and bio-resins should be suitable for use in the secondary structure and interior of aircraft,” says project coordinator Jens Bachmann

“The aviation industry continues to grow worldwide – global partnerships help us share knowledge and make rapid improvements to technologies,” notes Bachmann. “This collaboration has helped us learn more about fibres grown in China, such as ramie, that could be a good alternative to flax which is a standard fibre grown and used in Europe. “Now, we are improving their properties by combining Chinese expertise in materials development with European expertise in modelling and simulation.”

Identifying the materials to develop In future, the composite materials identified and developed during this project could become a part of planes in the form of interior panelling, gear doors, winglets and other secondary structures. Initial results have shown that biobased composites made from flax and ramie plant fibres have the potential to be used in natural-fibre-reinforced plastics for aviation. In addition, the Sino-European team is developing a new biobased epoxy resin made from rosin derivatives obtained from conifer plants. It is likely that this technique of embedding natural fibres into the resin will enable one component of the fibre-reinforced composite to be replaced with biobased constituents.. MT

United Caps added bio-PE caps to its portfolio UNITED CAPS, an international manufacturer of caps and closures, has announced it is making significant progress on its growth initiatives.

In pursuit of more environmentally sustainable solutions, Uited Caps has collaborated with Braskem to deliver eco-friendly United Caps Greener bio-sourced plastic caps and closures made from sugar cane as an addition to the United Caps product portfolio. "We already have added bioplastics-based products to our portfolio: such as the victoria closure, a 30/25 screw closure designed for still drinks; and the Proflat Seal, ideal for dairy products and still drinks," said Benoit Henckes, CEO of United Caps. "These are being warmly received by our customers, and we expect their availability to drive new customer interest as well."


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13

generic photo

The company has completed an extension of its R&D facility in Messia, France, to meet the demands of business growth and deliver faster time to market for customers. It also recently acquired Spanish closures company Embalatap and has added bioplastics-based GREENER closures sourced from sugar cane and new anti-counterfeiting measures to its portfolio.


New convenient and compostable waste bags have hit German retail stores Frankenthal, Germany-based RKW has launched a biodegradable star-sealed bag for organic household waste in Germany. Certified as fully compostable, it is also the first T-shirt star-sealed bag available on the market made from more than 50 % renewable PLA - material.

conventional plastic-based trash bags. Fully compostable and hence suited for organic waste, the bags will be supplied by major retailers. “RKW is a pioneer on the market,” says Manh-Hung Ngo, Product Manager at RKW Vietnam. “So far, bags with up to 40 % renewable content have been available in markets such as France or Italy. We were able to design bags with a significant higher proportion. Hence, these waste bags are another milestone towards a more sustainable future.” The bag is fully compostable and certified to European standard EN13432 by the DIN Certco institute in Berlin (Germany).

For family-owned film manufacturer RKW, sustainability is an integral part of its business mission, and this includes the use of biodegradable or biobased films. RKW Vietnam, which is specialized in consumer packaging, produces the compostable bags in Ho Chi Minh City. Star-sealed, the new bag is created without gussets and sealed in a single spot, making it highly practical and virtually leakproof.

The bag is suited for bins with different shapes and prevents the leakage of liquids. Multiple layers strengthen the bottom, avoiding damage to the bag. Combining the practical features with benefits in terms of sustainability, the new bags are a more environmentally friendly and a convenient option for consumers. MT

For organic waste, many people use paper bags, which, while fully biodegradable, tend to become soggy and tear easily when taken out of the bin. The bags come with carrying handles that can be used to tie them shut, and the star-sealed bottom that consumers are familiar with from



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bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13



organized by Co-organized by Jan Ravenstijn

Programme: 1st PHA platform World Congress Tuesday, Sep 04, 2018 08:45-09:15 Jan Ravenstijn Biomaterials Consulting

Dealing with the opportunities and challenges of the PHA-platform.

09:15-09:40 Mats Linder – circular economy consultant

The role of PHA in a circular economy for plastics

09:40-10:05 Andrew Falcon, FullCycle Bioplastics

A Circular Economy Solution: PHA Bioplastics from Organic Waste

10:05-10:30 Michael Carus, nova Institute

Production capacities of bio-based polymers – status and outlook & political and social framework for further growth

11:10-11:35 Jos Lobée, Modified Materials

Replacing lead weights in angling, the long road from obvious problem to actual change.

11:35-12:00 Erwin LePoudre, Kaneka

Marketing of Biodegradable Polymer PHBH™ as a Solution to Plastic Waste Issues

Phil van Trump, Danimer 12:00-12:30 & Garry Kohl, PepsiCo

Applications of PHA polymers in Barrier food packaging films

12:30-12:55 Eligio Martini, MAIP

The first biotechnopolymer: PHBH compounds, e.g. for electrical switches (ABB)

14:05-14:30 Remy Jongboom, Biotec

Industrial applications of PHBH in compounds

14:30-14:55 Harald Kaeb, narocon

Pitfalls and opportunities for marketing PHA products

14:55-15:20 Sam Deconinck, OWS

Biodegradation of PHAs: not simply a fixed feature


Eike Langenberg & Carsten Niermann, FKuR

Meet the needs for future legislations: Innovative PHA compounds

16:20-16:55 Fred Bollen, LifetecVision

Exploiting competitive for PHA-polymers




16:55-17:20 Karel Wilsens, AMIBM

Nucleating agents for PHAs and other biopolymers



Wednesday, Sep. 05, 2018 08:40-09:05 Lenka Mynářová, Hydal/Nafigate

PHA – Circular Economy Concept

09:05-09:30 Ruud Rouleaux, Helian Polymers

PHBV, manufacturing, applications and its use in 3D printing compounds.

09:30-09:55 René Rozendal, Paques

Demonstration of PHBV production from waste streams at large scale: the link to the PHBV market

09:55-10:20 Martijn Bovee & Leon Korving – Phario

High quality PHBV from wastewater

10:55-11:20 Christophe Collet, Scion Research

From pine to PHA products

11:20-11:45 Li Teng, Bluepha

Industrial-scale Low-cost P(3HB-co-4HB) Production via an open Fermentation Process

11:45-12:10 Stefan Jockenhövel, AMIBM

Role of Biodegradable Polymers for (Regenerative) Medicine

12:10-12:35 Murray Hasinoff, Purcell Agri-Tech

PHA coating for slow release fertilization

13:50-14:15 Guy Buyle, Centexbel

The use of PHA polymers for textile applications

14:15-14:40 Molly Morse, Mango Materials

Production of PHA-polymers from waste methane

14:40-15:05 Shunsuke Sato, Kaneka

Fermentative production of PHBH and metabolic engineering for regulation of its material properties

15:40-16:05 Urs Hänggi, Biomer

Virgin PHB has thermoplastic properties, but is not a thermoplast

16:05-16:30 Silvia Kliem, IKT, Univ. Stuttgart

Impact modification of PHB by building of a blockcopolymer

16:30-17:05 Pieter Samyn, Hasselt University

Formulation and processing of PHB with fibrillated cellulose for nanocomposite films and paper coatings

Subject to changes. Please visit the conference website for the current version of the programme. Here you also find more info on the speakers ans well as abstracts of all presentations 10

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13

Automotive Regis ter no w 04-05 Sep 2 018


ne, G

organized by

Co-organized by Jan Ravenstijn



PHA (Poly-Hydroxy-Alkanoates or polyhydroxy fatty acids) is a family of biobased polyesters. Examples for such Polyhydroxyalkanoates are PHB, PHV, PHBV, PHBH and many more. That’s why we speak about the PHA platform.

Also depending on the type, most PHAs are biodegradable in a wide range of environments, such as industrial and home composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), in soil, fresh- and even seawater.

Depending on the type of PHA, they can be used for applications in films and rigid packaging, biomedical applications, automotive, consumer electronics, appliances, toys, glues, adhesives, paints, coatings, fibers for woven and non-woven and inks. So PHAs cover a broad range of properties and applications.

As PHAs are gaining more and more interest, bioplastics MAGAZINE and Jan Ravenstijn are now organizing the 1st PHAplatform World Congress on 4-5 September 2018 in Cologne / Germany.

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13



IKEA and Neste go for bio-PE IKEA and Neste are now able to utilize renewable residue and waste raw materials, such as used cooking oil, as well as sustainably-produced vegetable oils in the production of plastic products. The pilot at commercial scale starts during fall 2018. It will be the first large-scale production of renewable, biobased polypropylene plastic globally. Ikea wants to have a positive impact on people and the planet while growing the business, which includes using more renewable and recycled materials and explore new materials for Ikea products. As part of this journey, Ikea is working to change all of the plastic used in Ikea products to plastic based on recycled and/or renewable materials by 2030. By changing to plastic based on renewable material, Ikea can secure the production for the future, and eliminate the need for extraction of finite fossil fuel for the purpose of making plastic and thus reduce the impact on climate change. One of the ongoing projects towards eliminating virgin fossilbased raw materials in plastic products is a collaboration between Ikea and Neste, which was initiated in 2016. Thanks to this collaboration, Ikea and Neste are now able to turn waste and residue raw materials, such as used cooking oil, as well as sustainable vegetable oils into polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) plastic. “This new material represents a significant step towards a fossil free future. No one has ever before been able to

produce PP plastic from a fossil-free raw material other than on a laboratory scale. Together with Neste, we are ensuring that there is an opportunity to scale up the production of this material”, says Erik Ljungblad, Category Manager Plastic Products at Ikea of Sweden. “The production of biobased plastics at a commercial scale is a major achievement in the cooperation between Neste and Ikea, while it also marks a significant milestone in Neste’s strategy. Ikea is the first company to benefit from the developed supply capability that helps companies and brand owners towards replacing fossil-based raw materials with sustainable biobased raw materials,” says Senior Vice President Tuomas Hyyryläinen from Neste’s Emerging Businesses business unit. The pilot at commercial scale of PP and PE plastic, chosen to contain 20 % renewable content, will start during fall 2018. The production of biobased plastics will be based on Neste’s 100 % renewable hydrocarbons. Ikea will use the new plastic in products that are part of the current product range, such as plastic storage boxes, starting with a limited number of products. As capacities improve, more products will follow. MT |

nova-Institute Events in 2018/2019

18 September 2018 · Airport Cologne/Bonn, Germany

1 – 2 October 2018 · Maritim Hotel, Cologne, Germany

6 – 8 November 2018 · Messe Stuttgart, Germany

20 – 21 March 2019 · Maternushaus, Cologne, Germany 16th International Conference of the European Industrial Hemp Association June 5th – 6th 2019

15-16 May 2019 · Maternushaus, Cologne, Germany


5-6 June 2019 · Maternushaus, Cologne, Germany

Contact: Mr. Dominik Vogt, +49 (0) 2233 48 14 49, · All conferences at

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13

bio PAC

call for p



organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE

biobased packaging conference 28 - 29 may 2019 düsseldorf

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Coorganized by

Packaging is necessary for: » protection during transport and storage » prevention of product losses » increasing shelf life » sharing product information and marketing BUT : Packaging does not necessarily need to be made from petroleum based plastics. Most packaging have a short life and therefore give rise to large quantities of waste. Accordingly, it is vital to use the most suitable raw materials and implement good ‘end-of-life’ solutions. Biobased and compostable materials have a key role to play in this respect. Biobased packaging » is packaging made from mother nature‘s gifts. » can be made from renewable resources or waste streams » can offer innovative features and beneficial barrier properties » can help to reduces the depletion of finite fossil resources and CO2 emissions » can offer environmental benefits in the end-of-life phase » offers incredible opportunities. That‘s why bioplastics MAGAZINE (in cooperation with Green Serendipity is now organizing the third edition of bio!PAC Call for Papers now open: Please send your proposal to

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13



Nature always finds the solution Bio-on inaugurated first plant for the production of special PHA bioplastics By Michael Thielen


io-on (Bologna, Italy), a company that describes itself as an Intellectual Property Company (IPC) that supplies technologies to produce or use Polyhydroxyalkanoates(PHAs) through licenses, officially inaugurated a production plant of its own during a ceremony on June 20th. The new plant will produce PHB and PHBVV bioplastics for high added value niche markets such as the microbeads used in the cosmetics sector. All PHA bioplastics developed by Bio-on under the brand name Minerv™ are made from renewable plant sources with no competition with food supply chains. They guarantee the same thermo-mechanical properties as comparable conventional plastics with the advantage of being 100% ecosustainable and naturally biodegradable The new plant is located in Castel San Pietro Terme, near Bologna, Italy. The theme of the grand opening was “La natura trova sempre la soluzione” (Nature always finds the solution). In an impressive multimedia presentation, Bio-on’s Chairman and CEO Marco Astorri first showed to the more than 300 invited guests the shocking reality of marine pollution caused by plastic waste. Video clips showed birds on a picturesque Pacific atoll, dead from ingesting bottle tops and other litter they had mistakenly thought to be food. Astorri then showed a few ancient 1950s commercials and the famous scene from “The Graduate”, in which plastics are lauded as the material of the future, The further presentation focused on the use of microbeads in cosmetics: an exemplary case of plastic waste that is literally washed down the drain. These microbeads, which serve as thickeners or stabilisers in such widely used products as lipstick, lip gloss, mascara, eye-liner, nail polish, creams, shampoo, foam bath and even toothpaste, pollute the environment; once they are rinsed off after use, they become a permanent part of the natural cycle: they are swallowed by plankton in the rivers and seas and thus enter the food chain, to ultimately end up on our plates. The level of pollution is so serious that the USA was the first country to bring in a law (Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015) banning the use of oil-based polymers in body care products. Some countries, such as Canada, UK, Sweden and France, recently followed suit while others, such as Ireland, Netherlands, Italy, have announced they will do so, as stated in Bio-on’s press release accompanying the inauguration. This provided a convenient segue to introduce PHAs as a family or platform of biobased and biodegradable polyesters in general - and the Minerv PHAs which are to be produced in the new plant, in particular. The first product to be produced at the new plant will be Minerv Bio Cosmetics, the bioplastic microbeads for cosmetics designed to replace the oil-based and non-biodegradable plastic particles currently used Using Minerv Bio Cosmetics bioplastic in cosmetics products eliminates these pollutants because the micro


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particles of bioplastic are naturally biodegradable in water and, therefore, do not enter the food chain. What is more, the biopolymer developed at the Bio-on laboratories actually decomposes into a nutrient for some micro-organisms and plants present in nature. The benefit for the environment is therefore two-fold. In his presentation Marco Astorri went on to introduce Professor Jian Yu from the University of Hawaii in Manoa, with whom Bio-on has been working for 10 years on the development of their Minerv PHA products. And the cooperation will continue. “We have big and (still) secret plans for the future,” Marco Astorri said with a smile. The new plant is located on a plot measuring some 30,000 m2; it has 3,700 m2 covered space and 6,000 m2 land for development. The current production capacity is 1,000 tonnes per year, rapidly expandable to 2,000 tonnes/a. The plant, managed by Bio-on Plants, the division responsible for production, future expansion and new plants, is equipped with the very latest technologies and the most advanced research laboratories. Here, over 20 researchers in the CNS division (Cosmetic, Nanomedicine & Smart Materials) can test new carbon sources from agricultural waste to produce new types of biodegradable bioplastic and increase the range of technologies offered by Bio-on. The company also demonstrates its focus on sustainability in its choice of site, opting to convert a former factory without occupying any new land. The overall investment in the production hub and new research laboratories is EUR 20 million. “We are very pleased because since March 2017, when the first stone was laid, we have kept to our schedule and kept the promises we made to the market,” says Marco Astorri. “Our technicians and partners have been incredibly reliable throughout the process.” “Like all complex industrial plants, the new production hub is running a series of tests before becoming fully operational in autumn. The entire production cycle is run from an innovative control room at the heart of the plant,” explains Riccardo Casoni, Bio-on Plants director, “and this is where the entire industrial process will be tested before production begins 24/7. The new production hub is also the headquarters of the Business Unit RAF (Recovery And Fermentation), which develops and optimises bioplastic fermentation and extraction processes to obtain the best possible product yield; and CNS (Cosmetic, Nanomedicine & Smart Materials), which uses cutting-edge scientific equipment to test new types of bioplastic and develop new applications. The areas of operation are Cosmetics, Nanomedicine, Biomedical, Nutraceuticals, Bioremediation, Organic Electronics and Advanced Materials. CNS laboratories are the base for over 20 researchers from various parts of the world and many different scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, pharmacy,


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materials engineering, biotechnologies, electronics, and mathematics with an average age of 30. In the meantime Bio-on announced that it has successfully completed the first test phase. So far, all tests have been successful and performed on schedule. “As announced during the inauguration, we expect to be fully operational by autumn” explained Riccardo Casoni, “and to be able to produce and to market as early as 2018 a quantity of PHAs micro powders of about 150 tonnes”. “Respecting the project deadlines and being able to increase the production is fundamental”, said Marco Astorri, “since it does not escape anyone that the new European directive on the reduction of pollution caused by traditional plastic, which the European Parliament will have to approve in September, will open a huge market for biodegradable plastics. And Bio-on has a unique competitive advantage since our bioplastic is 100 % biodegradable not only on land but also in water”.

Marco Astorri opening the presentation

In a separate meeting on the sidelines of the inauguration in June bioplastics MAGAZINE spoke to Diego Torresan, Business Development Manager of Bio-on. Asked about my introductory sentence of this article, Diego confirmed tha Bio-on is not the standard biopolymer producer. Their core business is and will continue to be related to the intellectual properties. So their main customers are companies that own the biomass, or plastic users that want to convert from oil-based to renewably based plastics or as a third group companies that want to buy the biomass and produce PHA for the plastic users. And the inauguration of the new plant - a reference plant - does not change this core business, as Diego emphasised. The products from the new plant - powders - will be used and sold as powders, mainly for these cosmetic applications or to do more research, “just like the polymers coming from the pilot plant that we are running since 2011”, Diego said. Apart from the cosmetics sector, Bio-on sees a lot of similar niche markets, such as nanomedical applications, industrial 3D-printing, and a lot of application in agriculture, e.g. for controlled release encapsulation and the like. Possible market segments can also be found in structural applications such as furniture, automotive parts or toys. Another interesting field of application the so-called bioremediation. bioplastics MAGAZINE reported in issue 04/2017 about Bioon’s revolutionary new technology to eliminate oil pollution in the sea within 3 weeks.

Claudio Luti, President of Kartell (left) and Marco Astorri

Grand Opening Ceremony and Party

Another question concerned the abovementioned renewable plant sources with no competition with food supply chains. Diego explained that the sources for Minerv resins are agro-industrial co-products such as the molasses from sugar cane, crude glycerol from the biodiesel production or co-products from dates to name just a few. Concerning potential pressure from shareholders Diego said that the company that was founded and owned by Marco Astorri and Guy Cicognani only sold 10% of the company to shareholdes in 2014. Today 30% is owned by shareholders, so there is no pressure influencing any decisions.

The new plant (Photo:Bio-on)

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


Blow moulding

No message in the bottle – NaKu’s PLA bottle offers a responsible alternative


stablished in 2007, Vienna, Austria-based NaKu has garnered acclaim for its use of innovative technologies in the development of sustainable packaging solutions. NaKu launched its first plant-based bottle for exclusive customers back in 2011 and has since built up extensive experience in meeting the challenges regarding production, filling and shelf life. “Our NaKu bottle is now used by special customers, who are breaking new ground in packaging solutions,” says Johann Zimmermann, Managing Director of NaKu. Conventional bottles claim to be made without harmful substances such as phthalates, Bisphenol A (BPA), antimony or endocrine disrupting substances. The NaKu bottle offers all of that, but much more as well. As it is made from PLA, the NaKu bottle is derived from 100 % renewable resources. Its uniqueness is due to the main ingredient, lactic acid, a natural compound that is also produced and metabolized in the human body. Non-toxic and environmentally friendly, lactic acid is naturally present in many foodstuffs, and therefore also edible (E270, consumption without any limit according to EFSA positive listing 2011). The PLA used to produce the NaKu bottle is obtained from sugar or starch. The bottle is about 10 times cheaper and 20 times lighter than comparable solutions made out of glass. It is the ideal packaging material for still water, fruit juices, smoothies and milk products as well as solid foods, including pills, herbs, sweets, nutritional supplements and much more. Even cosmetics may someday be packaged in PLA packaging.


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“For me as a (bio)plastics technician, it doesn’t matter which kind of form I produce. Of course I am also able to produce cans, container, basins, and bowls etc… whatever you need for your product package,” asserts Johann Zimmermann. The NaKu bottle is fully biodegradable and can be incinerated in a carbon neutral natural cycle. But PLA is also recyclable, which is the preferred option for the NaKu bottle in the future. However, until production of the bottles reaches the critical volume needed to make recycling commercially feasible , waste-to-energy incineration remains, at least for now, the best end- of-life solution. “Our aim is the use of natural plastics to design the next generation of convenient products satisfying both economic and ecologic requirements. Short transport distances and local production is the key to keep this cycle as small as possible,” Zimmermann says, thereby setting the bar high. To meet this standard, the material must have a minimal environmental impact and comply with the concept of closed cycles (cradle to cradle). The properties of the material used for the bottle are very similar to PET and it is easy to process on conventional machines. Hence there is no need to buy new equipment in order to produce the PLA bottle. Due to the 7 % weight advantage, fewer transports are required, and CO2 emissions can be drastically reduced. Further reduction in emissions – up to by 50 % - is possible during the production process itself, as processing takes place at lower temperatures and requires less energy. The carbon footprint of these bottles is 75 % lower compared to glass bottles.

Blow moulding

the bottle is the message!

By: Johann Zimmermann NaKu, Vienna, Austria

to conventional options The material is biodegradable under certain conditions. However, this should be communicated very carefully, as it should not encourage people to litter. Biodegradability is never an excuse for littering nor is it a solution for littering. Proper disposal, whether through waste-toenergy incineration, recycling (when feasible) or industrial composting where possible, should always to be pursued. The NaKu bottle is safe to use, light, break resistant and cheap. More importantly, it offers options for responsible disposal at the end of its life cycle and is the first plantbased bottle that leaves no trace behind, either in the body or in nature. In a nutshell: the innovative NaKu bottle is clear and bright, can be dyed and individual designed, it is stiff and firm, break resistant, safe to use, 7 % lighter than PET, suitable to food, stable to oils, fats and water. The bottle can be used at temperatures up to 55-65 °C. First transparent prototypes can withstand 90°C and NaKu is working to improve this. More importantly, being reusable, recyclable and biodegradable under certain conditions it offers options for responsible disposal at the end of its life cycle. And it is available for competitive prices. NaKu also offers caps made of bio-PE as well as compostable PLA labels and shrink sleeves. The bottle made of plants is the first of its kind that leaves no trace behind in the body or in nature.

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Blow moulding

100 % biobased PET bottle closer to reality Commercializing cost-competitive renewable aromatics Momentum is building as Anellotech, headquartered at Pearl River New York, USA, moves closer to commercializing its Bio-TCatTM catalytic technology and developing a 100 % biobased PET bottle.


sustainable technology company, Anellotech is focused on the innovative production of cost-competitive renewable chemicals and fuels from non-food biomass. Their Bio-TCat technology uses efficient thermal catalytic processes to converts biomass feedstocks materials (e.g. wood, sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, and other non-food materials) into BTX aromatics (a mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene) which are chemically identical to petroleum-based counterparts. They can be used in a range of chemical applications and as a biofuels blendstock for gasoline.

The first shipment of BTX has recently been sent to joint development partners IFPEN and its subsidiary Axens (both Rueil-Malmaison, Paris, France) for purification studies to make bio-paraxylene – the key aromatic chemical needed to make 100% renewable beverage bottles a reality. Bioparaxylene from TCat-8® will be used to make purified terephthalic acid (PTA) and subsequently 100% bio-based PET bottles a reality. The other monomer, monoethylene glycol (MEG) to make fully biobased PET is already commercially available made from sugar cane. BTX aromatics are currently used to make commodity plastics such as polyester, polystyrenes, polycarbonates, nylons and polyurethanes, which are subsequently used to manufacture consumer goods such as food packaging, clothing, footwear, carpeting, automotive and electronic components – as well as beverage bottles. Creating biobased BTX aromatics from renewable materials could dramatically alter the basic raw material sourcing for a wide range of consumer goods with important sustainability implications for society.

Striving for 100 % bio-based Anellotech knows that strategic collaboration is key for faster and more efficient technology development. One of their main partnerships is with global consumer beverage company Suntory (Minato, Tokyo, Japan). Anellotech has collaborated with them since 2012 to advance development and commercialization of cost-competitive bio-aromatics, including bio-paraxylene. Suntory currently uses plant-derived MEG (30 %) for its Mineral Water Suntory Tennensui® brands. Together, the two companies want to create a 100 % biobased PET bottle through this alliance, part of their joint commitment to sustainable business practices. Work is progressing to make this a reality. The first steps towards making prototype bottles have already begun. Since the announcement of a successful two-week continuous


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Blow moulding

trial in March 2018 in Anellotech’s pilot plant in Silsbee, Texas, USA, over 1,200 hours of cumulative on-stream time have been achieved at TCat-8, while BTX has been generated for product testing and evaluation and process development data collected for future commercial plant design. David Sudolsky, President & CEO of Anellotech, said “Following our announcements earlier this year on process development and continuous operation, we are glad that significant progress continues at our TCat-8 pilot plant. We continue to move the technology towards commercialization and shipping the pilot plant’s product for downstream evaluation is another major milestone. Having collaborated with Suntory since 2012 to advance development of costcompetitive bio-aromatics, we hope bio-based plastics made from our Bio-TCat process and a 100 % biobased (PET) bottle soon become a reality.” Anellotech is keen to partner with other innovative consumer product companies and brand owners aiming to meet sustainability goals with a low carbon footprint technology using non-food biomass feedstock. Producing BTX aromatics using the Bio-TCat technology can dramatically reduce industrial carbon footprints and provide a reliable and economical source of bio-aromatics.

A biobased future is a more sustainable future If the industry can ensure performance, delivery and quality, the renewable chemicals sector will help take biobased chemicals into the mainstream. Anellotech is confident that biobased plastics made from its Bio-TCat process are becoming ever-closer to commercial status and they hope the dream for a 100 % bio-based bottle soon becomes a reality. MT

Join us at the

13th European Bioplastics Conference – the leading business forum for the bioplastics industry.

4/5 December 2018 Titanic Chaussee Hotel Berlin, Germany


@EUBioplastics #eubpconf For more information email:

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


Blow Moulding / Bottle Applications

New bio-MEG demonstration plant


vantium N.V., a leading technology development company and forerunner in renewable chemistry, has started construction of a new demonstration plant that will help advance the production of bio-based monoethylene glycol (MEG) made directly from renewable sugars. As MEG is a component for making everyday consumer goods, such as PET and PEF (cf. pp. 48) plastics and polyester textiles, the development of an environmentally friendly plant-based alternative has strong potential. Today, more than 99% of MEG is produced from fossil resources and the market demand for this product is expected to grow from 28 million to 50 million tons in the next 20 years. Biobased MEG, as for example used for bio-PET30 (e.g. Coca-Cola Plant Bottle™) has been available for quite a while, mainly from India or Brazil. “Our novel single-step process can finally fulfil this demand in an environmentally sustainable manner that both consumers and leading brands have been seeking. I am proud of our team for making this important technological breakthrough. This enables renewable products growth for consumers that increasingly demand products brought to them in a responsible manner,” said Tom van Aken, Chief Executive Officer of Avantium. The new plant will use Avantium’s pioneering Mekong technology to convert renewable sugars into bio-based MEG. The plant – part of a previously disclosed €15-20 million investment in our most advanced technologies – will be operational in 2019, employing up to 20 people. Alongside this important investment decision by Avantium, the European Innovation Council has selected the Mekong technology as part of its €146 million investment in top-class innovators, entrepreneurs, small companies and scientists with bright ideas and the ambition to scale up internationally. “We are honored to be selected among the


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79 innovative projects following face-to-face interviews with a jury of innovators, entrepreneurs and venture capitalists,” said Van Aken. The objectives of the demonstration plant are to scale up the novel bio-MEG technology, validate the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and to collect data to execute an environmental life-cycle analysis (LCA) quantifying the sustainability benefits of the Avantium technology. The demonstration plant site has not yet been announced, said the company, who added it was in the process of deciding between two locations. Construction will take place at an offsite location to control environmental conditions for complex chemistry and to protect the intellectual property of the technology. The plant will be delivered fully assembled to the chosen location and is expected to be completed in the second half of 2019. “This is a major step forward in the development of our Mekong technology,” said Zanna McFerson, Chief Business Development Officer of Avantium. “In addition to the environmental benefits, this demonstration plant will replicate commercial scale conditions of producing costeffective bio-MEG; a drop-in product identical to the fossilderived product. We are exploring partnership opportunities in bringing this technology to full-scale commercialization globally.” MT

Monoethylen glycol (MEG)

Blow Moulding / Bottle Applications VELOX offers newly developed transparent bio-plastic by SK Chemicals for hot-fill applications (Photo Syda Productions/Fotolia)

Bio-copolyester for cans and bottles

Newly developed transparent bio-plastic as an alternative to aluminium for aerosols and to heat-set PET for hot-fill applications


ELOX and SK Chemicals recently presented ECOZEN HF®, a bio-copolyester range especially suitable for the aerosol and food packaging industries

VELOX GmbH (Hamburg, Germany), one of Europe’s leading solution providers of raw material specialities for the plastics, composites, additives and paint & coatings industries, and its long-term partner SK Chemicals Co. Ltd. (Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do province, South Korea) are presenting the next innovation for plastic packaging applications such as aerosol containers as well as cosmetic and hot fill bottles. Ecozen HF is a newly developed bio-copolyester range that is perfectly suitable for aluminum, glass and pet replacement wherever heat and pressure resistance combined with transparency is required. first customers have already started sampling the grades. “Ecozen HF has similar processing requirements to PET and can be used in the same injection-stretch blow moulding (ISBM) process. However, the new grades by SK Chemicals perform perfectly in areas where PET can sometimes fail,

such as in high temperature and high-pressure applications”, explains François Minec, General Manager at Velox. “For example, PET is sometimes used to produce aerosol bottles. These bottles can often fail due to high residual stress and the low temperature resistance of PET, especially in the summer months when possible leakage is the result. Ecozen HF offers an ideal alternative here.” Besides remarkable resistance to pressure, stresscracking and high temperatures, Ecozen HF is characterised by excellent transparency and easy processing. As a glass replacement, e.g. for food packaging, it not only helps to reduce weight and transportation costs but can also be used to produce hot-fill containers without the need for an expensive PET heat-setting process or the need for crystallising the bottle or jar neck. Similarly, as an aluminum substitute in the cosmetics packaging industry, Ecozen HF combines high pressure-resistance with design flexibility and transparency. In addition, Ecozen HF is totally miscible with PET in the recycling stream. MT |


Whether it is inhouse, postconsumer or bottle recycling: you can only close loops in a precise and profitable way if machines are perfectly tuned for the respective application. Count on the number 1 technology from EREMA when doing so: over 5000 of our machines and systems produce around 14 million tonnes of high-quality pellets like this every year – in a highly efficient and energy-saving way. That’s Careformance!

CAREFORMANCE We care about your performance.

1710013ERE_ins_bioplastics magazine.indd 1

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Application AutomotiveNews

Foldable reusabel transport packaging WALTHER Faltsysteme sets new standards for sustainability in returnable logistics: The specialist for foldable reusable transport packaging presents for the first time a plastic folding box, 93 % of which was produced from renewable raw materials (a blend of sugar based resins, minerals and natural waxes). The folding box will initially be available in the external dimensions 600 x 400 x 220 mm. The future areas of application for the innovative container are diverse: standard dimensions and the latest RFID technology guarantee reliable processes from highly automated intralogistics and supplier transport to the use in stores. With this pilot project, Walther Faltsysteme is further developing its proven GREENLINE product range: the company manufactures 100 % of its Greenline transport boxes from regenerative plastic. The latest innovation in the Greenline product line is produced by injection moulding and shall be available in

all colours. Reason for the further development from using regenerative plastics towards using more and more lastics from renewable raw materials is the increasing demand for lean and environmentally friendly reusable transport packaging in all sectors. “With around 17 million tonnes of packaging waste per year, producers, suppliers and dealers are looking for an efficient solution. The product development of a folding box made of renewable raw materials brings us one step closer to our goal of a low-pollution recycling economy”, explains Thomas Walther, Managing Director of Walther Faltsysteme. The Greenline product line convinces with its sustainable development concept: with proper handling, the containers score with a comparatively long service life of around 100 cycles. The regenerative material can also be used for about two to three additional product life cycles after the recycling process. Walther Faltsysteme has already circulated more than 500,000 transport containers made of regenerative material. MT

New organic almondmilk with cashew in its first plant based bottle or fewer, such as vanilla extract and responsibly sourced coconut sugar. These new nutmilks avoid excessive use of stabilizers and thickeners, allowing the taste of the real ingredients to shine. “Every ingredient has a purpose, and every flavor comes to life in its own unique way,” said Aubrey Yuzva, Senior Brand Manager, So Delicious Dairy Free. “It’s so delicious, you’ll be so surprised it’s such a simple recipe with no extra.”

So Delicious® Dairy Free, Eugene, Oregon, makers of delicious dairy-free foods and beverages, is expanding its nutmilks with the launch of three new So Delicious Organic Almondmilks with Cashew – in primarily plant-based packaging, i.e. bottle mede of Braskem’s Green PE. A leader in dairy-free products for the past 30 years, So Delicious has made its mark on the industry with over 100 delicious dairyfree choices. The brand continues its legacy with this launch of organic almondmilk with cashew, which has seven ingredients


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In an effort to continue to grow as a clean and sustainable brand, So Delicious has also developed the first primarily plant-based bottle in the refrigerated dairy case for the new line of organic almondmilk with cashew, so consumers can fall in love with the bottle, too. The recyclable bottles are at least 80 % plant-based, reducing the brand’s dependence on fossil fuels. Their latest Non-GMO Project Verified, Gluten-Free, Certified Vegan and Certified Organic nutmilk is available in three flavors; vanilla, unsweetened and original, all of which are 50 calories or fewer per serving. Each flavor includes cashews for added creaminess and is free of carrageenan, artificial flavors, artificial colors, dairy and soy. MT

Application Automotive News

Materials from Total Corbion PLA used to build world’s first biobased circular car The world’s first biobased circular car, designed and built in the Netherlands by the Technical University of Eindhoven, was presented earlier this month by the team of students responsible for its design and realization. This is the first time that a car chassis and all bodywork has been made from natural and biobased materials - no metal or traditional plastics were used for the structural parts of the car. The parts are made up of light and strong sandwich panels, based on natural fiber flax and Luminy® PLA supplied by Total Corbion PLA. The car, named Noah by the TU/ecomotive student team, was designed as a city car and features two seats and a spacious trunk. Noah is currently undertaking a European tour of car manufacturers, suppliers and universities to inspire others.

were used to construct the car, in order to ensure durability and sufficient heat resistance. François de Bie, Senior Marketing Director at Total Corbion PLA, is pleased with the achievement: ‘The result of this fantastic project shows just how far biobased materials have come, to produce such a complex product as a car. Noah is the proof that PLA is suitable for so much more than packaging. This is the first ever car to feature a fully biobased chassis and body panels. At Total Corbion PLA, we look forward to working together with the entire value chain to bring more high performance, durable and circular applications to market’. MT |

In addition to its biobased composition, it is also ultralight and electrically-powered. Noah reaches a top speed of 110 km/h and the battery range lasts up to 240 km. At 360kg, the weight of the car excluding batteries is less than half the weight of comparable production cars. In addition to being biobased, the parts are also recyclable, resulting in a 100% circular car, sustainable in all life phases. The PLA supplied by Total Corbion PLA for use in the car is biobased and recyclable and made from renewable resources, offering a reduced carbon footprint versus many traditional plastics. High heat Luminy PLA grades

Sustainable skin care products in sustainable packaging Denmark-based grums Aarhus produces scrub products without microbeads. Their secret ingredient? Coffee grounds. According to grums, coffee grounds refresh and firm the skin, are anti-inflammatory and enhance the circulation. Best of all, they don’t harm the environment when they go down the drain. For this company, choosing the right packaging was very important. Braskem’s I’m Green sugarbased polyethylene offered the sustainablility credentials grums was looking for. The company opted to plant-based plastic for all its packaging and by doing so, will significantly reduce the carbon footprint of its packaging, as well as the use of fossil resources. For every kg of I’m green polyethylene used ,more than 5 kg of CO2 is saved.

made from sugar cane our products are complete. This is also one of our selling points and it adds storytelling to our products which we, and our customers, enjoy. We are very glad that Braskem is making these greener solutions that we want to support and make use of in our company,” says Mikkel Knudsen, founder of grums.Their latest Non-GMO Project Verified, Gluten-Free, Certified Vegan and Certified Organic nutmilk is available in three flavors; vanilla, unsweetened and original, all of which are 50 calories or fewer per serving. Each flavor includes cashews for added creaminess and is free of carrageenan, artificial flavors, artificial colors, dairy and soy. MT

“We contacted more than 50 packaging suppliers to find exactly what we needed - a green solution. When making an innovative and sustainable product as a brand you also want the packaging of the product to share the same values. By using packaging

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Natural fibres for motorsports Bcomp’s high performance renewable fibres vs. standard carbon fiber layup for motorsports DAB Motors for Yamaha, Biarritz The Alter XSR900 commissioned by Yamaha is a prime example of Simon Dabadie‘s (founder of DAB motors) constant search to push the limits of motorcycle building using the latest technology and materials to create an extraordinary combination of futurism and vintage. The result is a stunning motorcycle where the highperformance ampliTex technical fabrics not only contribute to light-weight and more sustainable body parts with a flirt to vintage looks, but also enables the unique front light with their translucency.

race ready EPCS V2.3 Tesla P100DL

ƒƒ Maintained performance at lower weight, or increased stiffness at maintained weight (compared to standard carbon fibre composites) ƒƒ Safer crash behaviour without sharp shattering, and increased vibration damping ƒƒ Up to 30 % cost savings ƒƒ Lower eco footprint – more sustainable material, less material, and used material can be taken care of within the standard waste management system Bcomp, Fribourg / Switzerland announced a few new applications in motosports applications. The Flax fibre based powerRibs™ proprietary reinforcement technology forms a unique grid that supports thin-walled shell structures for e.g. motorsport body parts or automotive interiors. Combining extremely high performance (stiffness, vibration damping) with low weight, safer crash behaviour, powerRibs can be combined with ampliTex™ technical fabrics for a high-performance, full flax panel; alternatively, the flax-based powerRibs can also be combined to a glassor carbon fibre base. The ampliTex technical fabrics combine the finest flax fibres with a radical composites approach, and Bcomp’s cutting edge natural fibre know-how. This results in the highest performing natural fibre fabrics on the market, yielding the perfect partner for powerRibs to form superior lightweight panels with high vibration damping, stiffness and safer crash behaviour, all using natural flax fibres.


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Electric GT Holdings Inc. (headquartered at Circuit PauArnos, France) and SPV Racing just unveiled the raceready version of the EPCS V2.3 Tesla P100DL at Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya. Under the foil there is another layer to the story: the racing edition is lightweighted with body parts in natural fiber ampliTex and powerRibs, contributing to the 500kg weight reduction vs. the road edition. The EPCS edition Tesla also leverages the flax fibres unique translucency as the roof has a fully inte-grated LED screen that will display statistics and information during the races – an entirely new and revolutionising grip to bring the audience closer to the race and a part of modernising racing to attract new audiences. MT | |


PR E S E N T S The Bioplastics Award will be presented during the 13th European Bioplastics Conference December 04-05, 2018, Berlin, Germany


Call for proposals Enter your own product, service or development, or nominate your favourite example from another organisation

Please let us know until August 31st 1. What the product, service or development is and does 2. Why you think this product, service or development should win an award 3. What your (or the proposed) company or organisation does


Your entry should not exceed 500 words (approx. 1 page) and may also be supported with photographs, samples, marketing brochures and/or technical documentation (cannot be sent back). The 5 nominees must be prepared to provide a 30 second videoclip and come to Berlin on December 4th, 2018. More details and an entry form can be downloaded from

supported by bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13



20 years Tecnaro Congratulations – but also some serious words of the founders


pioneer in bioplastics for 20 years, TECNARO from Ilsfeld, Germany is still acting with a fighting spirit.

Helmut Nägele and Jürgen Pfitzer

Gucci sunglasses and shoe

“First be smiled at, then fought against and finally regarded as a matter of course” - this was formulated by Arthur Schopenhauer for the truth and has now been transferred by the laudator in his speech to two pioneers from Heilbronn, Germany. Helmut Nägele and Jürgen Pfitzer, Managing Directors of Tecnaro, have resolutely pursued their idea of using renewable resources in order to manufacture their bioplastics named liquid woodARBOFORM®, ARBOBLEND® and ARBOFILL® - with all properties of plastic. Today, in the company’s twentieth year of existence, they proudly say “we have succeeded”. All over the world, their formulas are contained in everyday objects such as fashion, automobiles, facades, craftsmen-, trade and industrial needs. Tecnaro’s formulas are used for Benetton hangers or Friedwald forest cemetery urns, for example.

Of course, so many times Nägele und Pfitzer and their team have continued in research and development, have transferred their ideas into practice, have selected and discarded all changes and started again – until they developed formulas for a wide/broad application range. However, they are made from sugar, starch, natural wax, organic oil or wood extractives like cellulose and lignin. According to Helmut Nägele, up to 70 % of all conventional plastic may be replaced technically by Tecnaro resins or compounds. Tecnaro’s recipes are used in Audi R8, in punches and staplers from Novus, in shoes and sun glasses from Gucci and in the multiple-award-winning Biobrush toothbrushes. In Addition, the bio version of the glue sticks ReNature“ and the text markers Edding 24 which are well-known worldwide, are made from Tecnaro materials. For a long time, a leading manufacturer of corn mills has been using casings made of wood. Now, with good reason Mockmill as a first kitchen appliance wears a dress made from bio plastics Arboblend.

Strong network created around the Tecnaro Team During the last 20 years, a most remarkable and strong plastic technology network has been created around the Tecnaro Team which comprises innovative customers, research and development partners, flexible suppliers, authorities and associations acting in a prudent manner, fair market players, keen understanding consultants and auditors as well as strong financial partners. Thanks to its competent sales representatives and Albis Plastic GmbH Hamburg, Tecnaro materials are reaching even the most far-away countries. “We need to grow even more but have already amazingly powerful partners in the entire world“, say the two managing directors and add “together we are everywhere!” Biobrush


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“There’s nothing left to desire“ results Öko-Test Besides Arboform und Arbofill, Arboblend is one of Tecnaro’s basic formulas. And whether it concerns returnable coffee-to-go beakers, organic freezer bags, coffee capsules, cooking- or baby spoons, highest standards are valid for food contact. Therefore, the German magazine Öko-Test thoroughly tested the Ajaa Lunchbox made from Arboblend and awarded it the overall rating “very high quality” and drew a positive conclusion “there’s nothing left to desire“(6/2018 issue). Tecnaro‘s biopolymers leave the factory in form of granules. They are made from renewable raw materials and are biodegradable or long term resistant. The materials can be processed, for example, by injection molding, extrusion, calendering, pressing, thermoforming and blow molding. The trophies of Green Brands Germany, for example, are made via 3D printing process. And by using an additive manufacturing system Freeformer which is a revolutionary manufacturing technology from Arburg, functionally planetary gears (working similarly like a clockwork) are made in a single work step, without further assembly. Tecnaro also scores at another place on the playing field: the ball Binabo from TicToys (Leipzig, Germany) has accurately landed to the 2018 Football World Cup. Before they start playing with the Binabo, children can assemble it from pieces. However, from the Binabo parts, something else may be assembled, too. This different football made from Arboblend was designed based on an example from Myanmar which is made from rattan fencing. And of course, the new one is made from 100% renewable raw materials, too.

Ajaa lunch-boxes

Binabo toy

Steadily in upward trend With a team of more than 30 employees and thereof a lot of highly qualified academics, the trend for Tecnaro is upwards. Besides a high media attention, the number of prizes and awards is increasing almost every year (see separate infobox).

Edding highlighters

Today, the level of being laughed at has overcome. Does everything fit now? Shouldn’t the world embrace the German pioneers for their rescue visions about plastic replacement? And this in times in which the world’s oceans are in danger of suffocating in plastic waste whirls. The reversal away from fossil raw materials and oil to sustainable and renewable resources was never before as topical as today. Helmut Nägele, Managing director of Tecnaro, says: “like the turn in energy politics, the raw material shift should be propagated accordingly and repeated continually. It’s a fact that the world’s resources of oil are finite. Already today, oilmultis are buying forests on a large-scale in order to keep at least their market power within global competition. “ Nighthawk Headphones

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


Opinion Questionable closeness to industry Meanwhile, Nägele und Pfitzer see themselves having reached step two which means to be combated. Here, the main challenge will not be the competition to the oil industry but even hostility out of a totally unexpected corner, from acteurs which Tecnaro thought they would give backing. However, a world-wide environmental organization has just thrown down a gauntlet. “Initially, this nonprofit environmental organization tackled with questionable theses against a near to finalization contract concerning a product being developed over months for a large customer. Afterwards, the related partners of this organization took benefit of this business opportunity based on Tecnaro’s development”, says Pfitzer. Bioplastics facade mock-up, Campus University Stuttgart, Germany

“We’ve lost our faith”, say the two Tecnaro leaders. “As a manufacturer of biobased granules from renewable resources we constantly have to answer questions from anywhere and have to keep expensive records additionally. However, this procedure would not have to be performed by manufacturers of oil-based polymers. It seems really bizarre that such environmental organizations have now discovered established bioplastics for themselves and are commercializing this technology and, against their better knowledge, create distortions of competition – and in this case even in favor of conventional oil-based plastics”, says Jürgen Pfitzer. In this context, Pfitzer cites an Italian proverb which says: “Anyone who does everything for the sake of money will soon do everything for the money.”

Fiscal advantage for oil-based plastics ReNature glue stick

This year, Tecnaro is focusing on other topics witch are especially its 20-years anniversary and the trend-setting market movement thus arriving even under the wide knowledge of the fact that oil-based plastics has still favorable terms of tax (at least in Germany). This special position within fiscal legislation goes back to the 60’s and has today only little public awareness. In this context, it is remarkable that at that time, their justification was that oil-based plastic waste would not be burnt, in contrast to fuel. Nägele and Pfitzer are not alone in considering the subsidy for oil-based plastics as unjustified. In this context, just recently, Robert Habeck, Chairman of the German Green party, has required to introduce an EU-wide tax on oil-based plastics for disposable items. This was published in the media accordingly. Nägele und Pfitzer consider it absurd that there is a tax allowance of several millions of euros per year for the plastic flood. “For years, we have been recommending an additional CO2-emission tax on products made of fossil raw materials and now, we found out that these

Punch and stapler (Novus)


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Opinion are even exempt from mineral oil tax“, says Jürgen Pfitzer, shaking his head. “And this has an influence on the whole biobased industry, too. Within our industry, the price is an important decision criterion“, says Helmut Nägele. Jürgen Pfitzer adds: “Especially in terms of fossil raw materials or for uranium and rare earth, for example, but also on use of pesticides and on bottling water in Africa it has shown that opportunities and profits are always privatized and risks and losses socialized! The ecological footprint of products is usually excluded from the account. Besides tax allowances, this procedure results in a further distortion of competition at the expense of environment and common public. “It is not acceptable that a few big oil companies and multi-billionaires and its shareholders take profit from generally available but globally limited resources of raw materials or to throw toxic pesticides on the market that simply kill everything except their own cereals. Equally worrying is the fact that bottlingwater in Africa with the “innovation” of simply digging deeper wells than it is possible for the villagers. Simultaneously, the general public has to carry the risks and costs for climate changes through CO2emissions, oil rig- or oil tanker accidents, defective pipeline, polluted oceans, dying bees, insects, animals and plants, Destruction of arable land due to rising sea levels, devastation of entire regions or other environmental disasters with irreparable damage, global wars for oil and resulting refugee flows.

Awards and Prizes: ƒƒ 1999

ZDF WISO German Founders Award

ƒƒ 2000

Euromold Award in Gold

ƒƒ 2001

1. Einfach Genial Preis of the MDR

ƒƒ 2002 Award from the Material ConneXion New York for ARBOFORM as “Best Product in Show 2002“ ƒƒ 2007

VR-Innovationspreis 2007

ƒƒ 2008

Werkbund Label 2008

ƒƒ 2009

Deutsche Industriepreis 2009

ƒƒ 2010

European Inventor Award (handed over at a ceremony in Madrid by the European Patent Office and today’s Spanish royal couple Queen Letizia and King Felipe

ƒƒ 2011

Diesel Medal for the most sustainable innovation of the year

ƒƒ 2015/16/17 Green Brand Germany Siegel

Awards eceived by Tecnaro’s customers: ƒƒ 2008

German Design AWARD 2018 – WINNER

ƒƒ 2016

Deutscher Verpackungspreis

ƒƒ 2017

reddot Award 2017-best of the best

ƒƒ 2017

GreenTEC Award 2017 (2. Place)

ƒƒ 2018

Green Good Design Award 2018

ƒƒ 2018

German Innovation AWARD 2018

However, if these costs were to be distributed according to the polluter-pays principle, as is usual everywhere else, and preferably with a share of the costs shared by the arms industry, peace in the world would be achieved tomorrow,” said Managing Director Jürgen Pfitzer.

Customized for double production capacity Above all – on the 2nd of July, 2018, Tecnaro celebrated its 20th anniversary. A further reason to be pleased is the investment in a factory-new machine. It is a twin-screw extruder delivered by KraussMaffei Berstorff and allows, thanks to the added sophisticated plant engineering, to double production capacity at Tecnaro. With this plant, the specialists from Ilsfeld are optionally prepared for the increasing demand of custom-made organic plastic compounds. Furthermore, the machine is planned to be used for research and development purposes and to conduct extensive tests using an upscaling procedure, for example. Here, formulations can be tested for practicality with a throughput of up to one ton per hour. Once again: First be smiled at, then fought against and finally regarded as a matter of course. However, the Binabo ball is now in everyone’s court and stands for a better future without fossil plastics. MT

Mockmill cereal grinder

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13



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bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


New biocomposite for thermally formable products


TT, Espoo, Finland, has developed a thermally formable, biodegradable material, which is 100 % biobased. Its suitability for applications such as furniture makes it an attractive alternative to wood and biocomposite materials available in the market, not only because of its biodegradability but also due to its formability and colouring properties. Biocomposites made from entirely biobased raw materials can be used to replace fossil raw material derived plastics, which have traditionally been used in industrial applications. Being thermoformable, the material is well suited for various manufacturing processes and products. “All the goals we set were achieved: the material is 100 % biobased, cellulose fibres account for a significant proportion, it looks good and it has excellent performance characteristics”, says Lisa Wikström, Research Team Leader from VTT. At the end of their life-cycle, products made from this material can either be re-used, composted, or burned to generate energy without any fossil-based carbon dioxide emissions making it kind of “renewable energy”.

“New biobased, thermally formable materials and composites are a promising alternative for the plastic products market. However, a big breakthrough is yet to come. A major shift requires cooperation between material and process developers as well as designers,” Wikström concludes. The first model product is a designer chair manufactured as a joint effort between VTT, Plastec Finland and KOHO Industrial design (Jurva, Finland). The chair, manufactured using traditional compounding and injection moulding technologies, is made from wood-based cellulose fibres, renewable and industrially compostable, thermoformable polylactide, and biobased additives. VTT developed the material in the ACEL research programme funded by Clic Innovations Ltd. (Helsinki, Finland) and the proof of concept stage was carried out with Plastec Finland an injection moulding company from Vimpeli.

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New compound certified as biodegradable in soil The injection moulding material M·VERA® GP1012 by BIOFED, Cologne, Germany, a branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), has been tested by TÜV AUSTRIA Belgium and has been awarded the OK biodegradable SOIL certificate as per EN 13432.

Coffee capsules – a possible application for M·Vera GP1012

This bio-polyester compound is suitable for processing in injection moulding and can be easily processed by all commercial machines. It consists of 100 % renewable materials, is heat resistant to over 100 °C and has an excellent balance of stiffness and toughness. This compound is suitable for use in agriculture and horticulture and can also be used for coffee capsules. Due to its light color, M·Vera GP1012 can be coloured with the AF-Eco biomasterbatch from Bio-Fed’s sister branch AFColor. To qualify for the OK biodegradable SOIL TÜV certificate, at least 90 % of the material must degrade into carbon dioxide and water. The degradation is tested by accredited laboratories under controlled and standardised conditions over a period of no longer than two years. All elements of the compounds meet the FDA requirements for use in products that come into contact with foodstuffs. The requirements for other certificates such as “OK compost HOME”, as well as approval for products intended to come into contact with food as per EU 10/2011, are expected to be met in the first half of 2019. Since 2014 Bio-Fed produces and markets biodegradable and/or biobased compounds under the M∙Vera brand. As a branch of Akro-Plastic, a specialist for innovative customer-oriented plastic compounds, Bio-Fed is part of the international Feddersen Group which has its head office in Hamburg. The Bio-Fed product portfolio consists a broad range of bioplastics compounds with different properties, such as biodegradability and/or high biobased content. The M·Vera products are already well-established in a number of applications and can be used with various processing methods. In addition, all M·Vera compounds can be colored individually – for example with the AF-Eco biopolymerbased masterbatches which are certified in accordance with EN 13432. The AF-Eco range consists of color and carbon black masterbatches as well as additive masterbatches. In addition to materials for processing in the field of injection moulding, Bio-Fed also manufactures biocompounds for use in extrusion, e.g. blown film that meets the strict legal requirements in France and Italy. A large proportion of these compounds are renewable materials (biobased carbon content over 40 %) and meet the requirements for the relevant ‘end-of-life’ scenarios such as “OK compost INDUSTRIAL” and “OK compost HOME”.

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13



Vienna schoolgirls develop home- compostable coffee capsules


void waste, save aluminium: Two students of the TGM Austrias biggest engineering college located in Vienna, developed a biobased material for coffee capsules that actually biodegrades well, even in the compost box at home. “We are very proud that it works,” says Samantha Onderka (19), graduate at the TGM. Together with Katharina Schleinzer (18), she observed how the novel coffee capsules in their self-made compost box disintegrated within a few weeks. “It’s great to see the capsules change and degrade.” Coffee capsules for espresso machines are a convenient thing, but they generate a lot of waste. A typical capsule is made of 1.13 grams of aluminium. Three cups of coffee a day create more than 1.2 kilograms of aluminium-waste in one year. The two students of the TGM therefore hurled themselves particularly eagerly at a diploma project in preparation for their matura (A-levels) that could make the world a little bit better: Gabriel-Chemie, an international company with headquarters in Gumpoldskirchen, Lower Austria, needs a new, environmentally friendly material for coffee capsules. Andreas Höllebauer, Head of Research at Gabriel-Chemie, explained the idea: “We are looking for a bioplastic for coffee capsules. The material should be of natural origin and demonstrably very easy to degrade, not only in industrial composting plants, but quite normally in the home and garden”. Gabriel-Chemie mainly produces colours and additives for plastics and is therefore interested in the subject of coffee capsules. “We have been working with the TGM for many years,” explained Höllebauer, “so it made sense to advertise this research task as a Matura project.” Katharina and Samantha added: Common bioplastic capsules are only compostable under industrial composting conditions (temperatures between 50 °C and 80 °C, humidity around 50 % and the right population of microorganisms) in corresponding plants. At the same time, legal regulations in certain regions (such as Austria or Germany) prohibit the disposal of coffee capsules via a composting plant. The capsules currently available on the market that we know of are also not really suitable for biodegradation in home composting, as degradation would take far too long without ideal conditions. However, we wanted to develop a material that could be composted in our own garden even under sub-optimal conditions.

By Michael Thielen

Plastic from nature Katharina and Samantha experimented with various mixtures based on natural, renewable raw materials. Bioplastics are often made from sugar, starch or biomass. However, the final result should be waterproof and easy to form. The girls tested seven different bioplastics, which they produced themselves from various ingredients. Which took a lot of patience. Although the TGM is equipped with a machine for this purpose, it is of course a laboratory device designed for small sample quantities and filled by the spoonful. “To produce five kilograms of each new material, we had to spoon granules into the hopper for hours,” sighed Katharina. The granules were mixed and melted until the new material flowed out of a die. “Then we tested extensively whether the material should meet certain criteria. The bioplastics had to pass a tensile test and a tensile impact test and of course also needed the right properties for processing”. Of seven mixtures, exactly one was left to be considered as a candidate. It consists of materials entirely made from renewable raw materials. Using a special 3D laser printer (stereolithography), the students designed and built a mould with which they could actually produce coffee capsules from their new material in a thermoforming process.

End-of-life more important than production The most important thing about this invention is its end-oflife solution. Would the coffee capsules actually completely biodegrade in a normal compost heap? Samantha and Katharina built a compost box suitable for domestic use and threw their coffee capsules literally “on the dung”. The experiment was successful. In the course of the weeks up to their Matura exam the girls could observe and document how the capsules became ever smaller and smaller. “We have found a bioplastic that can solve the problem with coffee capsules in the long term,” says Samantha happily.

Outlook The current discussion about resource-efficient use and the avoidance of waste from disposable products offers great potential for ecologically more sustainable materials that were previously not commercially competitive. The Austrian Eco-Label is currently being awarded to biodegradable biopolymers used in the packaging sector. The material solution developed within this project would qualify for this. In the meantime, the project also was praised with the Borealis Innovation Award 2018. And the project will be continued. TGM and Gabriel-Chemie want to take a closer look at the degradation mechanism and further refine the formulation. Further processing tests will also be carried out in addition to the previous work.


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


Industrial Solutions for Polymer Plants

Polylactide Technology Uhde Inventa Fischer Polycondensation Technologies has expanded its product portfolio to include the innovative state-of-the-art PLAneo ÂŽ process for a sustainable polymer. The feedstock for our PLA process is lactic acid, which can be produced from local agricultural products containing starch or sugar. The application range of PLA is similar to that of polymers based on fossil resources as its physical properties can be tailored to meet packaging, textile and other requirements.

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Coffee capsules & pods By: Martin Bussmann BASF Ludwigshafen, Germany

Enjoying coffee with compostable coffee capsules Coffee capsules are convenient for consumers, easy to dispense and practical. However, in Germany alone, they generate around 5,000 tonnes of waste each year. Compostable bioplastics by BASF for the manufacture of coffee capsules set an example against this trend – with tailored ecovio® grades for the production of a wide range of flexible and rigid compostable packaging.


appuccino for breakfast, an espresso in the afternoon – simply by pushing a button on your own coffee machine. Portioned capsules are particularly popular with coffee lovers as they are easy to use and make quality coffee quickly. However, the packaging potentially pollutes the environment. Commercially available capsules consist of aluminium and conventional plastic and are either burned after use or are difficult to recycle. At the same time, there is increasing public interest in sustainable products that contribute to circular economy.

As early as 2013, BASF developed a biodegradable coffee capsule with Swiss Coffee Company for gourmet coffee using its certified compostable and partly biobased ecovio, which was optimised for injection moulding for this purpose. While the material had until then only been used in mulch films and bags, it was now possible for the first time to implement ecovio commercially in an injection moulding application and at the same time meeting the particular requirements of coffee capsules: The capsule can withstand the high pressure and the heat that are generated by the machine in the brewing process. Flavour-tight barrier secondary packaging, which is also compostable, ensures that the coffee aroma is optimally maintained. The application won the 2014 Global Bioplastics Award presented by bioplastics MAGAZINE. Since this breakthrough, BASF has been working continuously on its product portfolio to enable different processing technologies for the manufacture of coffee capsules. It is focusing on improving application-specific

Manufactured by injection moulding: thin-walled coffee capsules made of ecovio IA1652 (Photo: BASF)


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13

requirements such as dimensional stability under heat and an oxygen barrier. For thin-walled capsules, the injection moulding grade ecovio IA1652 offers a greater dimensional stability under heat along with ideal mechanical stability. Now also on the market: the grade ecovio T2308, which allows thin-walled capsules to be manufactured also by thermoforming. Another milestone is the development of technologies for inserting an oxygen barrier, which means that both the injection moulding grade ecovio IA1652 and the thermoforming material ecovio TA1241 can be given an oxygen barrier during the production of the capsules. In 2017, BASF and the French company Capsul’in were awarded the Pierre Potier innovation prize for a coffee capsule made of ecovio IA1652. The award, presented by the French Ministry of Economy and Industry on behalf of the French Federation for Chemistry Sciences and the Federation of the Chemical Industry, recognises innovation in sustainable development and encourages environmentally friendly approaches. The ecovio coffee capsules, which are certified compostable, are broken down in industrial composting plants into water, CO2 and quality compost, and metabolised by microorganisms. Within twelve weeks the capsules are degraded into industrial compost. The development of compostable coffee capsules therefore allows not only a more responsible handling of packaging, but also a transformation of the raw material back to valuable compost at the end of its life cycle and a reduction of unnecessary waste.

Thermoformed coffee capsules made of ecovio TA1241 enable high dimensional stability under heat, good mechanical stability and at the same time a reliable oxygen barrier. (Photo: BASF)

Coffee capsules & pods

Replacing aluminium with paper The world’s first mass produced coffee capsule made of paper is set to replace aluminum and plastic capsules.


he Bremen, Germany based coffee capsule company Velibre brings onto the market the first Nespresso®compatible coffee capsule made of paper.

“After more than two years of development, which required over a million Euros of investment, Velibre can finally present the finished version of our new paper capsule. This capsule can be put into the home compost as well as in the biowaste collection bin”, says managing director David Wolf- Rooney. The serial production has just started and the finished capsule will be available in the third quarter of 2018. WolfRooney expects Velibre to produce over 300 million capsules in the next Year. “We are more than convinced of the giant potential of our paper capsule. This belief comes from the enormous interest in the Velibre capsule from various market leaders in the coffee capsule industry. It also comes from the concrete offers related to the purchase of Velibre which is in the double-digit millions. The value of the capsule will develop throughout the next years towards the 100 Million Euros level”, reveals David Mr. Wolf-Rooney. He adds: “traditional coffee capsules produce a huge amount of waste and our vision is to completely banish the use of plastic or aluminum capsules from the market. To secure this vision we will make the Velibre know-how, our technology and our production capacities freely available to all manufacturers of coffee

capsules. From now on, no company has to produce environmentally harmful variants as they can get all the capsules they want from Velibre. This is the real revolution behind Velibre”. The newly developed paper capsule supports the company’s goal to systematically revolutionizing the coffee capsule market. The paper capsule can be easily recycled via home compost and – as the only capsule in the world so far – via organic waste collection systems. The capsule completely biodegrades to CO2, water and biomass after a few weeks, depending in the composting environment. The capsule is made of sugarcane fibers. These fibres are a residual material created in large volumes during the production of sugar. Therefore, it does not need its own land for production and it is not in any competition with food. All materials used are also 100 % free of genetically modified raw materials. The components of the capsule are already certified according to the standard EN 13432 for industrial composting facilities. For the standards Vincotte OK compost HOME and DIN-certified garden compostable the corresponding certification processes are in process. A global patent was established in 2016 for the unique product and a German utility patent has already been registered. MT

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


Coffee capsules & pods

Coffee klatch

Aldo Zanetti, Business Unit Manager at Trinseo

Single-serve Coffee Capsules and Biodegradable Material – the Perfect Match – an Interview Trinseo, headquartered in Berwyn, Pennsylvania, USA, is a global materials company that has acquired API (Mussolente, Italy), a producer of thermoplastic elastomeric compounds and bioplastics. Trinseo has recently launched new grades of biodegradable and compostable bioplastics for single-serve coffee capsules. bioplastics MAGAZINE spoke with Aldo Zanetti, Business Unit Manager at Trinseo.

When did Trinseo enter the bioplastics market? In 2006, Trinseo, formerly known as API, launched the first soft biodegradable and compostable material – APINAT BIO®. In those early days, this was still a novel approach. Still we felt the time had come to add sustainability as a core competence to our already innovative conventional compounds. We protected this biodegradable compound technology with an international patent.

The combination of coffee powder with biodegradable material constitutes a ‘perfect match’. Coffee powder is organic and is itself a good fertilizer. The brewing process adds temperature and humidity, thereby triggering the biodegradation of the capsule into compost, CO2 and water.

How did biodegradable products progress from here?

What about other material properties? Can your material compete with conventional plastics?

Over the years, we developed biodegradable materials for a variety of different applications. In 2011, conforming to the new Italian regulation, we introduced a biodegradable and compostable film solution to replace polyethylene shopping bags. In 2014, we launched the first biodegradable and compostable compound for single-serve coffee capsules. Additionally, we have developed a unique and wide-ranging spectrum of biodegradable color masterbatches compatible with all of our bio resins. Since the acquisition of API, Trinseo has introduced further innovations and new materials suitable for various applications, particularly in the packaging and agricultural sectors.

Besides being biodegradable under EN 13432, our new APINAT BIO® grades are derived from 60 to 90 % biobased sources. Our grades fully comply with both U.S. FDA and EU food contact regulations. Our materials exemplify exceptional dimensional stability and easy processability at the manufacturer’s site. They can be processed with cycle times comparable to those of conventional plastics, maintaining a manufacturer’s hourly output at the same levels. The material grades have been successfully tested and approved in all current production technologies such as injection molding, extrusion and extrusion-compression molding. So, yes, we can compete with conventional plastics in the coffee capsule business.

In your opinion, why should companies use biodegradable material when producing coffee capsules?

Which material properties would you now like to further improve?

Global coffee consumption is continuously progessing towards single-serve capsule machines. Every year around 50 billion capsules are sold worldwide. Although single-serve capsules are extremely convenient, they have the downside that the aluminum and plastic create a lot of waste. Single-serve coffee capsules are not easily recyclable and mixed materials such as exhausted coffee powder, plastic and aluminum are sent to a landfill without being separated. The coffee industry urgently needs a more sustainable packaging option. Biodegradable and compostable capsules are, in my opinion, therefore one of the most viable solutions.


Why are single serve coffee capsules so suitable assuming they are collected and sent to a composting facility?

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13

Our first priority is to enhance the barrier towards water vapor and oxygen, thereby extending capsule shelf-life. This is the area where developments are most concentrated. We are also working on improving our material’s thermal stability for the purpose of extending its use in complex capsules and for higher brewing temperatures and pressures.

What about your participation in the EU LIFEPLA4Coffee project? Because of our extensive knowledge and experience in the development of biodegradable plastic compounds, ICA,

Coffee capsules & pods

biopolymere. 6. Kooperationsforum mit Fachausstellung

a manufacturer of automatic packaging machinery and coffee capsules (headquartered in Bologna, Italy), selected us as a project partner. The aim of LIFE-PLA4Coffee project was to validate PLA based compound formulations with improved functional properties for the production of compostable coffee capsules. This interesting and productive collaboration has helped us to deepen our knowledge about the specific needs of this sector.

B a y e r n Innovativ

We have a long and deep knowledge in diverse application fields like packaging, footwear, automotive and technical products. We understand the complexity of many different applications so when customers approach us asking about biodegradable solutions for specific applications, our experience enables us to evaluate the technical feasibility and provide advice on environmental benefits and suitability for each single application. We do not support projects in which the use of biodegradable solutions does not constitute a measurable environmental advantage. In addition we support our customers on legal framework conditions, which can vary depending on country and application. Over the years and through joint developments with customers, combined with our technology expertise, we have expanded our biodegradable compounds portfolio, ranging from low to high rigidity, to meet a wide spectrum of requirements for packaging and agricultural applications. MT

18091 | Foto: Šartemegorov -

How does your experience help customers to decide whether to invest in biodegradable solutions?

Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Halle Straubing, 24. Oktober 2018

Cluster Neue Werkstoffe

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Coffee capsules & pods

Bio-PBS to increase benefits of PLA coffee capsules


he coffee capsules sold by one major brand in 2013 alone created enough waste to encircle the earth more than ten times. The high fraction of water and coffee grounds makes them difficult to incinerate or recycle, a problem that could easily be circumvented by using compostable capsules based on BioPBS™. The benefits of BioPBS were introduced during a presentation at two separate Single Serve Capsules conferences, one last year in Berlin, the other this year in Chicago, in which the outstanding compostability of this material was highlighted.

BioPBS reduces cycle time while increasing HDT and Izod Impact strength One key benefit of blending BioPBS with PLA for injection moulding is that the degree of crystallinity of the matrix increases. PLA is an amorphous material with a very long cooling time. Adding BioPBS can therefore significantly shorten its cycle time. In a PLA blend with 20% BioPBS, the crystallization process is accelerated, reaching a percentage of crystallinity of 50 %; in a 40/60 blend of BioPBS/PLA a peak level of 80 % can be reached. Cycle time can be cut in half compared to cPLA , without compromising capsule mould productivity. Increasing the BioPBS content to 60 % or higher also improves the thermal properties of PLA, allowing the HDT A (0.45 MPa) value to be increased to almost 100 °C. As a result, BioPBS-based capsules will not twist or lose their shape during use, nor clog up the coffee machine. Increasing the BioPBS ratio from 20 to 40 has the additional advantage of improving the Izod impact strength of the material. Even better results are achieved if a 60/40 blend of BioPBS/PLA is used. Basically, the more BioPBS that is added, the more flexibility that can be expected from the compound. On the other hand, the PLA component increases the biobased content and adds solidity to the cap body.

BioPBS meets new challenges for coffee capsules Previously, compostable coffee capsules had a limited oxygen barrier and required secondary packaging for wrapping. New solutions for compostable oxygen barriers now exist for all coffee capsule designs, decreasing the total amount of packaging needed. Barrier solutions mainly include the use of compostable IML (In-Mould-Labelling) or

By: Fabien Resweber & Pissapak Srihaphan PTT MCC Biochem Company Limited Bangkok, Thailand

Flexible Higher


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Impact strength

Rigid Lower Slower




Heat resistance



Process temp.




Heat-seal temp. Transparency




a compostable barrier layer injection molded in a co-injection process, and are perfectly compatible with BioPBS-based compostable capsules. In countries or cities where organic waste is collected, fully compostable capsules can be included in that composting stream, increasing the amount of waste being recycled through this organic recycling process. However, since industrial composting facilities are not yet accessible worldwide, there is now a strong market demand for a coffee capsule that will biodegrade in a home composting environment at ambient temperatures. BioPBS offers a way to make this possible, as this material provides a fast degrading polymer matrix, even at ambient temperature. BioPBS is increasingly gaining acceptance and is used as the raw material in various global sustainable coffee capsule brands for injection moulded and mesh parts.

Total solution for compostable coffee capsules BioPBS can be applied in all the various parts of the coffee capsule, depending on the grade used. BioPBS lidding film (BioPBS sealant + barrier cellulose) provides an excellent oxygen barrier; BioPBS body or cap offers flexibility, heat resistance, and reduced cycle time. Finally, BioPBS can be used in a mesh (nonwoven filter) part on the bottom of the capsule to retain the ground coffee. The burgeoning popularity of single serve coffee capsules is cause for concern, as their use generates a vast amount of waste. Changing to a BioPBS capsule could definitely help solve this waste problem.

Environmental benefits Formulating a coffee capsule material with a high BioPBS content can contribute to the reduction of non-recyclable waste and decrease the impact on the environment. Capsules made with BioPBS can be treated as organic waste, which means they can be disposed of in the organic waste bin (where available and permitted) without separating them from the coffee grounds. In applications like this, where it is impossible to re-use or recycle, compostable materials definitely contribute to cleaner end-of-life options and lower disposal costs.



Coffee capsules & pods



n 2015 Club Coffee, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, introduced PürPod100, what was, as stated by the company, the world’s first 100 % compostable, fully certified singleserve pod. “The amount of used single-serve pods sent into the waste stream last year could have circled the earth eleven times. That’s not acceptable,” said John Pigott, CEO, Club Coffee. “We have the most viable solution available to that issue – a pod that will be certified as 100 % compostable and can be converted to useful compost.” “As a large manufacturer and distributor of packaged coffee, we have a responsibility to our customers, and to society, to reduce the environmental impact of our activities.” The PürPod100 is made from renewable, biobased materials (more details were not disclosed) that are 100 % compostable, and the ring of the pod is made using coffee chaff – the skin of the coffee bean that comes off during the roasting process. Every single part of the PürPod100 is designed to be digestible by, and accessible for, bacteria. The PürPod100 is compatible with most Keurig brewing systems, including the new Keurig 2.0 brewers.

“Still, plastic (and aluminium – MT), single serve coffee pods are included in this disposable waste stream. Where curbside food scrap collection programs exist, certified compostable products have the ability to help increase

RING Made with coffee bean skins and other compostable materials

waste diversion while reducing contamination in the finished compost,” said Al Rattie, Director of Market Development, US Composting Council. “We hope that companies like Club Coffee will continue to work with the USCC to not only develop products that are tools for diversion, but also help support the growth of the food scrap collection and processing infrastructure needed to close the loop on products like compostable coffee pods. The resulting production and land application of high quality compost is essential for the creation of healthy soils and a sustainable society.” The PürPod100 was developed in conjunction with international experts and scientists at the University of Guelph. “Science shows that composting is an effective and conscientious solution to this growing environmental problem”, added Pigott. “Recycling isn’t a convenient or welldeveloped solution because hot pods full of coffee grounds must be carefully separated and cleaned before collection.” Steve Mojo, then executive director of the certifying body BPI, said, “Club Coffee’s () pods represent a significant improvement in single-serve coffee. Everyone involved in this technological advancement are commended for their hard work. All BPI approved products meet ASTM D6400 or ASTM D6868 based on independent lab testing, whose results are verified by NSF International.” In the meantime Club Coffee received certification for the PürPod 100 products.MT

LID Made with paper and other compostable materials

FILTER Made with plant-based materials

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13



Multilayer transparent barrierfilms Four key players in the bioplastics industry - Eurotech Extrusion Machinery, NatureWorks, Nippon Gohsei and Sukano - have successfully processed a multilayer transparent biobased barrier film. This allows packaging manufacturers to count coextruded film structure as a potential replacement for conventional fossil fuel-based structures in dry food packaging.


lexible multilayer plastic packaging design remains a major challenge, as most conventional multilayer films are neither recyclable nor compostable. As of today, there is a lack of recyclability for this kind of packaging that still makes up over 75 % of the food industry usage. Understanding this gap in the market, four key players in the bioplastics industry have joined together to find a solution. Eurotech Extrusion Machinery (Tradate, Italy), NatureWorks (Minnetonka, Minnesota, USA), Nippon Gohsei (headquartered in Osaka, Japan) and Sukano (Schindellegi, Switzweland) have now successfully processed a multilayer transparent biobased barrier film. Ingeo resin processed into a film is already used in many types of flexible packaging. Using Ingeo provides for a reduced carbon footprint, as well as compostability as an end of life option. For higher gas barrier requirements, a coating or a metallization surface treatment of the film is typically required. However, the need for this coating or metallization can be eliminated through the use of a barrier polymer to produce a coextruded structure. This provides an additional, new option for packing foods which require an extended shelf life, while still offering clarity and compostability. The coex film processed at Eurotech used a K5A 5 layer blown film lab machine in a configuration using two extruders 25 mm, and three extruders 20 mm, including the die lip of 100 mm diameter and 1.4 mm gap.

The total film thicknesses of 45 µm, 280 mm width, contains Ingeo PLA 4043D from NatureWorks and is used in the inner A layer, with an outer bubble layer E including Sukano masterbatches processing aids. These PLAbased Sukano masterbatches were specifically designed for this application. The tie layers use BTR8002P and the barrier layer uses G-polymer both from Nippon Gohsei. This combination of formulation and process conditions yielded a stable bubble, excellent film transparency, and good roll quality. Testing showed that the use of Sukano masterbatches offered increased melt strength, and therefore better processability, good transparency and better adhesion during sealing. Mechanical properties were also maintained. As an additional benefit


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13

each material used in the film has either been tested and certified or assessed to be biodegradable and industrially compostable according to European norm EN 13432. Less film sticking was managed via the use of slip agent biobased masterbatches, which increased the processing window and ensured good processability conditions and a lower COF (coefficient of friction), therefore conferring better film properties for secondary fabrication steps. For the barrier layer Nichigo G-Polymer™, the World’s first Extrudable High Barrier Amorphous Vinyl Alcohol Resin, was used. This provided key benefits in packaging, such as excellent gas and aroma barrier and high transparency, while supporting compostability and recyclability properties of the final film produced. Outstanding water solubility for solution coating barrier applications and extrudability were also evident. The G-Polymer barrier is so effective that it can replace Alu-foil in many packaging applications. And even at 4mm thickness of mono-layer G-Polymer, transparency was glass-like. The tie layer BTR8002P gives high adhesion between layers, maintaining high transparency The achievement of this multilayer transparent biobased barrier film allows packaging manufacturers to count multilayer film structure as a potential replacement for conventional fossil fuel-based structures in dry food packaging such as lid films for coffee capsules or lidding films for cups and trays, flow packs, trays for snacks, and biscuits packages. And it may even extend to certain humid foods such as ham, fish, and meat when used with proper packaging design. MT | |

Bio-Barrier Existing with Barrier Nichigo (PP/EVOH/PP) G-Polymer™ Barrier Layer [µm]



Humidity in Barrier [%]







WVTR [g/capsule 38°C 90%RH day] 3 OTR [cm /capsule 23°C Inner Dry, day Air] Outer 50%RH

From Science & Research

Bioplastic made of cactus (Photo: EFE)

University of Guadalajara, she is in the process of investigating the degradation characteristics of this plastic, i.e. in what conditions and how long it takes to decompose in a natural environment. “We have done very simple degradation tests in the laboratory. We have put it for example in water and we found that it does disintegrate. However, we still need to do a chemical test to see if the material has really been completely disintegrated. We have also done tests on moistened compost soil and the material is also disintegrated”, she added. Sandra said that in addition to shopping bags, the nopal juice plastic could be used for applications such as cosmetic containers, imitation jewelry and toys. Tests are currently being conducted to establish how much weight the plastic can bear which will help determine what other products it could be used for.


ith the juice of nopal, a plant of the cactus family and basic ingredient in Mexican cuisine, a Mexican researcher has created a natural biodegradable plastic that can reduce pollution. Sandra Pascoe, from the Universidad del Valle de Atemajac (Univa) in Guadalajara, western Mexico, developed this plastic after several experiments with this cactus often used in salads and traditional Mexican stews. At first, she experimented with dried pieces of nopal, which she mixed with additives, but the process was slow and the physical and chemical characteristics changed a lot. “The material oxidized quickly”, she told the Mexican news agency EFE. Sandra then began to use the juice of the species’opuntia ficus indica’, the most common among the nopal trees and widely used as a vegetable. Later she took the so-called opuntia megacantha, which is famous for its fruit called tuna, very juicy but covered all over with thorns.

She explained that projects have already been done at student level to generate prototypes “very simple and it is clear that there is potential to do a lot more with this material”. At the moment thermal properties and the density of the plastic are being determined to learn how much weight it can resist in case of being transformed into bags and other products. The next step on the path towards commercialization will be to make or buy a machine that can produce prototypes of the plastic bags in order to market them to businesses. The innovation is in the process of being patented. Once this is granted by the IMPI, it will be possible to generate agreements to transfer the technology to interested companies, Sandra Pascoe concluded. MT Source: EFE (Photo: Kerstin Neumeister)

“Basically, the plastic is made from the sugars in the nopal juice, the monosaccharides and polysaccharides it contains,” the researcher explained. Sandra pointed out that the cactus has a very viscous consistency that comes from these sugars, pectin and organic acids and “that viscosity is what we are taking advantage of so that a solid material can be produced”, she said. In her lab at the Department of Exact Sciences and Engineering, Pascoe glycerol, natural waxes, proteins and colorants with the juice after it has been strained to remove its fibers, creating a formula that is then dried on a hot plate to produce thin sheets of plastic. This process was registered with the Mexican Institute of Intellectual Property (IMPI) in 2014 and the development became possible with funding from the National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt) of Mexico. The researcher told EFE that with the support of the campus of Biological and Agricultural Sciences of the

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


From Science & Research

From coffee grounds to plastic Introduction Europe is one of the largest importers of coffee. However, currently industrial utilization of the coffee grounds generated during production is carried out only to a limited extent [1], [2].

fully biobased composites, especially for applications such as coffee consumer goods, computer accessories and for the office sector are being developed and modified.

Some companies already have recognized the potential of the “coffee ground� residue and have even brought plastic products to the market containing coffee grounds (3D printing filaments, cappuccino cups, yarns, etc. [3] [4] [5]). However, there are no (biobased) plastic compounds containing coffee grounds commercially available on the market, which are suitable for processing methods like injection molding or extrusion blow molding.

Used material The additivation of the coffee grounds was carried out in a PLA matrix (injection molding type). Other additives such as an impact modifier (IPM) and wood fibers (NF) were also used to enhance the performance (improved load transmission through fiber reinforcement) and appearance.

In a first feasibility study in 2016, the processing as well as the effect of the residues on biobased polymers were analyzed at the IfBB - Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hanover [2]. To save fossil raw materials like crude oil, coffee grounds have been primarily used as a filler to substitute conventional polymers. Furthermore, the residues were used as a colouring agent in different kinds of polymers. In the current project, novel

Large differences in the particle size or agglutination of the coffee grounds leads to agglomeration during extrusion, as previous studies show. Therefore, a non-homogenous dosage of the coffee grounds into plastic would hinder an industrial processing [2]. For an optimized process and to control, as well as to determine, material properties (stiffness, strength, crystallization, etc.), the quality control of particle size and distribution of the coffee grounds are decisive.

Coffee Grounds

Figure 1: SEM image (magnification: 100X) PLA + Coffee grounds + NF

coffee grounds



bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13

From Science & Research

By: Daniela Jahn, Sebastian Spierling, Andrea Siebert-Raths IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites, Hanover University of Applied Sciences and Arts – IfBB Hanover, Germany

Experimental Procedure

Material Properties

For extrusion processing, a technical co-rotating KraussMaffei twin-screw extruder ZE 34 Basic was used. The matrix and impact modifier were added at the beginning of the extruder in the melting zone. The dosage of coffee grounds and natural fibers was conducted via a side feeder unit.

To analyze the connection of coffee particles and natural fibers in the PLA, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Figure 1 shows the coffee particles and natural fibers fully embedded in the PLA matrix. Thus, a good fiber-matrix adhesion, which results in an optimized load transmission of the fibers/coffee particles under mechanical loads, could be realized.

Adapted screw configurations enabled a cautious incorporation without damaging the PLA, the residue or the fibers. Due to specific screw configurations, predrying of the material was not required, i.e. prior opened vacuum degassing extracts the remaining humidity during the process. For production of test specimens via injection moulding, a KraussMaffei KM50-180 AX injection moulding machine was used (tensile test bars type 1A DIN EN ISO 527).To prevent molecular chain degradation by hydrolysis, pellets were dried before processing under 500 ppm) [6]. Subsequently, the microstructures and mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties of the coffee ground compounds were determined.

Figure 2: Thermomechanical properties of coffee grounds compounds

Cycle time

As known from the literature, by adding fillers or fibers as a function of the concentration the flowability (MFR) and impact strength is reduced. By implication, the tensile modulus is increased [7]. The situation is similar with the coffee grounds used (Figure 2). Both with coffee grounds and with natural fibers, the impact strengths are reduced, which in turn increased the tensile modulus of elasticity. Due to the addition of particles and fibers, a reduction in the cycle time during the injection molding process was identified for all the materials. This positive effect suggests that the crystallinity (K) of the materials was increased.

Tensile strength


150% 100% 50%

Tensile modulus

PLA + Coffee grounds PLA + 10% NF


Impact strength


PLA + 10% Coffee grounds + 10% NF PLA + 10% Coffee grounds + 10% NF + 8% IPM


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


From Science & Research This usually leads to the fact, that the materials in the injection molding process achieve the dimensional stability in such a way that they can be ejected earlier (reduced cycle time). However, the increase of K is not apparent from the HDT-B. The degree of crystallization (K) is determined according to a melting enthalpy (ΔHm) of the second DSC heating curve (DSC 204 F1 Phoenix Netzsch) using the material dependent theoretical value for a 100% crystalline material. For PLA, this theoretical value is 93 J/g (ΔHLit )(Figure 3) [8]. The degree of crystallization can be calculated by the formula (K = (∆Hm )/(∆HLit.)*100 [%] ) [9]. Depending on PLA, the melting enthalpy and the crystallinity is increased by the addition of residues and / or fibers from <1% up to 8%. In relation to the mechanical properties, it can be said that the higher the degree of crystallization (as a function of the crystal structure), the stiffer and more brittle a material is.

Conclusion Coffee grounds are a waste product, which can now be reused in new dimensions. Even though the colour design options of the plastics are limited by the dark color of the coffee grounds, dark non biobased dyes (gray, brown, black) can be substituted by the coffee grounds. Industrial processing (depending on the particle size) can be realized without any process problems. By adapting and optimizing the peripherals, time and cost savings can be achieved. Additivation with coffee ground demonstrates similar behaviour as that with natural fibers. The crystallization is improved, therefore the mechanical properties are influenced.

Further additives can be used to modify the compounds in a propertyspecific and applicationoriented manner. Because of the positive results of the first feasibility study, the joint project KaVe (FKZ 031B0383C), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), pursues the goal of developing a highquality biobased composite material based on coffee grounds. |

References: [1] Tchibo, „Tchibo Kaffeereport 2017: Schwerpunkt Liebe,“ 2017. [2] abc advanced biomass concepts GmbH, „KaVe – Entwicklung eines hochwertigen Bioverbundwerkstoffs auf Basis von Kaffeesatz,“ BMBFProgramm, 2017. [3] c2renew inc., [Online]. Available: [Zugriff am 07 12 2017]. [4] Kaffeeform UG, [Online]. Available: mission/. [Zugriff am 07 12 2017]. [5] Singtex Industrial Co, Ltd., [Online]. Available: en-global/technology/yarn. [Zugriff am 07 12 2017]. [6] D. Jahn, M. Dr. Schönhaber und A. Dr. Ing. Siebert - Raths, „Naturally Cost - Effective,“ Kunstoffe international, pp. 36-38, 5 2014. [7] S. Spierling, T. Koplin und H.-J. Endres, „Hemp fines - an agricultural by-product for biocomposites?,“ in 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM23), Lismore, NSW, 2014. [8] N. Naga, Y. Yoshida, K. Noguchi und S. Murase, „Crystallization of Amorphous Poly(Lactic Acid),“ Journal of Polymer Chemistry, Bd. 3, pp. 29-33, 2013. [9] A. Frick und C. Stern, DSC-Prüfung in der Anwendung, München: Hanser, 2013.

Figure 3: DSC - Thermal properties of coffee grounds compounds

DSC /(mW/mg) [4.5]

Area: Peak*: Onset: End:

12.49 J/g 167.0 °C Crystallinity: 0.8 % 161.0 °C 173.4 °C

Area: -29.82 J/g

Area: Peak*: Onset: End:

35.75 J/g 169.4 °C Crystallinity: 6.4 % 162.9 °C 173.1 °C

Area: -31.06 J/g

Area: Peak*: Onset: End:

38.75 J/g 168.8 °C Crystallinity: 8.3 % 162.7 °C 172.0 °C

Area: -27.86 J/g

Area: Peak*: Onset: End:

35.1 J/g 168.9 °C Crystallinity: 7.8 % 162.4 °C 173.0 °C

Area: Peak*: Onset: End:

30.52 J/g 169.5 °C Crystallinity: 6.4 % 162.7 °C 173.6 °C

 exo 2nd heating curve 3.0

Area: -13.22 J/g PLA

2.5 PLA + 10 % Coffee ground 2.0 PLA + 10 % NF 1.5


PLA + 10 % Coffee ground + 10% NF

0.5 PLA + 10 % Coffee ground + 10% NF + 8% IPM

Area: -24.58 J/g

0.0 DIN EN ISO 11357-1 Netzsch - DSC 204 F1 Phoenix


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150 Temperature /°C



20Data 17for

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Biocatalytic process to produce FDCA


EF has become the popular new plastic on the block, and companies like Corbion (Gorinchem, The Netherlands) are working hard on its market introduction. The new monomer FDCA is key to the plastic, and makes it possible to produce PEF as an alternative to for instance PET. Of all the companies working on the commercial-scale production of FDCA, Corbion is the only one that uses a biocatalytic route to produce FDCA from sugars. Corbion is pioneering a highly efficient biocatalytic process to produce 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) as a monomer for the bioplastic PEF (polyethylenefuranoate). Corbion has been developing this route since 2013, when it obtained the biotechnology route with the acquisition of biotech company Bird Engineering. The biocatalytic route to FDCA is a perfect match with Corbion’s fermentation and purification experience and capabilities in lactic acid.

Like a jacuzzi Starting from C6 sugars, Corbion first produces the intermediate 5-hydroxymethylfuryfral (HMF). The rawHMF is then fed to microorganisms that transfers the HMF into FDCA. Conventional ways use selective oxidation with platinum (or other noble metal or non-noble metal) catalysts. One advantage of Corbion’s biocatalytic process is that is has very mild conditions: to get the best production from the microorganisms, the process has to be as comfortable as possible for them, being: neutral pH, no-pressure, 37 °C and a bit of aeration. You can picture it as a jacuzzi! On top of that, due to the enzymatic conversion, the process shows very high yields (>99%) and has a very high selectivity resulting in high purity FDCA with virtually no byproduct. This also allows to use raw-HMF without the need to purify the HMF inbetween. Corbion has been purifying organic acids from fermentation-broths for over 85 years which is a great experience to build on when it comes to purifying the FDCA from the broth. This process results in a very pure polymergrade FDCA that has found its use in many polymer and chemical applications already, that are now being tested and validated for market introduction.

By: Stephan Roest Market Development Manager Corbion Gorinchem, The Netherlands

Making PEF a reality FDCA can replace oil-based purified terephthalic acid (PTA), as used to produce PET and a wide variety of other plastics. FDCA is not a direct replacement for PTA, as PEF is not a direct replacement for PET since their chemical structures are slightly different. However, they are sufficiently similar to allow FDCA to be used in combination with monoethylene glycol (MEG) in existing PET polymerization plants , making FDCA an infrastructure drop-in. PEF is a sustainable bioplastic that – if combined with biobased MEG - can be produced 100% biobased, boosting the sustainability credentials in key applications such as packaging. PEF bioplastic has already attracted a lot of attention as promising material across several industries, as manufacturers can see its potentially huge impact on the world. The benefits are clear (see table below). For food and beverages, for example, PEF enables to keep the products fresh longer than PET, due to the higher barrierproperties of the material. This also reduces the amount of food waste. Compared to PET, PEF is stronger allowing for further light weighting of a packaging product, saving material and transportation costs. Also the higher glass transition temperature is of value: as it is above 85 °C, the PEF allows for hot-filling of nutritious or oxygen sensitive drinks, like sports-drinks, without the need to enforce the top and shoulder of the bottle with extra material, that is nowadays is required for PET. Choosing biobased plastics like PEF means contributing to the transition towards a circular economy. Not only can PEF be recycled, just as well as PET, but it is also fully biobased which means a decoupling from fossil resources. With these advantages, it’s not hard to see why PEF has become so popular in the last couple of years.

PEF properties table





6 – 10 x





• Increased shelf life / reduced food waste • No need for additional barrier layers




• Better performance in warm and humid areas

~1.6 x


• Perfect for rigid bottles / Increased top load • Allow for further light-weighting

Tensile Mechanical Modulus Thermal

Tg (°C) Tm (°C)


86 – 87 74 – 79 213 – 235

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234 – 265

Benefit • Increased shelf life / reduced food waste • No need for additional barrier layers

• Hot-filling at 85 °C of oxygen sensitive drinks (PET bottle needs enforcement to allow this) • Co-extrusion possibilities • Reduced processing temperatures


COMPEO Leading compounding technology for heat- and shear-sensitive plastics

Corbion makes it happen The people at Corbion are excited to be at the forefront of this innovation in this field. For FDCA and PEF, they are actively working together with partners throughout the value chain – from sugar suppliers to brand owners – to introduce this new material to the market on commercial scale, and make it happen.







Development of PEF film by Corbion

Uniquely efficient. Incredibly versatile. Amazingly flexible. With its new COMPEO Kneader series, BUSS continues to offer continuous compounding solutions that set the standard for heat- and shear-sensitive applications, in all industries, including for biopolymers. • • • • •

Moderate, uniform shear rates Extremely low temperature profile Efficient injection of liquid components Precise temperature control High filler loadings

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PEF and PET bottle recycling



237 mL Bo�le

4,20 4,10 4,00 3,90 Vol. CO2

ast year Synvina, the joint venture of Avantium and BASF, received interim approval from the European PET bottle platform (EPBP) for the market introduction of PEF up to 2 % of the total European PET consumption. The actual recyclability of a PEF end-product, as any product, will however depend on how it is designed and where it is launched, influencing what type of collection and sorting infrastructure is present and if this can divert the products components to recycled material streams. Why then, did the EPBP already grant an interim approval? One of the reasons was that Synvina already at an early stage gathered and shared a significant amount of data that demonstrated that PEF is not only sortable, but that low levels of PEF are compatible with PET. Although not unique, this is a rare feature for plastics while the more common incompatibility has caused issues for some bioplastics in the past. In this article we take a deeper look into the nature of this compatibility and how it can put PEF in a unique position for a circular bottle economy.

3,80 3,70 3,60 -17.5% CO2

3,50 3,40 3,30




Why introduce a new bottle material?

PEF has been previously shown to enable logistically attractive shelf lives in small bottles and this is continuously being improved, as exemplified by the recent achievement of 16 and 20 weeks shelf life in 10g and 14g PEF bottles respectively. Simultaneously PEF more and more exceeds mechanical performance over PET, while PET remains economically unattractive to produce from 100 % renewable sources. As such, PEF is becoming increasingly attractive as a bioplastic that brings material reductions beyond any other solution for small size plastic bottles. And because PEF is chemically different than any other plastic, near-infrared sorting equipment can automatically sort them from the PET stream.

Controlling after-use material streams As most new (non-drop-in) bioplastics, PEF is chemically different from known materials and therefore has a unique infrared spectrum. This allows PEF bottles to be sorted out using automated near-infrared (NIR) sorting technology. Recent ambitions for higher recycling targets drive increased use of such technology to create separate streams beyond the most common streams of PET and HDPE, for example PP, PS and opaque PET. These infrastructure changes may also accommodate the creation of streams for bioplastics with interesting end-of-life options such as composting or recycling into new high value products. In the case of PEF, the similar chemistry to PET may even allow the use of existing PET


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13




237 mL Bo�le

4,20 4,10 4,00 3,90 Vol. CO2

PET bottles are amongst the most successful examples of plastics recycling. However, in smaller size bottles, PET by itself is not always able to reach a logistically relevant shelf life. For example the mechanical criteria of a 8 oz (237ml) bottle can be met with 9-13 grams of PET while yielding a CO2 shelf life of only 4-6 weeks (4.2→3.5 Vol). To increase this, a bottle is often complemented by a coating or barrier layer. Coating equipment is not always economically attractive, for example if (seasonal) demand changes require flexible output. Using multilayer preforms for bottle production on the other hand may impose recyclability limitations for the bottles; infrared sorting equipment may still recognize them as PET while the barrier layer, if not removed, may disrupt rPET quality.

15 Weeks

3,80 3,70 3,60 -17.5% CO2

3,50 3,40 3,30








recycling technology and assets. Nevertheless, automated sorting is not fail-safe and many recovery systems rely to a large extent on human sorting, either by the consumer or by professional sorters, for whom a PEF bottle is not always easy to distinguish from PET.

PEF and PET compatibility Synvina has done multiple recycling tests using PEF and PET resins and bottle flakes, and consistently found that low levels of PEF did not affect the thermal profile of PET in a DSC experiment, while increasing levels started to induce melt point depression particularly at longer extrusion times. Furthermore, extrudates remained transparent. Further analysis by 13C NMR showed increased splitting of the furan ring ipso carbon with increased residence time, which an earlier study on PET copolyesters attributed to a transition from a blocky long-segment to a random co-polyester [1]. These observations confirm that PEF and PET undergo trans-esterification during processing, yielding a random co-polyester as the end-product. Extruded pellets remained transparent and had a lower tendency to form crystalline haze than neat reprocessed PET.

Basics By: Jesper van Berkel, Technical Application Manager, Synvina Amsterdam, The Netherland

The 2 % and 5 % concentrations were selected for testing following the EPBP protocol at PTI Europe, which comprises the typical steps of a recycling process at 5kg-scale. These steps are outlined below with some of the critical control points.


Tg, mid

Tm, peak


79 °C

249 °C


79 °C

248 °C


78 °C

247 °C

ƒƒ Bottle grinding g Dust formation ƒƒ Flake washing & Drying g Flake and/or water discoloration, sticking

10 %

78 °C

245-247 °C

25 %

76 °C, 86 °C

207 °C, 240-246 °C

ƒƒ Re-extrusion into pellets g IV loss, side products or fumes ƒƒ Solid State Polymerization g IV build, sticking of pellets ƒƒ Injection into plaques/bottles with 50 % vPET g Transparency, color, bottle properties PEF in RPET (plaques following EPBP route with 50 % vPET)

2x g PEF Molecule

PET Molecules


None of the steps in the recycling process were found to display surprising phenomena in the presence of PEF, and all intermediate and final intrinsic viscosity measurements yielded comparable values. The only notable difference was that for the 5% loading the coloration of final plaques, as expressed by Δb* = 2.1 compared to the PET reference, was higher than the acceptable range of Δb* = 1.5. This is an aspect which we expect to improve with further improvements in PEF resin color. 1.5 L Bottles could be blown of the final resin, yielding properties as per the table below.

Conclusion PEF can serve as a high value bioplastic material for applications where PET alone is not sufficient, and opposed to other barrier technologies this value can be retained when the bottles are recycled. Although yet to be demonstrated at scale, this can offer many opportunities; PET bales with nonrecyclable barrier bottles can be avoided, while PET bales with PEF may be used to reduce haze formation or as a source of separately accumulated PEF for individual rPEF campaigns with high value output. Ultimately, a separate stream of PEF bales can be created for an effective after-use economy. [1] H. Ma, M. Hibbs, D.M. Collard, S. Kumar, D.A. Shiraldi, Macromolecules 2002 (35), 5123-5130

Property (1.5L 43g bottle)


Typical Result

Final composition

Mass balance



PET+2.5% PEF

Burst Pressure

Linear increase

11.0 bar

11.8 bar

11.5 bar

Vol incr. at burst

Linear increase

565 mL

594 mL

565 mL

4.25 vol CO2, 24h 38°C, -4.0 mm Base pushup

-4.2 mm

-4.1 mm

Thermal stability

2% Route 2 5% Route 2

Drop test vertical 4°C

1.8 m, vertical bottom down, 72h

8/8 OK

8/8 OK

8/8 OK

Drop test vertical 22°C

1.8 m, vertical bottom down, 72h

8/8 OK

8/8 OK

8/8 OK

Top Load @1.0 mm deflection


225 N

240 N

225 N

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13





Published in bioplastics MAGAZINE



ƒ Mixing of the con stituents: ligni (30-60%) and nat ural additives mixer. e m renewabl clusively fro obtained ex stainable es su sit of po m ts co en io requirem meet the expand furesources n, and will o-innovatio ec d ns in inan s g applicatio processe e r engineerin sing of thes research fo l es ia oc er pr at d m an ture ent ncerning ties, treatm er co s op rd pr e da Th an dustry. industrial st ction conve to meet wood extra materials ha ass, fibres, om bi to mass m fro pp ls their su ly raw materia ry, s, to enable biopolymer ction indust d tru an ns ts co en e stitu rers, th s. Thermos manufactu rie od st go du er in cs consum d electroni ers such as tomotive an ude biopolym and the au posites incl m co d starch, of ) es ric e (PHB an plastic mat roxy-butyrat yd lyh ement is po rc ), (PLA ry. Reinfo polylactide paper indust from hemp, n from the s ni re lig fib as t ll or as we d of natural sh is generate by the use lymer lignin carried out 1-4 rate a e natural po at Th . ry, st od per indu flax and wo pulp and pa mills duct of the emical pulp as a by-pro tonnes in ch n io ill m ely 60 at im ox pr of ap

B xes with speaker bo stem of loud boform Ar l ia Surround sy er g mat ape: housin spherical sh uer coated cq la , ss ne ll thick of 10 mm wa

es t i s o p m o C x i r t a M n i n g Li es x o B r e k a e for Loudsp ributed by Article cont o th of Tecnar J. Pfitzer, bo H. Nägele, , Germany in te ns ue ld-A GmbH, Ilsfe , E. Inoneeich, W. Eckl nr se Ei . N urger all hb sc al E. W Kauffmann, ermany l,G ta -ICT, Pfinz Fraunhofer

speaker mplex loud rts of the co e mould th Housing pa m fro ly tained direct design as ob




Surr complex of

/08] Vol. 3


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13

be ion can also ass extract de. This biom using only wi by rld y wo wa , y ar dl en every ye mentally fri the r supply of in an environ for the powe carried out ther ra e of lignin n tio sa 5,6 . Thermal us ili rrent ut water inates its cu n as lp mills dom Its integratio chemical pu mponents. co r fo l ia er to be difmat en a ov as pr e s us ha ials than its ing ering mater d in establish nt in engine s succeede a compone ing er ne cent work ha gi en of 7,8 . However, re class ficult nt of a new s, ne ce po ur m so co re n e mai newable lignin as th d only on re 9,10 . Techniform®, base rts bo pa Ar t : ls en ia mater s, strial equipm tic polymer r use in indu over synthe applicable fo sites e materials po es m th co of rix es lignin mat cal advantag operties of acoustic pr application. such as the pport their su ly ng ro d st ul co ), m fibres for or (Arbof n, natural g s of ligni t processin ial consist or er pp at su m to e Th ditives d natural ad s. Various an tie t, er en op pr em ke reinforc bits wood-li es - and ance. It exhi ing procedur and perform fferent pulp di m , kenaf fro al sis n ligni p, flax, sources of wood, hem e s such as pends on th re de fib n l ni ra lig tu e of na of th erial can . The choice at ed m us e th be r, n weve etc. - ca product. Ho d used for field of the material an application ermoplastic th es: a e in lik d essing clud be processe ts. The proc ering produc ne gi en us vario

ƒ Pelletizing of the mixture at amb granules. This ste p avoids comp used for plastic com pounds ƒ Processing of the granules at rela by standard inje ction moulding ( facture parts

This processing of lignin com on standard ind ustrial injection m synthetic plastic resins. The tem pe from 100°C in zon e 1 to 170°C in z temperature can be between 155 and nozzle (2.5 – 4.0 mm). The back-p r high enough to ena ble a smooth rot at injection pressure is relatively high (>1 injection speed. The holding pressure of the machine’s capacity and the rela seconds. The coo ling time must be ext compared to that of a synthetic the rmo The mould tools should be desig production of spe cial materials. Im por design should tak e into account: ƒ The shrinkage on injection mould ing i not exceed 0.3%

ƒ Core-pullers sho uld be foreseen for d are useful to ach ieve fast working cycle ƒ Hot runner noz zles work only in limited Depending on the fibre content the can vary between 2 and 8 GPa and th Strength between 2 and 6 kJ/m2, but the be extended to 16 by the use of impac elongation at fra cture is between 0.3-0.6 expansion coeffic ient establishes below 5 no resonance fre quencies are fou nd and a of vibration leads to excellent aco ustic pr enables the mater ial to be used in lou dspeak Two types of lou dspeaker housin gs wer manufactured acc ording to the proced ures d The material itse lf exhibits a uniqu e structu from part to part (see fig. 1). Origin al colour brown, green and red. Figures 2 and 3 show boxes including a lacquered surfac e finish. eri@ict.fraunhofer. de


In July 2018, Helmut Nägele Managing Director, Tecnaro says:

round system of loudspeaker boxes, shape: housing ma terial Arboform with 5 mm wall thi ckness, lacquer coated


in (40-70%), natura l fibres (<10%) using a sta ndard

bient temperature to form pounding by extrus ion as

atively low temper atures (140 - 170°C) to manu-

mpound granules runs moulding machi nes for erature can be raised zone 3 and the nozzle d 170°C using an open ressure must be kept tion of the screw . The 150 MPa) and so is the should be about 30% ated time only 0.5 –2 tended by about 20% oplastic material.

gned for the ser ies rtant issues for tool

is very low and doe


de-moulding, wh ich es

d cases.

Young’s Modulus he Charpy Impac t e latter value can ct modifiers. The 6%. The thermal 5x10-5 1/K. Nearl y a strong dampin g roperties, which ker applications.

re designed and described above. ure which varies rs are limited to w the completed

More interesting in this respect are applications for funeral services. The burl wood-like appearance is very popular for urns, for example. Next to the stylish appearance, the fact that the material will biodegrade quickly and completely is another well-appreciated feature. The fact that lignin and ligno-cellulose are used instead of starch prevents the urns from being dug up by animals who might otherwise see them as food.

Acknowledgement s The work was par tially supported by the NEDO grant Nr.2002GP008, the EC, General Direct orate XII, Biocom NMP2-CT-2005-5 p: 15769 and Deutsc he Bundesstiftung Umwelt. 1. Kaplan, D.L. ed. , Biopolymers from Renewable Resources, Spring er Verlag, Heidel berg, 1998 2. Bledzki, A.K., Gassan, J.: Compos ites reinforced with cellulose based fibr es. Prog. Polym. Sci. 24(1999) 211 274 3. Bledzki A. K., Sperber V. E., Dev elopment in woo composites, Int. d fibe r Symp. on Wood Bas ed Materials, Vienna, Austria 200 2. 4. E. Inone-Kauffm ann, N. Eisenreic h, Biocomp composites from renewable resour ces - a European project, in Polym er Processing Soc iety PPS23 Proceedings, San Salvador, Brazil, Ma 5. Bobleter, O. (19 y, 2007 98). „Hydrotherm al Degradation and Fractionation of Sac charides and Pol ysaccharides“. Polysaccharides, Structural Divers ity and Functional Versatility, Marce l Dekker, Inc. pp. 775-833. 6. Jedicke O., Eis enreich N., „Aquas olv - Hydrothermolys „The Development e of a Process for Com pletely Use of Biomass“ Procee dings 1st Biomass World Conference Sevilla, Spain, 200 , 0. 7. Roffael, E., Dix , B. :Lignin and lign insulfonate in non-conventional bonding systems - an overview. S. 1st European Wo rkshop on Lignoc ellulosics and Pulp, Utilization and Analysics Of Lignins - Hambur Bergedorf, Federa gl Republic of Ger many, Sept. 18.20.1991. 8. Glasser, W.W., R.A. Northey, T.P. Schultz, eds., Lig Historical, Biolog nin: ical, and Materials Perspectives. American Chemic al Society Sympos ium Series 742. American Chemic al Society, Washi ngton, DC, 2000. 9. Eisenreich N., Eckl W., Inone E. R., Nägele H., Pfit J., Arboform – a zer thermoplastic ma de of renewable resources, Procee dings Electronic Goes Green 2000, Vol. 1, Technical Lectures (Joint Inte rnational Congre and Exhibition, Ber ss lin, Germany, Sep t. 2000). 10. Nägele, H., Pfit zer, J., Nägele, E., Ino ne, E. Eisenreich, N., Eck R., l, W., Eyerer, P., Arb oform - A thermoplastic, pro cessable material from lignin and natural fibers, in: Chemical Modificat ion, Properties, and Usages of Lig nin , Th. Q. Hu Ed. ; Kluwer Academ / Plenum Publish ic er, New York, 200 2, 101-120.

bioplastics MAGAZI

NE [04/08] Vol. 3

“The loudspeaker housings in 2008 were the first applications of this kind. These were followed by a number of applications in the acoustic or music sector. Several types of headphones - open and closed – were introduced which featured components made from this special Arboform grade. Parts of woodwind instruments, such as clarinet heads and components or mouthpieces for fipple flutes and recorders, followed. However, although these examples are really beautiful and are applications that illustrate the true qualities of the material, I must admit that they are not really important in terms of quantity.

While not yet in serial production, this and similar Arboform grades are seriously being considered for decorative applications, such as spectacle frames or decorative automotive interior parts. Here, the optical appearance and the biobased origin of the materials are what count most.”


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


Suppliers Guide 1. Raw Materials

AGRANA Starch Bioplastics Conrathstraße 7 A-3950 Gmuend, Austria

Jincheng, Lin‘an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311300, P.R. China China contact: Grace Jin mobile: 0086 135 7578 9843 Grace@xinfupharm.comEurope contact(Belgium): Susan Zhang mobile: 0032 478 991619

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH Siemensring 79 D - 47 877 Willich Tel. +49 2154 9251-0 Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51

1.1 bio based monomers 1.2 compounds

BASF SE Ludwigshafen, Germany Tel: +49 621 60-9995

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Cardia Bioplastics Suite 6, 205-211 Forster Rd Mt. Waverley, VIC, 3149 Australia Tel. +61 3 85666800

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Polymedia Publisher GmbH Dammer Str. 112 41066 Mönchengladbach Germany Tel. +49 2161 664864 Fax +49 2161 631045

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd. / Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563 MCPP Germany GmbH +49 (0) 152-018 920 51 MCPP France SAS +33 (0) 6 07 22 25 32

Microtec Srl Via Po’, 53/55 30030, Mellaredo di Pianiga (VE), Italy Tel.: +39 041 5190621 Fax.: +39 041 5194765

API S.p.A. Via Dante Alighieri, 27 36065 Mussolente (VI), Italy Telephone +39 0424 579711

BIO-FED Branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH BioCampus Cologne Nattermannallee 1 50829 Cologne, Germany Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00

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Tel: +86 351-8689356 Fax: +86 351-8689718

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester Co., Ltd. No. 316, South Beijing Rd. Changji, Xinjiang, 831100, P.R.China Tel.: +86 994 2716865 Mob: +86 18699400676 PBAT & PBS resin supplier

Global Biopolymers Co.,Ltd. Bioplastics compounds (PLA+starch;PLA+rubber) 194 Lardproa80 yak 14 Wangthonglang, Bangkok Thailand 10310 Tel +66 81 9150446

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd. No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone, Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663 Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696

GRAFE-Group Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany Tel. +49 36459 45 0

Green Dot Bioplastics 226 Broadway | PO Box #142 Cottonwood Falls, KS 66845, USA Tel.: +1 620-273-8919

NUREL Engineering Polymers Ctra. Barcelona, km 329 50016 Zaragoza, Spain Tel: +34 976 465 579

Sukano AG Chaltenbodenstraße 23 CH-8834 Schindellegi Tel. +41 44 787 57 77 Fax +41 44 787 57 78

Natureplast – Biopolynov 11 rue François Arago 14123 IFS Tel: +33 (0)2 31 83 50 87

Suppliers Guide

TECNARO GmbH Bustadt 40 D-74360 Ilsfeld. Germany Tel: +49 (0)7062/97687-0 1.3 PLA

Total Corbion PLA bv Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21 4200 AA Gorinchem The Netherlands Tel.: +31 183 695 695 Fax.: +31 183 695 604

Kaneka Belgium N.V. Nijverheidsstraat 16 2260 Westerlo-Oevel, Belgium Tel: +32 (0)14 25 78 36 Fax: +32 (0)14 25 78 81

1.4 starch-based bioplastics

BIOTEC Biologische Naturverpackungen Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32 46446 Emmerich/Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510

Natur-Tec® - Northern Technologies 4201 Woodland Road Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA Tel. +1 763.404.8700 Fax +1 763.225.6645

4. Bioplastics products TianAn Biopolymer No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd, Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800 Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2 Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0 1.6 masterbatches

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd. No.97 Waisha Rd, Jiaojiang District, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China Tel: +86-576-88827723

TIPA-Corp. Ltd Hanagar 3 Hod Hasharon 4501306, ISRAEL P.O BOX 7132 Tel: +972-9-779-6000 Fax: +972 -9-7715828

GRAFE-Group Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany Tel. +49 36459 45 0

Albrecht Dinkelaker Polymer and Product Development Blumenweg 2 79669 Zell im Wiesental, Germany Tel.:+49 (0) 7625 91 84 58 2. Additives/Secondary raw materials

Bio-on S.p.A. Via Santa Margherita al Colle 10/3 40136 Bologna - ITALY Tel.: +39 051 392336

NOVAMONT S.p.A. Via Fauser , 8 28100 Novara - ITALIA Fax +39.0321.699.601 Tel. +39.0321.699.611 6. Equipment 6.1 Machinery & Molds

Bio4Pack GmbH D-48419 Rheine, Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 5975 955 94 57

Buss AG Hohenrainstrasse 10 4133 Pratteln / Switzerland Tel.: +41 61 825 66 00 Fax: +41 61 825 68 58

BeoPlast Besgen GmbH Bioplastics injection moulding Industriestraße 64 D-40764 Langenfeld, Germany Tel. +49 2173 84840-0

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic Container Industry 284 Pinebush Road Cambridge Ontario Canada N1T 1Z6 Tel. +1 519 624 9720 Fax +1 519 624 9721 6.2 Laboratory Equipment

Grabio Greentech Corporation Tel: +886-3-598-6496 No. 91, Guangfu N. Rd., Hsinchu Industrial Park,Hukou Township, Hsinchu County 30351, Taiwan

GRAFE-Group Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany Tel. +49 36459 45 0

1.5 PHA 3. Semi finished products

INDOCHINE BIO PLASTIQUES (ICBP) SDN BHD 12, Jalan i-Park SAC 3 Senai Airport City 81400 Senai, Johor, Malaysia Tel. +60 7 5959 159 C, M, Y , K 45, 0,90, 0

C , M, Y, K 10, 0, 80,0

C, M, Y, K 50, 0 ,0, 0

C, M, Y, K 0, 0, 0, 0

3.1 films Bio-on S.p.A. Via Santa Margherita al Colle 10/3 40136 Bologna - ITALY Tel.: +39 051 392336

Infiana Germany GmbH & Co. KG Zweibrückenstraße 15-25 91301 Forchheim Tel. +49-9191 81-0 Fax +49-9191 81-212

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer SAIDA FDS INC. 143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu, Shizuoka,Japan Tel:+81-54-624-6155 Fax: +81-54-623-8623 7. Plant engineering

Minima Technology Co., Ltd. Esmy Huang, COO No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City, Taichung County 411, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Tel. +886(4)2277 6888 Fax +883(4)2277 6989 Mobil +886(0)982-829988 Skype esmy325

EREMA Engineering Recycling Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH Unterfeldstrasse 3 4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0 Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23

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110 pages full color, paperback ISBN 978-39814981-1-0: Bioplastics ISBN 978-39814981-2-7: Biokunststoffe 2. überarbeitete Auflage

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH Holzhauser Strasse 157–159 D-13509 Berlin Tel. +49 30 43 567 5 Fax +49 30 43 567 699 Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG Via Innovativa 31, CH-7013 Domat/Ems Tel. +41 81 632 63 11 Fax +41 81 632 74 03 9. Services

‘Basics‘ book on bioplastics This book, created and published by Polymedia Publisher, maker of bioplastics MAGAZINE is available in English and German language (German now in the second, revised edition). The book is intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated introduction into the subject of bioplastics, and is aimed at all interested readers, in particular those who have not yet had the opportunity to dig deeply into the subject, such as students or those just joining this industry, and lay readers. It gives an introduction to plastics and bioplastics, explains which renewable resources can be used to produce bioplastics, what types of bioplastic exist, and which ones are already on the market. Further aspects, such as market development, the agricultural land required, and waste disposal, are also examined. An extensive index allows the reader to find specific aspects quickly, and is complemented by a comprehensive literature list and a guide to sources of additional information on the Internet. The author Michael Thielen is editor and publisher bioplastics MAGAZINE. He is a qualified machinery design engineer with a degree in plastics technology from the RWTH University in Aachen. He has written several books on the subject of blow-moulding technology and disseminated his knowledge of plastics in numerous presentations, seminars, guest lectures and teaching assignments.

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Institut für Kunststofftechnik Universität Stuttgart Böblinger Straße 70 70199 Stuttgart Tel +49 711/685-62831

Osterfelder Str. 3 46047 Oberhausen Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227

narocon Dr. Harald Kaeb Tel.: +49 30-28096930 9. Services (continued)

nova-Institut GmbH Chemiepark Knapsack Industriestrasse 300 50354 Huerth, Germany Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40 E-Mail:

Bioplastics Consulting Tel. +49 2161 664864 10. Institutions 10.1 Associations

BPI - The Biodegradable Products Institute 331 West 57th Street, Suite 415 New York, NY 10019, USA Tel. +1-888-274-5646

Michigan State University Dept. of Chem. Eng & Mat. Sc. Professor Ramani Narayan East Lansing MI 48824, USA Tel. +1 517 719 7163

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hanover Faculty II – Mechanical and Bioprocess Engineering Heisterbergallee 12 30453 Hannover, Germany Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69 Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69 10.3 Other Institutions

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Companies in this issue Company


Agrana Starch Bioplastics



33, 54

Flex Farm technologies







NSF International




Fraunhofer UMSICHT



FullCycle Bioplastics



Albis Plastic


Gabriel Chemie






Global Biopolymers






GRABIO Greentech Corporation















Grafe 54




Bayern Innovativ Bcomp BeoPlast Besgen Bio4Pack 26



Biomaterials Consulting
















37 56

grums aarhus


PTT MCC Biochem



Purcell Agri-Tech




Gucci Hallink


Hasselt University




Helian Polymers


Scion Research




SK Chemicals




So Delicious







8, 22, 23

55 36


STU Faculty Chem Food Tech




5, 42

Infiana Germany




Inst. F. Bioplastics & Biocomposites



Swiss Coffee Company


Inst. f. Kunststofftechnik, Stuttgart





Jelu Werk


JinHui Zhaolong 10



6, 26, 52




TGM, Vienna

1, 34


TianAn Biopolymer

10 27









Total Corbion PLA


Mango Materials




Clic innovations


Michigan State University


TU Eindhoven


Club Coffee




Uhde-Inventa Fischer



Minima Technology





6, 48




United Caps


Modified Materials


Univ Brno






Univ del Valle de Atemajac




narocon InnovationConsulting



Universal Forest Products








US Compostinf Council








Walther Faltsysteme







Electric GT




21, 55



European Bioplastics

19, 56

Eurotech Extrusion Machinery

5, 42



2, 54

5, 42 55 12

Nippon Gohsei

5, 42



nova Institute


12, 47, 56

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe



17,32, 56



55, 60

Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharm. Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials

Editorial Planner Publ. Date

edit/ad/ Deadline

Sep Oct

01 Oct 18

Nov Dec

03 Dec 18







35, 56

DAB Motors

Dr. Heinz Gupta Verlag








Cardia Bioplastics



Indochine Bio Plastiques

Kaneka 49, 55

Caprowachs, Albrecht Dinkelaker

54 13








Green Serendipity




54, 55

Green Bay Decking Green Dot Bioplastics

7, 20, 50




54 24 54 31, 54

2018 Edit. Focus 1

Edit. Focus 2

Edit. Focus 3


28 Sep 18

Fiber / Textile / Nonwoven

Polyurethanes/ Elastomers/ Rubber

Poland & Baltic States Special

Industrial Composting, Challenges / Hurdles

02 Nov 18

Films/Flexibles/ Bags

Bioplastics from Waste Streams


Shelf Life of Bioplastics

Trade-Fair Specials

Subject to changes


bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/18] Vol. 13


Made from potato starch, BIOPLAST® resins are designed to work on existing standard equipment for blown film, flat film, cast film, injection molded and thermoformed components. 100‹% biodegradable, BIOPLAST® is particularly suitable for ultra-light films with a thickness of approx. 10-15 μm.







w w w. b i o t e c . d e S002


member of the SPHERE group of companies

LJ Corporate – © JB Mariou – BIOTEC HRA 1183




bioplastics MAGAZINE 04-2018