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London Aquatic Center

Cheyenne Culp Bintou Coulibaly Josiah Ebert Mitch Hoelker Nicole Szparagowski

Integrated Design Case Study 2178 - 001 INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY FALL SEMESTER 2017

London Aquatic Center

Table of Content 01

Site Analysis

Summary about the infrastructure and planning behind the Olympic Park Masterplan.

Legacy Masterplan Framework Infrastructure Development Process Olympic Park Transformation Tunnels Adjacent Masterplans East London Brownfield

02 London Aquatic Center


Brief description about the existing and future site conditions of Olympic Pack.

Wind Distribution Contamination From Games to Legacy Sun Diagrams Natural Delighting


Architectural Intent

Background about the design of the London Aquatic Center and the driving forces behind it.

About the Architect Precedent Key Concept


London Aquatics Center


Construction & Details

Brief description of foundation and underlining site conditions.

Construction Process Concrete Piles Pool Construction Roof Construction



The arrangement of and relations between the parts and elements of The Aquatic Center.

Steel Concrete Diving Boards Temporary Construction


Integrated Strategies

Description of how structure and mechanical make up the unique design of the Aquatic Center.

“Architecture is like writing. You have to edit it over and over so it looks effortless.�

Ceiling Material Usage Sustainable Design Heating / Cooling Ventilation Roof Cavity Facade Filtration

London Aquatics Center




London Aquatics Center



LEGACY MASTERPLAN FRAMEWORK Structural development of Olympic Park

This can be considered one of London’s biggest redevelopment projects that has occurred in the last decades. The Legacy Masterplan Framework was created to build upon the investment for the Olympic Games and the additional framework that was built. This master plan will create thousands of new homes, employment space and community facilities. Over time these developments will generate benefits for the overall community. This framework creates a loose structure for East London that can be achieved over the lifetime of the development.


aha was first inspired by Liquid Space. They wanted to Urbanize the community with a master plan that creates a “green band” through East London. The site is long, but also very narrow. Scale of generosity and manageability. Which will give East London the possibility for growth. The site is 2 km2. It is a very constrained site with the river to the West side and a railway to the East side. The site was heavily contaminated with recycled refrigerators from a previous London initiative. The key goal for the building and the site were to be sustainable for future of East London and the community. To ensure the environment sustainability of the Games, one of the ODA’s goals was to reuse, re-purpose, or recycle 90% of the soil and material at the site. The first step for developing the site was • • •

Clean the contamination. Clean the river ways. Build bridges and infrastructures that will make the site accessible.



Zaha Hadid “I don’t think architecture is only about should be able to excite you, to calm you, to make you think.” London Aquatics Center


INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS These strategies create diversity for the adjacent neighborhoods. In hopes to draw social groups, cultures and various employment opportunities. The Olympic Legacy masterplan will maximize transport connections from the Olympic Games, while building upon the public realm and waterways provided by the Lea Valley’s river landscape and parklands.



London Aquatics Center



Olympic Park will continue to be built upon the already existing London Olympic infrastructure. The sporting venues and landscape have become starting points for the Legacy Masterplan Framework. New neighborhoods & Centers will begin to emerge in the surrounding area. These new locations will start to define the character of all these different places. The new connections that resulted from the Games will connect the site into the surrounding environment and give new opportunities for future and existing residents to access new and improved amenities.

Olympic Park Transformation Local spatial accessibility model of the existing conditions We found that the proposed development would be insufficiently connected to the surrounding urban context and would lack a ‘sense of place’. To remedy this, we refocused the design strategy around a new, sinuous urban ‘spine’, connecting Stratford City to Old Stratford town centre in the south and the Lea Valley to the north. Space Syntax worked with the development team to translate the spine concept into a new masterplan with layouts for the commercial, residential and retail quarters of the development. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) commissioned Space Syntax to undertake a Spatial Accessibility analysis of the Olympic Park in its Transformation Phase, which covers the two years following the end of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.





Early Sketch Stratford City, London

The public realm infrastructure is required to: • • • •

accommodate pedestrian, cycle and vehicle movements. create convenient and safe connections. provide places for leisure and recreation. ensure that commercial activity is located on and connected by an efficient movement network.


London Aquatics Center




London Aquatics Center

London Electrical Tunnels Electrical tunnels were put in place before the building construction began. These tunnels contain the electrical connection to the site and were put in place all through the Olympic park. They are a part of an initiative all around to remove above ground electrical wiring to make places safer and more aeshetically pleasing. These tunnels are formed by a large tunnel drilling machine. The precast concrete tunnel walls are then moved into placce and the tunnel is waterproofed. The electrical wires are then rolled out and put into cases attached to one side of the tunnel. After tunnel constrction was complete a concrete “bridge� was put over the tunnel to protect it.

London Aquatics Center



Renderings of the scheme reveal the designs for outposts of the V&A and Smithsonian museums, a 600-seat theatre for Sadler’s Wells and a campus for the London College of Fashion. Featuring setbacks and protruding balconies, the new cultural buildings will be stationed alongside the stretch of water extending out from Zaha Hadid’s Olympic Aquatics Centre. The project also includes a 75,000-squaremetre residential development. It would be one building and several, in which each institution would have its identity, but the whole would be a three-dimensional city of making, performance and interaction.


London Aquatics Center


• •

• • •

Build on and develop the idea of the ‘Fluid Zone’on lower levels to encourage the public to access the building through active frontages, a range of activities and events. Safe & secure environment. Encourage approaches from all directions around the site to connect the building to its context and provide navigation. Provide new high quality residences for students. Arrival space. The Plaza will be a vibrant public space and the heart of UCL East, defined by the buildings around it and linked to the Promenade and the Terrace.

London Aquatics Center


“You have to really believe not only in yourself; you have to believe that the world is actually worth your sacrifices.”

East London Brownfield ENABLING LONDON PARK In 2005, the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) selected Atkins as the official engineering design services provider for the London 2012 Games, which included delivery of the site’s “enabling works” – the preparation and remediation of the site before development. Between 2006 and 2009, more than 1,000 professional engineers, project managers, ecologists, soil scientists, and sustainability experts worked with subcontractors and team partners.

Zones Chemicals, glue, and other industrial landfill debris tainted the underlying soil and groundwater. With evidence of contaminated soil, a remediation plan was developed that divided the Park into zones. These zones made it more efficient for sport facility sites requiring longer build times such as the Olympic Stadium to be completed sooner. Remediation The on site soil hospital aimed to diagnose, treat , and reutilize the contaminated soil. Approximately 50% reuse of the soil has been regarded as a success, but that figure was dwarfed at the Olympic Park. Atkins oversaw in excess of 80% reuse for the enabling works, amounting to close to 1.7 million cubic metres. Olympic Park before infrastructure transformation


London Aquatics Center

Olympic Park after infrastructure transformation

2021 MASTERPLAN Images show designs for leafy Stratford waterfront and new outposts for Sadler’s Wells and V&A on site of 2012 Olympic Park.

The new buildings and economic development around the Park’s perimeter already have attracted businesses and residents. And it’s not only the Games that will leave a lasting legacy. “The excitement would come not from the forced theatrics of unusual shapes, but from the intrinsic drama of putting so much human energy in one place, and it is this excitement that has been diluted to the point of vanishing.” The set of buildings seems to be a stacking of art, design, dance and fashion, plus two residential skyscrapers to help pay for it all, next to a canal, in a place that not so long ago was a wilderness.


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London Aquatics Center
























YEARLY WIND East London has prevailing winds that come from the Southwest direction year round.

S London Aquatics Center


Contamination The Olympic development covers an area of approximately of 250 hectares and houses various Olympic sites. The site used to be industrial/commercial development together with Lea Valley Park and was a known depository for building rubble from properties demolished during the Second World War. The site was known to be contaminated throughout. Following the completion of remediation, the site will still contain significant areas of residual contamination. Contamination of most concern includes heavy metals like lead, arsenic, chromium, as well as organics.

RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION Anticipated residual level of contamination post remediation works





London Aquatics Center

This limited the opportunity for employing infiltration drainage systems across the site. A number of strategic watercourses traverse the Park. The remediation of the Olympic Park became the UK’s largest ever soil-washing operation.

FROM GAMES TO LEGACY Susdrain Case Study of Stratford, East London

MASTERPLAN The site topography was dramatically changed during the course of the development. Some areas of the Park were even raised approximately 9m. Similarly forming the wetland bowl within the River Lea required significant widening of the river channel reducing existing levels to suit. Plateaus have been formed for the venues and associated facilities above the river flood level with access routes to towpath level adjacent to the watercourse. OLYMPIC & LEGACY After the games the park is to be transformed into the Queen Elizabeth II Olympic Park to form a mixed use development and significant landscaped area together with a number of retained venues converted for “legacy usage”. LEGACY PHASE Porous asphalt strips were extensively employed throughout the pedestrian concourse area of the Park. The strips act as a collection systems for overland runoff generated and convey waters into granular trenches. These trenches occur below the strips which contain perforated pipes. The perforated pipes drain to catchpits and thence into the spine network system into watercourses. MASTERPLAN OF OLYMPIC & PARALYMPIC PARK



London Aquatics Center


Sun Diagrams


London Aquatics Center





NATURAL DAYLIGHTING The large span of glazing along the southwestern and northeastern sides of the building allow lots of natural light into the main pool hall. Glazing was used to separate some of the interior spaces so that the natural light can seep into these spaces that are further underground. However, an almost overpowering amount of light comes in, resulting in a thin film being placed on top of the glass to help reduce the brightness.

London Aquatics Center


“There are 360 degrees why stick to one.”



London Aquatics Center

About The Architect Zaha Hadid Zaha Hadid, (born October 31, 1950—died March 31, 2016) was an Iraqi-born British architect known for her radical deconstructivist designs and her ground breaking achievements as a woman in the field of architecture. Hadid began her studies at the American University in Beirut, Lebanon, receiving a bachelor’s degree in mathematics. In 1972 she traveled to London to study at the Architectural Association, a major center of progressive architectural thought during the 1970s. There she met the architects Elia Zenghelis and Rem Koolhaas, with whom she would collaborate as a partner at the Office of Metropolitan Architecture. In 1983 Hadid gained international recognition with her competition-winning entry for The Peak, a leisure and recreational center in Hong Kong. This design, a “horizontal skyscraper” that moved at a dynamic diagonal down the hillside site, established her aesthetic: characterized by a sense of fragmentation, instability, and movement. This fragmented style led her to be grouped with architects known as “deconstructivists,” Hadid’s design for The Peak was never realized, nor were most of her other radical designs in the 1980s and early ’90s. Hadid began to be known as a “paper architect,” meaning her designs were too avant-garde to move beyond the sketch phase and actually be built. And this impression of her was heightened when her beautifully rendered designs— often in the form of exquisitely detailed colored paintings—were exhibited as works of art in major museums. Hadid’s first major built project was the Vitra Fire Station (1989–93) in Weil am Rhein, Germany. Composed of a series of sharply angled planes, the structure resembles a bird in flight. But Hadid solidified her reputation as an architect of built works in 2000, when work began on her design for a new Lois & Richard Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art in Cincinnati, Ohio. The 85,000 square foot center, which opened in 2003, was the first American museum designed by a woman. Shen proceeded to design countless other buildings and receive many awards, including being the first woman to be awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2004.

Heydar Aliyev Center Baki, Azerbijan


Galaxy SOHO Beijing, China

Port House Antwerp, Belgium


Guangzhou Opera House Guangzhou,China

London Aquatics Center



TWA Flight Center

With the site chosen, Saarinen began to develop a design that would take full advantage of its prominence within Idlewild. He ultimately proposed a symmetrical arrangement of four curved, concrete shell roof segments, the curves of which flowed seamlessly from the piers that supported them. Each of the four roof structures was separated from its neighbors by narrow skylights, with a circular pendant occupying the center point in which all four meet. The Pavilion’s exterior develops into a rich variety of interior spaces that maximize the potential to reuse and rethink space due to the innate flexibility of its plan. The total fluidity of the Chanel Pavilion’s curvilinear geometries is an obvious continuation of Hadid’s 30-years of exploration and research into systems of continuous transformations and smooth transitions. With this repertoire of morphology, Zaha Hadid is able to translate the ephemeral typology of a pavilion into the sensual forms required for this celebration of Chanel’s cultural importance. Phaeno Science Centre


London Aquatics Center

TWA Flight Center

Chanel Mobile Art Pavilion

Rio Olympic Velodrome

Japan’s National Stadium

Visualisation of Al Wakrah Stadium by Zaha Hadid Architects


DONGDAEMUN DESIGN PLAZA Throughout the design process, every building requirement was considered as a set of inter-related spatial relationships which will define the social interactions and behavioural structure in/ around the project. These relationships became the framework of the design, defining how different aspects of the project, such as spatial organization, programmatic requirements, and engineering come together.

In a dramatic turn of events, Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe announced on July 17 the decision not to proceed with Zaha Hadid’s design for the new national stadium slated for the 2020 Tokyo Games. Hadid’s trademark complex, neo-futuristic structure was planned to be built in Tokyo’s historic district near the Meiji Shrine, the site of the old stadium that has been demolished. The building’s futuristic appearance was discordant with the site’s context and blatantly disregarded the 15-meter construction height limit in the historic area.

AL WAKRAH STADIUM Zaha Hadid is also currently working on a stadium for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, which recently came under fire after Japanese architects said it was too big. During the tournament the venue will accommodate 40,000 spectators, but this will be reduced to 20,000 once the competition is over. Left-over seats will then be removed and shipped to developing countries

Dongdaemun Design Plaza by Zaha Hadid Architects

London Aquatics Center



Key Concepts

The concept behind the form of the London Aquatics Center was to a response to the fluid movement of water.

The design of the building focuses on establishing a public use center that connects with the existing context.

A design strategy employed by Zaha Hadid is to sit the pool hall on a program filled podium.


London Aquatics Center

“An undulating roof sweeps up from the ground as a wave, enclosing the pools of the Center with its unifying gesture of fluidity, whilst also describing the volume of the swimming and diving pools.”

The London Aquatics Center form may appear complex and confusing, but at its core, it is a simple concept brought to fruition through clear architectural moves. Zaha Hadid’s desire to respond to the fluid movement of water heavily influenced the form of the roof. Through iterations of forms, the roof took on an undulating wavelike structure. The concept of the form continued to drive design decisions throughout the design process. The roof structure, daylighting, ventilation, and construction process all became supports for the overbearing concept of the roof. The existing site also influenced and drove

design decisions. During the construction process, many needs had to be met to counteract the soil content, possible flooding from the nearby river, and the existing electric and pipe lines. The constant working relationship with the site, creates a clear image of why Zaha chose to emphasize the connection to the existing bridge. Raising the pool hall on a podium, and connecting the building to the public circulation entering and exiting the site. The flat podium appears to only support the roof, but underneath is programfilled space dedicated to public and private space.

The curved form of the roof steals the eyes of any pedestrian approaching the building. The flat podium, contrasting with the roof form, not only supports the pool hall structurally, but also pragmatically.

London Aquatics Center


The fluid form was inspired by the geometry of water in motion. The building


London Aquatics Center

location is relate to the a d j a c e n t surrounding to the context. Waterworks R i v e r , allowing the fluid form to directly

Construction Process Construction on the London Aquactics Center officially began in June of 2009. The building was completed in Olympic Mode in 2011 with spectator seating for upwards of 15,000 people. After the Olympic games in 2012 the deconstruction of the additional spectator seating began. The building was coverted to its legacy mode with a capacity of 2,500 in 2013.

The construction process was an arduious task with precision and accuracity being key to each stage of construction. The complex form of the building required specialized construction. From the careful structural planning in the wave like roof to the technical planning in the olympic pools. The construction had to be carefully orchestrated in order to meet the schedule and be finished for the Olympics. As well as its unique form and complexity of its structure. the attention to detail in every aspect of this building makes it an architectural phenomenon.

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London Aquatics Center



London Aquatics Center

Concrete Piles • Foundation of the building consists aproximately 1000 cast in place concrete piles. • Concrete piles are formed by coring a hole into the ground to the desired height and filling it slowly with concrete.

Foundation construction began after the remediation process was completed and the electrical tunnels were completed. The method of using cast in place piles as a foundation type was chosen because the method helped to stabilize the soil after the remediation. Construction on the supports for the roof structure began at the same time. This ensured the the ground was ready when the roof construction needed to begin. Due to the amount of piles needed roof construction had to begin before all of the piles were put in.

London Aquatics Center


Left Images A pile being made on site and the framework for a concrete roof support. Right Image A remediation plant on site in the Olympic Park. Soil is being processed and recycled.

Concrete piles


London Aquatics Center

Pool Construction The construction on the pools began after the last of the roof beams were lifted. The pools were cast in place to make them as water tight as possible. Before further construction procceded on the surronding floors and structures could continue the pools had to be tested. All pools were filled fully in order to insure that the water quality was as desired. The pool was then drained and construction continued onto the floor and surronding structures.

London Aquatics Center


• •


870,000 tiles were placed in the interior of the pools to finish the surface. In order to remain within Olympic standards the marggin of error in the placement of all 870,000 had to be within a quarter of an inch. Surveying equipment was used to ensure the correct placement of each tile in order to kee everything up to standards. Blue tile were used as visual lines for swimmers to follow the tiles above the foot rest on the pool are slightly textured to give the swimmers an easier kickoff.

London Aquatics Center


Roof Process

Connections The bracing for the roof creates a grid across the roof precision and planning were key.

Support while building Extra ties were added between the concrete roof supports during construction.

The roof was constructed in stages. First supports were built at the end point of where a beam would land. Then cranes lifter the pre fabricated beams up to their attachment point and the beam was attached. After all the beams for that section were attached joists were added for support.

Foundations plates had to be put on the supports of the cranes to ensure that they wouldne’t sink into the ground with each beam lifr. The roof structure was fully built before work on the interior spaces could begin due to the supports needed for construction. After the roof structure was built the pool construction began.

London Aquatics Center



There are several layers created in the top of the roof. Sheeting and waterproofing were put down over the steel supports.Mechanical system were placed into the space. Spaces were added before the final aluminum sheeting was added. The process of rolling out the sheeting for the roof only took a team of 25. It took only a month to cover the roof fully with the last aluminum finish.


London Aquatics Center

The connection between the roof and the support columns are a sliding joint. Joints like these are commonly found in bridges. The Joint can slide up to two feet. This is to allow for expansion and contraction that occurs in the steel roof structure due to temperature changes.

drop ceiling The hanging ceiling in the Aquatics center is a carefully planned and orechestrated elemt. It consists of 37,000 pieces of precision cut Brazilian lumber. Each element of the ceiling is made specifically for the spot it is placed including metal brackets. The construction on the ceiling took a year to complete.

Plwood Beams Are placed in teams to ensure accurate placement Scaffolding There was enough scaffoding used to build half the height of the Empire State Building

London Aquatics Center


The ceiling was made by hanging metal brackets off of the steel beams of the roof. These create one curve of the undulating roof. The other curve is formed by the plywood beams in which the ceiling finish is attached. The beams are attached using three brackets per board and are placed by three people to ensure the placement is correct.

Scaffolding was built up to allow the workers to reach the ceiling level to work. In order to allow work to be done at the floor level and celing level simulataniously the scaffolding had to be built up in front of the celing worker while being taken down as they finished their work. Due to the height of the scaffolding doublr the supports had to be added to stabalize.


London Aquatics Center

CIRCULATION FIRST FLOOR The main entrance sits on the pedestrian bridge on the left side of the plan. This bridge acts as the connecting point to other areas of the Olympic Park so having the entrance along this pathway means access to thousands of people during the Olympic events. Several green spots on this bridge, designed but never constructed, also help direct pedestrians into the building. •

The main entrance is centrally located along the northern end of the building, but the rest of the circulation path moves along the sides. An exterior path travels against the side of the building, gradually bringing visitors from the green wall at ground level, to the main entrance. The walkway behind the permanent set of seats on both sides of the center connects to this exterior path by way of a few egress doors. A total of 8 external doors were installed in the building, only 1 of which is the main entrance.

London Aquatics Center


GROUND FLOOR The ground floor is mainly for the athletes’ entrance but the public has access there as well. Through this entrance, visitors can walk between the training and main competition pools. On the opposing side of the entrance are the changing rooms, showers, and entrance to the training pool. The motion of the public around and through the building mimics the fluidity the architect was trying to acheive. The lack of vehicular traffic allows pedestrians to wander freely along the site and take one of the many paths in the park.


London Aquatics Center

Visitor circulation Athlete circulation

Due to the program designation towards a public use complex, public access was a driving point for design. Connecting to the existing Stratford Walk Bridge ensures safe and easy access to the building. The pool alignment is perpendicular to the bridge. Therefore, the direction of swimming inside the pool hall follows the undulating form of the roof.

Another main design strategy is to locate the pool hall on a podium and frame the hall. The raised structure allows for the containment of various programmatic elements. The training pool lies underneath the Stratford Walk Bridge that leads to the compeition and diving pools. The competition and diving pools are held within a volumetric pool hall. The form is accentuated by the underside of the roof, which undulates, following the two pool volumes. The roof form extends past the supports on the north corner and covers external areas of the podium.

London Aquatics Center


Structure Systems

“A heroic engineering acheivement... that will become the icon for the London Olympics� 40

London Aquatics Center

One of the key challenges of the project was developing the structure for the spectacular 118400 ft2 wave-form roof, which is supported on only two concrete cores to the north and along a 70 ft length of wall to the south. The architect’s roof geometry was “inspired by the fluid geometry of water in motion”, with the lower surface bellying between the diving and competition pools to help describe two different zones within the one building volume. The two sides of the roof sweep upwards, emphasizing the wave form and also allowing the pool hall in Legacy mode to be flooded with natural light. The key driver to the arching form of the two sides, however, was the need to provide column-free sightlines to all 17,500 spectators to the farside lane of the competition pool in Games mode.

London Aquatics Center




London Aquatics Center

The London Aquatics Center marked the gateway to the 2012 Olympic Park. Currently, it acts as a symbol for the future of Olympic Park and brings life to an undeveloped area in London. The stunning waveform shape of its complex steel roof sweeps dramatically upwards in a smooth curve from the south end and then down again over the northern cantilever, while the western and eastern tips curve upwards at the edges.

The structural systems consists of one diaphragm with three total connections. The overall plan form of the roof consists of a rounded diamond shape, being much wider at mid-span. The primary structure was fabricated entirely of straight H-sections fabricated from plate with flanges oriented vertically and equal-width sections for chords and braces to facilitate ease of fabrication at joints. Plate girders were used on some trusses where they narrowed to acute angles at their ends. The gross curvature of the primary structure was formed by faceting the truss chords at node positions.

The 118,400 ft2 structure spans a column free area 525 ft long and up to 295 ft wide. It is supported on bearings on two concrete cores 180 ft apart near its northern end and on a concrete wall at its southern end. The roof contains about 3,200 tons of structural steel, of which 2,000 tons are fabricated plate girders with the structural connections totalling around 600 tons.

Top image: Steel structural outlined with supporting cores and retaining wall Middle image: Dimensioned structural diagram Top right image: Diagram of structural diaphragm London Aquatics Center


The roof structure comprises a series of long span trusses spanning the length of the main pool hall from a transverse truss mounted on the southern retaining wall bearings to another transverse truss spanning between the northern concrete cores. The

main trusses lie in a fan arrangement to create the plan shape of the roof. The center fan trusses cantilever northwards beyond the north transverse truss 100 ft to form an over hanging canopy over the main public entrance plaza.

Top image: Longitudinal steel members spanning the full length of the roof. Bottom image: Transverse steel members spanning the width of the roof.


London Aquatics Center

The center fan trusses carry load in truss action, spanning between the north and south transverse trusses which carry the load down to the supporting bearings on the concrete structure below. Due to the roof geometry, arches are formed in the wing areas to the west and east of the central area.

Top image: Section diagram depicting the roof loads meeting the supports. Bottom image: Load diagram illustrating the steel members transferring the loads to the supports

London Aquatics Center


Due to the arched shape of the northern transfer truss, lateral thrusts are developed. In the final condition these are resisted by tension ties in the plaza level slab. However, as this slab could not be cast until some time after completion of roof erection, it was necessary to install a temporary tie comprising eight high tensile steel bars between the north cores. This was pre-stressed

before the roof was lifted off the temporary trestles. Lateral stability is provided by a system of horizontal and diagonal cross braces in the roof surface between the top chords of the fan trusses.

Left image: Plan diagram explaining the lateral load solution using the plaza pad Right image: Steel diagram highlighting the diagonal trusses and slab tie that works for lateral loading


London Aquatics Center

Under uniform loading the two opposite inclined arches in the wing areas balance each other, forming a compression hoop around the roof perimeter. A tension force arises from the change in geometry of the compression hoop in plan at the kinks which occur at the wing tips, and this is resisted by a tension tie across the center and a resulting tension force

occurs in the central fan trusses. The structure of the roof can be deduced to a dome form. In a dome structure, at the angle 34o to the normal that separates compression and tensile forces. In the London Aquatics Center, the angle of the roof is 30o. Therefore creating a compression hoop, instead of a tension ring if the angle was greater than 34o.

Top imag: A diagram illustrating the compressiive and tensile loads acting in a dome Bottom left image: Load diagram of the compression hoop Bottom right image: A diagram showing the angle of the roof form London Aquatics Center


v In order to ensure the roof behaved as described above and minimise the effects on the substructure, the northern end of the roof is supported on fixed spherical bearings to act as true ‘pins’. The southern end is supported on thtree sliding spherical bearings along the top of the southern wall with the outer two bearings sliding in both principle axes and the central bearing only allowed to slide along the central axis of the building. This was in order to avoid the support wall attracting thrust to simplify the substructure construction and to permit the roof to expand under temperature effects.


London Aquatics Center

The long spanning steel members are supporting and transferring the bulk of the load. Solving for reactions, drawing shear-force diagrams, and a bending moment diagram depict how the form and structure of the long spanning beams was developed.

London Aquatics Center


Concrete The reinforced concrete superstructure is the only engineering component that remains publically visible on the completed facility. The quality, visual shape, and appearance were the starting point for the development of the structural design to ensure that all could be met whilst also achieving the required structural performance in a safe and buildable manner. The concrete superstructure has a single movement joint which separates the plaza bridge structure from the remainder of the building. A principle reason for this was to segregate the differing design life’s and design parameters. The plaza bridge structure is designed as a three span continuous portalised frame and is approximately 260 ft long and 165 ft wide in plan with a central


London Aquatics Center

span of 100 ft crossing the 165 ft training pool. The remaining building is separated from this highway structure as are the 165 ft training pool tank and adjoining elements which are constructed within the bridge supports, but not attached, to allow the building to be ‘peeled’ away from the bridge without affecting the bridge’s performance in any way. The basement was designed as a single conjoined structure without moving joints. Controlled casting sequences and concrete mixes, requiring careful specification along with appropriate concrete and reinforcement design, were required to achieve the 150 m long by 45 m wide basement arrangement.

DIVING BOARDS The dramatic sloping of the concrete wall adds a perfect back drop for the reinforced concrete dive boards. Each board was placed threw the pool’s surrounding slab into the piled foundation cap 4m below pool level. With this unique geometry came a new set of challenges. Structural stability, deflection, vibration, and aesthetic appearance all needed to be considered.

To ensure that the reinforcement could be bent and placed they developed a geometric definition soft-ware that extracted the three dimensional position of all bars at each section. Then generated the best fit single plane radius bar. The total family of diving boards required more than 300 unique link sections all with varying geometry using standard radii bars. Self comparing concrete was used for all the diving boards. The superstructure concrete mixes contained GGBS cement, while the substructure used PFA. Which exceeded the replacement contents set by the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA).

London Aquatics Center


temporary seating


Olympic Mode The Olympic mode refers to the style the building doned during the 2012 London Olympics, with the two “wings� of seating along the edges.

Legacy Mode The Legacy mode refers to the style the building currently is in, with glazing along the edges, where the temporary stands once had been.

A large design aspect of the London Aquatic Center was what to do with the building once the Olympics ended. London wanted to keep the structure and use it as a community center, which the city was lacking. Zaha Hadid and her architects’ solution was to have 15,000 temporary seats that would attach to the roof.

The 260 foot long and 140 feet high, these stands are one of the largest stadium seating for an Olympic venue. The largest single lift of the entire job was lifting the 260 foot long truss that was to hold the entire stands up, meaning there would be no need for columns or other supports that would block views.

London Aquatics Center

Timber cladding Temporary roof baffle fabric along Legacy roof gutter Loose fabric to seal along gutterand timber ceiling edge

Loose fabric attached to timber ceiling allows limited movement Gable wall steelwork

Loose fabric fitted to timber ceiling

Clamped fabric to close gap between steelwork and gable frame

Gable wall PVC fabric facade

Clamping plate for loose fabric

Timber cladding Steel frame to form curve along Legacy roof Gable wall PVC fabric facade

The seating structure wrapped around the roof of the Aquatic Center, creating a tighter air barrier. Fabric was fitted along the ceiling timber so as to not damage the material. This also kept movement of the stands to a minimum. The stands were built following the curvature of the roof. The design of the joint between the structures limited the disconnect between the two and created an almost seamless relation.

PRECAMBER In order to have the 170 ton steel truss hold up the temporary stands, it needed to be at the right height, and not have any deflection. Each crane had to lift 85 tons of steel to put the truss into place. The cranes needed to be backloaded to prevent them from tipping over as they lifted the truss. This added weight put a lot more pressure onto the ground. In order to keep the cranes from sinking under the weight, builders dispersed the weight over a larger area.

The truss was built on site directly below its final spot. As the cranes lifted it up, it supported its weight for the first time. Engineers designed the truss with a precamber, so when it was lifted, any deflection that would happen, would just straighten the truss to a flatter position. The steel could not deflect any more than 150mm, any more, and they would have had to call off the lift and redesign the truss.

Without Precamber Bad Deflection

With Precamber Good Deflection

London Aquatics Center


SITE CONSTRAINTS The London Aquatics Center is site on one of the most constrained sites on the Olympic Park. The building sits in between railway lines to the east and the Waterworks River to the west. The temporary stands are actually cantilevered over the railway and river in some areas. The other major site constraints are the two tunnels under the Aquatics Center. The tunnels contain high voltage electrical cables. They do not align with the Aquatic Center in any way, but they have a significant effect on the buildings substructure. The Park is protected against fluvial flooding and actively manages flooding generated by a 100 year return period rainfall event plus Climate Change allowance. Furthermore, the fluvial peak within the River Lea catchment was approximately 24 hours after a rainfall event and in negotiation with the Environment Agency and British Waterways it was agreed that surface water runoff generated should be collected and discharged to the watercourses in advance of the river peak flow.


London Aquatics Center

Height = 45m

160m x 80m


London Aquatics Center


Undulating ceiling The parabolic roof is not only the most iconic part of the building, it is also important to the vertical organization of the space. The roof undulates to differentiate between the volumes of competition pool and the diving pool. This not only allows spectators to be able to focus on one event at a time, but it also opens up the sight lines for the spectators sitting at the top of the temporary stands. Inset Lighting Even though the building was designed to allow lots of natural light in, during the Olympics, the temporary stands blocked any light that would be brought in. This meant that large inset lights had to be placed within the ceiling (as seen in the image to the left.) The added 15,000 seats along the east and west sides of the building were built almost entirely of recyclable material, knowing that they would be only used for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. These seats were not forgotten in the design of the Center’s structure, however.


London Aquatics Center

The curve of the ceiling helped the backstroke swimmers keep track of where they were in the pool by watching the ceiling slope towards them as they approached the opposite side. This meant they can better time their turns and even possibly set new records.

Over the diving and synchronized swimming pool, the ceiling curves upward to help make room for the high divers. There is about a 20 foot clearance between the bottom of the ceiling and tallest diving platform, leaving plenty of room for any possible jumps and flips.

London Aquatics Center


“The Aquatics Centre was awarded an innovation credit under the Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM) assessment in recognition of their contribution to sustainable concrete construction.”

The materials used in the London Aquatic Center were a large part of the design. The high humidity in the pool hall called for materials that would not warp or swell which meant that any wood used would have to come from a humid climate and any other materials could not be extremely porous. Four major materials were used in and around the building. Concrete, glass, wood, and tile were the most logical choices. Concrete is noticable throughout the entire complex. The main podium the building sits upon is a large span of continuous pour concrete. The bridge of the London Aquatic Center utilizes as its main entrance is also completely concrete. Along with these, the three main legs the roof sits on are concrete shear walls. The center’s contractor chose to use ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) cement. This solution is a by-product from the steel-industry and contributes to a lower embodied carbon concrete. 58

London Aquatics Center

material usage Glass was used throughout in order to allow plenty of natural light into the spaces, even ones that were completely underground like the training pool. A total of 628 panes of glass are used on the exterior, all of which were added after the olympic events ended. The glass panels on the exterior of the building are printed with with a dot matrix pattern to reduce daylight glare on the water, but still allow plenty of light in. Brazilian hardwood called Red Louro was used on the ceiling due to its humid climate. This type of wood is also known to withstand grafitti and fire, reducing the need for harsh chemical treatments. The amount of wood needed, however, caused some issues. The solution was to use a Red Louro veneer over birch veneer. This cut back the amount of natural Red Louro by 50%. Over 850,000 tiles were used in the pools, surrounding areas, floors, showers and locker rooms. 180,000 of these tiles are used just in the pools themselves.


Stucco embossed aluminum standing seam roof Continuous welded aluminum gutter Natural anodized aluminum facia and gutter trim Timber cladding

• The roof is covered with part-recycled aluminum and weighs more than 3,000 tons. • The ceiling is made up of more than 35,000 Red Louro timber panels. The Brazilian hardwood are laid parallel to the roof’s edge, which helps the backstroke swimmers to follow a straight line. This wood was used because it comes from a humid climate and would not warp. • Each plank of wood is unique and has its own serial number. This is because no two pieces are exactly alike. • The pieces of wood on the ceiling also extend outside the building to create the solid sections of the facades. This creates a consistent set of materials and colors throughout the entire building. • Concrete and glass finishes used on the exterior as well as the interior of the building create a cohesive and simple material pallete and do not distract from the events. London Aquatics Center


sustainable design GREEN WALL One of the center’s plant filtration rooms sits underneath the south end’s green wall

MATERIALS concrete Over 150,000 tons of concrete was used in the Aquatics Center and the integrated pedestrian bridge. The dedication of the team in maximizing the sustainability of the concrete achieved over 4,000 tons of embodied CO2 savings and substitution of over 29,000 tons of primary aggregate. Due to the complexity of the site validation process, the Aquatic Center was one of the few projects to import large quantities of recycled aggregates for use as engineered fill. In total, over 80% of the 235,000 tons of loose aggregates used were from a recycled source. The majority of recycled aggregate was construction and demolition waste from elsewhere in the London area. A further 23,000 tons was obtained from the site-wide soil hospital which created blended engineering materials from the soil-washing remediation process.


London Aquatics Center

Phthalate-free PVC In response to the ODA’s polyvinyl chloride (PVC) policy, the Aquatics team reviewed alternative materials for the proposed 19,000m2 temporary stand enclosure. As a result, an innovative, flexible, phthalate-free PVC wrap was installed at a £30,000 cost premium. The installed wrap addresses some of the human health concerns surrounding PVC use but unfortunately, as with conventional PVC fabrics, the ODA policy requirement for 30% recycled content could not be achieved due to technical performance constraints. It is the first time this material has been used in this form. Earlier uses of flexible wrap on the Basketball Arena and Olympic Stadium’s roof used conventional PVC fabric, containing phthalates.

timber Preference for Red Louro was indicated due to its durability and natural resistance to fire which eliminates the need for harsh chemical treatments. An independent review of sustainable sources of Red Louro highlighted insufficient quantities of sustainable timber to meet the Aquatics Center’s demand. The realization of this happened a year before the timbers were installed on site, allowing the contractor to challenge their supply chain and resolve the issue. The selected supplier, proposed a solution combining the internal part of the building to use a Red Louro veneer on birch plywood while the exterior would use solid Red Louro external cladding. This innovative proposal enabled the ceiling to be delivered with 50% less Red Louro, all sourced from a credible Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) supply. In addition, the laminate solution enabled the replacement of 40 tons of secondary steel with Kerto structural timbers and permitted pieces to be fully prefabricated off-site with minimal wastage or energyintensive steam treatment.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY Natural Ventilation in the temporary stands resulted in a mechanical system being completely eliminated. This saved 56 tons of carbon and a cost of over £250,000. Ammonia Chillers The Olympic Delivery Authority in 2009 was put under considerable pressure to eliminate hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) from permanent cooling systems. Desire for ammonia or hydrocarbon chillers was because of their ability to the significantly lower global warming potential of the respective coolants. A total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) assessment for the Aquatics Center indicated a marginal 25-year life-cycle

global warming benefit of 130 tons equivalent CO2 through substitution of HFC chillers with ammonia chillers; equivalent to the energy consumption of approximately one and a half typical UK households. Water Efficiency The Aquatics Center, although having a higher potable water demand than all other venues, has achieved a 32% reduction in potable water demand; an equivalent 25year life-cycle saving of almost 450 megalitres. Most of this reduction has been achieved through the specification of low-flow fixtures and fittings, 2.4 gallon per minute flow showers, 1.3 gallon per minute flow taps with auto off controls and 1.2

gallon single-flush toilets. Greywater Harvesting The Aquatics Center could not be connected to the site-wide nonpotable water network due to insufficient space in the service corridor connecting the venue to the main site. Alternatively it employs a £53,000 greywater recycling system to exploit the vast quantities of wastewater produced through the filterbackwashing process. Approximately one third of this process water, 67.5 megalitres, is treated to a non-potable standard to meet toilet and urinal flushing demand, substituting main water use.

London Aquatics Center



Heating/ Cooling

Water Systems 62

London Aquatics Center

“Architecture Is” .....Unnecessarily Difficult” .....It’s Very Tough”

Integrated Strategies

Integrated Strategies These strategies are most evident in the unique ways through which heating, cooling, and air movement work together to provide the necessary environment for spectators and athletes while at the same time saving energy. This is done largely by inputting energy at the point of contact, whether that is directly at the curtain walls via heating trenches to prevent heat loss and eliminate condensation, or under seat cooling in the stands. This way only affected areas and not the entire volume need to be equally treated. Finally, the water systems, important to any Olympic pool, are also utilized for heating and cooling allowing perhaps the largest environmental and upkeep cost, water, to be reused in the pools, showers, toilets, and heating systems of the building. Thus, the same amount of water, does twice the amount of work. • • • • • • • • •

Water Supply for Pools Water Integrated Heating Heat Generated Ventilation Integrated Grey Water System Natural Ventilation Ventilation HVAC Systems Point of Place Heating Systems Zone Divided Heating/Cooling Cooling Systems

London Aquatics Center


Air Movement Strategies


London Aquatics Center

Low Velocity Jets

External Forces

Natural Ventilation

Under seat Heating/ Cooling

Pool Deck Floor Heating 1 Strategy Types Mechanical, Natural, Zonal

The London Aquatics Center employs a variety of ventilation techniques including both natural and mechanical methods. In addition air movement strategies are very closely linked to heating/cooling methodologies, both of which center around the natural properties of air to rise when warm, and fall when cool. Air is supplied to the major event spaces using oversized ducts below the pool deck providing the freshest air at the level of highest activity. In addition, the ventilation system employs only low velocity jets and fans, avoiding drafts and helping to establish both a pleasant and consistent ambient environmental experience.

London Aquatics Center


Pool side


Underfloor Radiant Heating


Pool side: Comfort Zone 1 The pool side environment is treated as its own system for heating, cooling, and air movement.

Enlarged Service Ducts The large pool halls are supplied both water and air via a set of enlarged service ducts surrounding the pools.

Air is released through vents in the seating wall and is heated by the water based radiant heating system in the floor. The natural rise that follows allows fresh air to dominate the space, while the cooler, older air, falls and is caught in the return duct, which acts as a combined return for old pool water and air. This provides for a warm, well ventilated environment for the athletes.

The enlarged ducts carry a set of water pipes for the pool as well as carry air for the pool side heating and cooling systems. By combining all supply and return into oversized ducts, the ducts were made large enough for human access, while also allowing for easy maintenance via the central filtration room.

London Aquatics Center


Enlarged Supply Duct

Enlarged Return Duct



Cooling System Providing individual comfort in an expansive space.

Supply Heated Pool Deck

• • •

Individual Seat Cooling Fresh Air Supply at point of contact Utilization of the physical properties of air, both cooling, and heating properties of mechanical air supply and moderation systems.

COMFORT ZONE 2 The second air treated zone in the Aquatics Center is the spectator seating. Due to the significantly cooler atmosphere desired by spectators as opposed to athletes, the seating was treated with an entirely different system than the pool deck. Each seat is supplied with its own under seat vent, which supplies the desired cool air directly to the individual spectator. The air is cooled with a series of ammonia chillers located under the green wall. As the air gradually rises in

temperature, it also begins to rise physically and is collected in the larger return vents located at the top of the stands. Low velocity jets at the top of the stands also shoot heated air into the expansive cavity above the pools which help prevent any unwanted drafts in either comfort zone and maintain the homeostasis of the spaces.

London Aquatics Center



The cooling system that provides air to the spectator zones utilizes a set of ammonia chillers hidden beneath the green wall. These chillers efficiently cool the air which travels in a series of pipes to the stands. The large amounts of excess heat from the ammonia process is funneled into the enlarged duct system by the pools and used to heat the water in both the pools and in the radiant floor heating systems.


London Aquatics Center


Localized heating and cooling systems along with an 84% recapture of heating using the pool basin as a heat sink separated from the cooling system of the stands were major design choices that made the systems work together toward the project’s environmental efficiency design goals.

Sustainability How to save energy in a large space?

All cooling is provided by nonhydroflourocarbon ammonia chillers which not only meet the codes required in London for environmental concerns in large buildings, but they also reduced energy usage which was a major concern for the city which wanted to continue using the building after the Olympics. The ability to use both cooling and waste heat further increased the system’s value. • • • • •

Conditioned Air for Spectator Seating

Ammonia Chillers 390KW Non-HFC Direct Cooling Off Heating

Ammonia Chiller

Excess Heat Directed to Water Heating System

Ammonia Chiller Circuit

London Aquatics Center


Heated Roof Void w/ Fans Prevents condensation from gathering

Roof Cavity


Infiltration Heat Loss Minimized Through Overlap

Conditioned Space? One major design consideration was whether or not to make the roof cavity conditioned space.

Roof Cavity Ventilation Once conditioned, the roof cavity needed to be properly ventilated to prevent condensation and avoid high heating costs.

Originally, the roof cavity was not supposed to be conditioned, but testing found that the savings from not conditioning the space were not enough to conteract the difficulties associated with not conditioning the space. The difficulties of properly insulating the conditioning the pool space at the same time preventing condensation in the roof cavity were found to be much greater concerns than the potential energy lost by conditioning the whole space.

In order to accomplish these goals, the design team specified a series of large fans, which together keep the air in the roof cavity circulating until it can be collected and recycled. This movement, along with the very high R-rated roof insulation prevent condensation and problems with bad air.

London Aquatics Center

The point of intersection between the curtain wall and the roof was of special interest due to the insecurity of the enclosure at this point. To solve the potential thermal break, the curtain wall was extended into the roof cavity. They were then surrounded by and joined with the roof’s insulation system. This also helped to mitigate the potential for condensation at this joint.


Air Movement

Air movement is provided at the curtain wall using a set of interior and exterior heating trenches combined with the mullion heating system described later. This combined system causes air to rise along the curtain wall due to the trench heating, until it begins to cool in the roof cavity and descend slowly back into the space. The stabilizing effect of this facade heating prevents heavy drafts and condensation within the expansive pool hall.

London Aquatics Center


Heating and Cooling


London Aquatics Center

Facade Heating Zone

Spectator Heating Zone

Pool Heating Zone 2 Strategy Types Natural, Radiant Water Heating, Ammonia Chillers, Low Velocity

The heating and cooling systems work closely with the ventilation and air movement strategies, dividing the building into major zones with different climate needs including the pool deck zone for athletes and the spectator zone. By dividing the stadium into zones, environmental needs (such as warm, low disruption at the pool deck) can be met at the point of need without influencing other spaces or trying to match the entire building and roof cavity to a constant temperature which would require immense energy inputs. The heating and cooling systems are, again, integrated with both the water and ventilation systems, utilzing the oversized pool ducts for pipes and movements, while also using the properties and needs of the water systems to limit energy waste and increase efficiency.

London Aquatics Center


FACADE Multipurposed Walls More than a curtain wall

Detailing The facade, specifically at the curtain wall, was very carefully considered and detailed, both from a structural standpoint and especially from a heating and cooling standpoint. The expansive curtain walls had to be self supporting and so a series of enlarged mullions with attached steel trusses was implemented, which also allowed for the carefully considered radiant heating tubes to be installed within those same enlarged mullions. These systems together allowed for heating to occur directly at the point of largest heat loss, the curtain walls themselves.

1. Insulated Glass Panel 2. Horizontal Steel Tube 3. Vertical Steel Tube 4. Heated Water-Glycol Solution


London Aquatics Center

FACADE TREATMENT TYP. Curtain Walls Maximizing Use

Curtain Wall The curtain walls were used as infill between the concrete base and steel roof structure after the wings of the temporary stands were removed. They posed a design challenge for several reasons, one of which was the lack of an overall heating/cooling systems for the building which was divided into zones. Heat was already lost as it moved toward the building periphery and a curtain wall did nothing to stop this migration. In order to curb this, the design team implemented radiant heating tubes within enlarged mullions, using water, a “motif� of the building, to solve yet another design problem.

Heating/Cooling The heating tubes, which are filled with a water based solution, are supplied from the mechanical/filtration room, but the system, though accessible for repairs, is completely self-contained, using pressure to move the water through the tubes, up and down the mullions and across a few of the larger transoms. The water heats up the air at the base of the curtain wall, which then rises, until it reaches the top of the water where it then begins to cool and descend softly back into the interior. This continued movement of air also helps to solve an even greater problem than comfort, that is, condensation.

Condensation The final major concern was condensation from the highly humid pool interior hitting the cold curtain wall. Heating at the wall directly prevented the majority of this condensation, recirculating the humid air, until it could be collected or released safely.

London Aquatics Center


Water Systems


London Aquatics Center

3 Strategy Types Centralized, Greywater Reuse, Combined Air and Water Ducts

The water system of the building revolves around the centralized filtration room, which lies between the olympic and practice pools. This “command center� supplies water through the enlarged ducts to all three pools, while also filtering and recirculating the pool water. Finally, the room also serves to collect and redistribute used pool and shower water as grey water for the toilets in the locker rooms and public spaces. This double use of all water is one of the greatest environmentally friendly moves of the building, aside from the concrete, as olympic pool halls are known to waste more water than nearly any other building type due to the building function.

London Aquatics Center




The Filtration Room The filtration room is located between the olympic and practice pools, and acts as the center for the building’s integrated functions.

Functions The filtration room handles all the water filtration for the three systems as well as a base for the heating/cooling systems.

The centrally located position of the room allows it to work in conjunction with the enlarged pool ducts to service the whole pool area from a single location. This allows for an energy efficient, as well as easily serviceable, water system which utilizes all the same passageways necessary for the heating/ cooling systems of the building.

Not only does filtration for the original pool water occur here, the water from the pool is refiltered for use in the grey water system. Additionally, water is supplied to the underfloor and facade radiant heat systems. Finally, large air ducts meet with the central air system in the filtration room.

London Aquatics Center

• • •

Air Ducts Water Pipes Water Heaters and Filters

PROCESS “Water treatment systems incorporate flocculation using polyaluminum chloride (PAC); medium-rate filtration on high-quality, single grade, 1-meterdeep sand beds; mediumpressure ultraviolet radiation; heating; and automatic pH and prechlorine residual control. The filtration system will remove particles down to 1 micron.”

“Other eco-friendly elements include close control of the chemical parameters to minimize chemical usage and the reduction of disinfection byproducts, and the recovery of backwash water with its own specially designed treatment system so that recovered backwash water is then used for toilet flushing throughout the complex.”

London Aquatics Center


Overview The overall system is twofold: supply and return through the enlarged ducts to the filtration room, and reuse of grey water in the toilets and green wall.

Water Greywater Distribution System

POOLS 3 Strategy Types Distribution, Reuse, Replace

Water: Initial Use Water is run through a set of massive filters in the central filtration room before being set through pipes in the enlarged ducts to supply the pools. Return water is collected through the duo-use poolside backwash system which intakes both used water and air. The water is then funneled to the filtration room where it is refiltered for additional use. Water: Reuse Usually, pool backwash water is immediately fed into water waste systems, but in the London Aquatics Center, it is refiltered and used in a separate greywater system which supplies the facility’s toilets. The same is done with the showers, which account for the largest water demand in the facility. Water: Savings Through these systems, the buildings saves up to 32% water annually.


London Aquatics Center

RAINWATER The massive gutter that travels around the entire roof collects a large amount of rainwater, which is used to irrigate the large greenwall on the south side of the building. This helps to mitigate both waste of water and to slow the process of water hitting the impermeable surfaces below, and thus causing greater runoff problems.

• • • • •

Stepped Greenwall Direct Application of Water Water Capture and Reuse Direct Runoff Prevention Draws on greening nature of the Olympic Park

London Aquatics Center


Archello - How It’s Made. Discover the products, stories and building teams behind the project. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from project/london-aquatics-centre


Arnold, D. (2012). Atkins and the London 2012 Games. Great Britain: Produced by British Library Publishing on behalf of Atkins Limited. doi:http://m.atkinsglobal. com/~/media/Files/A/Atkins-Corporate/group/corporate/about-us/our-publications/AtkinsAndTheLondon2012GamesBook.pdf Aquatics Centre London. (2016, December 15). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from Designing Buildings Wiki The construction industry knowledge base. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from Case_Study_London_Olympic_Aquatics_Centre#Ventilation Enabling the Olympic Park. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from F. (2014, September 12). [Extreme Engineering] Build It Bigger: London Olympic Aquatic Stadium (S05E04). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from Gallery of London Aquatics Centre for 2012 Summer Olympics / Zaha Hadid Architects - 34. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from https://www.archdaily. com/161116/london-aquatics-centre-for-2012-summer-olympics-zaha-hadid-architects/5015549028ba0d02f0000dc9-london-aquatics-centre-for-2012- summer-olympics-zaha-hadid-architects-photo K. (2010, April 07). London 2012’s Aquatics Centre in testing. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from King, M., & Mungall, G. (2012, October 04). Aquatics Centre, London 2012 Olympic and Paralympics Games. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://onlinelibrary. L. (2008, December 18). Aquatics Centre progress - London 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from London Aquatics Centre for 2012 Summer Olympics / Zaha Hadid Architects. (2011, August 17). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from Quito, A. (2015, July 18). Japan has scrapped Zaha Hadid’s ostentatious design for its new national stadium. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from Shanghai, K. A. (2017, November 17). Legacy Masterplan Framework London [UK]. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from masterplan_framework/ Sustainability of the Aquatics Centre. (2012, November 09). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from UK Developments Review The quarterly digital publication on UK & London 2012 Olympic Games Construction Activities. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from Zaha Hadid Architects. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from Zukowsky, J. (2016, March 31). Dame Zaha Hadid. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from

London Aquatics Center


London Aquatic Center Case Study  

University of Cincinnati Integrated Technology Course

London Aquatic Center Case Study  

University of Cincinnati Integrated Technology Course