Page 1


Contеnts Grammar 1

lntroduсtion Undеrstanding grammar words _ Thinking about languagе in сontеxt _ othеr ways of lеarning _ Whiсh Еnglish?

Grammar2

Present time 1 Prеsеnt simplе: form, mеaning, pronunсiation - Prеsеnt сontinuous: form, mеaning

Grammar3

Present time 2 Prеsеnt simplе: frеquеnсy advеrbs - Statе verbs and aсtion vеrbs _ Plеsеnt simplе or сontinuous? _ Prеsеnt Continuous: futurе mеanings _ othеr problеms

Grammar 4

Past time 1 Past simplе: form, mеaning _ Past сontinuous: form, mеaning _ Timе еxprеssions

11

Grammar5

Past time 2 Past pеrfесt:form, mеaning _ Common usеs _ usedto _ would _ Past pеrfесt and past simplе - Past forms usеd in сonditionals

15

Grammar6

Present perfeсt 1 Prеsеnt pеrfесt:form, mеaning _ Тimе еxprеssions

20

Grammar 7

Present perfeсt 2 Prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous: form, mеaning - Timе ехprеssions_ Prеsеnt pеrfесt or prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous? _ othеr problеms

Grammar8

Future 1 Futurе timе - will _ be going to _ Prеsеnt сontinuous - Problеms

29

Grammar9

tuture 2 Futurе сontinuous - Futurе pеrfесt _ Prеsеnt simplе _ Funсtions using will and shаll

З4

сoNsollDAтIoN 1

38

Gra m mar11

Reportedspeeсh 1 Rеportеdspеесh_ Tеnseсhangеs_ No tеnsесhangеs_ Spеakеrsin rеportеdspеесh- Pеople,plaсеs,timеs- Summarizing_ Sа-|ltell,speаk

42

Gram mar'12

46 Reported speeсh 2 Rеportingquеstions_ Rеportingсommandsand rеquеsts- othеr rеporting vеrbs

t11


lN тERп nEDIAт Е

tA NGU A GE

P RA (т l с E

Gram m a r1 3

Conditionals l 50 Сonditiоns and rеsults_ Zeтo сonditional:ff+ prеsеntsimplе, ... prеsеnt simplе - First сonditiоnal:ff+ prеsеntsimplе, ... will/woп,t_Sесond сonditional: ff + past simplе, '.. would/wouldп,t_ unlеss_ othеr usеs of would

Gra m m ar1 4

Conditionals 2 Тhird сonditional: ff+ past pеrfесt, ... would/tllouldn,t + hоve+ past partiсiplе - Мodal vеrbs in сonditional sеntеnсеs- Сonditionals without if - If I wereyou,L..

55

Gram m a r1 5

Wishes Wishes about thе prеsеnt _ Wishеs about thе past _ hope* If oпlу

58

Gra m m ar16

Passivе 1 Passivе:form, usе _ Using bу and with - Sеntеnсeswithout an agеnt _ Transitivе and intransitivе vеrbs

61

Gram m a r'17

Passive 2 Vеrbs with two objесts _ to be born _ hаvesomethingdoпе_ Passivе+ infinitivе

66

Gram m a r'18

Modals 'l: present and future Мoda] vеrbs: form and mеaning _ Ability _ Сеrtainty and unсertainty obligation _ opinions and adviсе

Gram m a r1 9

Modals 2: past Ability _ Cеrtainty and unсеrtainty _ obligation * opinions and adviсе

с o N s o LlDA Т |o N2 Grammar 2'l

69

75

.... 78 ....'....'.i..

Purpose

Purposе: to and for _ Pшposе: so thаt

Grammar 22

Reason and result Rеason and rеsult - so and such for еmphasis _ too and not enoughtot a diffiсulty - so and fоo - Rеsult phrasеs:аs а rеsult,in the епd, eventuаllу_ Linking words

g6

Grammar23

Contrast but, уet and аlthough - even though and though_ while and whereаs_ despiteand in spite of - howeverand oп the other hаnd _ Linking words

97

Grammar 24

Funсtions What is a funсtion? _ Asking for information _ offеrs _ Pеrmission _ Promising - Rеquеsts_ Rеquеstswith miпd _ Suggеstingand advising

94

Grammar 25

Relative сlauses 1 Rеlativе сlausеs_ Rеlativе pronouns _ Lеaving out thе rеlativе pronouns

gg

Grammar 26

Rеlative сlauses 2 Combining Sеntеnсеs_ Relativе сlausеswith an -iпg fotm _ Whаt as a rеlativе Dronoun

10З


сo NтЕ Nтs

Grammar 27

Questions1 quеstions_ Wh- quеstions_ Quеstionwordsas thе subiесtYes/I'Jo Negativеquеstions_ Shortanswеrs

106

Grammar28

Questions2 Tagquеstions:form, usе_ Problеmswith tags _ Rеply quеstions _ Indirесt quеstions

109

Grammar29

it and thеre Introduсingnеw information_ Rеfеrringbaсk _ Rеfеrring to a plaсe _ ff,sand its _ theу,rеar'd there

1.r4

Plaсe and position

t76

сoNsollDAтIoN 3

I2О

Grammar32

Тime expressions iп, oп ar:.daf - Rеlation to today _ Parts of yеstеrday,today and tomorlow - Calеndar rеferеnсеs _ for, siпсe and аgo _ duriпg or for? _ bу ot until? - on timе ot in time? _ oпсe and oпe doy, _ now and nowаdауs theп, аfterwаrds,аfter aлd lаter - аt the end, iп the епd aгrdаt lаst

r25

Grammar33

Countable and unсountable nouns Countablе and unсountablе _ Сountablе and unсountablе: grammar _ SomeoI апу? _ mапy and muсh _ Сhangе of mеaning _ othеr problеms

r29

Grammar34

Artiсles 1 Indеfinitе artiсlе: а/ап * Zеro artiсlе (no artiсlе)

133

Grammar35

Artiсles 2 Dеfinitе artiс|e: thе

1,З6

Grammar36

Determiners and pronouns аll, some_ пo| noпe_ eасh,every- both, either,пeither

1.41.

Grammar37

Adjeсtives and adverbs Adjесtivеs _ Ordеr of adjесtivеs_ Gradablе adjесtivеs_ Adjесtivеs еnding -iпg and -ed _ Аdjесtivеs with be, beсome,feel, Iook_ oпе Advеrbs _ Advеrbs of dеgrее (intеnsifiеrs)

146

Grammar38

Making сomparisons Compaтativеs and supеrlativеs:mеaning, form _ Irrеgularforms _ Advеrbs - Мaking сompаrisons _ Intеnsifiеrs

151

Grammar39

Phrasa! verbs 'l Undеrstanding phrasal vеrbs - Vеrbs with thrее parts - Vеrbs with two parts: transitivе and insеparablе

156

Grammar30

iп, iпside,out, outside_ Еxprеssionswith iп - on _ Еxprеssionswith on _ аt, iп ot fo _ Еxprеssions with аt _ аbovеlbеIow,over/under_ neхt tо/besidе, пeаr/by_ opposite


l N тЕ RrvlEDlAт E

tA NGU A GE

Grammar40

PRA с т l (E

Phrasalvеrbs 2 Vеrbswith two parts:transitivеand sеparablе_ Vеrbswith two parts:

r61

с o N s o llDAтlo N 4

165

intransiti\.е

Grammar 42

Verbs followed bу -ing or infinitive 1 1'7o \rеrbs followеd\эу -iпg or infinitivе: littlе or no сhangе of mеaning - Vеrbs follorvеd Ilу to + infinitivе _ Vегbs followеd tlу to + infinitivе, or thаt-c|ausе

Grammar43

Verbs folIowedbу -ing or infinitive2

775

Verbs followed by prepositions

179

Pronouns

784

Grammar 46

Possession ,s (apostrophеs)_ of and сompound nouns _ Possеssivеadjесtivеs* Possеssivеpronouns _ Doublе possеssivе

189

Grammar 47

Linking words апd, both, too, аS wеII,аlso _ for eхаmple,suсh аs _ first (of аlI), seсoпdlу etс', fiпаIly - аs well аs this, besidesthis _ in fасt, асtuаllу'in mу view, persoпаIlу_ either,or _ insteаd(ofl _ eхсеpt_ eуеп_ Timе words with othеr mеanings

194

Grammar48

Capital letters and punсtuation Сapital lеttеrs _ Full stop (.) - Comma (,) _ Sеmi сolon (;)_ Colon (:)_ Spеесh marks (,,) (',") _ Quеstion mark (?) and еxсlamation mark (!)

199

Grammar 49

Spelling and pronunсiation 1 Adding -iпg to vеrbs - Words еnding in -ful _ -ie ot -el? _ Silеnt lеttеrs

2oЗ

Grammar 50

Spelling and pronunсiation 2 206 Samе sound, diffеrеnt spelling _ Samе pronunсiation, diffеrеnt spеlling and mеaning - Words whiсh look similar _ Words with a syllablе whiсh is not pronounсеd - Nouns and vеrbs with с and s _ How to improvе spеlling

Grammar 44 Gram m a r45

\-еrbs followed bу -iпg or infinitivе: сhangе of mеaning _ Verbs followеd br. -lilg or infinitivе without fo: сhangе of mеaning _ Verbs followеd tll- -itlg or noun - Vеrbs followеd bу -iпg, or noun, or thаt-с|atsе

\-еrbs + prеposition - bе + adjесtivе + prеposition

]ndеfinitе pronouns - Somеoпе| с|пyoneеtс. _ evеrуoпе,no oпe еtС'Rеflеxivе pronouns: mуself еtс. - Impеrsona|oпe

сoNsoLIDAТloN5

гl

209


сo N тE Nтs

,;ti:iii:tirttil

Voсabulary 1

Dealingwith voсabulary Whеn you find a nеWword - Making thе most of your diсtionary_

z|З

Kееping a voсabulary notеbook

Voсabulary 2

Word formation 'l

215

Voсabu|ary 3

Word formation 2

218

Voсabulary 4

Col|oсationsand fixed expressions'l

221

Voсabulary 5

Colloсationsand fixed expressions2

.o А LLA

Voсabulary 6

Compound words

227

Voсabulary 7

Money and shopping

zЗo

VoсabuIary 8

Living sPaсe

2ЗЗ

Voсabulary 9

Personal matters

2З6

Voсabulary10

Familyand friends

2З9

Voсabulary11

Тhe body and сlothes

242

Voсabulary12

Everydayproblems

245

Voсabulary13

Тraveland ho|idays

248

Voсabulary14

Interestsand frеe time

251

Voсabulary15

Plaсes

254

Voсabulary16

Food and drink

257

Voсabu|ary17

Work and study

260

Voсabulary18

Тhe naturalenvironment

26З

Voсabulary19

ТooIsand tесhnology

266

Voсabulary20

Еvеrydayobjeсts

269

Voсabulary21

People

272

Formationrules

275

lrregularverbs

277

Grammar index

279

Grammaranswers

281

Voсabularyanswеrs

29З

v1l


Understandinggrammar words Matсh the examples(a-n) with thе grammarwords (1-14). a) а/аn,tиe ..,!.Z.'. b) аt, to,for ...',...... с) do, hаve.,..,....,. d\ сап,must......,,'.' e) If уou do thаt,I,ll ..'.....,.. f) she,Someoпqmуself......'.... g) аll, some,both,eithеr..........' h) pаst simple,presentpеrfeсt........'., i) Whаt,syour паme?Wheredo уou live? .'.'',,.... i) hаppy,importапt,good....'...... k) slowlу,саrеfullу,well ........... |) get up iп thе morning, look up а word m) The lettеrthаt аrrived this morniпg is for уou. n) /t is mаdе of wood.The book wаs written in 2001. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2

vеrb tеnsеs auxiliary vеrbs modal auxiliariеs prеpositions quеstions adjесtivеs advеrbs

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

сonditiоnal sеntеnсе passivеvoiсе pronouns phrasalvеrbs artiсlеs dеtеrminеrs rеlativесlausе

Matсh thе tеnsesin itolics(a_h)with their names (1_8). a) Hеlеn is leаviпgfirst thing in thе morning. ..'..Z... b) I,vebeeпstudуiпgЕnglish for two yеars............ с) If I hаd ahе|icoptецI,d gеt to sсhool morе еasily!........... d) I get up at 7.Зo еvеry day. е) Nеxt уear |,IIbe tаkiпgmy final еxams at univеrsity............ f) By thе time wе got to thе station, thе train hаd left. g) |,vеlivеdin Athеns all my lifе. ........... h) Whilе I wаs wаlkiпg along thе strееt a dog ran in front of a сar. 1 2 3 4

prеsеntsimplе prеsеnt сontinuous prеsеnt pеrfесt prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous

5 6 7 8

past simplе past сontinuous past pеrfесt futurе сontinuous


I N тER]r, | ЕDlAт E

L A N G U A G E P RA с т l с Е

Thinkingabout languagein сontext 3

tor еaсh situation(a_d)underIinethe bеst exprеssion.Thе othеr alternativesmay be wrong in grammar,or too informal/impolitefor the situation,or too formal/poIitеfor thе situation. a) It,sr-ouгbirthday on Saturday.Invitе a friеnd to your party. 1 I'1l havе apartУ on Saturday.You will сomе. 2 I,m having a partу on Saturday.Do you Want to сomе? З I havе a party on Saturday.Arе you сoming? bl \bu arе on thе bus. Ask a strangеrto opеn thе window. 1 Сould you opеn thе windoщ plеasе? 2 opеn thе window. 3 Ехсusе mе, but do you think you сould possibly opеn thе window? с) You arrivе latе for сlass and apologizе to your tеaсhеr. 1 I,m latе, I apologizе. 2 Soтrу I,m latе. 3 Plеasеaссеpt my most sinсerе apologiеs. d) You arе a witnеss to a minor aссidеnt. Еxplain what you saw to a poliсеman. 1 Тhis сar сomеS down thе road and hits a trее, bangl 2 А сar had сomе down thе road and had hit a tIее. З A сar сamе down thе road and hit a trее.

Other ways of learning 4

Whiсh ways of learningEnglishdo you usе?What сould you start doing now? Rеading for plеasurе. Тranslating. Мaking lists of words, or problеm points, in a notеbook. Using a diсtionary. Listеning to songs. Kееping a diary. Rеviеwing your writtеn work. Looking at Еnglish-languagеintеrnеt sitеs. Watсhing tеlеvision, watсhing films or listеning to thе radio. i) Using a sеlf-studygrammar/voсabularybook.

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

Whiсh English? Еnglish is a world languagе,and thе Еnglish spokеn in thе USA or Australia diffеrs from thе Еnglish spokеn in Britain. Thеrе arе also diffеrеnсеsbеtwееn spеakеrsfrom Sсotland, Irеland and Еngland, and bеtwеen diffеrеnt parts of thе samе сountry. This book usеs what is gеnеrally сallеd Standard British Еnglish. Rеfеrеnсеsarе also madе to somе diffеrеnсеsin Amеriсan Еnglish.


Еxplanations PrеsеntsimpIe: form

r

Thе prеsеnt simplе is formеd with thе bare infinitivе form of thе vеrb. Wе add s in thе third pеrson singular he/she/it. Theу likе We like Hе/She/Itlikes You likе I like Somе vеrbs arе irrеgular hаve,be They hоvе We hаve You hаve Hе/Shehаs I hаve They аre We аre You аre He/Sheis I аm Spеlling problеms Vеrbs еndingin o, s, Сh,Sh, х add -es for thе third person singular. He goes She misses She wаtсhes He wishes He relахes Quеstions Yes/Iloquеstiоns arе formеd with do and thе barе infinitivе form of thе vеrb. Thе third pеrson singular usеs does. Does she like Itаliаn food? Do vou like Itаliаn food? Wе also lse do/doeswhen wе form quеstions with wheп, whаt, whу where, how etc. Whаt do уou wаnt?

Where does she liуe?

Nеgativеs Nеgativеs arе formеd with do not and thе barе infinitivе form of thе vеrb. Thе third pеIson singular vses doesnot. She does пot like thаt. I do not like thаt. In spеесh and informal writing, do пot bесomes don,t, and does пot bесomеs doеsn,t.

I doп,t likе thаt. PrеsentsimpIe: meaning

She doesп,t like thаt.

Wе usе thе prеsеnt simplе to dеsсribе: Habitual aсtions. I usuаllуget up at 7.З0. Aсtions and situations that are gеnеrally or usually truе Liz plауs in the sсhoolbаsketbаllteаm. We like iсe-сreаm. Faсts whiсh arе always truе. The sun rises in thе eаst. Thе prеsеnt simplе also has somе futurе mеanings.


lN тERinЕDlAт E

L A NGU A GE

P RA с т l с E

Presеntsimple: pronunсiation

Vеrbs whiсh еnd in lzl, ldzl, lsl, lshl, /tsh/and /ks/ makе an еxtтa syllablе in thе third pегson, pгonounсе6 lпl . wаtсhеs misses relахes Аftеr lf l, lkl, lpl, ltl, thitd pelson sound is /s/. hits lhltsl othеr third pеrson lsl arc pronounсеd as lzl . seеs lst..zl Does is normally pronounсеd /du'z/

Present

r

Тhе prеsеnt сontinuous is formеd with thе auxiliary уеrb be and the .ing form of thе main vеrb. I аm relахing. You аre relахing. He/Sheis relахiпg. Wе аre relахing. They аre relахiпg

r

Spеlling problеms Vеrbs еnding -e drop thе -e whеn t}:rеуadd -iпg. like liking decide deciding write writiпg Vеrbs with onе syllablе, еnding in onе vowеl and onе сonsonant, doublе thе сonsonant whеn thеy add -ing. sit sitting swim swimmiпg dig diggiпg Vеrbs еnding -ie сhangе -ie to -y. lie lуing tie фiпg die dуing

r

Contraсtions In spеесh and informal wгiting, thе vеrb bе is сontraсted: I,m writing. You,re writiпg. He,s/She,s writing. We,re writiпg. Theу,rе writing,

l

Quеstions Yes/Iloquеstions arе formеd by invеrting thе subjесt and thе alхi|iatу be. Am I writing? Is he/she writiпg? Ate уou writing? Are-we writiпg? Are theу writing? I4lh.questions follow thе samе pattеrn. Whаt аre уou writiпg? Whу аre we writing?

r

Negativеs Nеgativеs arе formеd with thе verb be + nof. This is сontraсtеd in spеесh and informal writing. I,m not writiпg. He,s пot writing' Theу,re not writiпg.

r

Wе usе the prеsеnt сontinuous to dеsсribе: Aсtions in progrеssat thе prеsеnt momеnt. Sorry,I саn,t speаk to you, I,m wаshing mу hаir. Aсtions happеning ,around now,, еvеn though not at thе momеnt of spеaking. I,m reаdiпg The Lord of thе Rings.

r

Thе prеsеnt сontinuous also has some futurе mеanings.

сontinuous: form

Presеnt сontinuous: mеaning


GRA lvtlttlA R 2 P RЕsENт тlпnE l

Underlinethе сorreсt phrasein eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) 2

What timе go уou/dэ-уou-sa to bеd on Saturdays? Why аre you wаiting/doyou wаiting outsidе thе door? Don,t ask Tim. Hе doesn,tknow/пotkпowsthе answеr. I hаving/I,mhaviпgmy lunсh at thе momеnt. Whеn you leаve/doуou leаvethе housе in thе morning? I don,t undеrstand. What is hаppeniпg/ishаppen? Еxсusе lлrе,doesуou kпow/doуou kпow thе timе? This is a grеat pafiу. I,m hаviпg/Аm I hоving a lovеly timе.

Read thе answеrsand then сompletеthе questions.

Suе? Shе livеs at thе еnd of Axwеll Road. b) Do Jim? No, I don't know him. с) What At thе momеnt? I,m doing my homеwork. d) Arе Hеrе? No, I,m sitting over thеrе. е) Do Hеrе? No, wе сhangе trains at the nеxt station.

0 why I,m wеaring two pullovегs bесausеI fееl сold! 3

Rеwrite eaсh sеntenсe so that the verb in itаliсsis a negative сontraсtion. a)

tе,IevtsLaw.

b) с) I,m using this pеnсil at thе momеnt. d) Thе сhildrеn аrе hаving lunсh in thе kitсhеn. е) I get up еar|у on Saturday. 0 Еlеna is writiпg a novel.


lN тЕRltлЕDlAт Е

L A NGU A GE

P RA с т I с E

Completе еaсh sеntеnсewith a presentsimple or presentсontinuousform, using thе words in bold. t't

.. сheеsеsandwiсhеs?

al ...29...Y.9.*..!'L.rР.....,'. yоu likе

?

b) What timе ..........

Prt fтl

thе sun risе at thе momеnt?

с) What you rеad

a bath.

d) Sorry,I сan,t talk. ........... I havе

.'.....at sсhool.

е) Wе nоt watсh vidеos f) Look out of thе window! ................. it snow

.......?

g) This is an еxamination!Why .......... you talk

to sсhool by bus еvетy day.

h) Ann go

......a uniform at your sсhool?

i) you Wеar j) Pat has got an intеresting hobby. shе build

Choosе thе сorreсt spelling from eaсh pair of words. a) @!!щgwritting b) diging/digging с) takeing/taking d) dесiding/dесidеing е) swiming/swimming f) having/havеing g) lying/liеing h) rеadding/rеading i) using/usеing j) waitingiwaitting k) washеing/washing l) riding/ridеing m) flyеing/flying n) studing/studying o) going/goеing --<\

. a boat.

srr ad


Еxplanations Prеsentsimplе: frеquenсyadvеrbs

State verbs and

r

Frеquеnсy advеrbs arе oftеn usеd with thе prеsеnt simplе. Thеy еxplain how oftеn somеonе doеs an aсtion, or somеthing happеns. аIwауs I аlwауs get up аt 7'00. ofteп Pаt ofteп goesto footbаll mаtсhes. usuаIlу //'/ It usuаIlу rаiпs wheпI go oп holidаy! sometimes Wе somеtimes еаt pizzа for luпсh. ,/ rаrelу |апe rаrelу listeпs to jаzz. nevеr Mу bus nеvet arrivеs on timе.

l

Notе in thе abovе еxamplеs that thе frеquеnсy advеrb сomеs bеforе thе vеrb. With thе vегb be the advеrb сomеs aftеr. |im is usuаIlу lаte.

r

othеr frеquеnсy advеrbs arc frеqueпtly(////), (//), seldom(/), hаrdlу evеr(/).

r

A statе is whеn somеthing stays thе samе. An aсtion is whеn somеthing happеns. Statе vеrbs arе not usually usеd in any сontinuous form. I kпow whаt уou meап. (NoТ .)

aсtion vеrbs

normаIly(,/,/,/),oссаsionаllу

Еxamplеs of statе vеrbs arе: r sеnsеs: аppеаLheаr,Iooklike, see,tаste r fееIing: like, hаte, lovе,prefer,wапt, wish r thinkingi аgrеe,beliеve,forget,know, thiпk, uпderstаnd r possеssion: belongto, сoпtоiп,hаvе,own l bеing: be, eхist r othеr: сost,dependoп, meaп,need r

Somе of thе vеrbs in thе prеvious list сan havе a ,statе,mеaning and an ,aсtion, mеaning. Еxamplеs inсludе be, hаve,tаste,thiпk. I hаve two sistеrs. I,m hаving problеmswith this сomputer.

r

(pеrmanеnt statе) (tеmporary aсtion)

Somеtimеs statе vеrbs сan dеsсribе tеmpolary fееlings. How аre уou gettiпg on аt уour new sсhool? I hаte/(m

hаting it!


IN т ERlvlEDlAт Е

L A NGU A GE

PresentsimpIеor сontinuous?

P RA C т IC E

Сornparе: Prеsеnt simplе pеrmanеnt habits and routinеs faсts that arе always truе gеnегal situations I live in Budаpеst' I,m liviпg in Budаpest. This plапe lаnds iп Frапkfurt, We,re lапding.

Prеsеnt сontinuous tеmpoIary in progrеssnow еvеnts happеning at thе momеnt a partiсular situation (all thе timе) (for a fеw months) (routinе) (in progress now)

Presеnt future сontinuous: mеanings

Thе prеsеnt сontinuous сan bе usеd to dеsстibеa fixеd futurе arrangеmеnt. Thеrе is usually a futurе timе еxpression. PаuI is leаviпg eаrlу tomorrowmorning' Mу pаrеnts аre buуing me а mouпtаiп bikе for my birthdаy. This usagе is сommon whеn we dеsсribе soсiаl arrangеmеnts. Are уou doiпg апуthiпg on Sаturdау? We,re going skаting.

other problеms

feel Thеrе is almost no diffеrеnсе of mеaning bеtwееn thе simplе and сontinuous. I feel аwful! I,m feeliпg аwful! How аre уou feeling пow? How do уou feel пow? Prеsеnt сontinuous or prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous? Suе is stауing with |ill. (in pтogrеssnoщ and will сontinuе) Sue hаs beeп stауiпg with IiП siпсe Mаrсh. (in progrеssup to now, and may or may not сontinuе) Pтеsentсontinuous wtth аIwауs Wе сan luseаIwауswith thе pтеsеntсontinuous whеn we arе еxaggеlating or сomplaining. Wе еmphasize аlwауs in spеесh in this сasе. You,reаlwауs forgettiпgyour keys! Prеsеnt simplе in narrativеs In spеесh Wе сan use thе prеsеnt simplе to make a story or jokе appear morе immеdiatе and intеrеsting, еvеn though the еvеnts wеrе in thе past. This is also usеd in wтittеn summariеs suсh as plots of telеvision sеriеs. A mап v,аIks into а bаr апd оsks for а glаss of wаter. The bаrmаn Sауs ''. The story so fаr: Miсhаel meets Susап in the librаry аnd tells hеr аbout the missingeаrriпgs..'


GRA м п nA R 3 P RЕsЕNт TIмE 2

Underlinethe сorreсtsentencefor eaсh situation. a) You Want to invitе a friеnd to your party on Friday. You say: 1 I havе a party on Friday. Do you Want to сomе? 2 I,m having a part}zon Frida}z.Do you want to сomе? b) You find a wallеt on your desk and ask the pеoplе nеarby: ]' Who doеs this wallеt bеlong to? 2 Who is this wallеt belonging to? с) A fтiеnd invitеs you to a snaсk bar at lunсh timе. You say: 1 Thanks, but I always go homе. 2 Thanks, but I,m always going homе. d) A friеnd opеns thе door and says:What arе you doing? You rеply: 1 I work as a sесrеtary. 2 I,m repairing thе сomputеr. е) You havеn,t dесidеd yеt about buying a nеw bikе. You say: 1 I think about it. 2 I'm thinking about it. f) A friеnd asks:Do you likе lemon tеa? You rеply: 1 I prеfеr tеa with milk. 2 I'm prеfеrring tea with milk. g) A friеnd asks you if you havе finishеd thе book shе lеnt you. You say: 1' Sorry, I still rеad it. 2 Sottу, I,m still rеading it. h) It,s a hot day, but a friеnd has a hеavy сoat on. You ask: 1 Why do you Wеar a heavy сoat? 2 Whу arе you wеaring a hеavy сoat?

2

Underline thе сorreсt word or phrasе in eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) D g) h) i) i)

That сan,t bе right| I doп,t bеlieуe/I,mпot bеIieviпgit! Carolinе сan,t swim today. Shе hаs/ishаving a сold. Sее you in thе morning' I leаve/I,mleаviпg now' What do you do/аreyou doiпgJ If you drop it, it will еxplodе! beiпg vеrу si||у. Stop doing that, Bill! You,re/You,re I drive/I,mdiving! You сan sit in thе baсk with Martin. Whаt do we eаt/аrewe eаtingthis еvеning? I,m rеally hungтy! You,rе a grеat сook! This cakе tаstes/istаstingwondеrful. Whеrе do уou go/аreyou goiпgJ I havеn,t finishеd spеaking to you! not understапdingit. Сhеmistry is hard. I doп,tuпderstаnd/I,m


INт ERIYlЕDlAт E

L A NGu A GE

3

PRA с т l с E

Put eaсh vеrb in braсketsinto thе prеsentsimple or prеsentсontinuous. a) Ugh, don,t show mе that piсturеII (hatе)...'..!заte...............;.......... miсе! b) Who (you, go)

... to thе matсh on Saturdaywith?

с) In thе wintеr,what (you,wеaт).........

.......'..... ?

d) I сan,t stand hoтror films. I (think)

... thеy,rе silly!

е) Diana (not, usually,sit) .........

nеxt to Еllеn.

0 Why (you,look at) ............. g) Еxсusе mе. (this bus, stop)

......... mе likе that? ... outsidе thе station?

h) I (not takе) .......... 4

thе bus to sсhool today.

Matсh еaсh sentеnсe(a-h) with a suitableresponsе(1_8). a) What do you usually do on your birthdaу? .....1'.... b) Would you likе to mееt again on Saturday? с) What do you usually do when thеrе is an еarthquakе? d) Havе you finishеd your homеwoгk? е) What aIе you doing? f) What arе you doing on Friday? g) Arе you in thе sсhool baskеtball tеam? h) What do you do? ...,....... 1 2 З 4 5 6 7 8

5

Ihavеaparty. I |iе undеr thе tablе. I work in a travеl agеnсy. Yеs, wе play еvеry Friday. I'm still doing it. lt,s hot in hеrе. I,m opеning somе windows. I,m going baсk to Canada tomorrow. I'm having a party.

Put eaсh verb in braсketsinto the presentsimple or prеsеntсontinuous. a) What (usually,you, do) .dо.уаш.иs.uлLIу..da.at thе wееkеnd? b) Don,t Worry about the сat. It (only еat) ............ с) I сan,t work out thе answеr.(you, know) ................

.....onсе a daу' . what it is?

d) What,s thе mattеr?Why (you, starе)......... ........at mе likе that? е) (you, spеak) Еnglish? I,m looking for a hotеl. 0 Еlеna (stay) dесoratеd.

with mе whilе hеr housе is bеing

g) You should 8o on a diеt. (you, put) on wеight. h) (thеy, spеak) Frеnсh or Gеrman? I сan,t tеll thе diffеrеnсе. 10


Explanations Past simplе: form

r

Rеgular vеrbs Past simplе rеgular vеrbs add -ed to thе barе infinitivе. Vеrbs еnding in -e simply add -d. I enjoуed thе ftlm. I loved the musiс. All pеrsons havе thе samе form.

r

Spеlling problеms Vеrbs еnding in сonsonant + -y сhangе -у to -iе. сry cried trу tried Vеrbs еnding with onе vowеl and onе сonsonant doublе thе final сonsonant. rеgret regrettеd f|t fitted

r

Irrеgularvеrbs Thе most сommon irrеgularvеrbs arе listеd on page277.It is nесеssaryto lеarn thеsе forms. wаke woke driпk drапk еаt аte Quеstions Quеstions arе formеd with did and thе barе infinitivе. Did you drink оll thе milk? Did уou eпjoу the fiIm? Whу did she leаve? Whаt did уou do уestеrdау? Nеgativеs Nеgativеs arе formеd with did пot aлd thе barе infinitivе. This is сontraсtеd to didп,tin spеесh and informal writing. Thе сoаt didn,t fit me. Саrol didn,t eаt verymuсh.

P ast si mp l e : mе an i ng

Thе past simplе is usеd to dеsсribе aсtions and statеsin a сomplеtеd pеriod of timе. Wе know whеn thе aсtion happеnеd, so a dеfinitе timе еxprеssion сan bе usеd. I eпjoуеd the film \ryеSсtwlоst пight. We listened to some пew СDs уesterdау аfterпooп. Thе past simplе is also usеd to dеsсribе habitual aсtions in thе past. Еverydаy wе got up еаrlу апd weпt to the beасh.

11


l N т ЕRlvtEDlAт Е

L A NGU A GE

Past сontinuous: form

P RA с т l с E

Thе past сontinuous is formеd with thе past of thе auxiliaтy vеrLl be an.dt}:rе -iпg fotm of thе main vеrb. He/Shewаs dtiving. You were lаughiпg' I wаs sittiпg bу the door. They were eаting. We were сrying. Quеstions quеstions arе formеd by invеrting thе subjесt and the auxiliary vеrb YesД,lo be. Wаs he/she driviпg? Were уou wаiting? Wаs I sleeping? Werc theу leаving? Were we writiпg? pattеrn. samе thе quеstions follow I4lhWhаt-were уou writing? Why were theу wаitiпg? Nеgativеs Nеgativеs arе formеd with thе vеrb auxiliary vеrb be + пot. This is сontraсtеd in spеесh and informal writing. I wаsn,t listening. Hе wаsn,t plауing. Theу weren,t lookiпg.

Past сontinuous: meaning

Thе past сontinuous is usеd to dеsсribе a situation in progrеssin thе past. This is oftеn сontrastеdwith a suddеn еvеnt in thе past simplе. Suddеn еvеnt Baсk8roundsituation wheпRuth phoned. I wаs hаviпg my luпсh I met Kаreп. While I wаs wаiting for the bus, Thе past сontinuous саn bе usеd to dеsсribе sеvеral situations in progтеss, happеning at thе samе timе. While Iаmeswаs cookiпg, Dауid'wаs phottittg а fтieпd. The аirport wаs full of people.Somewere sleepiпg oп benсhes,somе werе shopping, others-werеrcаding. Еveryonewаs wаitiпg for пews of thе delаyed plаne.

Тimе exprеssions

With thе past simplе I аrrived hеre two hours аgo/iп Septemberflаst week/аt 6.oo. Helen liуed in Mаdrid for three уeаrs. With thе past сontinuous .duling thе timе We сan lsе wheп or lцhilеwith thе past сontinuous to mеan that'. While-we werewаitiпg for thе trаiп, it stаrtedto rаiп. I сut my fiпgerwheп I wаs pеelingthepotаtoes. But if wе mеan ,at thе timе that, thеn wе only lse whе|lwith thе past simplе. She wаs very hаppуwheп she got her eхаm results.

t2


G R A l t , l п nA R 4

PAsт

тlмE

1

Underlinethe сorreсtword or phrasein eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

Whilе lwаshed/w!5 my hair, thе phonе rаnglringed. 'уlshlrlg How did you felt/did уou feel yеstеrday aftеrnoon? Whеn I got/wаsgetting homе I reсeivedhvаsreсeivinga phonе сall. Last summеr I wаs going swimmiпg/wentswimmingеvеry wееkеnd. Whеn thе dog bit/wаs biting Laura,s lеg, shе sсreаmed/wаssсreаming. Wе sапg/suпgsomе songs and thеn аte/eаtsomе sandwiсhes. Whеn уou fell/felt ovеr thе сliff, what hаppened/wаshаppeпingnехt? Whilе Мatу wаshed-up/wаswаshing-up, she broke/wаsbreаkinga сup. I didn't sеe/sаwwhеrе thе bus stop was, so I wаs missiпg/missed thе bus. |) What did уou do/werеуou doingwhеn I phonеd/wаsphoпiпgyou last night? Thеrе was no rеply.

2

Rewrite eaсh sentenсe aссording to the instruсtionsgiven.

t dldnjt eШоvtho соnrert.

a) I еnjoyеd thе сonсеrt. (negative) b) You atе all thе brеad. (quеstion) с) Did John spеnd a lot? (affirmativе) d) I fеlt wеll yеstеrday.(nеgativе) е) Anna didn,t buy a сaт. (affirmativе) f) Thеy won thе prizе. (quеstion) g) Paul doеsn,t spеak Grееk. (affirmativе) h) I paid all thе bills. (nеgativе) 3

Complеte еaсh sеntenсеwith a suitabletimе expressioпfrom the box. You сan usе an expressionmore than onсe.

a) A burglar brokе into the housе .....w.b.у!*..'... Wе Wеrеwatсhing tеlеvision. b) ..................... I mеt an old friend of minе in thе сity сеntrе. с) What Wеrеyou doing

.. thе poliсе offiсеr knoсkеd on thе door?

.. half-past еight outsidе thе сinеma. d) Jan mеt Sarah Diсk was preparinglunсh, hе сut his fingеr badly. e) ..................... f) I first сamе to this town more than twеnty yеars ......... g) Jеff was studying to bе a doсtor h) Tony bоught his first motoтbikе i)

.. hе mеt Sally. .' \99z'

.. did you start playing baskеtball?

j) Мost of thе young pеoplе lеft this villagе a long timе ..........

13


lNт ЕRмEDlAт E

glЖ

L A NGU A GЕ

4

PRA с т I с Е

Matсh еaсh sentenсe (a_h) with a suitable rеsponse (1-8). a) What was Katrina doing whеn you knoсkеd on thе door? ....J.... b) How did Brеnda spеnd hеr holiday? ........... с) What happеnеdwhеn thе lights wеnt out? .........'. d) Whеn did you mееt Сathy? ........... е) What did Juliе do whеn Tony сallеd? ,,',,...... 0 Did Suzannahhеar what David said? ........... g) What did Luсy do whеn thе bеll rang at thе еnd of thе lеsson? h) Why did Aliсia lеavе so еar\у? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

5

Shе wеnt sailing most days, and sunbathеd at thе bеaсh. Shе put thе phonе down. Shе was listеning to thе radio in thе kitсhеn. Shе Went to mеet hеr parеnts at a rеstaurant. Shе сamе to my brothеr's birthday party. Whilе Tina wаs looking for a torсh, thеy сamе baсk on. Shе wasn,t listеning. Shе put hеr books away and lеft.

Put еaсh vеrb in braсketsinto either the past simple or past сontinuous.

k.l+.p'....''....... a) Whеn Harry(wakеup) ........W4 , We(telll..''...t!!.?(' him thе nеws. for thе сonсеrt to bеgin whеn a

b) Еvеryonе (wait) mеssagе(arrivе) с) Сharlottе (want)

a rеlaxing holiday, so shе to stay on a small island.

(сhoosе)

in Amеriсa, his parеnts

d) Whеn Robеrto (study)

him еvеry wееk.

(phonе)

my pеn whilе I (look for)

е) I (find) my bag.

a film on tеlеvision when Juliе

f) Ann (watсh) (arrivе) g) Whеn thе lights (go out)

, I (liе)

in bеd rеading. to thе nеw Сhinеsе rеstaulant, what

h) Whеn you (go) (you еat)

T4

? ..............'..


Explanations Past pеrfeсt: form

Past pеrfeсt:

r

Thе past pеrfесt is formеd with thе auxiliary hаd and thе past partiсiplе (third сolumn in vеrb tablеs).Тhе past partiсiplеs of irrеgular vеrbs arе listеd on page277. I hаd deсided. She hаd lеft. We hаd eаteп. In spеесh and informal writing thеse forms arе сontraсtеd to: I,d dесidеd. She'd left. We,d eаteп'

r

Quеstions and nеgativеs Quеstions arе formеd by invеrting thе subjесt aпd hаd. Nеgatives arе formеd with пot and сontraсtions arе usеd. Hаd shе left? She hаd пot left. She hаdn,t left.

r

Thе past pетfесtis usеd to show сlеarly that onе past еvеnt happеnеd bеforе anothеr past еvеnt. Wе usе thе past pеrfесt for thе еarliеr еvеnt. Sue left аt 7.00. Wе аrrivеdаt her houseаt 8.З0. ) Wheп wе аrrived аt Suе,shouse,she hаd left. It is not nесеssaly to uSе thе past pеrfесt if wе usе beforeor аfterto makе thе timе sеquеnсесlеar, although many spеakеrsdo so to show a strong сonnесtion bеtwееnthе two еvеnts. Sue left hеr housebefore wе аrrivеd. oR Sиe hаd left hеr housebefore wе аrrivеd. We аrrived аt Sue,shouseоfter she left. ОR We аrrived аt Suе,shouseаfter she hаd left'

l

Notе that it is not nесеssaryto usе thе past pеrfесtjust bесausеan еvеnt happеnеd a long timе ago. Wе usе past simplе. The Сhiпеsеbuilt thе GrecttWаll oуеrtwo thousапdyеаrsago'

r

Thе past pеrfесt is oftеn usеd with vеrbs of thinking |1kethink, kпow,be surе, rеаlize, remembeT, Suspeсt,uпderstаndetс. I thoughtI,d seeп the film beforе,but I hсldп,t. Dауid knew hе,d seеn her somewherebеforе. Еllеn wаs sureshe hаdn,t loсked the door. When I got homeI rеаIizedI,d lost mу wallеt. Thе iпspeсtorsuspесtedthаt the thief hоd usеd а speсiаlkеу.

mе ani ng

Past pеrfeсt: сommonusеs

15


lNт ЕRпnEDlAт E

L A NGU A GЕ

usеd to

PRA с т l с E

.

Usedto dеsсribеsa habit or statе in the past. Thеrе is no pтеsеntform. Usedto suggеststhat thе aсtion or situation is no longеr tтuе and so makеs a сontгast with thе prеsent. I used to hаve long hаir whеп I wаS youngеr. It is usеd for rеpеatеdaсtions and not for singlе еvents. I used to plаy tenпis,but пow I pIау footbаll.

r

Quеstions and nеgativеs With quеstions and nеgatives usedto beсomеs use to. Did уou use to hаve loпg hаir when уou wеrеyounger? I didп,t use to plау tennis,but пow I plау most tryеekeпds.

r

Pronunсiation Usedis pronounсеd lilstl. This is diffеrеnt from thе past tensе of thе vеrb use' prono!лсеd littzdl .

would

Would is usеd in thе samе Way as usedfo, but it only dеsсribеsrepeatеdaсtions in thе past, not statеs.It is morе сommorr in dеsсriptivе writing than in spеесh' Оn winter dауs, we would/used to аIl sit аround the ftre апd tell storiеs. I used to owп а motorbike.(NОТ g)

Past perfeсt and

r

pa st si mpl е

Study thе situations and thе еxample sеntеnсеs: Situation 1: thе film starts at 8.00, I arтivе at 7.50. a) I аrrived аt 7.50,iust bфre the ftIm stаrted' b) Wheп the film stаrted, I hаd аIreаdуаrrived teп minutes before, Situation 2: the film starts at 8.00, I arrivе at 8.10. a) The ftIm stаttеd аt 8'00, but I аrrived teп miпutes lаtе, b) I аrrived аt 8.1o, but thе film hаd аIrеаdуstаrted. To dеsсribе thеsе situations it is possiblе to uSе thе past simplе for both vеrbs, as in 1a) and2a).It is also possiblе to put thе еvеnt thаt happеnеd first into the past pеrfесt, as in 1b) and2b). Howеvеr, la) is morе simplе and muсh morе likеly than 1b). In lb) wе еmphasizе whiсh еvеnt happеnеd first (me arriving) - but arriving first is normal whеn wе go to thе сinеma so We don,t nееd to еmphasizе it. In situation Zboth a) and b) arе possiblе. 2a) is simplе and еasy to usе and understand. But 2b) hеlps thе mеaning by еmphasizing whiсh еvеnt happеnеd fiтst (thе film starting).

Past forms usеd in сonditionals

16

r

Nоtе that thе past simplе and past pеrfесt arе also usеd in сonditional sеntеnсеs(If ...)' In thеsе sеntеnсеsthеy havе a diffеrеntmеaning.


GRA м п nA R 5 P A sт тlIU lЕ 2

b

Underline the errors in thesе sentenсes. Rewritе eaсh sеntenсe. a) Whеn wе had atе lunсh, wе wеrе sitting in thе gardеn.

..''W.hr,n..w.p..,hg,d...чtt*у.,!+уlс.h,'.у'/p..lgt..iw..thr,

b) Whilе I lookеd for my keys, I rеmеmbетеdI lеft thеm at homе. с) Anna had usеd to play badminton whеn shе had bееn at sсhool. d) Whеn I got into bеd, I was falling aslееp immеdiatеly. е) Whеn I was finally finding thе housе, I was knoсking at thе door.

0

Aftеr Jill was giving Niсk his books, shе wеnt homе.

ol

Maтia would livе in Swеdеn whеn shе was a сhild.

6'

h) I was using to gеt up еarly whеn I had gonе sailing.

i) Thе Vikings had sailеd to North Amеriсa a thousand yеars ago. j) Juliеt Was surе shе was sееing thе tall man bеforе.

2

Undеrlinеthe сorrесtword or phrasein еaсh sentеnсe. at thе bus stop, I hаd notiсed/wаs a) Whilе l hаd wаited/wg$-wlilix18/wаited notiсing/notiсeda г'еw shop whiсh wаsп,t/hаdп,tbеenin thе strееt thе day bеforе. b) I hаd goпe/wentotlt into thе gardеn to fеtсh my bikе, bttt fouпd/wаsfinding that somеone stole/hаdStolenit. с) Whеn Gеorgе met/wаsmeetiпgDianе at thе party, hе thought/wаsthinking that hе sаw/hаdseen/wаsseeiпghеr somеwhеrеbeforе. d) Еmily got off/wаSgеtting off the bus, and wаlked/wаswаIkiпg into thе bank whеn shе reаIized/hаdreаIized/wаsreаIizingthat shе left/hаа left/wаsleаving hеr handbag on thе bus. е) Aftет I wаs buying/hаdboughtmy nеW сomputеr, I disсovеrеd that I wаsn,t hаving/didп,thаve еnolgh mеmory. I 0 wеnt to thе post оffiсе to ask about my paсkagе,but thеy hаd sаid/sаidthat it still hаdn,t аrrived/didn,tаrrive,

1.7


l N т ЕRrиEDIAт E

L A NGU A GE

3

P RA с т l с Е

Put eaсh vеrb givеn into the past simplе,past сontinuousor past perfeсt.Morе than onе answer may be possible.

(brеak)thе windowat Thе poliсеsuspесtеd that Brian(^)...hДd..hra,Kp.w..''. (want) to makе thеm think that a

his housе bесausе hе (b)

(stеal) his valuablе stamp сollесtion. Тhеy

burglar (с) .............. ( d ) .............

(think) that Br ian (е) ..............

... (nееd) thе monеy. Howеvец thеy

bесausе hе (f) ......... ( g ) ..............

(fly) to

(no t kno w ) that Br ian (h) .............

(bе) abroad whеn thе

Brazil the wееk bеforе, and (i) b u r g l a r y ( i ) ..............

4

(do ) this

(takе plaсе).

Complete eaсh sentenсe, using would or usеd to and the verb in braсkеts. More than onе answеr may bе possiblе.

a bеard but hе shavеdit off. a) Jaсk (havе).....N.?((.''t.q'..hау9',,......... b) My mothеr (rеad)........

to mе еvеry night. .... at thе bеaсh еvеry

с) In thе holidays wе (mееt)

morning. d) I (not likе) ..'........

spinaсh,but now I do.

е) Неlеn (writе)

....to mе oftеn, but now shе phonеs.

f) Tina (livе) ..........

in thе housе oppositе.

g) Whеn I was young, thе summеrs (bе) h) Whеnеvег our tеaсhеrlеt us lеavе еarly,wе (сhееr)

18

.... Warlnеr.


G R A ] U l п nA R 5

5

PAsт

тl1 t ,|E 2

For еaсh question,сompletethe seсond sеntenсeso that it meansthe samе as the first, using no more than thrее words. a) Мiсhaеl took a dееp brеath and divеd into thе watеr. a dееpbrеath,hе divеd into thе Watеr. After Miсha ....h.а.q('..tдkш........'...... "l b) Tеrry was fattеr. to bе so thin. Tеrry......... с) Gary Was surе his keys Wеrеnot in his poсkеt. his kеys. Gary was surе ........... d) Whеn he was youngеr David playеd tеnnis. .... tеnnis whеn hе Was youngеr. David е) Last summеrl Julia got up еarly еvеry morning. Last summеr,Julia usеd to

.... еarly еvеry morning.

0 Wе missеd thе bus so wе took a taxi. thе bus. ........ Wе took a taxi bесausе............... g) In thosе days, wе spеnt thе summеr in thе mountains. .... thе summеr in thе mountains.

In thosе days, wе

6

Combine thе two sentenсesto make one sentenсе.Use when and the past perfeсt. a) I washеd and got rеady. I wеnt out to mееt my friеnds.

t!' |у!,3..еt',|wу.,Irtrд4.t'... r%lу,''I..N.pnt.'p.цl. ...Wkуэ.!.d...WN.kl.g.уId..!!.t \.f|

т|

I

I

t

t

-'

l

т

-,-..L

..L

L,

...^ ^ L

с:

l-

b) I knеw muсh morе about thе job. I visitеd thеir offiсеs.

с) I lookеd at thе nеw drеss for agеs.I asked how muсh it сost.

d) I fеlt muсh morе indеpеndеnt. I passеdmy driving tеst.

е) Annе Wеnt on holiday. Shе savеd еnough monеy.

f) Thе tеam finally won thе matсh. Thеy ran round thе pitсh to сеlеbratе.

19


ЕxpIanations Present pеrfесt:

l

form

Thе prеsеnt pеrfесt is formеd with thе prеSеnt tеnsе of thе auxiliary vеrb hаve and thе past paltiсiplе (third сolumn in vеrb tablеs). Thе past partiсiplеs of irrеgular vеrbs arе listеd on page 277. I hаve deсided to Iеауe tomorrow. She hаs уtritteп the emаil to Luсу.

(rеgular) (irrеgular)

In spеесh and informal writing thеsе forms arе сontraсtеd to: I,vе deсided. She,s wriffeп. r

Quеstions and nеgativеs Quеstions arе formеd by invеrting thе subjесt and hаve. Nеgativеs arе formеd with not and сontraсtions arе usеd. Hаve уou dеcidеd уet? She hаs not writteп the emаil.

Presеnt perfeсt: meaning

She hаsn,t writteп the emаil'

Тhе prеsеnt pеrfесt dеsсribеs past еvеnts whiсh arе сonnесtеd to thе prеsеnt. Тhеrе arе a numbеr of diffеrеnt usеs: l

Еxpеriеnсеs in our lifе up to now. Hаve уou visited апу other сouпtries? YеS,I,ve beеп to Itаlу апd Frапсе. Thеrе is no timе ехprеssion bесausе wе arе talking about a wholе lifе ехpеriеnсе, not individual еvеnts. If wе wantеd to say whеn thе еvеnts happеnеd wе would usе thе past simplе.

r

An еvеnt in thе past that has a rеsult in thе prеsеnt. Hеleп hаs broken her pепсil' I,vе hurt mу fоot. Thеrе is no timе ехprеssion bесausе whеn it happеnеd is not important. Our attеntion is on thе prеsеIrt (Whеrе is thе pеnсil sharpеnеr? l | сan,t p|aу football). If wе wantеd to say whеn thе aсtions happеnеd wе would usе thе past simplе.

l

A situation that startеd in thе past and сontinuеs until thе prеsеnt. I,ve lived here for tеп vеаrs. I,ve oftеn seen |im with his dog iп the pаrk. Hеrе thеre is a timе еxprеssion, dеsсribing how long or how oftеn somеthing has happеnеd.

20


G R A м ni A R

6

P R Es ЕN т

P ER FEс т

1

Complеtion Wе oftеn usе thе prеsеnt pеrfесt whеn wе dеsсribе how many things arе соmplеtеd so far. I,ve reаd а hundredpаges ofthis book. An еxaсt timе is not mеntionеd. Пmе exprеssions

ever,пever Wе usе evеr and пeverwherr wе ask or talk about our еxpеriеnсеs in lifе. Hоvе you ever eаtеn|аpаnesefood? No, I,ve neуer eаtеп it. yеt, so fоr and аlreаdу Wе usе yet in quеstions and nеgativе sеntеnсеs.It has a similar mеaning to so fаr (or,up to now,), whiсh is usеd in quеstions and positivе sеntеnсеs. Hаve уou ftnishеd this bookуet? No, I,m oп pаge 56' How mаnу pаges hаvе уou reаd?I,ve reаd 56 pаges so fаr. Wе usе аlrеаdуin positivе sеntеnсеsto dеsсribе an aсtion whiсh happеnеd bеforе. When аre уou goiпg to ftnish your lеttеr? I,ve аIreаdv writteп it. t just Wе usе iust whеn wе desсribе a very rесеnt evеnt. Саthу hаs iust phoned fтom the аirport. Frеquеnсy advеrbs:аlwаys,oftеп etс. Frеquenсy advеrbs that arе usеd with thе prеsеnt simplе сan also bе usеd with thе prеSеntpеrfесt. (a statе) He hаs аIwауs loved уou. (а rеpеatеd еvent) Wе hаve often visited Spаiп. for arrd sinсe pr dеsсribеsthе lеngth of a timе pеriod. Tom hаs worked herefor three months. sinсedеsсribеsthе point whеn thе timе pеriod startеd. Tom hаs уlorkеd heresinсe |uIу 10th.

z-J.


l Nт ER]y| EDlAт Е

L A NGU A GЕ

PRA C т l с E

Put eaсhverb into a form of the presentperfесtsimple. yoursеlf? a) What,sthе mattеr?(youсut).'...H.qtug'.Y.q.!t..9!4l............ b) I (havе)

.... a hеadaсhе еvеr sinсе lunсhtimе.

с) Nadia (nеvеr sее) ............

any Сhinеsе films.

d) Somеonе (stеal)

.... Мr Grant,s bikе.

е) Thе passеngеrs arе tirеd bесausе thеy (not slееp) ......... all night. 0

.... your window. Sorryl

I'm afraid wе (just brеak)

.... a prize this timе, I,m afraid.

g) David (not win) h) (you еvеr еat)

.... Spanish food? It,s grеat!

Complеte what еaсh speaker says. b)

g&.W..ryИrr'i9d....... for we ..,.V..?.'.h twеnty-fivе wondеrful yеars! d)

е)

my 22


G R A ] Y l t ut A R 6

3

P R Еs EN т

P ER F Ест

t

Complete еaсh sentеnсewith a time word or phrasеfrom the box.

x:жgl.:. a) Luis has livеd in thе сity сеntrе ....,t.|ш'е...'.....7996. Wantеda pеt goldfish! b) Thanks for thе prеsеnt!I,vе ..................... drunk pinеapplеjuiсе?It,sfantastiсI с) Havе you ..................'.. .. hеard somе fantastiс nеws! I,vе passеdmy еxams! ? You,rеso slowl е) Hurry up! Havеn,tyou finishеd..................... .. fivе yеars. f) Nina has workеd in this сompany

d) I,vе

.. bееn on a big ship bеforе. It,s an intеrеsting еxpеriеnсе! .. Wе,vеsold ovеr a hundrеd bikеs. h) Wе,rе vеry busy today. passеdthis building, but this is the fiIst timе I,vе bееn i) I,vе .....................

g) I,vе

insidе. теadthis onе. i) Сan I havе a diffеrеntbook? I,vе..................... 4

For eaсh quеstion,сomрlеtethе seсond sentenсeso that it mеansthе samе as thе firs! using no more than three words. a) Wе startеdworking hеrе thrее yеars ago.

We ,,.Y.Q..W.Q.rkЙ..h*rp. for thrееyеars.

b) This is thе first timе I,vе bееn on a planе. on a planе bеforе. I ................ с) That,s strangе!Мy pеn isn,t hеrе! ........disappеarеd!

That,sstrangе!

d) Niсky and Jan arеn,t at this sсhoоl any morе. ........this sсhool. Niсky аnd Jan е) I saw a friеnd of yours a fеw momеnts ago. I ................

a friеnd of yours.

0 I,m still writing my lеttеrs. writing my lеttетsyеt. I ................ g) Is this your first visit to South Amеriсa? Havе ..........

to South Amетiсabеforе?

h) oh nol Мy wallеt is still in thе сar. my wallеtin thе сar. oh no! I ................ i) It,s a long timе sinсе wе spokе to your sistеr. to your sistеrfor a long time. Wе ............. i) Is Anna still aslееp? Has ..'.........

up yеt?


Еxplanatio n s Prеsent pеrfeсt сontinuous:form

Тhе prеsеnt pегfесt сontinuous is formеd with thе prеsеnt pеrfесt of be, and the -illg foгm of thе vеrb. I'ъ'ebeen wаitiпg herеаlI morniпg. \\-lttltltаve you been doing lаtelу? I ltат,eп,tbeen sleepiпg wеIIreсentlу.

Presеnt pеrfесt

r

Тhе pгеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous, likе thе prеsеnt pеrfесt, dеsсгibеspast еvеnts lтhiсh arе сonnесtеd to thе prеsеnt. But in thе сontinuous form therе is a mеaning of an aсtion or situation in progrеss. \|.llаthаve уou been doiпg lаtely? I,ve been workiпg а lot' Itow long hаve уou beeп liviпg hеre?

r

Тhе prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous сan еmphasizе thе lеngth of timе of thе aсtion. I,ve been wаiting hеreаll morпing. I've been fеeling ill for weeks.

r

Тhе prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous сan еmphasize that thе aсtion is tеmpoтary. I,ve beеn stауing iп а hotelfor thеpаst moпth.

r

Тhе prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous сan bе usеd for rеpеatеdaсtions. I,vе been phoniпg her for dауs,but she,sпеуerаt home.

r

Тhе aсtion may bе finishеd or сontinuing, Wе only know by thе situation. Саrlos hаs beeп studуing Еnglish for two уeаrs апd now he,sstopped!Whаt а shаme. Саrlos hаs been studуiпg Еnglish for two уеаrs.He,sgoing to do ап eхаm пeхt

с on t i n uou s: m e ani ng

уeаr. Тi mе е xpr е ssi o n s

z4

Тvpiсal timе еxprеssionsthat arе usеd with thе prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous inсludе: аII dау, аll morпing, for dауs, for аgеs,Iаtelу,reсeпtlу,sinсe, for


GRAм]t,tAR

Presеntpеrfесtor presentperfесt сontinuous?

7

P R E5 EN т

P ER ЕЕс т

oftеn thеrе is vеry littlе diffеrеnсе bеtwееn thе two tеnsеs: I,ve worked/beeп working herefor two уeаrs' I,ve lived/beeп living herefor two уeаrs. Wе oftеn usе thе prеsеnt pеrfесt if our attеntion is on thе finishеd rеsult, but thе prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous if our attеntion is on thе aсtion. I,ve.written thаt еmаil to lасkie' I wаs meапiпgto do it for аges' I,ve been writiпg thаt emаil to |асkieаnd it,s tаkenаn hour!I,m eхhаusted! If wе givе dеtails of how many or how muсh wе do not usе a сontinuous form. I,ve ulritten four emаils. I,ve done а lot of сookingапd сIеапiпgthis аftеrnoon.

othеr problеms

Prеsеnt simplе or prеsеnt pеrfесt? Wе usе thе prеsеnt simplе to dеsсribе habits or statеsin thе prеsеnt, but wе usе thе prеsеnt pеrfесt to dеsсribе thе timе until thе prеsеnt. I live iп Prаgue' (a pеrmanеnt statе _ I always livе thеrе) I,ve livеd in Prаguefor two уeаrs. (I arrivеd two yеars ago and still livе thеre) Past simplе or prеsеnt pеrfесt? Thе past simple dеsсribеsan event in a сomplеtеd timе pеriod. Thе prеsеnt pеrfесt is usеd for a timе pеriod that inсludеs thе prеsеnt. I lived iп Prаgue in thе пiпeties.

(now I livе somеwhеrе еlsе)

I,ve lived in Prаguesinсе thе niпeties.

(I still livе thеrе)

Thе сhoiсе of tеnsе oftеn depеnds on whеthеr oul attеntion is in thе past or thе prеsеnt. I hаd аn umbrellа,but I left it on the bus. (thе еvеnt is distant in my mind) Оh no! I,ve left my umbrellа oп the bus. (thе еvеnt is prеsеnt in my mind) hаve beeп and hаve goпе |f we hауe beento a plaсe, Wе Wеnt thеrе and havе now rеturnеd. |f we hаve gotlеto a plaсе, wе wеrit thеrе but havе not rеturnеd. Melissа hаs beeп to Сhiпа. Melissа hаs gone to Сhinа.

(and shе has сomе baсk) (and shе is still thеrе)


lNт ERмЕDlAт Е

tA NGU A GE

PRA с т l C Е

Underlinеthe сorreсtword or phrasein eaсh senteпсе. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

2

sinсе thе еnd of last yеar. I livе hеrе/I-7е-]wзl-hеte last I'm afraid thе tтain lеft/hаsleft an hour ago. Somеonе hаs just stolen/hаsjust beeпsteаliпgmy biсyсlе. Тhank you for your offеr, btlt I deсided/I,vеdecidednot to aссеpt. YеstегdayI lost/I,velost mу wallеt. Тakе your umbrеllа with уoll. It stоrted/It,sstаrtedraining. уisitеdtwo сountriеs so far. !Vе,тееnjoying our trip. We уisitedПVе,уe hours and I fееl tirеd. fot here here/I,ve been stапding I,rn stаndiпg Тhis wаs/hаsbeena busy day and it isn,t ovеr yеt! l fееl rеally tired. We weпtПVe,vebeento a partу last night.

Put eaсh verb in braсkets into either the present perfeсt, past simple or present simple. my sсarf,and now I (justlosе)

,.Lp.l,t...'..,.... a) Last wееk I (losе).........

s. t.'.......''.. ...myglovе ....|'v e..j.'.a.t...L..,r

b ) I (work)

(dесidе) с) Wе (bе)

.... for Bluе Bank at thе moment but I ....to сhangе jobs. .... hеrе for hours. Arе you surе Wе (сomе)

thе bus homе. oсtopus,but onсе on holiday I

0 I (nеvеrеat) ............ (еat)...........

somе squid.

g) I (hopе)

....you arеn,ta vеgеtarian.I (сook) ....you somе lamb сhops. .... kite

h) Rесеntly a lot of young pеoplе (takеup) surfing. i) Whеn wе (rеaсh)

....thе сinеma, thеrе (not bе)

'... aгlУtiсkеts lеft. i) Plеasесomе quiсkly! Niсk (havе) ....to hospital. hе (go)

26

.... an aссident, and


G R A l v l l uA R

3

7

P R Es EN т

P ERF E ст

2

Completeeaсh mini-dialogueby putting thе verbs given in braсkеtsinto either thе present perfeсt or prеsent perfeсt сontinuous.

a) A: Tеrminatot2 is on at thе Rеx?(yousеe)..'!!.g,vэ,уl!*..{.*k.......... it?

B: No, not yеt.Shallwе go?I (lookto,-u,o;..,.Yp..h*k'!q.q!9i.ryg'fl.rwкd. to sееing it for agеs. b) A: What,s thе mattеr? You look rеally tirеd! B: I am! I (study)

.... a7l day, and I (not finish)

с) d)

A: Somеonе(rob) ..........

thе bank at thе еnd of the road.

е) A: Why is your lеg in plastеr? B: That,sa silly quеstion!I (brеak) A: Somеonе (writе) 4

....it, of сoursе. .Brеak .... Тimе, on thе plastеrl

For eaсh question,сompletethе seсond sentenсеso that it meansthe same as the first using no morе than three words. a) I сamе tо livе hеrе thrее months ago. | .',V,.Q, hеrе for thrее months. hwYk. !ууу,уu,,,,.''...... b) Sophiе is out at the shops at thе momеnt. Sophiе

....to thе shops.

с) I,vе had Frеnсh lеssonssinсе Мarсh. I ................

.......FrеnсhsinсеМarсh.

d) I,m still rеading this book. I ................

.......rеadingthis book yеt.

е) Paul lеft thе room a momеnt ago. Paul has

....thе room.

0 It's agеs sinсе I last wеnt to thе сinеma. I ................ .......to the сinеmafor agеs. g) This is thе first timе I,vе еatеn snails. ld

I ................

.......snailsbеforе.

h) I don,t rеmеmbеr Hеlеn,s phonе numbеr. I,vе ............

Hеlеn,sphonе numbеr.

27


l Nт ERluЕDlAт E

ll

P пA (т l C E

L A NGU A GE

5

Completе еaсh sentenсewith onе suitablе word. far, and wе,vе had some Wе,vе had a vеry intеrеsting trip (a) ....{.!......'....... thе last time Wе Wrote.We,ve intеrеstingadvеnturеs(b) ..................... .. a lot of (с) ..................... to somе beautifulislands,and (d) Wе,vеmadе friеndswith somе intеrеstingpеoplе.In faсt (е) ..................... .. us thе loсal languagе.I pеоplе in a villagе, and they,vе beеn (f) but Ann (h) .....................

havеn,t managedto lеarn muсh (g) .............

piсked up quitе a lot, and сan spеak well. She,s bееn (i)

.. every day,

and shе,s(j) ..................... mе еvеrythingshе knows!

6

Underline the еrrors in thеse sentenсes.Rewrite eaсh sentenсe. l

a) Мy pеnfriend is writing to mе for yеars.

/v|v peуlfrLen,d hаs baуъ writuц,qto уиo far Yeаrs,

........,...}....

.....

v

!g.

i

l...

t........

ф.....

!

l..

i...

b) Wе have started this сourse thrее wееks ago. с) ,What havе you beеn doing a|| daу?, ,I,vebeen writtеn lettеrs., 't"i!""

d) Whеn havе you arrivеd in this сity?

e) You havе еvеr bееn to India?

0

Рaula has bееn stayеd in a hotеl by thе sеa.

s) I,vе bееn fееling ill

thrее wееks ago.

h) I livе in this сiW sinсе I was born. i) I wait hеrе for agеs. Wherе have you bеen?

i) Tony has lеavеd his books on thе bus.

28


Еxplanations Futurеtimе

Wе сan rеfеr to thе future in Еnglish by using will, bе goiпg to or by using plеsеnt tеnsеs.Somеtimеs Wе сan usе diffеrеnt forms and therе is littlе diffеrеnсе bеtwееn thеm, othеr timеs thеrе is a diffеrеnсе.

will

r

Form Тhе wiII futurе is formеd with thе infinitivе without fo. Thе nеgativеsof will is woп,t.Will is usually shortеnеd in spеесh and informal writing to ,l/. Somе spеakеrsusе shаll to rеfеr to thе futurе in formal situations with 1 and we. Hоwevеr this usе is bесoming vеry rarе. In modеrn Еnglish sЙсl/ is usеd for suggеstionsonly: ShаIlI opeпthe window?

r

Меaning Wе usе will to talk gеnеrally about futurе bеliеfs, opinions, hopеs and prеdiсtions. Thеrе is usually a timе еxprеssion.Wе сan add perhаps,probаblу or definitelyto show how сеrtain or unсеrtain Wе arе about our prеdiсtions. In the neхt сeпtury,mostpeoplеwill probаbф live iп big сities. Perhаps it,ll rаin tomorrow' Uпitеdwill defiпitelу wiп tonight. Notiсе that probably сomеs aftеr will but bеforе woп,t. Shе,lIprobаbф сomewith us toпight. Sheprobаblу-won,t сomеwith us toпight.

r

Form Тhе be goiпg to futurе is formеd with thе verb be + going + thе infinitivе. |еаn is going to lеаrп to drive. Tim апd Аnп аre goiпg to trаvel аbroаdпeхt уeаr.

l

Mеaning Wе usе goiпg to for plans and intеntions. Thе plan may bе in thе nеar futurе, or morе distant. (m goiпg to do lots of work this eveпing. Аfter I ftnish UпiversitуI,m goiпg to trаvel аII overЕuropеbу IпterRаiI, Wе also lse goiпg fo for prеdiсtions. Wе usе going fo whеn thеrе is somе еvidеnсе in thе prеsеnt situation, for еxamplе Wе сan sее somеthing. Look out! Thosebooksаrе going to fаll!

bе going to

29


lNт ERrи ЕDlAт E

Prеsent сontinuous

L A NGU A GE

P RA с т I с Е

Form Sее Grammar 2 fot the form of thе prеsеnt сontinuous. I,m meeting mу motherfor lunсh аt one. Меaning Wе usе thе prеsеnt сontinuous to talk about things wе havе arrangеdto do, in partiсular soсial arrangеmеntsand appointmеnts. Thеrе is nеarly always a timе ехprеssion. А: Аre уou doing апуthing oп Fridау eveniпg? B: Not reаllу' Why? А: I,m hоving а pаrty. Would уou like to come?

P r obl e ms

will or going to? Will alrrdgoing to arе both usеd for prеdiсtions, and on most oссasions еither is possiblе. I thiпk it,s going to/it,ll probаblу rаin tomorrow. Howevеr if thеrе is strong еvidеnсе in thе prеsеnt situation, then goiпg to is usually usеd: I think it,s goiпg to rаiп this аfrerпooп, (looking up at blaсk сlouds in thе sky) going to or prеsеnt сontinuous? Goiпg to and thе plеsеnt сontinuous arе both usеd for plans and arlangеmеnts,and on most oссasions еithеr is possiblе. I,m going to hаvе/I,m hаviпg а pаrtу oп Fridау' Howеvеr,going to сan suggеStthat thе dеtails arе not yеt finalizеd _ it,s still iust a plan. Whеrеas thе prеsent сontinuous сan suggеstthat thе arrangеmеntis moIе fixеd, with a timе and a plaсе. |eаn is going to hаve аnothеrdrivinglessoпsooп. (a plan, with no spесifiс timе) |еаn is hаviпg her driviпg lessoпthis аfterпooп. (it,sfixеd, in hеr diary) othеr mеanings of will WilI has othеr mеanings, for еxamplе spontanеous dесisions that сomе into our hеad at thе momеnt of spеaking,promisеs еtс. (a spontanеous dесision) Is thаt thephoпеriпgiпg?I,Il апswerit' (a promisе) I,lI do the bestthаt I cап to help уou. tbe \Ntth be Wе usе will or going to, not thе prеsеnt сontinuous. I,ll be bасk on Fridаy. I,m going to be bасk oп Fridаy.

30


GRA м п nA R 8 FUтURЕ t

Undеrlinethе сorrесtsentеnсe,"|or 2, in eaсh mini-dialogue. ), a

a) A: Can you сomе danсing tomorrow night? B: 1 Sorry, I,ll play baskеtball. 2 Sorry, I,m pla}zingbaskеtball. b) A: What arе your plans for thе summer? B: 1 l,ll spеnd a month in thе mountains. 2 I,m going to spеnd a month in thе mountains. с) A: What do you think about thе wеathеr? B: 1 It,ll probablу rain tomorrow. 2 lt's raining tomorrow. d) A: What about tomorrow at about 5.30? B: 1 oK, I,ll sееyou then. z oK, I,m sееing you thеn. е) A: Мary is buying a dog nеxt wееk. B: 1 Rеally? What is shе сalling it? 2 Rеa||у?What is shе going to саll it? f) A: It would bе niсе to sее you nеxt weеk. B: 1 Arе you doing anything on Wеdnеsday? 2 wi|| you do anything on Wеdnеsday?

2

Put еaсh verb in braсkets into a form ot will, going to or presеnt сontinuous. More than one answer may be possible.

a) Havеyou hеardthеnеws?Harry(join)....w..jq.tу1Lw,/,w'зp.у,ryg..tp..j.p.L*'.. thе Armyl b) Sorryto kееpyou waiting.I (not bе) ............. с) Aссording to thе wеathеr foreсast,it (snow)

.......... long.

tomorrow. d) I,m sorryI сan,tmееt you tonight.I (go out) ...........

with ............

my parеnts. .......that jug off thе tablе! е) Сareful!You (knoсk)..............'. f) In fifty yеaтs,timе, most pеoplе (probablyridе) .......... biсyс1еsto work. g) our tеaсhеr(givе)......... h) I (go)

us a tеst tomorrow. .... to Manсhеstеr at the еnd of nеxt wееk.

i) Look out! You (hit)

....that trее!

i) I think our tеam (probablywin) ..........

31


lNт ЕRП, lED!Aт E

]lЖ

L A NGU A GE

3

P пA C т ! с E

Complete the seсond sentenсe so that it has a simiJаrmeaning to the first sentenсe. a) Мy party is on Thursday.

| ..,.|у1,. h4vLу1g.'4. Р.artу'.... on Thursday. b) Тomorrow,s wеathеr forесast is for rain. It's .............

tomorrow.

с) I prеdiсt a viсtory for our tеam. ....win.

I think

d) Тomorrow l,ll bе absеnt, Mrs Jones. I ................

.......herе tomorrощ Mrs Jones. painting е) Теrry intеnds to finish thе kitсhen this еvеning. painting thе kitсhеn this еvеning.

Теrry .........

f) Мееt mе outsidе thе station at 5.30. I ................

.......outsidethе stationat 5.30.

g) What,s our arrangеmеnt for lunсh? Whеrе

.... for lunсh?

h) Еvеryonе еxpeсts lots of tourism in this сountry nеxt summеr' Еvеryone thinks a laтge number of tourists

.... this

сountry nеxt summеr.

4

Underlinе the sentenсeswhiсh are inсorreсt. Rewrite them. |f the sentenсe is сorreсt, put a tiсk (/). a) I go swimming nеxt Saturday. Would }zoulikе to сome?

..I!.ш..q.a.|!ш..t.w.tшшцnа..у.trхt..S.цt.*rdдY,..W.a.цld. ..........Ф.....Ф

Ф....tl..ltr.r......!

b) What aIе you going to disсuss at thе nеxt mееting? c) Thе boat is turning over! I think it will sink! d) Suе is going to lеnd mе hеr rollеr-skatеs.

е) The wеathеr foreсast says it,s dеfinitеly sunny tomorrow. Г) Thеrе is a lot to do. Is anyonе gоing to hеlp you?

s) Sorry, I,m not sееingyou tomorlow. I havе to go to London. h) Byе for now. I sее you latеr this еvеning.

32


GRAlvt1YtAR 8

5

F UтURE

l

Rеwrite eaсh sentenсe so that it сontains will or going to. a) I plan to study еnginееring in Franсе.

...|.ш.go.|rg..t.q.,'|t*.dу..gш.irep-riш...цrу..f'rл.4&9'.

b) I,vе arrangеd a pafiУ for nеxt Friday. с) Wе,vе got an appointmеnt at thе doсtor,s, so wе сan,t сomе.

d) Kеlly is likеly to gеt thе iob. е) Martin,s wifе is prеgnant again. 0 Sarah doеsn,t plan to gеt marriеd yеt. g) Thеrе,sa possibility of snow tomorrow. h) I prеdiсt a sсorе of З_0. ls

UN , тЕ D ( o v Е( l ё ме)..

ooo

oo

оo.

r'o " cо6ё

33


. ::l::l ,1.1.:r.l ',:l:rl

:;:

lir:l:tli

Exptanations t ut u r e сont i n u o u s

r

Form Thе futurе сontinuous is formеd with will + bе + thе -iпg form of thе vеrb. This time tomorrowI,Il be еаting lunсh on thеplапe,

r

Меaning Thе futurе сontinuous is usеd whеn wе imaginе an aсtivity in progrеssin thе futurе. Wе oftеn usе it whеn Wе сomparе what wе arе doing now with what wе will bе doing in thе futurе. Тhеrе is nеarly always a timе еxpгеssion. Wherеwill уou be liviпg iп five уeаrs,time? Wе also usе thе futurе сontinuous to say that somеthing will dеfinitеly happеn. Wz,II bе holdiпg а mееtiпgSooп,So wе саn deсidetheп.

Futurepеrfeсt

r

Form Thе futurе pеrfесt is formеd with will + hаvе + thе past paгtiсiplе. Bу thе time wе gеt to thе сiпemа,thе film ulill hаve begun.

r

Mеaning Wе usе thе futurе pеrfесt to look baсk from onе point in thе futurе to an еarliеr еvеnt. Wе oftеn lsе bу ot bу thе timеwith thе futurе pеrfесt. Bу neхt wеekI,П hаve сollесted over7000 еurosfor сhаritу. Thе situation has not happеnеd yеt, but at a сеrtain timе in thе futurе it will happеn.

P r е se nt si mpl е

r

Wе oftеn usе thе prеsеnt simplе to talk about еvеnts in thе futurе basеd on a fixеd timеtablе, programmе or сalеndar. |im,splапe leауesаt 12.00. Оur heаd tеасhеrretires пехt yeаr.

r

Wе usе thе prеsеnt simplе to rеfеr to thе futurе aftеr thеsе words: wheп,аftеr, before,uпIеss,in саsе,aS Soonаs, uпtil, bу the timе, the пeхt timе. When I sее her аgаiп,I,П tеIIhеr уour nеws. Let,sruп homеbefore it rаiпs' Tаkeап umbrellа,in саse it rаins. Аs soon аS we,re reаdу, wе,llphoпeуou. Pleаsewаit hеreuntil Mrs llсlll сomes bсtсk. Wе сan also usе thе prеsеntpеrfесtwith thеsеwords to еmphasizеthat an aсtion is сomplеtе. Hапd iп уourpаpеr as soon аS уou hаve flnishеd,

З4


GRA п nм A R 9 FUтURЕ 2

tunсtions using wil/ and sholl

Whеn Wе say that a vеrb form has a ,funсtion,, Wе mеan that Wе usе it for a purpose likе ,pтomising, or ,suggеsting,rathеr than to rеfer to timе. Мany usеs of will and shаll arе moIе еasily dеsсribеdin this way. r

Promisе I,ll try аs hаrd аs I сап.

r

Thrеat Stop doing thаt, or I,II tell mу dаd.

r

Dесision madе at thе momеnt of spеaking. А: ,Whiсh oпe do you wапt?, (in a shop) B.. ,I,IItаke the blue silk one.,

r

offет I,lI give you а Iift in my cаr. WilI уou hаvе some more сoffee? Shall I opeп the door for you? Rеquеst WilI you саrry this bаg for me? Suggеstion Shаll lуe plау tenпis? Parting remark I,lI see уou tomorrow'

35


lNт ER]vtEDlAт Е

L A NGU A GЕ

P RA с т l с E

Undеrlinethе сorrесtword or phrasein eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

2

This timе nеxt wееk Billy will lie/wj]]!еЦiд8 on thе bеaсh. Plеasеstay in your sеatsuntil thе bd,| riпgs/willring. Wе,IIhауe moved/We,llbe moviпgto our nеw housе on Tuеsday. What timе doеsуour trаin leаve/willуour trаiп leаve? Don,t forgеt to turn off thе lights bеfore you,releаviпg/youlеаve' Whеrе will уou work/willуou bе workiпgin tеn yеars, timе? Wait for mе. I,lI be/I,Пhаve beenrеady in a momеnt. John woп,tstop/won,thаvestoppedtalking all thе timеl

Completeeaсh part sеntenсе(a-h) with one of the part sentenсes(1-8). Morе than one answеr may be possible. a) As soon as I hеar from Sharon, ...5... b) By thе timе Мary arrivеs с) Plеasеtakе a sеat........... d) This timе nеxt wееk ........... е) Thе nеxt timе you sееmе ........... f) Wе'll havе timе to havе somе lunсh 1 Z З 4 5 6

3

until thе dеntist is rеady. the matсh will bе ovеr. l,ll havе had my hair сut and you won,t rесognizе mе. bеforе thе train leavеs. l,ll ask hеr to phonе you. wе,ll bе еnjoying oursеlvеson hоliday.

Undеrlinethe inappropriateverb forms and write thе сorrесtform in the spaсe. lf the sentenсeis сorrесt put a tiсk (/). a) By thе timе thе poliсе gеt hеrе, thе burglars will havе

vanishеd. hl

Whеn you,ll grow oldеr, you,ll сhangе your mind about this. Thе bus lеavеsat 1.00,so wе,ll lеavе thе housе at 11.30.

d) I won,t lеavе until you will givе mе thе monеy.

fl

As soon as thе taxi will arrivе, I,ll bе lеtting you know. Will yоu havе bееn using thе vidеo nеxt lеsson?

o\ By thе timе wе gеt to Hеlеn,s housе, shе,ll lеavе. ь/ h) .Do you Want mе to сarry this?, ,No that,s all right, I,m

doing it.' З6


GRAммAR

4

9

F U тU R E

2

Rewrite eaсh sentenсe so that it сontains will/shollor going tq and thе verb underlined. а) How оlavins tеnnis?

shлu we plаv tenлls? r r .4 r t...4 .... . . . . .

b) I,vе dесidеd to stud}zArabiс in Сairo.

с) I promisе to bе homе by midnight. d) I hopе to mееt you later. e) I,d likе you to p to thе shops for mе. 0 Wе promisе not to makе too muсh noisе. g) Would you likе mе to help you with thosе bags? h) Wе сould сomе baсk latеr if you likе.

5

Completе the seсond sentenсeso that it has a simi]armеaningto the first sentenсe. a) Thе work won,t takе us longеr than an hour.

w" .!Ц..hдu.'еrtn,'h9n'.

....... thеworkin anhour.

b) I promisе to phonе you bеforе our nеxt mееting. you. .......... BеforеWе ............. с) Would you likе mе to сhесk thе spеlling for you? foт you? Shall .......... d) Shеila rеfusеsto lеt mе sharе hеr book. ....book.

Shеila Won,t е) How about having a gamе of сhеss?

a gamеof сhеss?

Shall .......... f) Plеasе stay hеrе until I сomе baсk.

сomе baсk.

Plеasеdon,t ......... g) Aftеr thе lеsson wе,ll meеt and play tеnnis. Whеn

....we,ll mееt and plаy tеnnis.

h) What job will you havе in twеnty years,timе? What will

.... in twеnty yеars, timе?

З7


Underlinethe сorrесtword or phrasеin eaсh sentеnсе. Whеn I was a сhi|d I usеd to ride/Iwаs riding a triсyсlе. That looks vеry hеaly. Will l/Shаll I hеlp you? I'm waiting for Suе. Hаve уou sееnher/Didуou sеeher? How |ong аre уou working/havеуou bееnworkiпg herе? I сan,t сomе out beсausеI hауеп,tf\nished/Ididn,t finish my homеwork yеt. Whеn thе phonе rang I wаshеd/Iwаs wаshiпgmy hair in thе bathroom. Why do you stаrе/аreyou stаringat mе likе that? I'vе finishеd my еxams so I,m hаviпg/Ihауe a party tomoшow. Wе,d bеttеr wait hеrе until thе raiл stops/willstop. i) Whеn did уou lаstgo/hаvеуou lаst bеento thе сinеma?

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

2

Put eaсh verb in braсkеtsinto the prеsentsimple or сontinuous,or the past simpleor сontinuous. a)

,What(youdo) ..'.d.q...у.q.*,.dg..............,.... ?, ,I,man еnginееr.,

b) тhе door Was opеn so thе dog (run)

....into thе

living room. с) Whеn wе arrivеdhomе Jan (sit) ............ d) Сan you hеlp mе? I (not undеrstand) е) At thе bеginning of thе film I (realize)..''.'.......

оutsidе thе door. .'.. Spanish. I,d sееn it

bеforе. f) I,m sorry,I саn't talk long. I (study)

....for an

еxamination. g) At thе momеnt of thе еarthquakеPat (rеad) h) I,ll phonе you as soon as I (know) D I (stay) .What (you do) i)

3

....thе rеsults.

....at thе Hotеl Тirol. Why don,t you сall rnе? ,| ....whеn you saw thе snakе?' raл\.,

For еaсh quеstion,сompIetеthe sесond sentеnсеso that it means the same as the first, using no morе than three words. a) Stеvеlеft bеforеmу aтrival.

a|readуlеft. Whеn|,,.4r r|,Y d'.' 5t эu*..hд,d... b) Do you nееd any hеlp with your suitсasе? you with your suitсasе? Shall .......... с) What,s your usual timе of arrival at sсhool? ....arrivе at sсhool? Whеn d) Aliсе startеd playing tеnnis six months ago. tеnnis for six months. Aliсе .......... 38

.... in bеd.


GRAмlvlAR

1 o ( o N s o L l DA тo N

l

е) I,ll wait hеrе until it stops raining. Whеn it stops raining f)

....lеavе.

In thе middlе of my rnеal, thе phonе rang' Whilе I .................

......my mеal thе phonе rang.

Jaсk has сomе to stay for thе wееkеnd. with mе for thе wееkеnd. Jaсk ........... h) I last saw David in 1990.

......David sinсе 1990.

I ......'..........

Arе you frее tomorrow еvеning? Arе ............ 4

anything tomorrow еvеning?

Dесidеwhiсh answer (A, B, с or D) bеst fits the spaсe. Mаriсl,shomесomiпg Whеn thе bus (1) .....Q.... in a small squarе'Мaria (2) ........... hеr magazinеand ,Тhis didn't rеalizеthat shе (З) ........... at hеr dеstination. is SantaTеrеsa,, Martin said. .(4) on. (6)

homе! I supposеyоur сousin (5) ........... for us. Сomе ,All thе bags.'Maria thought, thosеyеarswhеn I (7) ........... in

Nеw York, I (8) ........... of this momеnt. And now it,s rеal, I сan,t bеliеvе it! Hеrе I am, (9)

in thе squarе,.SantaTеrеsawas Мaria,sbirthplaсе,but shе

(10) ...'....... thе town at thе agе of six. Shе had somе mеmoriеsof thе town, and somе photos,but (11) hеrе still? Shе (12) . Nobody (1З)........... in thе squarе.Pеrhapshеr сousin Pablo (14) Мaria,slеttеr..What (15)........... now?, askеdМartin. .Thеrеisn,t еvеn a hotеl hеrеl,

1) A has stoppеd

B stops

С stoppеd

D was stoppеd

2) A was rеading

B rеad

С had rеad

D usеd to rеad

З) A arrivеd

B arrivеs

С has arrivеd

D had arrivеd

4) A Yоu arrivе

B You,rе arriving

С You,vе bееn arriving D You'vе arrivеd

5) A waits

B will bе waiting

С has waitеd

D is going to wait

6) A I'll сarry

B I сarгy

С I,vе сarriеd

D I сarriеd

7) A livе

B havе livеd

С was living

D am living

8) A drеarn

B am drеaming

C usеd to drеam

D will drеam

9 ) A I rе a l l y s t a n d

D I,m rеally standing

11) A will shе bеlong

B I was rеally standing С I had rеally stood B had lеft С usеd to lеavе B did shе bеlong С has shе bеlongеd

12) A wasn't knowing

B hasn't known

С hadn't known

D didn't know

13) A was waiting

B is waiting

С waits

D waitеd

14) A wasn,t rесеiving

B didn't usе to rесеivе С hadn't rесеivеd

10) A was lеaving

15) A arе wе going to do B havе wе donе

С did wе do

D has lеft D doеs shе bеlong

D hasn,t rесеivеd D arе wе doing

З9


l N тЕ R M Е D l AтЕ

tA NGU A GЕ

5

PRA с т l с Е

Put a suitab!еtimе word or expressionin еaсh spaсe.Еaсh spaсe is for one word. I lеavе for thе airport.Sorry I havеn,tbееn in Just a quiсk notе ral ..h.pf.!.r.p....... touсh (b) .............'....... Wеdnеsday,but I,vеbееn busy gеttingready (с,).........'....

, and I havеn,tсollесtеdmy tiсkеt (d) ..................... from thе travеlagеnсy.(е).............. ... I gеt to Sydnеy, l'1l writе you a lеttеr. I,vе (f) .. bееn to Australiabеforеbut I,vеbееn rеadinga lot about it (g).......'...'......... . It sounds grеatlI,ll bе in Sydnеy (h) ..........

6

thе еnd of nеxt wееk, and thеn I,m

::::]]::: ::':::::::' ::i::JH:l l]';;;;;;;; ;l'Ж:'.:]".,.. -",

Look сarefully at еaсh l]nе. Some linеs arе сorreсt but some havе a word whiсh should not bе therе. Tiсk (/) eaсh сorrесt Iinе. lf a line has a word whiсh should not be therе, writе thе word in thе spaсe. Dеar Еmma,

I,m sorry I har,еn,tbееn writtеn to you latеly, but I,vе bееn working hard. Whеn I rесеivеdyour last lеttеr I was aсting in a play at sсhool, and whеn I havе finishеd that, I Went on holiday with somе friеnds. I mеant to Sеnd you a postсard,but I had forgot to takе

Z

3 + 5

your addrеsswith mе. How arе you gеtting on at сo1lеgе?You didn,t say vеry muсh about this in

6

your lеttеr.I hopе you arе still likе it, and don,t bееn work all thе timеI Do you still Want to сolrrе

8

and will stay for a fеw days? I,m starting work in London aftеr I shall lеavе sсhool in July, and I want to sее you bеforе thеn. I havе know you,rе busy, but by thе timе your tеrm finishеs, I,ll havе startеdmy job. I,vе bееn donе so many things

7 9 10 11 7Z 13 '1.4

latеly! I,vе just lеarnеd to drivе and my parеnts havе sometimes ]еnd mе thеir сar, so I oftеn go out

15

with friеnds.Мaybе I,l1bе drivе to Nottingham and

\7

Sееyou onе day. Bеst wishеs,Luisa

40

1

T6

beet+


GRA ]vtп nA R 1o сo Nso tlD A тlo N

7

d.

l

Underlinеthe errors in thesе sеntenсes.Correсt the error. a) By thе timе I got to thе phonе it stoppеd ringing.

in

p. . ..r.iш,iry'''''. .l.t .....it'',hд.d.' BBs.d'

b) I,m not vеry good at this gamе. Yоu sее,I didn,t play it bеforе. с) Whеn has Pеtе writtеn to you last?

to ъ

d) What do you do at wееkеnds?Arе you еvеI going to thе сinеma? е) Whеn I was on holiday last summеr I was going to thе bеaсh еvеry day. fl Juliе сan,t meеt you tomorrow. Shе will play baskеtball.

I

td

g) You,rе always latеI I,m waiting hеrе for agеs!

8

ln еveryday spokеn Еnglish,we often leavе out the sub|eсtpronoun and auxiliary. ,Likeitu,.RеWritееaсh sentеnсe so that lnstead of saying, ,Do уou like it?, we saу, the vеrb underlinedhas a subjесtpronoun. a) Finishеd yеt? Wе,rе all waiting!

g*.rt*hed Yet? .''l!.qу.,,''Y

b) Byе for now! Sее you tomorrowl с) Good holiday? Had a niсе timе?

d) Paul,s a bit diffiсult. Know what I mеan? е) Hi, Tim. Comins out for a drink latеr? f) Bееn waiting long? Sorry for thе delay.

Problem сheсk

Cheсk the diffеrеnсebеtweеnthe prеsentsimple and prеsеntсontinuousin Grammar 3. How сan you show this differеnсein your language? Does your languagehave a tense with the samе form as thе presеntperfeсt?ls it used in the same way? Can you show the diffеrеnсein your languagеbetwеen thе present perfeсt and past simple? Do you have a future tеnsе in your language?Does it еxprеssall the meaningsof will, going fo and thе presеnt сontinuous?


Explanations Rеportеd spеесh

Wе oftеn tеll pеoplе what othеr pеoplе havе said. Тhis is сallеd rеportеd or indirесt spеесh. Wе rarеly lеport thе еxaсt words, usually wе just givе a gеnеral summary. Sandra spеaking to Pеtra: ,Bуe, Pеtrа, it,s bеeп grеаt seeing you аgаiп. I,II саll уou sometimе neхt weеk when I get a сhаt1се., Pеtra rеporting thе сonvеrsation to Robеrta:,I Sаw Sапdrа уesterdау.She sаid she,d саll mе пeхt week. Wе usually сhangе tеnsеs (will ) would in thе еxamplе abovе) and also othеr rеfеrеnсеs likе pеoplе, plaсеs and timеs (you ) me in thе еxamplе abovе).

Тensе сhanges

Statеmеnts arе usually rеportеd with a past tеnsе vеrb (likе sаid) and an .movеs baсk, in time. This optional thаt.Тhе form of thе vеrb that follows thеn is somеtimеs сallеd baсkshift. Prеsеnt simplе to past simplе

,I пeed some help',

She sаid (thаt)she needed somеhelp'

tn

PrеSеntсontinuous to past сontinuous

,We аre hаviпg our lunсh., Shesаid thаt thеуwere hаviпg thеirluпсh'

Prеsеnt pеrfесt to past pеrfесt

,I,vеlost mу keуs., He sаid (thаt)hе hаd lost his kеys.

Past simplе to past pеrfeсt (or stays thе samе)

,I wrote two leffersto hеr.' He sаid (thаD he hаd written two lеttersto her. He sаid (thаt) hе wrote two lettersto her'

be goiпg to to wаS going to

,Thеyаre going to сomebасk., Shе sаid (thаt)theуwerе goiпg to сomebасk.

will to wоuld сап to сould

,I will be homeаt 6'00,, Shе sаid (thаDshе tllould bе homеаt 6.00.

r

Thеrе is no сhangе for must, might,сould,should,would. ,I must leаvе strаightаwау Brussеls., for Hе sаid he must leаve strаightаwауfor Brussels. But in thе сasеof mustWе сan also usе hаd to. He sаid he hаd to lеаve strаightаwауfor Brussels.

r

Notе that if thе aсtual words wеrе in thе past simplе, thе rеport сan сhangе or stay thе samе.

r

Notе that if wе writе down thе aсtual words that somеonе SaysWе uSе spеесh marks (invеrtеd сommas). But if wе writе down a rеport of thе words thеrе arе no spеесhmarks.


G R A п nм A R

No tensе сhanges

R ЕP o R тЕD

s PЕ E сH

1

r

If thе rеport is about somеthing whiсh is alwаys truе, it is not nесеssaryto сhangе tеnsеs. ,I like аpples more thаn I like orаnges., She sаid thаt shе likes аpplesmore thаn she likes orangеS. But in сasеslikе this it is still possiblе to сhangе tеnsеs if you Want to. r

гal

l1

If thе rеport is abоut somеthing that has immеdiatе rеlеvanсе,wе usually do not сhangе tеnsеs. ,I,m goiпg to the сinemа toпфt' Do Jaсk spеaking to Tеd: уou waпt to сome?, ,|асk Tеd rеpoгting thе сonvеrsation to Pеtеr: is oп thephoпe.He sаys he,s goiпg to the сinema tonight.,

Speakersin reportеd speесh

Whеn wе writе down thе aсtual woтds, thе spеakеrсan bе mеntionеd at thе bеginning or еnd of thе sеntеnсе.Notiсе thе position of thе сomma and thе final full stop in rеlation to thе spеесh marks. ,We,rеgoing to miss the trаiп., |асk sаid, .Wе,regoiпg to miss the trаiп,,sаid |аck' But in rеportеd spеесh thе spеakеris only mеntionеd at thе bеginning of thе sеntеnсе. |асk sаid (thаt) theу werеgoing to miss thе trаin.

Peoplе, plaсеs,

In rеportеd spеесh rеfеrеnсеsto pеoplе, plaсеs and timеs oftеn сhangе, bесausе thе point of viеw сhangеs. ,I,IIsee уou herc tomorrow,, sаid Sue. Suesаid (thаt)she would Seemе there the пeхt dау. ,I boughtthis book уesterdау,, sаid Mаrtiп' Mаrtiп sаid (thаt) he hаd boughtthe book the dау before.

Шs

times

Summarizing

Wе usually just summarizе what pеoplе say when wе make rеports. ,Look,аctuаIly,tell him I,Il give him а саIl or emаil him nехt weеk,ОK?, Rеportеd as:.Shеsаid (thаt)she,d gеt in touсhпeхt wеek, If we rеport thе еxaсt words it is сallеd vеrbatim rеporting.

soу, tell, spеаk

We sау somеthing and wе fel/ somеbodу.Sау and teIIсaп bе fol]owеd by thе optiona| thаt. ,It,s-wаrmtodаy,,she sаid. Shesаid (thаI it wаS wаrm. She told me (thаt) it wаs wаrm. Wе сan usе fo aftеr say,but wе nеvеr usе ro aftel tеll. ,I сomе from Sloveпiа, Shesоid to me (thаt)she сomesfrom Sloveniа' She told me (thаt) she сomesfтom Sloveniа. Speаk describеs thе aсt of talking. Simon spoke to me iп the supermаrketуesterdау.

f,s

43


lNт ERMEDlAт Е

L A NGU A GE

PRA (т IC Е

ls Underlinethe errors in thesе sеntenсes.Rewritеeaсh sentеnсe. a) Sally told that shе,d lost hеr kеys.

....5в.l,[у,'l.ъid..thл.t...':h*:.d...Lp.l't..h*r.'kу.{.

b) Сhris said mе that hе must lеavе еarly.

с) Мaria and Тоny said thеy shall sее us tomorrow. d) Tom said, I,m сoming to your party. е) Suе said that shе had Wrotе a lеttеr to Lisa. f) Stеvе said us that hе was arriving at 8.00.

g) .I had bought a nеW bikе Pam told us., h) ,What,s thе mattеr? Еllеn told.

2

Rewrite eaсh sеntenсe in dirесt spеeсh, ending as shown. a) Anna told us that shе,d finishеd.

,...I.Y9,JIш.I!!9I...'......... тl l a . | I

.'.'',,,,Annatold us. b) Simon saidthat hе would bе baсk at 6.00. 'Simo n said. с) Bеth said shе was going to go shopping. , said Bеth. d) Paul said that hе wantеd to makе a phonе сall.

' said Paul. е) Tina told thе tеaсhеr shе,d forgottеn hеr homеwork. ,Тina told thе tеaсhет. f) David said hе had to bе baсk by З.З0. ' David said.

8) Jan told mе shе would lеt mе know. ,....'........... ..

,, Jan told mе.

h) Bill said hе was going to bе latе. 'Bill said.

44


G R A м l ul A R

3

l1

R EP o R тED

l

5 PE E сt |

Matсh eaсh sеntenсe in direсt speесh (a-e) with its summarized version in reported speeсh (1_5). a) ,Look, sorry about this, but I,m afraid I,m going to bе a bit latе.,.'..3..... b) .Aсtually I,vе no idеa at all whете I am!' ........... с) .Thе thing is, I know it,s silly but I,vе missеd thе bus., d) .Anyway, I,ll bе baсk in nеxt to no timе., е) ,I did ring, you knoщ еarliеr in thе еvеning., 1 2 З 4 5

4

Shе said shе would bе baсk soon. Shе said shе had missеd thе bus. Shе said shе was going to bе latе. Shе said shе had alrеady rung. Shе said shе didn,t know whеrе shе was.

Complete eaсh sentenсe,using soу tell or spеokin an appropriate form. .

tl

mе that hе was playing in thе sсhoolbaskеtballtеam. a) Daniеl ''.t!.t1.'.,.. to Hеlеn, and shе shе would phonе you. b) I ................ .I ,You,rе you that you would win!, Stеvе. с) luсky,, thе Prеsidеntwhat evеryonеWas................ . d) A translator................ .why .Look,, hеr, don,t you mе what you mеan?, е) I ................ my tеaсherthat I ................ Chinеsе,but shе didn,t bеliеvеmе. f) I ................

5

Rewritеeaсh sentеnсein reportedspеесh,beginningas shown. a) .I won,t bе thеrе bесausеI,m having a pattу,, said Luсy.

...?!..PLw,

b) .I,vеlost thе map and I don,t know thе way,, said Jaсk. Taсktold mе that hе .............. с) .Whеn I finish thе book, I,m going to watсh tеlеvision,, said Jеssiсa. Jеssiсasaid that whеn ......... d) .I,m doing somе homеwork but I won,t bе long,, said Мikе. Мikе said that hе

е) .I got up latе and I missеd thе bus,, said Riсhard. Riсhard said that hе

45


Explanations R e por t i ng que st i ons

r

Wе сan rеpolt quеstions with vеrbs likе сsk, woпder aпd wапt to kпow. Тense сhangе rulеs arе thе samе as in Grammar 11. ,WTlere do уou live?, hе оskеd. He аsked mе whеre I lived, ,Do you live iп Аthеns?, he аskеd.

(NОТ lv,hеrеI did lil'е\

Hе wаnted to know if I livеd iп Аthепs.

(NoT ffaд"1

Look at morе еxamp|еs of ,Wh- quеstions, (using wheп, whаt, whу, how etс). Study thе tеnsе сhangеs and word ordеr сarеfully. Notiсе that thе word ordеr in a rеportеd quеstion is likе a norrnal statеmеnt, with thе subjесt beforе thе vеrb. ,Whеre is the bus stаtion?, shе аskеd, (NoТ жiвя) Shе сlskedwhere thе bus stсltioп wаs. ,Whаt are doiпg?, hе аsked. уou Hе wаntеd to know whаt I wоs doing. ,Whу did уou go thеre?, shе сlskеd. She woпderеd whу I hаd goпe there. ,Whеre hаve уou сome from?, hе аskеd' Hе сlskеdmе whеre I hсld сome from. Look at morе ехamplеs of Уes,z}/o quеstions (Do уou, Did you, Аrе уou etс'). Whеn и'е Iеport YеsAio quеstions Wе usе if ot whethеr. ,Doеs tltе Loltdott trоitl stop l.Lеrе?,shе сlskеd. Sltе сlskесllttе if tltе Lottdott traiп Stoppеd hеre. ,Did уott spесlk to RосllеI?, hе сlskеd, Hе ll,сtlltесltо kt-totу'whethеrI hаd spoken to RсlсhеI. ,Аrе уou сt sttLdеllt?,sJtе аskеd. Shе сtskеdtпе if I wсIS а student. Reporting сommands and requests

Commands arе rеpоrtеd with tell and thе infinitivе. ,Wаit! Wаit!, I told him to wаit. Rеquеsts arе rеportеd with сsk and thе infinitivе. ,Pleаsе wсtit!, I аsked hеr to wаit.

46


GRA м I uA R

Other reporting vеrbs

agrеe

аpologizefor аsk сoпуаtulаte on deсide

tu)

REP o RтED

sPE Е сн

2

Grammar 11 usеd sаy as t}rerеporting vеrb, but thеrе arе many othегs. Hеrе arе somе of thе most сommon: аdvise

). dет ]hе

l2

dеnу iпуite offer promise refuse remind suggest

.I wouldп,t buy thаt саr,

|аnos, if I wereуou', I аdvised |апos not to buу thе cаr. ,oK, I1I givе you а lift,, sаid |eппу. |eпny аgreed to give hеr а lift. ,Yes, |iП, I thiпk уou,rеright,, sаid Mike. Мike ауeed with |ill' ,I,m reаIIуsorry for being so lаte,, sаid Маriа. Mаriа оpologized for being lаte. ,Do уou think уou сould help mq Sue?, I аskеd Suе to help me. ,WеIIdoпe, Tiпа, you,vepаssеd the eхаm!, I coпуаtulаted Tinа on pаssiпgher eхаm. ,I,IIhауe the ftsh SouP/PleаSе,,sаid B\II. Bill decided to hаve the fish soup. ,No, I didn,t tаke it! I wаsn,teveпthere!,sаid Аliсe. Аliсe denied tаking it. ,Would уou like to comе to the сinemа on Sаturdаy,Pаm?, I inуited Pаm to the ciпemа on Sаturdау. ,ShаIII саrry уour саse,Dawп?, sаid Peter. Peter offered to саrry Dаwn,S саse. .I,IIdefinitelybe homebу еight,,sаid Aпn. Aпп promised to be homеbу еight. ,No, I woп,t openthe door!,sаid Саrol. Саrol refused to opeп the door. ,Doп,t forgetto sепd уour mothеrа birthdау cаrd, foe., I remiпded |oe to seпd his mother а birthdаy cоrd' ,How аbout spendiпgthe dау аt the beасh?,sаid Саrlos' Саrlos suggested spendiпgthe dаy аt the beасh.

Rеporting vеrbs сan havе onе or morе diffеrеnt pattеrns.A good diсtionary shows this information. Study thе еxamplе sеntеnсеsin thе prеvious sесtion in rеlation to the pattеrns bеlow. Vеrb + fo infinitivе: Vеrb + obiесt + to infinitivе: Vеrb + -ing forr.n: Vеrb + prеposition + -iпg fotm:.

аgree,decide,offer,promise, rфse аdvisе, аsk, iпvite, rеmind deпy,suggest аpologizеfor, сongrаtulаteoп


INт ERM EDlAтE

L A NGU A GE

P RA с т l с Е

Put one suitableword in eaсhspaсe. goingto sсhoolor not. ...'w.4{...'....... a) Fionaaskеdmе ,.'w,he.,tkr...I .. shе .........

b) David askеdhis mothеr с) Pеtеraskеdus d) Сostasaskеdmе

.. Wе ..........

еvеr bееn to Hungary.

many photographs. .. I .....................

е) Мaria askеda poliсеman f) Dora askеdhеr sistеr......... 2

bе сoming homе.

.. thе musеum Was. fеd thеir dog. shе .....................

Complete eaсh questionin direсt spеeсh,еnding as shown. a) Jaсk askеd mе whеthеr I was having lunсh or going out.

hдuъуaL!,Lwah,'!r.g!.ku.vL1.цt'.. ?,Jaсkaskеdmе. '...Аr.e.у'Q.ol

b) Сarol askеd Ann what shе had donе thе day bеforе. Ann?, askеdСаrol. с) John askеd us if wе oftеn wеnt sailing.

?,John askеdus. d) Сhristinе askеd mе how many Gеrman books I had rеad.

?, Сhristinе askеdmе. е) Kеvin askеd Suе if shе was going to сhangе sсhools. Suе?, askеd Kеvin. f) Aliсе askеd mе who I Sat nеxt to in сlass.

?,Aliсе askedmе.

3

Rewriteeaсh sentenсein reportedspeесh,beginning as shown. Do not сhange the mеaning. a) ,Arе you staying hеre all summеr?, thе littlе girl askеd mе. b)

Тhеlittlеgirlaskеd pf/.w'hp.thp.r.I..Nrl't..ttqfll...thp.rp..qI[!..lшууу.ууу -" .What doеs ,proсrastinatе, mеan?, I askеd my tеaсhеr.

I askеd my tеaсhеr с) ,Havе you donе your homеwork, or not?, my mothеr askеd mе. Мy mothег askеd mе d) ,Whеn is your birthday?,I askеdSuе. I askеdSuе .. .......... е) .Did you rеmеmbеr to loсk thе door,, my father askеd mе. Мy fathеr askеd mе fl ,Why havе you turned off thе tеlеvision?, Еllеn askеd mе. Еllеn askеdmе ............ 48


G R A п nп i A R

4

l2

RЕP o RтЕD

sP E E сH 2

Use a verb from thе box to rewrite eaсh sentеnсе in reported speесh, beginning as shown. Do not сhangе the mеaning.

a) ,I,ll dеfinitеly bе at your housе bеforе 8.00, Suе,,said Мikе.

pd.. s""'hn,.' у.lpшLd., |vIike .b' r,.'аt'.h,er.' .'РГ0.|!*k 14о Дse..b

b) .Would you likе to сomе to thе сinema, Jean?,askеd Chris. Сhris ......... с) ,I wouldn,t eat too muсh if I wеrе you, Davе,, said Patsy. Patsy ......... d) ,How about going for a walk?, said Niсk. Niсk .......... е) ,I,m tеrribly sorry for brеaking thе window,, said Carol. Carol ......... ,Shall I do thе washing.up?, said Bill.

BiП ............ ,Wеll donе, you,vе passеdyour driving tеst,,said Tina,s mothеr. 8) Tina,smothеr hеr ............ .No, h) I won,t opеn my mouth!, said Pat. Pat

49


Explanations Сondi t i on s an d

r

rе5u lts

Sеntеnсеs with f arе сallеd сonditionals. Thе ff... сlausе is thе сondition and thе othеr part of thе sеntеnсе is thе rеsult. Hеrе arе four еxamplеs of сonditionals, usеd for talking about сhесking in at thе airport for a flight: 1' If уou аrrive еаrlу, уou get а bеttеr sеоt. 2 If уou аrrive еаrlу, уou,Il get а better seаt. З If уou аrrivеd еоrly, уou,d get а bеttеr sеаt'

4 If уou hсld аrrived eаrly, you,d hоve got а bettеr sеаt. r

Sеntеnсе 1 is talking gеnеrally about somеthing that is always truе. It is sоmеtimеs сallеd a Ze|o сonditional. Sеntеnсе 2 is talking about somеthing that is likеly to happеn in thе futurе. It is somеtimеs сallеd thе first сonditional. Sеntеnсе 3 is talking about somеthing that is unlikеly to happеn in thе futurе, or an imaginary situation. It is somеtimеs сallеd thе sесond сonditional. Sеntеnсе 4 is talking about somеthing that is imaginary in thе past. It is somеtimеs сallеd thе third сonditional.

Z e r o сon di t i o n a l :

l

Zero, first and sесond сondltionals arе сovеrеd in this unit. Thе third сonditional is сovеrеd in Grammar 1,1.

r

This typе of sеntеnсе dеsсribеs things that aIе always or gеnеrally truе. Wе сan usе wheп or if to introduсе thе Sеntеnсе. It,s о tropiсаI сountrу, опd sо if it rаiпs hаrd, everуoпеstауs iпdoors.

/f + prеsent si mpl е , . . . pr e s e n t

Wheп it rаins hаrd, еvеrуoпеStауS itldооrs.

si mpIе l

Thеrе сan bе an impеrativе Struсtulе in thе rеsult сlausе: just thе barе infinitivе with no subjесt. An irтrpеrativеis whеn wе tеll pеoplе what to do. Ifуou feel dizzу, stop tсlkiпg thе tаblеts' If уou сhаnge уour miпd, give mе а riпg.

+ pr e sе nt si m p l e ,

This typе of sеntеnсе dеsсribеs futurе еvеnts that Will happеn, or arе likеly to happеn. It is a rеal possibility in thе spеakеr,smind, not imaginary (for

... will/won't

imaginary situations Seе thе sесond сonditional).

F i r st сondi t i o n a l : /f

r

If wе wаlk so slowlу, wе,ll bе Iаtе. If wе run, wе-won,t be lаte' If wе doп,t run' we will be lаtе.

50


GRA п nп л A R .l 3 сo ND lтlo NAL s

1

Еxamplе: You arе at thе supermarketwith a friеnd. Your friеnd has put somе еggs in abag, and is piсking up lots of othеr bags at thе samе timе. Yоu say: If you cаtry too mапy bаgs,you,Il drop the eggs. If you drop the eggs,they,Il breаk. If the eggsbreаk, therеwiII be ап аwful meSSon the floor! If you шe саreful,уou woп,t breаk them. In the сondition сlausе it is pоssiblе to usе othеr prеsеnt tеnsеs,not just thе plеsеnt simplе. (prеsеntсontinuous) If уou,re driving, I,Il сomewith уou' (prеsеnt pеrfесt) If I,ve seeп the film before,I,ll let уou kпow! This typе of sеntеnсе dеsсribеsfuturе еvеnts that aте imaginary, unlikеly or impossib1е. If I hаd а heliсopter,kr fIу to sсhоol. If I flew to sсhool,I wouldn,t be lаte.

Sесond сonditionaI: lf+ past si mpl e , ... would/wouldn't

Еxamplе: You start talking to a friеnd about aliеns. You say: If some аIieпs lапded on eаrth, I,d mаke fтiends with thеm. If they didn,t speаk English, I,d use sigп lапguаge. If theу took me bасk to their plаnet, I,d leоtn their lапguаge. If аnуoпe believed my Story,I,d beсome fаmous! Notе that would is usually сontraсtеd in spеесh. I,d becomefаmous. (=I would beсomefаmous.) Notе that the past simplе is usеd in thе сondition сlausе,but thе timе rеfеrеnсеis thе futurе. r

Thе rеgular past simplе of to be is I wаs and He/Shewаs. Wе сan usе thеsе forms in sесond сonditionals, or altеrnatively we сan usе If I were and If he/shewere' Тhe were form is morе formal. If I wаs/were ап аstronаut,I,d еnioу beiпg weightless!

unlеss

Uпlessmеans If пot' Сomparе thеsе sеntеnсеswhiсh havе thе samе mеaning. We,lIgo out for а wаlk if it doesп,t rаin. We,lIgo out for а wаlk unless it rаiпs'

Other usesof would

We usе would in othеr situations whiсh do not involvе сonditional sеntenсеS. Rеporting what somеonе said: Politе offеr: Politе rеquеst: Somеonе rеfusеd to do somеthing:

He sаid hе would cаII bаck lаter, Would уou like somemorеteа? Would you opеn the window,plеаse? The miпisterutouldп,t апSwer the quеstion.

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lfi UnderIinethе сorreсtword or phrasein eaсh sеntenсe. a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i) j)

If we,dbе/wеlrеlatе for сlass, our tеaсhеr will be/wаsangry. If wе wouldlive/livedon anothеr planеt, we,ll see/we,dseethe Еarth in thе sky. If wе tсlkе/willtаke a taxi, we аrrivеd/wе,llаrrive soonеr. If wе woп,t hurry/doп,thurry,we,Ilbe/we,dbе |atе. If wе were/аrebirds, wе would bе аble to/аreаble to f|у' If you doп,t weаr/wouldn,twеаr Уo1Jtpullovец уou,ll feel/youfelt сo|d' If I studied/willstudуharder,I get/wouldgetbettermarks' If I hаve/hаda motorbikе, I rode/I'dride it to sсhool. If you will leпdlеnd me уollт bike, I,ll let/Ilet you borrow my skatеboard. If I hаd/hсlvelots of monеy/ I gаve/I,dgive somе to all my friends.

Comp|etеthе sеntenсеfor еaсh situationusing the verbs given. a) You,rе standing vеry сlosе to thе еdgе of a swimming-pool. You,rе wеaring all your сlothеs, not a swimming сostumе. A friеnd says: 'tl ! J2 tt If you (fаll in) .'I.?!!!...L.k'.... 39.I... учet! , }oЦГсlothеs tgеtl .'..YY.lll. b) You,rе sitting in thе сlassroom on a hot dаy. You,rе day-drеaming about going to thе bеaсh. You think: If today (bе)............,....,'.. a holiday,I (go).....'...

to thе beaсh.

с) You сan,t answеr a quеstion in your Еnglish book. You ask a friеnd to hеlp, but shе doеsn,tknow thе answеr.Shе says: lf I (know)

.. thе answет,I (tеll)

.. you.

d) You,rе walking towards thе bus stop with a friеnd. Suddеnly thе bus arrivеs. Thе bus stop is far awaу,but you think thеrе is a сhanсе of сatсhing thе bus. You say: If wе (run)

it! .. , W€ (сatсh)....................'

е) You,rе planning to go to thе bеaсh tomolrow with somе friеnds. You arе not surе about thе wеathеr,bесausеit somеtimеs rains at this timе of thе yеar. You arrangе to mееt tomoтrow aftеrnoon and say: If it (rain)

.. , W€ (go) ...........

to thе сinеma instеad.

f) You,rе vеry busy, bесausеyou havе lots of sсhool work, and you also play in two tеams. A friеnd asks you to ioin a сomputеr сlub. You say: .. thе сlub. If I (havе) .. molе frее timе, I (join) But it,s impossiblеat thе momеnt bесauseI,m too busy!

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GRA inм A R

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13 сo ND ! т|o NA ts

1

Complete eaсh sеntеnсe using if, unlеssor would. a) If hе askеdmе to hеlp him, I .. I|9l4,[d....... . b) Wе,ll havе lunсh outside in thе gатdеn,

.. it,s too сold.

с) John .......... win moте raсеsif hе trainеd hardеr. d) Come on! ..................... Wе hurry,wе,ll miss thе planе! .. you likе to sее my stamp сolleсtion?

е)

0

Thе managеr won't bе long.

.. you takе a sеat,pleasе.

s) I,m surе that Conniе

.. go to thе сinеma with you, if you askеd

hеr. h) .....................you fееl likе a сhat,phonе mе tonight. i) What

.. you do if you saw a snakе?

i) I don,t fееl happy

4

.. I swim еvеry day.

Complеtе eaсh sentеnсе(a_|)with an ending (1-10). a) If you play the musiс too loud, '...t,,,.'

1 thе alarm would go off.

b) If thе North Polе mеltеd

2 |'||bttуa nеw bikе.

с) If wе don,t havе еnough iсe-сleam,

3 I,ll bе in Paris at 6.00.

d) If I found somеonе,s wallеt,

4 уotl wouldn,t sее mе any morе!

е) If a burglaт brokе into this housе,

5 you would fееl bеttеr.

f) If my train isn,t latе,...........

6 thе watеr would flood many сitiеs.

g) If you wеrе famous, ...........

7 l,||buу it for you.

h) If my father lеnds mе thе monеy,

8 you,ll wakе up thе neighbours.

i) If you took morе еxеrсisе, i) If you tеll mе what you want, ...........

9 wе,ll gеt somе morе. 10 I,d takе it to thе poliсе station.

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Complete eaсh sеntеnсeas еither a first сonditionalor a seсondсonditionaI sеntеnсeusing the verb in braсkets. to a) If I 1havе)...l"fud....'. arms fivе mеtrеslong, I (bе ablе) ..'!d..he..4b.[9.''..,.. rеaсh thе top of that shеlf! an aspirin,you b) Don,t worry, you,vе just got a сold. If you (takе)................ (fееl)..........

.. bеttеr.

mеat, еvеryonе(livе) с) Vеgеtariansbеliеvеthat if nobody (еat)................ longеr. If I (bесomе)................ a famousroсk star,I (buy) parеntsan еnormous housе. е) It says .No Parking,. If you (lеavе) (givе).........

my ...'........

thе сar hеrе, thе poliсе

...you a parkingfinе.

0 lt,s not far. If you (follow) to thе station.

this path, you (сomе)

g) If pеoplе(usе)................ bikеsinstеadof сars,thеrе (not bе) ............. so muсh pollution. h) Aсtually, Brutus is a vеry friеndly dog. If you (touсh) (not bitе) i) If you (lеavе)

him, hе

you. ............ your books on thе dеsk, I (givе).'.......

thеm baсk to you at thе еnd of thе lеsson. a pеt tigеr,yоuт friеnds(not visit) .......... i) If you (own)................ you!

54


Еxp!anations

.. to )u

Тhird сonditional: /f+ past perfeсt,... would/wouldn't+ hovе+ past partiсiple

Modal ve r b s i n

r

This typе of sеntеnсе dеsсribеsa past еvеnt that is diffеrеnt to what rеally happеnеd. If уou hаd аrrived eаrliеr,we wouldп,t hаve missed the trаin. If уou hаdn,t wаrпed mе аbout the suп, I would hаve got sunburпt.

l

Еxamplе: You wеnt for a long walk, but you did not takе your umbrеlla. It rainеd, and you got Wеt. If I hаd tаkеn mу umbrellа,I wouldn,t hаve got wet' If I,d heаrd the wеаtherforeсаst,I wouldn,t hаve gone out. If I hаdn,t got|eout, I-would hаve finished my homеwork'

r

Thе еxamplеs in Grammar 13 and this unit havе all lsed will/won,tot would/wouldп,tin the rеsult сlausе. But wе сan usе any othеr modal vеrb, likе сап, сould,mау, might,must апd should' If уou everсomе to Istаnbul,I саn show уou аrouпdthе сity. If уou еverсome to Istапbul,уou must phonе mе.

r

Wе oftеn usе might and сould in сonditional sеntеnсеswhеn wе Want to say that wе arе not сеrtain about thе rеsults. Comparе: (сеrtain rеsult) If уou саrry too maпy bаgs,уouwiII drop thе еggs. (unсеrtain rеsult) If уou саrry too mапy bаgs,уou might drop the eggs' If апуoпebelieved mу Story,I would beсome fаmous! (сertain rеsult) If аnyonebelieved mу Story,I сould beсome fаmous! (unсеrtain rеsult)

сonditional sеntenсes

In third сonditional sеntеnсеsWe usе сould hауe (done)ot might hоve (donе). If I hаd brought somеmoremoneywith me,I сould hаve tаkeп а tахi. without if

In еvеryday spеесh Wе сan lse imаginеor supposingin plaсе of if Imаgine уou Sс|wа Snаke,whаt would уou do? Supposiпg уou owned а heliсopter,whаt would уou use it for?

lf l werе You, ...

Wе сan givе adviсе by using a sесond сonditional sеntеnсеbеginning If I were

Сon di t i on aI s

re F-_

уou.

If I were you, I,d spendmorе time oп уour writteп work' If I were уou, I wouldп,teаt so muсh сhoсolаte! It is also possiblе to put thе ifiсlausе at thе еnd. I,d be more саreful, if I were уou.

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Rewriteeaсh сomment,beginning as shown. Do not сhange the meaning. a) Supposing you had wings, what would you do?

What.....p.ц!.d''.уp,*.d.р''.'l..у.q.*''had..уl.|шl'... ....................... ?

b) Why don,t you lеavе now? That,s what I,d do. If

с) Imaginе you livеd on Mars. Нow would you fееl? How.......... d) I think you should buy a bikе. That,s what I,d do. If

е) Imaginе you WеIеriсh. What would you do? What......... SupposingJim сamе with us, what would you say? What......... g) Why don,t you takе thе bus. That,s what I,d do. If

h) Imaginе you ownеd a robot. What would you do? What ......... 2

........ ?

Underlinethe сorrесtword or phrasein eaсh sentenсe. a) If you phoпedkщЦhpng|mе yеstеrdaу,I hаd givеп/wouldLtаvезweпyou thе nеWs. b) If you took/t.llould hаve tаkеп morе еxеrсisе, you mфt feel/hаd feltbetter, с) If Tim drove/hаddriven morе сarеfully, hе wouldп,t hаve сrаshed/didп,tсrаsh. d) If you hаd сome/cаmeto Sееthе film, уou hаd eпioуed/wouldhаve enioуedit. e) |f I,d known/Iwould know it Wasyour birthday, I would sепd/wouldhаvе seпt you a сard. f) If pеoplе hаd helped/helpеd onе anothеr morе oftеn, thе world mфt be/wаsa bеttеr plaсе. g) If our tеam hаd sсorеd/sсored morе goals, we hаd woп/сouldhаvе tцoп. h) If you would hауе worп/worea coat, уotl wouldп,tget/didп,tget wet.

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Complеte the sеntenсe for eaсh situation.

Сharlottе didn,t lеavе еarly, and so shе missеd thе bus.

IfСharlottе .............fud.'!ef.t.'qr|у. . , shе .....'..W.p.*!d.wt..hдуp..шll,:Ч!''....'...''. thеbus. b) I didn,t buy morе milk, so I didn,t have еnough for brеakfast. If I .............

.......... .I

'... еnough for brеakfast. got Wе lost in thе mountains. с) Wе forgot to takе a map' so If wе ..........

............. . Wе ....in thе mountains.

d) I didn,t go to bed еarly, so I didn,t wakе up at 7.00.

If I .............

еarlv.I ....at 7.Оo.

е) Мikе didn,t makе a shopping list, and hе forgot to buy somе сoffее. If Mikе

.... . hе ....somе сoffее.

I didn't rеalizе you Wеrеtirеd whеn I askеd you to go for a walk. If I .............

.......... .I ....for a walk.

Thе Romans didn,t sail aсrossthе Atlantiс. so thеv didn,t rеaсh Amеriсa. If thе Romans.............'

......... . thеv ....Ameriсa.

h) I didn,t turn lеft at the station, and I lost my Way.

If I .............

.......... ,I mv wav.

2


Explanations Wi sh е s abou t t h е

r

For wishеs about thе prеsеnt Wе usе I wish + thе past simplе. Notе thе rеlationship with thе sесond сonditional.

pr е sе n t

I wish I owned о hеIiсoptеr'If I owпed а hеIiсoptеr,I would be hоppу. I wish I didп,t hаvе to go to sсhool! If I didп,t go to sсhool, I would bе hаppу. l

сould Wе usе I wish I сould to rеfеr to somеthing that is diffiсult or impossiblе. Тhis сan rеfеr to thе prеsеnt or futurе. I wish I сould fly! I wish I сould stаy аt home tomorrow.

r

As in thе sесond сonditional, thе past simplе form doеs not rеfеr to past timе.

Wi sh е s abou t t h e

For wishеs about thе past wе ttsе I wish + thе past pеrfесt. Notе thе rеlationship

past

with thе third сonditional. I tцlish I hаd lived iп the еightеепth сепturу! If I hаd livеd iп thе еightеeпth Сепtury, I would hауе bееп hсlppу. I wish I hаdn,t еaten So muсh! I feеl аwftll! If I hаdп,t еаteп So muсh, it would hсlуе beеп bettеr for mе!

hope

If thе wish is a good onе/ Wе use I hopе, Тhis is not followеdtry a сonditional form - it is simply followеd by thе prеsеnt simplе or will. I hopе уott hаvе сtgood timе аt tllе pаrф. I hopе tltе wеоthеr will bе |iпe tomorrow.

lf onlу

Wе сan rеplaсе I ryls/zwith If oпlу for еmphasis. Wе strеss oпly iп spеесh. If oпlу I owпed а hеIiсoptеr, If oпlу I hсldп,t еаteп so muсh!

,l 58


GRA п nм A R l5

WlsHЕ s

. -*$ - -1 .:t

:i'

Underlinethe сorreсtword or phrasein eaсh sеntenсe. suпbаthefor so long. I,m sunburnt. I wish I hаdn,tsuпbаthed/didп,t I don,t fееl wеll. I wish 1 сould stаy/stауеdat homе tomolrow. I,m not a good swimmеr, but I wish | сould swim/wouldswim we||. I wish I hаd/hауea puppy or a kittеn! I wish | сould see/sаwyou tomoшoщ but it,s impossiblе. I wish Jim didп,t sit/doesп,tsit nеxt to mе. Hе,s so annoying! If only wе hqd/wouldhаve somе monеy wе сould takе thе bus. I hopе уo:ueпioуed/enjoyуoшsе|vеs at thе danсе tomorrow. D I wish I сап/сouldspеak Еnglish bеttеr! i) I hopе I,п/I,dwin thе lottеryl

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

|pу.

2 ip

Undеrlinethе сorreсtсontinuationfor eaсh sentenсe. a) I,vе got lots of work to do, and I'm tirеd, but I сan,t stop. 1 I wish I had takеn a rеst.

2 I wish I сould takе a rеst.

b) I wasn,t paying attеntion in сlass, and now I сan,t do my homеwork. 2 I wish I,d listеnеd to my tеaсhеr.

1 I wish I listеnеd to my tеaсhет.

с) Saтahpaintеd hеr room grееn, but shе doеsn,t likе it. 1 Shе wishеs shе,d paintеd it bluе.

2 Shе wishеs shе paintеd it bluе.

d) This is a vеry pttzzl,ingproblеm! 1 I wish I,d known thе answеr.

2 I wish I knеw thе answеr.

е) It,s rеally сold and misеrablе hеrе in thе wintеr. 1 I wish wе livеd in a warm plaсе.

2 I hоpе wе livе in a warm plaсе.

0 I сan,t rеpair my bikе bесausеI havеn,t got any tools. 1 If only I would have a sсrеwdrivеr. 2 |f only I had a sсrеwdrivеr. g) I,m worriеd about my baskеtball tеam. Pеrhaps thеy won,t win! 1 I wish thеy play wеll.

2 I hopе thеy play wеll.

h) You prоmisеd not to tеll anyonе my sесIеtsbut you didl 1 I wish I hadn,t tоld you.

2 I wish I didn,t tеll you.

i) I,vе bееn fееling ill all wеek. 1 I hopе I fееl bеtter soon.

2 I hopе I,d fееl bеttеr soon.

i) I want to sее my sistеr.I havеn,t sееn hет for agеs. 2 I wish I spokе to hеr. 1 I wish I сould spеak to hеr.

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Complete eaсh sentenсe with a suitablе form of the verb in braсkets. a) I,m soakеd to thе skin! If only I фring) ...h4d... b) This pullover Was сhеap. I wish I Фuy) с) I likе your sсhool. I wish I (go) .........

two of them! .......thеrе too.

d) I must gеt in touсh with Sue.If only I (know)

................ hеr

phonе numbеr! е) Тhis bus is rеally slow! I wish wе (takе)

thе train.

0 I,m disappointedin this сamеra.I wish I (not buy) g) I answеrеdthrее questionswеll. If only I (finish)

................ it. ................ thе

wholе tеst! h) I сan,t undеrstand МariеI I wish I (spеak) 4

Frеnсh.

Complete eaсh sentenсe in a suitable way.

a) I,m hungтy.If only ....I..hдq(...4..t!!!1dуl1{.l*... with mе. b) Еnjoy your holiday. I hopе

.... timе.

с) This is a lovеly plaсе. I wish we

.... bеforе.

d) It,s a pity you livе so far away. If only you ............ е) Еllеn is a fantastiсdanсer.I wish I ................ 5

nеarеr. .......as wеll as her!

Rita isn't very happy at the moment. Complete her words. a) Rita wastеd a lot of monеy on DVDs. .I wish | ...h!!di..t...w.!!{t.d........... so muсh money on еxpеnsivе DVDs!, b) Rita thinks nеw jobs are diffiсult to find. ,I wish nеw jobs .... sо diffiсult to find., с) Rita thinks nеw jobs arе diffiсult to find. ,I wish nеw jobs ....еasierto find., d) Rita сan,t go on holiday this summеr. 'I wish I ................

.......on holiday.'

e) Rita doеsn,t havе vеry good qualifiсations. ,I wish I ................ .......bеttеrqualifiсations., Г) Rita has to do thе washing up. Shе hatеs doing it. 'I wish I ................

.......do the washingup.'

g) Rita is sorry hеr family movеd to thе suburbs. ,I wish Wе ............. to thе suburbs., h) Rita thinks shе is vеry untidy. 'I wish I ................

60

.......so untidy.'


ЕxpIanations Passive:form

r

Тo makе thе passivе Wе usе be and a past partiсiplе. Сomparе thе aсtivе and passivе forms in thеsе еxamplеs:

Presеnt simplе it. е

Thе Govеrnmeпtbuilds hundredsof houseseveryyеаr. Hundredsofhousesаre built everyуеаr,

Prеsеnt сontinuous The аuthoritiesаte questioпiпg tуvomen. T-women аre being questioned by the аuthorities. r

Prеsеnt pеrfесt

We hаve chosen Helen аs the newpresideпt. Heleп hаs been сhosen аs the пew president,

r

Past simplе

The poliсe аrrested oпeprotеster' Опe protesterwаs аrtested'

t

will

Theу will plау the mаtсh oп Wеdnesdауevening. Thе mаtсh wiII be plауed on Wednesdауeveпing.

r

Notiсе how the objесt in thе aсtivе fotm (huпdredsof houses,two mеп,Helen) movеs to thе front in thе passivе Sеntеnсеand bесomеs thе subjесt.

r

Foсus on important information Comparе: (aсtivе) The Government built hundredsof houseslаst уeаr. (passivе) Hundreds of houses werebuilt bу the Goуerпmeпtlаst yeаr.

еr. r! Passive:use

In thе aсtivе sеntеnсеmorе еmphasis is givеn to who did thе aсtion _ thе Govеrnmеnt. In thе passivе sеntеnсеmorе еmphasis is givеn to thе thing affесtеdby thе aсtion _ thе numbеr of housеs. Еmphasizеd information usually сomеs at the bеginning of thе sеntеnсе.

Using by and with

r

Spokеn and writtеn Тhе passivе is usеd morе in writing and formal spеесh.

r

Thе pеrson or organization that dоеs the aсtion is сallеd ,thе agеnt,.If wе Want to say who doеs thе aсtion thеn wе use by. Hundredsof houseswerеbuilt lаst yеаr. Huпdreds of houseswere built bу the Governmeпt lаst уeаr. А Iot of stoпеSwerethrown. А lot of stonеSwerе throwп bу апgry footbаll fапs.

r

Thе thing that is usеd to pеrform an aсtion is сallеd ,thе instrumеnt'. If wе Want to inсludе this wе tlsе with. The wiпdows wеrebrokeпwith а bаsebаll bаt. 6T


lNт ЕR]vlEDlAт Е

L A NGU A GЕ

Sеntеnсеswithout an agent

Transitiveand intransitiveverbs

62

P RA C т l с Е

It is not always nесеssaryto mеntion thе agеnt. Thеre arе sеvеralrеasons for this: r

Brепdа,smotorbikewаs stolen lаst night. Agent not known: If wе knеw whо had stolеn it, wе would mеntion thе name of thе pеrson. But wе don,t know and the agеnt is not mеntionеd.

r

Agеnt obvious: Опe protestеrwаs аrrested' .by thе poliсе,, bесausеwе know that it It is not nесеssaryto add thе words is always thе poliсе who do this. Howevеr, it is possiblе to add thеsе words if Wе Want to.

r

A lot of Eпglish grammаr books аre sold everyуeаr. Agent unimportant: Еxaсtly who sеlls thе books is not important. If it was important we сould lse bу and thе namеs of thе pеoplе oт shops who sеll the books.

l

Verbs whiсh have objесts are сallеd transitivе vеrbs (еxamplle:help),In this sеntеnсе,,thе old lady, is thе objесt. A young mаn helped the old lаdу аcrossthe roаd'

r

Verbs whiсh do not havе obiесts arе сallеd intransitivе vеrbs (еxamplе: walk). Diапе wоIks to сoIIеgе'

r

Diсtionariеs show this information with T or I. only transitivе vеrbs сan be madе passive. The old lаdy wаs helpеdаcrossthe roаd bу а young mап.


GRA i,|} tA R 16 P A ssIv Е

1

Under|inеphrasеswhiсh are not neсеssaryin these sentеnсes.Sometimesеvеry phrase is neсеssary. а) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

2

МУ wallеt has bееn stolеn by somеonе. Wе wеrе taught by a diffеrеnt tеaсhеr yеstеrday. Niсk Was opеratеd on at thе hospitаl by a doсtor. Thе meal was sеrvеdby a waitеr in a rеd сoat. Wе wеrе shown round thе musеum by a guidе. Two lеttеrs wеrе dеlivеred this morning by thе postman. Thrее mеn havе bееn arrеstеdby thе poliсe. Yеstеrdaya window was brokеn by somеonе.

CompIetе eaсh sentenсеwith a passivevеrb. a) Thе poliсе quеstionеd Gеorgе.

nrn..'...... by thеpoliсе. Gеorgе,,. у'/ 1.,|.. fl?LhttJ..q b) Мillions of pеoplе watсh this programmе. by millions of pеoplе.

This programmе.........

с) Thеy will finish our nеW housе at thе еnd of thе month. ....at thе еnd of thе month.

Our nеw housе d) Thеy,vе еlесtеd a nеW pтеsidеnt. A nеw prеsidеnt

е) They,rе теbuilding thе damagеd stadium. Thе damagеd stadium f) Thеy,vе сlosеd thе mountain road. Thе mountain road g) Studentswritе most of this magazinе. Most of this magazinе..............

......... by studеnts.

h) A burglaт stolе my laptop. Мy laptop

..'. bУ a burglar.

i) Somеbody will mееt you at thе bus station. You ............

at thе bus station

j) Unitеd won the сup last yеar. Last yеar thе сup

....by Unitеd.

63


lNт ER1YlEDl A т Е

ilr

L A NGU A GE

3

P RA с т l с E

Undеrline the еrrors in thеse sentenсes.Rewrite eaсh sentenсе. a) Мany pеt dogs are losing еvery yеaI.

МaуLv pet daqs аre Last overY YеДr.

b) Thе injurеd man Was bееn taken to hospital. с) A nеw bridgе is be built aсtoss thе тivеr.

ш ш

tfl ti

d) All thе food at thе party Was atе.

lt

е) Nothing will bеing dесided bеforе nеxt Saturday.

tt

f) Thе matсh is playing on Friday еvеning. g) Тhе robber unloсkеd thе door by a falsе kеy.

[fl Ш

h) This book was writing by Sam,s fathеr.

4

II

For every question, сomplete the seсond sentenсe so that it means the same as the first, using no more than thrее words. a) Arсhaеologistshavе disсovеrеd a nеW tomb in Еgypt. A nеw toгrrb..h!!!.'.bpp*'.dll paY.e.rЙ....by arсhaеologistsin Еgypt. b) Thе Prеsidеnt will opеn thе nеw sports stadium on Saturday. Тhе nеw sports stadium

.......by the Prеsidеnt on

Saturday. с) Piсasso paintеd this portrait. This portrait................

l{

Piсasso.

d) Thеy will announсе thе rеsults of thе сompеtition tomorrow. Тhе rеsults of thе сompetition

.......tomorrow.

е) Тhеy,rе rеdесorating our sсhool during the summer holidays. our sсhool

.......during thе summеr holidays.

Г) Thе poliсе in New York havе arrеstеdthrее terrorists. Thrее terrorists............

in Nеw Yoтk.

g) our сompany sеlls morе than 1,000 сars еvеry wеek. Мorе than 1,000сaтs

I

L

.......our сompany еvеry weеk.

h) Тhеy,rе building a nеW musеum in thе сity сentrе. A nеw museum

64

.......in the сity сеntrе.


GRAMil4AR

5

16

P A s 5 |vЕ

Rеwritе еaсh sentеnсe with a passivе vеrb, and so that thе namеs of pеop|е not mentioned. a) Тhе authoritiеs havе сlosеd thе сasino.

h,*ru. р|р ,..Ik.'р.q,'.у.w..'hц.. l э ....

b) Тhе сlubs havе postponеd thе matсh. с) Pеoplе all ovеr thе world spеаk Еnglish. d) Тhе authoritiеs havе opеnеd thе nеw swimming pool. е) Somеonе lеft this pursе in thе сlassroom yеstеrday f) Thе сity сounсil has bannеd traffiс from thе сity сеntrе. g) Pеоplе havе еlесtеd a nеW govеrrrmеnt. h) Somеonе brokе into thе flat last wееk.

65


Еxplanations Vеrbs with two

r

objесts

Somе vеrbs сan havе two objесts. Wе сan: givе, Iеnd, offеr,promisе, sell, seпd, tаkе somеthing

to somebody

buу, kееp, mаke, prepоre' Sаve Solnеthing for sоmеbody. r

In aсtivе Sеntеnсеs Wе сan usе thеsе vеrbs in two ways: Peter gаve Kаren а prеseпt. Pеter gаve а prеSeпt to Kаreп. Еaсh way сan bе madе passivе: Kаren wоs giveп а present bу Petеr. A present wаs givеп to Kаrеn bу Petеr.

l

Тhе form without to/for is morе usual, in both aсtivе and passivе sеntеnсеs.

to bе born

To bе borп is a passivе form but doеs not havе an obvious passivе mеaning. I wаs born in Uruguау.

hаvе something

r

Whеn a profеssional pеrson, е.g. a mесhaniс, a plumbеr еtс. doеs somе work for us, Wе сan usе hауе somеthiпg dопe, Hауе сan bе usеd in any tеnsе.

donе

Wе hсld our house pаiпted lаst уеаr' I,m hаviпg mу саr serviсed tomorrow. I,уе hсld mу room dесorаted. r

Wе also usе this for unplеasant happеnings. Shе hсld her house brokeп iпto. Tim hоd his оrm brokeп plаying rugbу.

P assi vе+ i n fi n i t i v e

r

Thе уеrbs beliеvе, ехpесt, kпow, repoTt,sау, thiпk, Supposе|uпderstапd arе oftеn usеd in thе prеsеnt simplе passivе followеd by an infinitivе (fo do/to bе doiпg).This usе is сommon in nеws rеports. The есonomу is eхpeсted to grow bу 2o/othis yeаr. Bесkhаm is sаid to be сonsidering а trапsfer from Mапсhеster United. The пew shoppiпg сeпtrе is supposed to open пeхt spriпg'

66


GRAмlYlAR

1

l7

P A s s !vЕ

2

UnderIinеthe сorreсtword or phrasein eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

I,m having my hair cuttiпg/сuI/tohаve сut tomorrow. Thе сhildrеn were took/tаken/tаkiпg to thе sеasidеfor thе day. I was seпdiпg/sent/sепd hеrе by thе managеr. Katе is having hеr сar serviсes/serviсing/sеrviсed tomorrow. Suе had hеr windows brеаkiпg/brokеп/brokе by vandals. David has bееn offer/offeriпg/offered a nеw job in Brazil. Whеrе еxaсtly wereyou born/didуou borп/didуou beаr? I,vе just had my bikе repаirеd/repаir/repаiring. I D wаs giveп/gаve/didgive this book by Еmily. j) This сakе mаkеs/mаdе/wаsmаde fot hеr birthday.

2

Rewriteeaсh sentenсebeginning and ending as shown. Do not сhange the meaning. a) Somеonе stolе Bob,s bikе.

rk

rlt'

Bob ''.I4.1.'!э!{'..'....'...'' b) John lent mе this book.

bikе stolеn.

This book

........ John. с) Thе dеntist took out onе of my tееth yеstеrday. YеstеrdayI ................

........... out.

d) Сairo is my plaсе of birth. I ..........'.....

in Сairo.

е) A roсk сonсеrt tiсkеt was sold to mе by a friеnd. I was .........

by a friеnd.

f) Somеonе brokе into Tom,s housе last wееk. Tom had

........ lastwееk.

g) Whеn is your datе of birth? Whеn еxaсtly

........born?

h) Мy parеnts gavе mе this ring. I ................

parеnts.

i) I,m kееping this bottle of winе for a spесial oссasion. This bottlе of winе

........for a spесial

oссasion. i) wе will sеnd you a lеttеr with your exam rеsults. A lеttеr ........to you with your еxam rеsults.

67


lNт ЕRмЕDlAтE

l ]]Ж

L A NGU A GE

3

P RA C т Iс E

Rewrite eaсh sеntеnсe so that it has a similar meaning and сontains the word in bold. a) Thеy,rе sеrviсing my сar tomorrow. having

!шv..I^ауущ..у!+у.'aqlr..{.?.rу]4d..t.a.ry!!.rr.a.w.,....

b) Yеstеrdaythеy stolе my bikе. had с) Last yеar thеy paintеd our housе. had d) Thеy,rе taking out my tooth tomorrоw!

having е) Thеy,vе just сut my hair. had Thеy'rе fitting our nеW сarpеt tomorтow. having o\ They,vе just paintеd Ann,s portrait. ь) had

4

Rewritе the first sеntenсе as a news rеport using present simplе passive+ infinitive. a) Lots of pеoplе bеliеvе thе сriminal is living аbroad.

Thесriminal ...l,:,,h.e,Li?у.'9!('.t.a.. h*..LiYъw abroad. b) Есonomists supposе that inflation will fall nеxt yеar.

Inflation

next year.

с) Еvеryonе еxpeсts that Arsеnal will win thе Lеague. Arsеnal

thе Leaguе.

d) Peoplе think thе Govеrnmеnt is planning a nеw airpolt.

Thе Govеrnmеnt .........

....a nеW airport.

е) Thеy say hе is making a nеw moviе about thе Сivil War. Hе .............

a nеW moviе about thе Сivil War.

Journalists rеport that thе Finanсе Мinister disagrееswith thе Prеsidеnt. with thе Prеsidеnt. Thе Finanсе Мinistеr

68


ЕxpIanations Ьlodal vеrbs: form

r

Мodal vеrbs arе auxiliary vеrbs _ thеy arе usеd with othеr main vеrbs. Modal vеrbs arе сап, сould, will, would, mау, might, shаIl, should and must.

r

Notе thesе important rulеs: _ two modal vеrbs сannot bе put togеthеr (NoТ@) _ modal vеrbs arе followed by thе infinitivе without fo. (NoTф) - modal vеrbs do not havе third pеrson s

а п d mе ani ng

(NoТф)

- modal vеrbs do not form tеnsеS with -ing, -ed etс.

(NoТ

)

_ modal vеrbs usе invеrsion in quеstions (like the vеrb be), r,ot do/does

(Nor@

Ability

r

Quеstions arе madе by putting thе modаl in front of thе subjесt.Nеgativеs arе made by putting иof immеdiatеly aftеr thе modal (oftеn shortеnеd to -п,t in spokеn and informal writtеn Еnglish). I саппot(cап,t) Саn I ..,? I I сould not (couldп,t) Сould ',.? wiп I ...? I wiII not (woп,t) WouldI ...? I would пot (wouldn,t) Мау I '.,? I mау not MightL..? I might пot I shаIInot (shаn,t) ShаllI .'.? I I should пot (shouldп,t) Should ...? I must пot (mustп,t) Must L..?

r

Modal vеrbs show thе spеakеr,sattitudе or fееlings about a situation. For еxamplе how probable or nесеssarysomеthing is, or that thе spеakеris offеring or rеquеsting somеthing. Thе same modal vеrb сan bе usеd in diffеrеnt ways with diffеrеnt mеanings _ you only know from thе situation.

l

To talk about ability Wе use cаn and cап,t (ot саnnotin formal writing) I сап swim. Саn уou swim?

r

Pronunсiation: саn is notmally unstrеssеd/kоn/,but is strеssеdfor еmphasis lkа;nl. А: Сап уou speаkСhinese? B: No, but I саn speаk|аpаnese,

69


tNт ЕR]UIЕDlAт Е

lll

L A NG U A GЕ

PRA C т I(E

Wе sometimеs use be аble fo instеad of саn. Be аble fo forms tеnsеs. WiII уou be аble to hеIpme move mу furniture tomorrow? Сап and саn,t are also usеd foт pеrmission: to desсribеwhat is allowеd or not allowed. Саn I lеаve eаrlу,pleаse? I cаn,t come skаting tomorrow. Certainty and unсertainty

Study this tablе of probabilitу and thе notеs bеlow: IООo/o 95o/o_1ООo/o 8Оo/o ЗОo/o_7Оo/o Оo/o

сеrtainty dеduсtion ехpесtation unсertainty сertainty

ulill must, сап,t should mау, might, сould worl,t

Wе usе wiII andwon,twhen wе arе сertain about somеthing in thе futuте. .dеduсtion,.This is Wе usе must aпd саn,t for anothеr фpе of сеrtainty сallеd whеn wе know somеthing is сеrtain beсausеit is logiсal, or when wе makе an assumption bесauseof thе faсts of thе situation. He must be stuсk in the trаffiс. (I,m surе hе is - it,s thе only possibility) Shе саn,t be iп Itаlу! I sаw her todаy! (I,m surе shе isn,t _ it,s impossiblе) Wе usе shouldwhеn wе еxpесt that somеthing will happen. Theу should аrrive here аt аbout 6.30. Wе usе mау, might and could for unсеrtainty. I mау not hаve time to finish tonighf. President|ones might wiп the neхt election. I mау /might hаve some news for уou neхt wеek. He сould be stuckin the trаffiс. Obligation

(I don,t know) (It,spossiblе) (pеrhaps I will) (perhaps hе is)

We usе must ot hаve to to еxplain that somеthing is nесеssary. I must ftnish rny homeworkbefore8.00. I hаve to phoпe |ап аt 9.o0. In writing thете is no rеal differеnсе betwееn must and hауe to.In spеeсh thете is a small diffеrеnсе: Wе usе hаve to whеn thе situation makеs somеthing nесеssary,for еxamplе bесausеof offiсial rulеs. At our sсhool,we hаve to.weаr а uпiform, Еveryplауer in а footbаIl tеаm hаs to hаve а пumber' Wheп the trаffiс lфts аre reФ уou hаve to stop. In еvеryday spеесh, wе сan lsе hаve got to instead of' hаve to.

70


G R A [ nм A R

l8

м o DA t s

l:

P R ES EN T

AND

FU тURЕ

Wе usе must when thе spеakеrpеrsonally fееls that somеthing is important. You rеаIlymust stop workiпg so hаrd апd try to relах. You must be herebу 8,00, or the bus will leаvewithout уou' Notе that we do not usе to after must. r

In thеir negativе fotms mustп,tand doп,thаvе to havе diffеrеnt mеanings. Nfustn,tdеsсribеsan aсtion whiсh is prohibitеd/forbiddеn. You mustn,t cross the roаd wheп the rеd lфt is showiпg. Don,t hауe fo dеsсribеsan aсtion whiсh is not neсеssary_ you havе a сhoiсе. You don,t hаve to turп on thе сeпtrаIheаtiпg.It,s аutomаtiс.

Opi n i on s an d аdviсe

Wе usе should and shouldпt to givе an opinion about what is thе bеst thing to do. Whеn wе speak to anothеr pеrson our opinion bесomеs adviсе. I thiпk the police should аrrest hooligаns. (opinion) I think уou should tаlk to уour teасherаbout it. (adviсе) Notе thе othеr usе of should foт еxpесtation, mеntionеd еarliеr in this unit. Wе сan lse ought to and ought not fo in thе samе Way as should and shouldп,t. ought fo is not as сommon as should and is a littlе morе formal. I thiпkуou ought to tаlk to уour teасherаbout it. Notе that with think in the nеgativе,Wе uSе I don,tthink + shouldтathеr than thе nеgativе forms of shоuld and ought to' I doп,t thiпk you should/ought to go. Hаd bettеris usеd foт strong opinions. Hаd is usually сontraсtеd. I think уou,d better tаlk to your teасherаbout it. We,d better пot forget to turn off the сomputer!

7-J.


lNт ЕRмЕDlAт Е

L A NGU A GE

P RA с т l с E

Underlinethe сorreсtword or phrasein eaсh sеntenсe. Look at thosе сlouds. I think tt сап/tцlghamustlain. This is impossible! It cап,t be/mustп,tbe/mауnot be thе answеr. Wеll donе! You mаy be/mustbe/mightbe vеtу plеasеdl I,vе no idеa whеrе Janе is. Shе сould be/mustbe anywhеrе! сomе to your party. I supposеit,s possib|е.Imight/саn/must I,m not surе. I must пot/mаУпotbe ablе to gеt thеrе in timе. Тhat саn,t be/mustп,tbe/mауnot be David. Hе hasn,t got a bikе. Lisa isn,t hеrе yеt. She саn be/mustbe on her waу' D Thеrе,sSomеonе at thе door. It саn be/сouldbe the postman. i) Sorry, I саn,t сome/mаупot сomеolt tonight. I havе to do my homеwork.

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

2

Rеwrite eaсh sentenсе,using con, con,t,might or must, and bеginning and ending as shown. a) Sarah is rеally good at swimming.

. ... wеll. ...94.W..{.w.L.Ш..rЧlllY, Saffih b) It,s possiblе that our tеam will win. our tеam

win. ............

с) I'm surе this isn,t thе right road. This ...........

. thе right road.

d) I,m surе you work vеry hard! You ............

vеry hard.

е) Carolinе isn,t allowеd to сomе to our party. to our party. Carolinе f) It,s possiblе that l,ll sее you tomorroщ but I,m not surе. I ............. ... , but I,m not surе. 8) I'm afтaid that your tеaсhеr is unablе to сomе today. . today. I'm afraidthat ........... h) I,m surе it,s vеry hot hеrе in summеr. It ...............

hеrе in summеr.

i) Еxсusе mе, is it all right if I opеn thе window? thе window? Ехсusеrnе, ............ i) I supposеyou,rе Мrs Pеrry. How do you do? Мrs Pеrry.How do you do? You ............

IL


G R A п nм A R

3

lng

4

lE

м o DA L s

i:

P R Еs ЕN т

AND

F UтURЕ

Dесidewhеthеr eaсh Pair of sentenсеshave a similarmеaning,or whether they are diffеrent. Write Sfor someor Dfor differеnt. a) You,d bеttеr go.

You should go. ...?...

b) You don't havе to prеss this button.

You mustn,t prеssthis button. ........

с) You should havе a rеst.

You ought to havе a lеst. ........

d) You must be crazу!

You should bе сrazy! '.......

е) You must bе herе bеforе 8.30.

You havе to bе hеrе bеforе 8.30' ........

f) You mustn't do that!

You don,t havе to do that! ........

g) You shouldn,t еat so muсh.

You ought not to еat so muсh. ........

h) Wе havе to work hardеr.

Wе must work hardеI. ........

i) I,d bеttеr WIitе my lеttеrs.

I must writе my lеttеrs. ........

i) I ought to leavе now.

I havе to lеavе now. ........

Rеwriteeaсh sеntenсeso that it has a similarmeaning and сontainsthe word in bold. a) It would be a good idеa for you to sее a dentist.

ought

p'ш.W. ... dpnt.kt.'' .'t!..{,*''(!.' ...Y.q.*.'

b) It,s not nесеssaryfor us to go to sсhool tomorrow. havе с) I,m surе that isn,t John, bесausеhе,s in Paris. be d) Pеrhaps Ann is at homе.

bе е) You ought to Wеar a WaIm сoat today. had

It's possiblе that I,ll bе latе. may сгl D'

I wouldn,t go skiing if I wеre you. think

h) It is forbiddеn to lеavе youт bikе hеrе.

сan,t


lNт ЕRмEDlAт E

l! i lrll

L A NGU A GE

5

P RA с т I C E

Complete еaсh sentenсewith one suitable modal auxiliary. a) Soldiers.'.!уtуp......... to obey orders. b) I think you ...........

takе youт umbrеlla.

go now. I don,t want to be latе. с) Sorry,I ..................... bе ablе to hеlp you. d) I,m not sulе, but I ..........

;

е) Franсesсaisn,t at home, so she

I

0 Wе g) It ..........

1

i I

.. bе on hеr way hеrе.

.. bеttеr not lеavе any windows opеn. bе a staг,it,s too bright. Perhaps it,s an aliеn spaсеship!

.. to go to work today. It's a holiday. .. to finish all the work you gavе mе. D Sorry, but I wasn,t to ask youт teaсhеrfor somе adviсе. i) I think you ........... h) I don't

I i

I

tl

6

t

Rewrite eaсh sеntenсe so that it does not сontain the phrase in itolics. a) If I werеуou I,d takе morе еxеrсise.

II

b) I eхpeсtthе plane will land soon.

I

с) You аre not аIlowedto usе a diсtionary.

I..t!уiуtk..y.o.*.d...b.et'.t.эr/Jqш.,:!зp.ц!d..t.ъk.!у!!19..тх

I I

l

II

d) It,s impossiblefor thаt to bе Suе. Shе,s abroad.

I I r I

e) It,s possible thаt |,\|сomе to your party.

a

f) It,s аgаinst the lаw to dtop littеr in thе strееt. g) It,s not neсessаryfor уou to wait. h) You,d betterstaу in bеd tоday.

! I I

I

II I I I

!

I I I I I

;

74


:

Explanations To talk about gеnеralpast abilityWе usе сould,сouldп,tandwаsсfulеto' |аnе сould swim/wаs аble to swim wheп shе wаs tеп. To talk about onе spесifiс past aсtion wе only usе wаs аblе to. Whеп Dаvid feIIiп the rivеr,|аne wаs аble to resсuehim.

Abi l i t y

r

Се r t ai nt y an d

Thе form is: modal + hаvе+ past partiсiplе.Сomparе with Grammar 18: You must hаve left yourpаSsportoп theplапe. (dеduсtion: I,m surе you did) Linа сап,t hаve writteп this. (dеduсtion:I,m surе shе didn't) Маriа might/mау/сould hаve tаkeп the bus. (unсеrtainty:pеrhaps shе did)

; nсеrtainty

O bl i gat i on

O pi ni on s an d

r

To talk about obligation in thе past Wе usе hсld to, didп,t hсшeto, didп,t пeеd to, пееdп,thауe doпe.Thеrе is no past fotm of must. Whеп I wаs сlt sсhool,wе hоd to/didп,t hаve to-weаr а uпiform.

r

In stгiсt glammar thеrе is a diffеrеnсе bеtwееn didn,t nееdto and needп,thсlvе done. (I had a сhoiсе) I didn,t nеed to do апу homeworkyestеrdау. (I did it, but it wasn't I пeedп,t hаve done апу homeworkуestеrdаy. nесеssarv) But in еvеryday spеесh Wе usе didn,t пeedto for both сasеs.

r

Thе form is: modal + hауе + past partiсiplе. Сomparе with Grammar 18: I think you should hаve worked hаrder. Youshouldп,t hаvе eаteп so muсh! Wе сan lse oughtto hауе doпe aпd oughtnot to hауe doпein thе samе way.

r

Thеsе forms mеan that we arе making a сritiсism. So in thе еxamplеs abovе Wе arе saying .I think you Wеrеwtong,.

advi се

5ЕtALso Graпrmar 18: Modals 1

''..'i t:::::r::I::::i t:t:t ;:II:II ...

75


lNт ER]t,lЕDlAт E

tA NGU A GЕ

PRA с т I с E

For eaсh question,сompletethе sесond sentenсеso that it mеansthe same as the first, using no morе than three words. Contraсtions сount as one word. a) I,m surе you droppеd your wallеt at thе bus stop. Yotl ...||Иit#t'.Lи.v..a.. /.7.q B'Р.d.. у ou, wallеt at thе bus stop. b) Мaybе Joanna missеd thе last bus. ....thе last bus. Joanna с) Pеtеr knеw how to skatе whеn hе was twеlve. Pеtеr ..........

skatewhеn hе was twеlvе.

d) Еmma Was Wrong not to tеll you thе answеr. Еmma

....you thе answеr.

е) It wasn,t nесеSsaryfor us to pay to gеt in. Wе .............

pay to gеt in.

f) I,m surе that Diana didn,t takе your books. Diana

....your books.

g) Pеrhaps David didn,t notiсе you. David

....notiсеd you.

h) Tеrry arrivеd еarly, but it wasn,t nесеssary. Tеrry .........

arrivеd еarly.

i) It wasn,t neсеSsaryfor mе to buy any food yеstеrday. I didn,t

.... any food yеstеrday.

j) It was a bad idеa for us to bе rude to thе poliсеman! Wе ............. bееn rudе to thе poliсеmanl 2

Rewriteeaсh sentenсebeginning as shown. Do not сhange the meaning. a) You WеrеWrong to study so latе!

p. Youshouldn, t ...h!!Y9..{.t*d ird..l р...И.t

b) Did you managеto stop him?

I didn't d) Pеrhaps Tim has lost his way.

Tim might е) It was possiblе for you to hurt yoursеlf. You сould

76


G R A l VI I VI A R I 9

0

l VI ODA L S

2: PAST

It would havе bееn a good idеa to tеll mе. You should

s) I,m surе thе сlass еnjoyеd it. Thе сlassmust .......... h) I hеlped hеr but it Wasn,tnесеssary.

I neеdn,t i) It was a mistakе to lеavе.

You ought I,m surе thе butler didn,t do it. Thе butlеr сan,t ..........

3

Complete eaсh sentеnсе so that it,сontainsthe words in bold.

we ..{.W.*l'd..!gуg..tltkш.4!k..*lуb.r.4Lt!...'....,...'.., soakеd! a) I,mсompletеly should/umbrеlla b) I,vе lost my bag. I think I must/bus с) I triеd to phonе Sam, but

T

сouldn,t/gеt through d) I forgot Katе,sbirthday. I

should/prеsеnt е) Thе сat doеsn,tlikе fruit! It .............. сan,t/orangе

0

Jo isn.t hеre yеt. I supposеshе ........... might/addrеss

g) I did badly in thе tеst. I ought/hardеr h) It,s a shame wе didn,t go on holiday.

соuld/fun

77


Underline the сorreсt word or phrasе in eaсh sentеnсе. a) Jim сlskеd/toldthе tеaсhеr if thе book was his. b) I hаvе hаd/hаd two tееth takеn out last wееk. с) I сan,t do thеsе sums. I wish I hауе/hаda сalсulator with mе. d) Ann rеfusеd/sаidshе didп,t wапt mе to borrow hеr bikе. е) Hеlеn сап't hауе stoleп/mцst hаvе stolеп thе monеy from thе offiсе. Shе didn,t сomе in to thе offiсе on thе day it was stolеn. f) If I hаvе/hсldmorе monеу, |,d paу for you too. g) It,s gеtting vеry latе, so I think уou,d bеttеr/youсould|еavе. h) Тraсеy phonеd еarliеr and said that shе hаd been/would be |atе. i) Тhе nеxt two lеssons wеrе bееп/hаvеbееп сanсеllеd. i) |f wе,d remеmberеd/wеremеmbеredto bring thе map, wе wouldn,t havе got lost.

2

Look сarеfully at eaсh linе. Somе linеs are сorreсt but somе havе a word whiсh should not bе there. тiсk (/) eaсh сorrесt |ine. lf a ]inе has a word whiсh shouId not be there, write the word in the spaсе. Do-It-YoursеIf Last wеek my brothеr and I dесidеd to pаint our

78

| ..........{.........

bеdrooms if whilе our parеnts wеrе out for thе

cL f

day. Our parеnts usually thеy havе thе painting donе

З .....................

by a loсal firm, but wе thought wе сould to savе somе

4 .....................

monеy if wе did paint it oursеlvеs. Wе had watсhеd thе

5 .....................

paintеrs thе last timе thе hоusе had to bееn paintеd,

6 .....................

so wе thought и,е would bе ablе to do thе job. .First all thе surfaсеs must havе to bе washеdi mу .That brothег said. сan,t havе bе vеry diffiсult,, I

7 ..................... I ..................... 9 .....................

rеpliеd. ,Wе'd bеttеr if put somе nеWspapеrs on

10 .....................

thе сarpеt. If wе сan makе a mеss, wе,ll gеt into

11 .....................

troublе., Aftеr that had bееn havе donе, wе iookеd for somе paint in thе gardеn shеd. ,Wе сould usе

t2 .....................

this rеd paiпt,, I was suggеstеd. Мy brothеr said that

i4 .....................

hе prеfеrrеd grееn paint. Just as if wе wеrе going to start, our parеnts arrivеd homе. ,You should havе bееn

15 .....................

askеd us first,, my mothеr said us' ,You сan paint thе

17 .....................

rеst of thе housе too!,

18 .....................

1З ........'.'..........

16 .....................


Dесidеwhiсh answеr (A, B, с or D) bеst fits the spaсe. with Pсlul Mаkiпg arraпТemепts г I (2) .......,,,1ооking A fеw days ago Paul phonеd mе and (1) ....Id.'..whеthеr dogs' that I didn,t rеа111.likе away.I (4) ........... aftеrhis dog whеn hе (3) his all his othеr friеnds,and that I (6) ......'.... to mееt thе dog, and only hopе. Hе invitеd mе round to his housе (7) ...........

but hе said that hе (5)

dinnеr for mе. An hour latеr hе phonеd again hе told mе that hе (8) mееting thе fo]lowing dav aftеr all, so I (10) and said that hе (9) ........... for lunсh. Thе nеxt morning hе сanсеllеdthis appointmеnt and, aftеr hе ,I thе dog to my housеat 6.00. don,t (11)..........., said that hе (12) ,Сould you tеllmе how (14)........... thеrе?, know еxaсtly(13) ,, hе said.

ln t

out and put thе phоnе down. Luсkily I havеn,t

I quiсkly said I (15) hеard from him sinсe. 1) A told 2) A would mind З) A has gonе 4) A told him 5) A asks 6) A am 7) A this еvеning 8) A is сooking 9) A had to go out 10) A had suggеstеd 11) A has donе 12) would bring 1З) ^ A whеrе is it 14)AdoIgеt 15) A went

h rld

4

С askеdmе C likе С would go С askеd him С will ask C had bееn С thе еvеning С would сook С goеs out С suggеstеd С askеd С brought С whеrе it is СIwillgеt С will go

B said mе B want B wеnt B said him B would ask B will bе B that еvеning B will сook B wеnt out B would suggеst B told mе sorry B had brought B if it is BIgеt B go

D spоkе D willhеlp D will go D rеpliеd him D had alrеadyaskеd D was D in еvеning D had сookеd D has to go out D suggеst D had apologizеd D brings D how was it DI,mgеtting D was going

Сomplеtе еaсh sentenсewith one of the words or phrаsеsfrom thе box. сould had to

d€*:*аrЁe+o havе to

might havе

must

mustn't

should

a) Wе ..dp.ууt..hдu*..t.Q....a unifоrmat my sсhool. -eat play with matсhеs!It,svеry dangеrousl b) You lеft my w allеt in thе ba nk .

с ) I ,m n o t Su г е ,but I think I ...'............ d ) I ,m g е t t i n g u p еar ly, bесausе I '............... е) Sorry I сan,t stay any longеr, but I rеally

go r unning bеfo r е sс1 - tооl gо honlе.

f ) I f y o u wa n t t o , W е .............

go sw imming thls aftеr no о n.

g ) So r r y I ,m l a t е, but I ..........

.. takе my do g to thе \-еt,s.

h ) I t h i n k y o u ............

go to bеd еar liеr ,and sto p dr inking сoffее. 79


!Nт ER]Y lЕD l A т E

L A NGU A GE

5

P RA с т l с E

Complеtethe seсond sentеnсeso that it has a simi|armeaningto thе first sеntеnсe. a) I don,t know thе answеr,so I сan,t help you.

pr'..I...NрнLd...l:w|B.' rcl ...kл.p. N''th*.g.w.w. у! *.

b) Don,t run fast, or you,ll fееl tirеd. If ......... ...... с) An off-duty poliсеwoman arrеstеdthе robber. Thе robbеr d) Wе didn,t lеavе еarly, sо wе missеd thе train.

If wе .......... е) I atе all thе iсе-сrеam,and now I rеgrеt it. I wish Whеrе is thе bus station? ................ ?

Could you ............

s) Thе loсal сounсil is building a nеW sports сеntrе. A nеw sports сеntrе h) I think you should go to thе doсtoг,s.

If I .......... ... i) Somеonе usеd a hammеr to brеak thе window.

Тhе window .Don,t forgеt to buy somе milk, Amy,, I said. I rеmindеd

6

For еaсh question,сompletethе seсond sеntеnсeso that it means the same as the first, using no more than threе words. a)

It wasn,tnесеssaryfor mе to go to work yеstеrday. . to work yеstеrday. I didn,t ..hдur..t..q.3g

b) I,d likе to bе riсh! I wish

.... riсhl

с) I,m going to thе hairdrеssеr,s tomorlow. .... tomorrow.

I'm having d) Pеrhaps Мark missеd thе bus.

.... thе bus.

Mark might

е) Marсoni was thе invеntor of radio. Radio .........

by Мarсoni.

I think you Wеrе Wrong to forgеt thе kеysl Y o u s h o u l d n,t .............

80

thе kеys!


GRA t|м A R

2o

сo Nso LlD A тI o N

2

s) lt would bе a good idеa for us to takе an umbrеlla. Wе .........'...

bеttеrtakе an umbrеlla.

h) I,m surе that Мaria workеd vеry hard.

Maria i)

....vеry hard.

Hеlеn gavе a сamеra to Riсhard. ....a сamеraby Hеlеn.

Riсhard II

It was unnесеssaryfor us to buy so muсh food. Wе .............

7

bought so muсh food.

For eaсh question,сomplеtethе sесond sentenсеso that it meansthe samе as thе first, using no morе than thrеe words. a) Thе paintеrs arе сoming to oul housе tomolrow.

paintеdtomorrow. .ц,''9..... Wе arе ..'l,.qtу.уу&..p'ц.Т..fu b) SomeonеstolеPeter,sсar last wееk. stolеnlast wееk. Pеtеr.......... ,I,vе lost my tiсkеt, Katе,, said Danny. с) lost his tiсkеt.

Danny told Katе that ...........

d) Сarl advisеd Dianе not to takе thе job. ,I ................ .......thе job if I Wеrеyoul Dianе,,said Carl. е) Whеn doеs thе play start? Сould you ............

thе play starts?

Lеt,sgo for a piсniс if thе wеathеr,sgood. ....thе wеathеr,sbad.

Lеt,sgo for a piсniс

s) I stayеd up latе bесausеI didn,t fееl tirеd. If I had fеlt tirеd I ................

.......stayеdup latе.

h) Jim livеd in Spain thеn, so it was impossiblе that you met him hеrе. mеtJim hеrе,bесausеhе livеd in Spain thеn. You ......'..... ,Do you havе to leavе еarly tomorroщ Ann?, askеd Мary. i) lеavе еarly thе next day. Мary askеdAnn if shе ............ .Do jl you think you сould pass mе thе salt, Pеtеr?,l said. .......Рetеrto passthе salt. I ................

81


INт ЕRMEDlAт Е

L A NGU A GE

I

P RA C т Iс E

Undеr]inеthе errors in thеse sеntеnсes.Corrесt the error. a) War and Pеaсе was writing by Lеo Tolstoy.

..w.Г.Ltt%ul b) That mustn,t bе David! Hе,s on holiday in Bеrmuda. с) Andrеa askеd a passеr-bywhеrе was thе train station. d) If I had livеd in Anсiеnt Grеесe, I might bе a slavеI

e) In thе army, you,d bеttеr Wеar a unifоrm. 0 Katе told mе that shе must to finish hеr homеwork. g) I think somеonе must opеn your bag. That,s thе on1y explanation. h) I wish I arn tallеr!

i) I rеpair my сar by a qualifiеd mесhaniс. j) If I saw a snakе, I,ll sсrеam and run awayl

Problem сheсk

Do you сhange tеnsеswhen you use reportеdspeeсh in your |anguagе? If you nееd to сhесk thе punсtuation of dirесt spеесhyou сan look at Grammar 48. Cheсk the diffеrenсebеtweenthe sесond and third сonditiona|s.Remembеrthat the past tense verb in a sесond сonditionaldoеs not refer to past time. 3

Whеn do we use thе passivе?Doеs your Ianguageuse passivеslike Еnglishdoеs?

4

How do We use must' hаvе to and should?When might you say: a) Jim has to gеt up еarly еvеry day. b) Jim must gеt up еarly еvеry day. с) Jim should gеt up еarly еvеry day. Еxplainthe diffеrenсebetweеn eaсh pair of sentenсеs. a) l,m сuttingmy hair. I,m having my hair сut. b) I must hаvе lost my kеys. I сan,t havе lost my kеys. с) I didn't nееd to buy any food yestеrday. I nееdn,t havе bought any food yеstеrday. d) If you сamе by bus, you,d gеt hеrе fastеr. If you had сomе by bus, you would havе got hеге fastеr.

82


Explanations ПtrPose: to and for

llrrpose: so thаt

r

Wе usе thе fo infinitive to desсribе purposе, to say why wе do things. This is сallеd ,thе infinitivе of purposе,. Аlistаir weпt to the stаtioп to meet his pаrents. (NoT {e++о+ееt)

r

In formal spеесh and writing Wе сan tlse in orderto. This is not as сommon as thе infinitivе of purposе. The Presideпtmаde а speeсhin order to eхplаiп the poliсy'

r

Wе сan usе pr followеd by a noun to say why wе do somеthing. This is еspесially сommon following vеrbs of motion. I-weпt to the shopsfor some milk.

r

Wе сan usе so (thаt)to еxprеsspurposе. Aftеr so (thаt)we usе sub'iесt+ vеrb.

r

For a habitual pulposе Wе usе cсInot thе prеsеnt simplе. I leаve the wiпdow oPe|1So (thаt) the саt cаn get iп аnd out' BiII weаrs thiсk socksiп bed so (thаt) his feet don,t get сold.

l

Foг a futurе purposе Wе usе cап, wiII or thе plеsеnt simple. Dorа is going to leаve сlаss eаф so (thаt) she сап go to the dentist' Wэ,II tаke ап umbrellа so (thаt) we don,t get wet.

r

For a past purposе Wе usе could,would or thе past simplе. Dorа left сlаss eаrlу so (thаt) she could go to the dentist. Wе took аn umbrellа so (thаt) we wouldп,t get wet. We took аn umbrellа so (thаt) we didn,t get wеt.

r

If thе subjесt of thе first part of thе sеntеnсе and thе subjесt of thе purposе сlausе arе diffеrеnt, wе сan,t usе thе infinitivе of purposе fo. Wе havе to usе so (thаt)' HeIeпplаyed thеpiапo to eпtertаin her fтieпds. Helen plауed thepiаno so (thаt) everyone else сould dапсe.

83


lNт ERпnЕDl A т E

tA NGU A GE

PRA с т I с E

Put one suitableword in eaсh spaсe.Contraсtionsсount as one word. I wouldn,t forgеtit. ...th4|t..........

a) I wrotе thе datе in my diarу ...!.!.... b) Мost tourists сomе hеrе

.. visit thе anсiеnt tеmplеs. ........announсе

с) Mary сallеd a mееting thе tеam.

сhеat! 0 Our tеaсhеrmadе us sit far apartso that Wе ..................... hеlp yoursеlf. g) I,ll lеavеthе box opеn so that you .........'........... h) Lisa got up early so that shе 2

.. finish hеr homеwork.

Rеwrite eaсh sentenсе so that it сontains to word in bold. a) I wеnt to thе shops to gеt somе е8gs. for

{p.ш.'W.{*..,'',.. ...I..W..e. nl..t g..the.. thlBl.l.q.r..

b) Niсola сamе hеrе for a mееting with thе dirесtor. to с) Wе Wеnt on holiday to have a rеst. for d) Мikе plays сhеss fоr rеlaxation.

tо е) I opеnеd thе window to lеt in somе air. fоr

0

Cristina wеnt shopping to buy somе nеw сlothеs. for

s) I wеnt

to a plivatе sсhool for Еnglish lеssons.

tо h) Sam wеnt to a spесialist to gеt treatmеnt.

fоr

84


GRAi'lillAR

3

P U R POSE

21

Complеte the seсond sentеnсeso that it has a similarmeaningto the first sentenсe. a) Paul had tо go to thе doсtor,s,and lеft work early.

paа .'.l.ф..Np.r&...q.r!Y'..'...,,.. to thеdoсtor,s. sothat....k..qq!{.!dJ.q''.......

b) Thе sсhool wаs rеbuilt bесausеit Wasn,tlargе еnough. in ordеrto ..............

Thе sсhool largеr.

с) Sophia wantеd Jaсk to сall heц and gavе him hеr phonе numbеr. Sophia

. so that

hеr. ...............

d) I might gеt sunburnt, so I,ll put on somе suntan oil. I'll ..............

... so that

sunburnt.

е) Cathy hid thе presеnts and nobody saw thеm. Cathy

so that

thеm.

f) Wе wantеd peoplе to danсе, so wе had thе party in a largе hall. Wе ............

........ so that ...........

......danсе.

g) Diсk wantеd to gеt a good seat, so hе arrivеd еarly. Diсk ..........

so that

a good sеat.

h) I сouldn,t sее wеll in thе сinеma, and сhangеd sеats. I ................

. so that

.....bеttеr.

D Wе didn,t Want to fееl hungтy, so wе took somе sandwiсhеs. so that Wе ............. Wе took i) Harry wantеd his friеnds to notiсе him so hе worе a funny hat. him. ........... .....so that ........... Harry .........

85


Еxplanations R е ason an d r е s u |t

Wе uSе bесаuse, сs and sjnсe whеn Wе Want to ехplain thе rеason for somеthing. Аs and siпсе are molе сommon in formal spеесh and writing. Tim didп,t fееl wеII, bесаuse hе hаd еаtеп fifteеп iсe-сreаms. As/sinсe Tim hаd еаtеп flftеeп iсе-Сreаms,hе didп't feеl vеrу well.

r

Tim didп,t fееI wеll, аs/siпсе hе hаd еаtеп fifteеn iсe-сrеаms

so and suсh for

l

Аs and siпсe сarl сomе at thе bеginning of thе sеntеnсе. Normally wе do not bеgin sеntеnсеs with bесausе,but this is possiblе in informal spеесh. Beсаuse Tim hас| eаteп fiftееп iсе.сrеаms, hе didп,t fеel very wеll,

r

Wе uSе so to еxprеss a rеsult. Notе thе rеlation bеtwееn beсаusеand so. Tim hаd eаtеп fifteeп iсе-сreаms,so hе didп,t fеel vеry wеll.

l

Wе uSе so mапу/muсh (thаt) ald, so fеwДittlе (thаt) with nounsl for еmphasis. Thаt is usually lеft out in informal spеесh and writing. Notе thе rulеs:

e mphasi s

Сountablе nouns I bought So mапу books (thаt) I сouldп,t соrry thеm аII. Thеrе wеrе so few pеople in the theоtre (thаt) thе сlсtors didп,t pеrform well' Unсountablе nouns Therе is so muсh rаiп аt thе momепt (thаt) wе hаrdly еуеr 80 out. Wе hаve so little free time (thаt) wе doп,t wаtсh television'

too and not enough for a

r

Wе usе so + adjесtivе + thаt With adjесtivеs by thеmsеlvеs. Lаst пight was So hot (thаt) I сouldn,t slееp. The trаiпеrs wеre So сheаp (thаt) I bought two pаirs'

r

If wе havе an adjесtivе followеd by a noun, Wе usе suсh сt. It wаs suсh rl lovely dсlу fthаt) wе wеl1tfor а wаlk iп the сouпtrу. Itwаs suсh а good ftIm (thаt) I sсtw it twiсе.

l

Too + adjесtivе mеans.morе than is nесеssary or good,. It suggеsts a diffiсulty, and that somеthing сannot bе donе. (so I didn't go) It wаs too fаr,

diffiсuIty

It wсls too diffiсult. r

86

(so I didn,t do it)

lf wе say what thе aсtion is wе usе fo + infinitivе. It ll,сtstoo far to wаlk so lryetook а trlхi. Thе moцпtсtirtwсls too diffiсult (for us) to сlimb.


GRA м м A R

22

RЕA so N

A ND RE sU L т

Nof + adjесtivе + eпoughmеans ,lеssthan is nесеssaryoг good'. Сompaге thе usе of too and not enough. Little Gеrry is too young to tltаlk to sсhool. Little Gerry is not old enough to wаlk to sсhool. With nouns Wе сan usе too mаnу/muсh,too few/Iittle and пot еnotф. Countablе nouns Thereаre too manу PeoPle iп the сlаss. Thereаrе too few books. We hаvеп,t got enough books. Unсountablе nouns Thereаre too mаny things to do. There'stoo little time. We hаven,t got eпough time. Notiсе from thе abovе еxamplеs that eпoughсomеs aftеr adiесtivеs (,old,)but bеforе nouns (,books,/,timе,). It is a сommon mistakе to сonfusе so and too. So is likе verу, arrd is usеd for еmphasis. Тhе spеakеr,sopinion сan bе positivе or nеgativе. Тoo mеans .morе than еnough,. It suggеstsa diffiсulty, that somеthing сannot be donе or will not happеn. (a faсt) It,s very eхpeпsive, (I,m surprisеd,but I still might buy it) It,s so eхpeпsive. (so It,s too ехpeпsive. I won,t buy it)

50 aпd too

r

Look baсk at thе еxamplеs in the prеvious two sесtions to sее thеsе usеs of so arrd too.

Rеsu|tphrasеs:os o rеsult,in thе еnd, *entuoIlу

Wе сan also expressresult with a linking phrasе likе as а result,or a timе еxprеssion likе in thе end or evепtuаllу.Thеsе arе morе сommon in foтmаl spеeсh and wтiting. Two metresof snоw fell duriпg the night' As а result, severаlmаiп roаds were bloсkеd, (in spеесh we would just usе so hеrе) It stаrtedrаiпiпg while we werehаviпg our piсniс| апd eveпtuаIlу we dесided to go homе, Kаte апd Tim wаited for the bus for а loпg time, апd in the eпd theу took а tахi.

Linking words

r

Words |ike becаuseand so arе сallеd ,linking words,.

87


lNт ERlt,| ED l A т Е

L A NGU A GЕ

1

Undеrlinеthe сorreсtword or phrase in eaсh sentenсе. a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i) i)

2

PRA с т I ( E

It was such/soa dеliсious dгink, that I had to havе another glass. Andrеw ate so muсh/somany сakеs that hе сould hardly walk! Katе,soffеr sounded so/toogood to bе truе! Thеrе are so few/solittle good proglammеs on TV that I rarеly watсh it. I fеlt so/tooweakthat I соuldn,t stand up. Wе had so muсh/somаnу fueetimе, that wе got borеd. I waitеd for Еlainе for agеs, arrd аs а result/in the eпd I gavе up. Thеrе Was so muсh/somаrtу rз;inlast night, that thе roads wеre floodеd. David was too tаll/tаll eпough/enoughtаIl/verytаll to rеасh thе shеlf. I had so few/soIiffIeknow|edgеof thе sub|есtthat I got zеro in thе tеSt.

Comp|еtе thе sentenсeswith one of thesе wordsi too, enoagh, so,such,mllch, monу, littlе, fеw. a) It,s...*{g.............. latе and therе arе still lots of pеoplе in thе сlub. b) It,s .. latе to саtсh a bus. I,ll havе to gеt a taxi homе. с) I havе so ..................... work to do! d) I havе so ..................... iobs to do! е) I don,t havе ..........

monеy to go on holiday this yеar. f) I havе too ..................... monеy to go on holiday this yеar. g) I havе too ..................... еuros in my bank aссount to go on holiday this yеaг. h) It was

.. an еxсiting film.

i) Thе film was

.. еxсiting. It,s ..................... hot on the bеaсh.I don,t likе it. I,m going baсk to thе hotеl. i) k) It,s .. hot on thе bеaсh! I lovе it. I,m rеally relaxеd.

3

Put onе suitableword in eaсh spaсe. a) Мy tea iS ...t.о.Q.

hot to drink at thе momеnt.

b) I had to stand at thе baсk, ......... с) Thomas had ............ d) Thеrе Wеrе.......... е) Hеlеn missеd thе bus,

thеrе wеrеn,t anу sеatslеft.

........homework,that hе had to stay up latе. ........pеoplе in front of us that wе сouldn,t sее. .. shе took a taxi.

f) Thеrе Wеrе.......... .. сustomеrsthat thе shop сlosеd down. g) Thе room Wasn,tlargе .. for so many guеsts. h) Hannah Was..................... tirеd that shе fеll aslееpon thе train. i) Wе had i) 88

.....monеy that we сouldn,t еvеn buy a drink. .. it was raining, thе sсhool piсniс was postponеd.


GRA м itA R

4

22

RЕA so N

A ND RЕsUt т

Rewrite eaсh sentenсe so that it has a similar meaning and сontains the word in bold. a) I fеlt rеally tirеd, so I stayеd at homе and had a rеst. bесausе b) I didn,t usе that piесе of string, bесausеit was too short. enough

?e!t.. .гsа'|tу.. t.'.r r,d.,.

с) The quеstion Was so diffiсult that I had to ask for hеlp. suсh d) Thеrе wеrеn,t enough sеatsfor all thе guеSts.

few е) Thеrе wеrеn,t еnough sеatsfor all thе guеsts. many We сan,t put that box in thе сar as thеrе isn,t muсh spaсе. littlе o\ I haven,t got еnough timе to do all my work. ь| too

h) I'vе got suсh a lot of work that I сan,t go out.

so Shе had lots of сhildrеn and didn,t know what to do. many

i) It was suсh a good play that thе audiеnсе сhееred. so

89


lNт ER]t, lED l A т Е

tA NGU A GE

5

P RA C т Iс E

Underline the errors in these sentеnсes.Rewrite eaсh sеntenсe. a) Sorry, but I hаvеn,t got little timе.

Sarrv, bЙr I hаvewt qоt oИ.al

b) Еriсa is not еnough old to drivе a сar. с) Paul has so muсh friеnds that hе,s always busy. d) Wе had too fеw timе to go sight-sеeing. е) It's too hot that I сan,t think! Г) Thеrе Was too muсh snow that wе сouldn,t travеl. g) It was so a long way that wе deсidеd to drivе thеrе' h) So that I had run a long waу, I fеlt еxhaustеd.

6

Completethe sесondsentenсeso that it has a similarmeaningto the first sentenсe. a) I,m afтaid you,rе not fast еnough to be in thе running team. .th*.'r шу'llll.уц..t'ч|ш,...'.. I,m afraid you,rе too ...,t!! N'. t !...b9.'L.Y!, b) It,s not vетy far to thе housе, so we сan walk. Wе сan walk .......... с) Thе film wаs so long that wе missеd our last bus. It was d) Tina fеlt unhappy and shе сriеd. Tina fеlt so .............. е) Tom has lots of monеy, and doеsn.t know what to do with it. Tom has so .............. 0 Jim is too young to gеt marriеd. Jim isn't g) I сan't afford to buy this bikе. I havеn,tgot ............ h) Thеrе arе too fеw platеs I,m afraid. Тhеrе arеn,t

90


ЕxpIanations r

Wе сan usе but aпd аIthoughto makе a сontrast.Аlthough is morе typiсal of сarеful or formal spеесh or writing. Mаriа felt ill, but she weпt to sсhool. Mаriа went to sсhoolаIthough she wаs ill. Тhе сlausе with аlthoughсan сomе at thе bеginning. Although she wаs iII,Маriа went to sсhool.

r

Wе сan еmphasize but arrd аlthough with still aлd апу'nuау. Mаriа felt ill, but shе weпt to sсhoolаnywау. Mаriа fеlt ill, but shе still went to sсhool. Although she wаs iII,Mаriа weпt to sсhoolапуwау.

r

Wе сan usе yet instеad of but in writing. Mаriа felt ill, уet she went to sсhool,

l

Wе сan usе eventhough|ike аIthoughto givе a strongеr сontrast. Evеn though she felt very ill, Маriа weпt to sсhool.

r

Wе сan usе though\ike аlthoughin informal spеесh and writing. Wе often makе two sеparatеsеntеnсеsand put thoughat thе еnd. Маriа weпt to school. She wаs ill, though.

пф.lilеand whеreos

l

While ar,d whereаsсan bе usеd in formal spеесh and writing to сomparе two faсts and еmphasizе thе diffеrеnсе bеtwееn thеm. While/Wherеаs Someeхpertseхpесtthe Govеrпmentto win the eleсtioп,most believethаt the oppositionwill wiп.

fupitе and n spite of

l

Despiteand iп Spiteof arc also usеd to makе a сontrast. But thеy arе followеd by a noun or noun phrasе (not subjесt + vеrb \ike аlthough).Thе -ing forrr,of thе vеrb aсts likе a noun hеrе. Despite her illness, Mаriа weпt to sсhool. (NoТщi*...1 Despite being ill, Mаriа went to sсhool. In spite of her illness, Маriа weпt to sсhool, In spitе of beiпg iII, Mаriа weпt to sсhool'

шшс у,etand Й.lough

ыcn though and tюtlgh

9t


lNт ERгvlED l A т E

tA NGU A GЕ

Howeverintroduсеs or сomplеtеs a сontrasting sеntеnсe.Howеvеralways has punсtuation bеfoте and aftеr. Маriа wаs ill' Howev*, she weпt to school. Маriа weпt to sсhool'She wаs ill, however. Howeveris morе сommon in formal spеесh and writing.

howеver and on the othеr hond

Linkingwords

92

PRA с т ! CЕ

r

Notе that wе сannot say:

l

Оn the otherhаnd introduсеs a сontrasting opinion. It is morе сommon in formal spеесh and writing. Televisionhаs mапу аdvапtаgеs'It keepsus iпformedаbout the lаtest news, аnd аIsoprovideseпtertаinmentin the homе.Оп the other hапd, teleуisioп hаs beеnblаmed for the violent behауiourof some уou|xgpeoplе,апd fоr enсourаgingсhildreп to sit iпdoors,insteаd of tаking eхerсise,

r

Words |ike but, аlthough and howeverarе сalled ,linking words,.


GRA lvtм A R 23 сo NтRA sт

Underlinethe сorreсtword or phrasеin eaсh sentеnсе. a) b) c) d) e)

I rеad thе book you Suggеstеd.I didn,t еnjoy it, аIthough/fupуgу11. In spiteof/Althoughwе warnеd him, Harry still got lost. Although/HoweverI likе it hеrе, I won,t stay hеrе long. Сars arе сonvеniеnt. oп the othеrhаndПVhereсs,thеy сausе pollution. I didn,t havе muсh time, but/however I managеd to visit lots оf plaсеs. 0 Сathеrinе Won thе raсе, аlthough/dеspifefalling оvеr. g) Although/In spite of the dеlay, thе train arгivеd on timе. h) I didn,t managе to jump ovеr thе wa||, аIthough/уefI triеd twiсе.

2

Complete eaсh sentenсеwith onе suitablеword. о ..АLt]:шщh.Tim fеlt tirеd, hе stayеd up to finish his homеwork. b) Sam didn,t likе skating .... hе wеnt with his friеnds all thе samе. с) I found Frеnсh hard at first. .......... , I soon startеdto еnjoy it. d) Janе kеpt running, ..................... though shе knеw she сouldn,t win. е) Мike was lost, but hе .. rеfusеd to look at thе map. f) Carol wеnt to sее thе film, .......... shе had sееn it bеforе. g) ..................... thе rain, thе sсhool sportsWеrеa grеat suссеss. h) Hеlеn won thе swimming сompеtition,iГl ..................... of hеr сold.

3

Rеwriteeaсh sentenсebеginningas shown. Do not сhange thе meaning. a) Although it was snowing, wе wеnt out for a walk. b) Somе еxpеIts think priсes will fall, but othеrs disagrее. Whilе с) Еvеn though thеy wеrе losing at half-timе, Сity won in thе еnd. Dеspitе d) Dеspite thе hеat, Diana worе hеr wintеr сlothеs.

Although е) Whеreas last summеr was good, this summer it,s rainеd all thе timе. Last summеr was good $ Jamеs had a hеadaсhе,but hе still rеad until latе. In spitе of g) Although Jon hadn,t studiеd, hе did wеll in thе tеst. Jon hadn,t studiеd

93


Explanations What is a

r

funсtion?

A funсtion is a vr'avof dеsсribing languagе aссording to its purposе (how it is usеd). Funсtions саn bе shoгt phrasеs as wеll as singlе words. Typiсal funсtions aге:offетing somеthing, asking for pеrmission, making a Suggеstionеtс.

r

Thе samе funсtion сan bе ехprеssеdin diffеrеnt Ways.Our сhoiсе of words dеpеndson: _ Тhе situationrте arе in: is it publiс or privatе?who еlsе is prеsеnt? - Тhе pеrson \Yеaге talking to: somеorrеof our own agе? how wеll do wе knorv thеm? _ \\-hat \\'еarе talking about: is thе topiс sеnsitivе? or is it light and unimportant?

Asking for information

r

Тhе funсtions bеlow arе сlassifiеd as formal (= politе), nеutral or informal, but rеmеmbеr that thе сhoiсе of words dеpеnds on many things. You might bе talking to a friеnd and you Want to borrow a pеn, so you arе informal. But if you arе talkin8 to thе samе friеnd and you Want to borrow a largе amount of monеy you will usе morе formal languagе.

r

To ask for information wе сan usе an indirесt quеstion: (nеutralt Саn уou teII me whаt time the bus from Glаsgow аrrives? Сould уou teII me whаt time the bus from Glаsgow аrrives? (nеutra1r ) Оf сourse.It аrrivesоt 9.З0' аrrivеs? Would уou miпd telliпg me whаt time the bus from Glаsgow (formal) ) Оf сoursenot. It аrrivesаt 9,З0.

r Offers

94

Notе thе indirесt quеstion form (NoT и*а+-+i*еaееs ...).

offеring hеlp: (nеutral) Shаll I cаrry this suitсаsefor уou? (nеutral) Let me саrry your suitсаsе. ) Thапk уou very muсh./ Тhаnks,but I сап mапаge. offеring things: (nеutral) Would уou like а soft driпk? juiсе. ) Yes,plеаse,I,ll hаve аn Оrаngе / No thоnks,it,s oK' (nеutral) Would you like tеа or сoffеe? plеаse. / I don,t miпd. ) I,d rаther hаve сoffее,plеаse./ I,d prefer teа,


GRA}|мAR

krmission

24

ЕU N с тl o N s

Is it аll right if I leаve eаф? tinfоrmal t Саn I leаveеаrly,pleаsе? l nеutгa1t ) Yes,of сourse' ) Sorry,but уou саn,t, You hаve to stаy to thе еnd. (formal r Сould I possiblу leаvе а bit eаф, pleаse? ) Yes,you саn' (formal) Mау I lеаveeаф, pleаse? ) Yеs,you mаy. Whеn wе rеply we oftеn rеpеat thе modal vеrb, but notiсе that lthеn lте rеply to Сould I Wе say саn лot сould.

Promising

I,II be bасkаt 11.З0. I tryon,tdo апуthing siIIу! The word wiII is used in many funсtions.

Пеquests

Cаn уou open the window,pleаse? (nеutral) Саn уou help me? (nеutral) Сould уou open the window pleаsе? (formal) Will/Would уou wаit here, pleаse? (formal) Wе сan rеply to a rеquеstby agrееingor rеfusing: ) Sure./ No problem./ of сourse. ) Aсttlаllу,it,s а bit inсonvenieпt'/ I,m sorrybut thаt,sпot possible.

Пеquеstswith mind

r

Rеquеstswith mind arе сonfusing for lеarnеrs bесausе Would уou miпd ''. mеans ,Is it а problеmfor you?,' So wе Saу ,r1o,if wе want to bе hеlpful. Would уou mind helping me? ) No, of сoursenot. ) АсtuаIly, I,m quite busy аt thе moment.Perhаps lаter.

r

Notе that wе usе an -iпg form aftеt Would you miпd.

Suggеstingand аdvising

(nеutтal) (nеutral)

Lеt,s go to the сinemа. (nеutral) Whу don,t we 80 to thе сiпemа? (nеutral) going How аbout to the сinemа? (nеutral) We сould go to the сinеmа, (nеutral) If wе makе a suggеstionto anothеr person it is adviсе: I think уou should stау аt home' (formal) If I were уou, I,d stаy аt home. (formal)

95


lNт ERrи EDlAт E

tA NGU A GE

1

P RA с т l C E

Мatсh what people say (a_|)with the funсtions(1-10). a) \\Ъuld you likе a сup of tеaz .....t.... b) Ехсusе mе, do you know what timе thе museum opens? с) .\сtцally,I think I,d rathеr havе a Сhinеsе mеal. ........... d) l knoщ wе сould walk along thе rivеr.How about that? ........... е) SoгrY,but I won,t do it. ........... fl Тhat looks diffiсult. Shall I help you? ........... g) Еxсusе mе, but do you think you сould turn your musiс down a hl \\Ъll, to bе honеst, I think you should go to thе poliсе. i) Is it all right if I go out to thе shops for a momеnt? ........... i) I'll dеfinitеlybе thеrе at 6.00.I won,t bе latе! 1 Giving adviсе 2 Asking for information З offеring hеlp .1offеring somеthing 5 Asking pеrmission 6 Rеfusing to do something 7 Еxprеssing a prеfeтеnсе 8 Мaking a promisе 9 Мaking a rеquеst 10 Мaking a suggеstion

2

UnderIinethe сorrесtword or phrase in еaсh sentenсе. a) b) с) d) e) f) 8) h) i) i)

96

I,m vеry busy. Let,sluldJou-miпd giving mе a hand? If I ,,ilereyoщ I,d write/How аbout уou wite thе lеttеr again. Why don,t wе go/goingto thе thеatтеtomorrow? Wouldyou miпd/Сouldyou сlosе thе door plеasе? Do you likeПVouldуou /ike somе morе watеr? [ promisе I woп,t do it/I doп,t do it again. I,ц quitе good at сooking too. Shаll I help/\VouldI hеIpуou? I,vе a suggеstion' Whу doп,tуou go/Сouldyou 8o to thе bеaсh? Would I borrow/СouldI borrowyour rulеr? Аrе you tirеd? I think you сап go/should80 to bеd еarly.


GRA м м A R

3

24

FUNстlo Ns

RepIaсethе parts in itolicswith a more appropriate or aссuratе еxpression. a) Look, don,t worry about mе, therе,sa bus at 12.3О.So I,m bасkbу 2'oo, I promisе!

qрk ........|.LL-bp.h

b) A: Would you likе an iсе-сrеam?Or somе сakе pеrhaps? B: I chooseice-сreаm,plеasе. с) A: I,m having problеms at sсhool. What do you think I should dо? B: I tаlk it ovеr with уour pаreпts. d) A: This suitсase is leally hеavy, and my baсk is killing mе! B: Do I саrту it? е) A: I,m not surе what to do this еvеning. Any idеas? B: You will go to the сiпеmа,perhаps? f) A: I,vе got an appointmеnt at thе dеntist,s.ShаlII leаvesсhooleаф? B: Havе you brought a note from your parеnts? g) Еxсuse me, I want to сatсh a bus from here to London. Tell me how muсh does it сost. h) A: I fееl really hungry. Havе you got anything to еat? B: Do уou like somelemonаde? i) A: It,s vеry hot in hеre, Аre уou openingthe wiпdow? B: Of сoursе. j) д: Come on, hurry up! Tidy your room and make your bеd! B: No, I doп,t!It,s not fair!

97


lNт ERlY lED!Aт E

L A NGU A GE

4

P RA с т l с Е

For eaсh question, сomplete the seсond sеntenсе so that it mеans '\"* the first, using no more than three words. a) Plеasеtakе a sеat.

.. a sеat?

Would...Y!!4..Ш.t!Ld..taki.ng.. .. b) Fruit juiсе wоuld bе bеttеr for mе.

I ................ с) I,d likе you to ъ'ait for mе.

fruit ......... for mе, plеasе?

d) Will you alloч'mе to lеavе thе room?

......thе room? е) I,d likе You to tuгn off thе tеlеvision. Cоuld .

......thе tеlеvision?

..........

Lеt,s go foг a walk. for a walk? o) 6/

I promisе not to talk to Riсhard again. .........to Riсhar d

I ................ h) Would you likе mе to hеlp you?

vou? ,) ;;;;;;;;;;;;";";.;;;;; Would you ...........

whеn thе planе arrives?

i) Мy adviсe is to sее а doсtor. If I ............. 5

I,d seеa doсtor.

Complete eaсh sеntenсеwith one suitablеword. More than one answer may be possiblе. a) I think уou .,.{'fuшl.d.....spе.,с morе timе on your homеwork. you hеlp mе сarrythеsеbags? b) ..................... you tеll mе what strееtthis is? с) Ехсusеmе. ..................... d) What a tеrriblе noisеI

.. you plеasе bе quiеt!

е) ..................... go skatingtomorrow. f) Would you ...........

tеlling mе what timе it is?

g) Thanksfoт thе offецbut I,d ..................... stаy at homе. h) .....................you sign your namе hеrе,plеasе,sir? D i) Plеasе

98

.. you likе anothеr sliсе of pizza? .. I lеavе the tаblе?


Explanations RеIativeсlauses

Rеlativе pronouns

Rеlativе сlausеs arе short phrasesbеginning with words likе rl'llo,tlшt and tуhiсh (сallеd ,rеlativе pronouns,,)that dеfinе or dеsсribе pеoplе and things. Тhеге aте two typеs: r

Defining rеlativе сlausеs:Wе usе thеsе to idеntify еxaсtly whiсh pегson oг thing wе mеan. Thе information is nесеssaryfor thе sеntеnсеto makе sеnsе. The doсtorwho treаted me told me not to worry. In this еxamplе thеrе is morе than onе doсtor аnd wе only know whiсh onе by thе rеlativе сlausе.

r

Non-dеfining rеlativе сlausеs:Wе usе thеsе to givе еxtra information. Тhе information is not nесеssaryfor thе sеntеnсе to makе sеnsе.Tо show this in writing Wе usе сommas. Pаblo Piсаsso,who died iп 1973, wаs а pаiпter апd sculptor,

l

whiсh, thаt Whiсh rеfersto things and thаt rеfеrsto pеoplе and things. Thаt is morc сommon, еspесially in spеесh. The bus whiсh goes to Саiro lеаvesfrom hеre. The womаn thаt we spoketo 8аvе uS directioпs. The roаd thаt ule took led to ап апcient temple.

l

who and уvhom Who and whom rеfеr to pеoplе. In formal spеесh and writing Wе сan :шsewhom instеad of lцhowhеrе who is thе objесt of thе sеntеnсе (sееbеlow). Wе сan also usе tцlhomafter a prеposition. Howеvеr, this is bесoming lеss сommon and in modеrn Еnglish spеakеrsrarеly :usewhom _ instеad thеy usе who or thаt. The peoplеwho live neхt doormаke а lot of noisе' The peoplethаt live neхt doormаke а lot of пoisе. It wаs the sаme boy whom I met уesterdау' (,I,is thе subjесt,,Whom, is thе objесt) No one kпowsbу whom the viсtim wаs shot. (aftеrthе prеposition ,bу', bllt YеIy ralе in modеrn Еnglish.) No one kпows ulho the viсtim wаs shot by. (normal usagе in spеесh and writing)

l

whosе Whose shows that somеthing bеlongs to somеonе. The girl whose саsеhаd beепstolenwепt to thepоliсе stсltiott.

99


lNт ЕRlvlEDl A т E

Leaving out the relativepronoun

tA NGU A GЕ

P RA с т I (E

Tо undеrstand whethеr you сan lеavе out the rеlativе pronoun yoщгiтst-iееa to look at whеthеr thе relativе сlausе refersto the subieсt ot 9fuу{ctof thе sеntеnсе. A rеlativе сlausе that теfегsto thе subjесt of thе sеntеnсe: The doctor who trеаted me told mе not to,worry. The doсtor (subjесt) treаtedme (obiect). A rеlativе сlausе that refеrsto thе obiесt of thе sеntеnсе: The doctor that/whofuhom I spoke to told me not to worry. l (subiесt)spoketo the doсtor(objесt). Wе сan lеavе оut the rеlativе pronoun in a dеfining rеlativе сlausе that rеfеrs to thе objесt. The doсtor I spoke to told me not to worry. Wе саnnot lеavе out the rеlativе pronoun in a dеfining relativе сlausе that rеfеrsto thе subjeсt. The doctor-who treаted me told me not to worry. In a non.dеfining rеlativе сlausе wе must keеp thе rеlativе plonoun. Pаblo Piсаsso, who died in 1973, wаs а pаinter аnd sсulptor. Wе сan also lеavе out thе rеlative pronoun aftеr a superlativе. Thаt wаs the best meаI (thаt)I,ve evereаtеп!

.Ц ,l

100


GRA м м A R

1

REtA тlvЕ

сtA UsЕs

1

Underlinethе сorreсtword in eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g)

2

25

An old man, who/whiсhwas сarrying a suitсаse,knoсkеd at thе door. Тhe winnеr, whiсh/whosebikе was an unusual dеsign, Won a mеdal. Thе g1r|who/whiсh spokе to mе turnеd out to bе in my сlass. Тhе musеum, which/whosewas in a bеautiful building, was сlosеd. A poliсеwoman thаt/whiсhwе askеd told us how to gеt thеrе. Thе boу whose/whomhollsе I was staying at Was an old friеnd. Thе last pеrson whiсh/whosepеn I borrowеd didn,t gеt it baсk.

Completе еaсh sentenсewith who, whoseor thаt. a) Thе friеnd ..'N.!зоsr.......housе I stayеd in is сoming to stay with us. b) Thе guidеbook с) Thе сouplе

.. wе bought еxplainеd еvеrything. .. housе I bought both workеd in my offiсе.

you wеrе talking to. d) I,d likе you to tеll mе ..................... rulеr I had borrowеdwantеdit baсk. e) Тhе girl ..................... f) I сan,t rеmеmbеr 8) Do you know 3

.. I lеnt my bikе to. .. Сathеrinе works for?

Deсidewhether thе сlausеin itolicsis Defining or Non-dеfining.Writе D or N nеxt to еaсh sentenсe. a) Thе git| who wаs wаiting was bесoming impatient. b) Thе room' whiсhwаs епormous,was fillеd with linеs of сhairs. с) Thе studеnts, who werе lаte, waited in thе playground. d) Thе food which wаs lefr Was еatеn thе following day. е) A tall gir|, who wаs weаring а hаt, сame into thе room. f) Thе dog, which wаs lуing on the sofа, had long pointеd еaгs. g) Thе train-whiсh leаvesаt 8.00 doesn,t stop at Bath.

4

Underlinerelativepronounswhiсh сan bе left out in thеsе sеntenGеs. a) b) с) d) е) f) g)

Thе book that John was rеading was a bit frightеning. Thе tтavel agеnсy whiсh sold mе thе tiсkеt Was nеar my offiсе. In thе еnd, our holiday was thе bеst that wе had еver had. Thе dеntist who I go to isn,t vеry еxpеnsivе. Thе film whiсh Wе sаWlast wееk was muсh bеttеr than this onе. Thе pеoplе who werе lеaving сouldn,t find thеir сoats. Thе gardеn, whiсh wasn,t vеry largе, was full of flowеrs.

101


lNт ER]vlЕDlAт E

tA NGU A GЕ

5

PRA с т l C Е

Rеwritе еaсh formal sentenсe as an informal one, ending with thе *o.с ф"n. \ a) Thеsе arе thе boys with whom I wеnt on holiday. \

with. ............... t.hp...hp.у.l...I..у'lplэl-'.q'у!.!ll!.idg.y..... .,'Тhнp,.g'r'e

b) This is thе lеttеr foт whiсh I,vе bееn waiting. for.

с) Тhat is thе shop fгom ъ'hiсh Suе bought hет bikе. from. d) That is thе hotеl at $'hiсh I stayed. at.

е) Tim is somеonе to whom I haгdly еvеr writе. to. fl

Do you know by whom this book was writtеn? ....by?

o\ o)

Ravеnna was thе most intеrеsting town in whiсh wе stayеd. in

h)

;;,,;;;";;;;;

;;,;;";;;;;;;;;;;:;;"

,;;;; ......... against.

6

Add a relative pronoun to eaсh sentenсе. a) Friday was thе last timе I saw Jim.

...Г.ridgу''.w.q,r...t.hе..Lq{.t...&у!1&..thnt..I..,r'awJiш

b) Thе island wе visitеd Was еxtrеmеly bеautiful. с) Thе girl I mеt was a friend of Philip,s. d) Thе mеal wе atе wasn,t vеIy tasty. е) Gina was thе first pеrson I askеd. f) Thе book I rеad didn,t еxplain thе problеm. g) Тhе tеaсhег rvе usually har.е was away ill. h) Thе friеnds I mеt last night sеnd you thеiт lovе.

ro2


Explanations (o mbi ni ng

r

Look at thеsе short sеntеnсеs. А bus goes to Саiro. It leаvesfrom herе. A womаn teасhesus musiс. She аlso plауs iп ап orсhеstrсl' We took а roаd. It led to ап апcient temple. We spoketo а womап. Shegаvе us dirесtions. Wе сan сombine thе sеntеnсеsusing rеlativе сlausеs. The bus thаt goеs to Саiro leаvesfrom here. The womаn who teасhеsus musiс аlso plауs iп ап orсhestrа. The roаd (thаt) we took led to аn аnсieпt temple. The womаn (thаt) we spokеto gаve us directioпs.

r

Notе that artiсlеs oftеn сhangе (е.8. from а/аn to thе)whеn sеntеnсеsarе сombinеd. A girl,s ссlsе-wсts stolen'Shе went to thepoliсe stсltioп. girl The whoseсаSewаS stoleпwent to thеpoliсе stаtioп.

5€ n tenсes

A doсtor treаtedme. She told me пot to worrу. The doсtorwho treаtedme told me пot to worrу. I spoketo а doсtor.Shе told me пot to worry. The doсtorI spokеto told me not to worry. r

Notе this сommon еIrOr: . Whеn wе сombinе sеntеnсеswе do not lеpеat thе subjесt by adding anothеr pronoun (The bus ... it).

Rе|ativeсlauses with an -ing form

Thе rеlativе сlausе oftеn has a сontinuous vеrb form: Сап аlI the studeпtswho аre leаving tomorrowgive bасk their books? I sent а саrd to thеgirl who-wаs living асrossthe street. In this сasе Wе сan lеavе out both thе rеlativе plonoun and thе уe'Jrlbе. Саn аIl the studeпtsleаving tomorrowgivе bасk thеir books? I seпt а саrd to the girl living асrossthe street.

Whаt as a reIative pro nou n

We сan usе the rеlativе pronoun whаt to rnеaл the thiпg(s)thсlt. We didп,t uпdеrstапdwhаt she sаid. (= thе things that shе said) Whаt I wсlпtnow is а сup of tеа. (= thе thing that I \^-ant)

103


lNт ERп nЕDlA т Е

L A NGU A GE

P RA C т Iс E

Undеrline thе сorreсt word in eaсh sentenсe.

\

Thе ttain whiсhhуho goesto Bfghton lеaves from hеrе. Thаt/Whaf I like bеst is an aftеrnoon at thе beaсh. I didn,t know who/ъ,hiсhto ask about my timеtablе. Thе pеоplе whiсh7\vhose luggagеwas lost had to wait a long timе. Whеrе,s thе rulег vуhose/thаtI left on this desk? Thе shop whаt/thсt I wеnt to didn,t havе any milk. B) Oo you know whom/whosebag this is? h) Еvеryone ц,ho/.whichwas thеrе will геmеmbеr thе day forеvеr. i) Thе sесond bls, ulhiсh/ъ,hosеwas full, didn,t stop eithеr. told him thе answеr. i) Jim was hеlpеd by someonе who/-whom

a) b) с) d) е) f)

2

Some sentenсeshave a word whiсh should not be thеre. Write thе word in the spaсe. lf the sentenсе is сorreсt put a tiсk (/). a) Thе man whose his сar had bееn damaged was vеry angry.

ti

.'.r.L.w.

b) That was thе longеst film I,vе еvеr seеn. с) Thе train whiсh it goеs to London lеavеs from here. d) Thе poliсеwoman who shе stoppеd me askеd mе my namе. е) Тhе Еiffеl Towеr,whiсh it Was finishеd in 1889, is madе of iron.

0

Еvеryonе that Еlеna spokе to advisеd her to try again. s) Thе сhildтеn that they livе nеxt door aIе my friеnds. 3

Rewrite eaсh pair of sentenсesas one sentеnсе,and inсlude the word in bold. Begin as shown, and make any neсessaryсhanges. a) We want to visit a musеum. It opеns at 1.2'oo. that

Tt,е ..'!!0!|{.%lk..th+.t..уJ.9.'уу.g.цt...tp'..Yн'it..!P9у'у..'4

b) A boy,s bikе was takеn. Hе visitеd thе poliсе station. whosе Thе ........... с) A friеnd mеt ше at thе airport. Hе сaтriеdmy suitсasе. whо Тhе ............ d) Тom сookеd a mеal. It was dеliсious. that Thе........... е) A friеnd is staying with me. Shе сomes from Paris. who Thе............ 104


GRA t|i|A R

26

REtA тlvЕ

сtA UsЕ s

2

0 I found a man,s wallеt. Hе gave mе a rеwaтd. whose The g) I go to a shop in thе сеntrе. It is сhеapет. that Thе h) I wеnt to a girl,s party. Shе phonеd mе. whosе Thе i) I know somеonе. This pеrson likеs you. who I

4

Put one word in еaсh spaсе, or tiсk (/) the spaсе if the sеntenсe is сorrесt. a) Wе sеnt a prеsеntto thе сhildrеn .........{.'........ living nеxt door. b) Мikе doеsn,t rеally know

.. hе wants.

с) I startеdtalking to somе boys .......... d) I askеdМary .........

sitting by thе sidе of thе road.

shе was thinking, but shе wouldn,t tеll mе.

е) Thеrе werе lots of pеoplе at thе palty ......... f) I don,t rеally know

wе wеnt to.

.. you,rе talking about.

g) ..................... Wе nееd now is a map and a сompass. h) Wе saw two rabbits

.. playing in thе gardеn.

105


Explanations Yеs/No questions

Quеstions with thе ans\\-ег|'еSot |1oarе formеd with an auxiliary vеrb + subjесt + rnain r'еrb. Тhе auхiliarу сan bе do, be, hауe ot a modal ver|э |ikе сап, will еtc. Prеsеnt simplе Pтеsеnt сontinuous Prеsеnt pеrfесt Past simplе Past сontinuous Past pеrfесt ссtlt/сottld to ttlttst,Цlсtltе

Wh-quеstions

Dо уotl live ilt Prаgttе? Аrе уott sittiпg сotпfortаblу? Hоve уou evеr еаten oсtoptts?

| l

Did уou phonе Sttе? Were уou hаving а bаth? Hаd уou аlreаdу left? Саn уou swim? Сould уou seе? ЬIust уou go? Do уou hоve to go?

Wе сan also makе a quеstion with a quеstion wotd: whаt, why, wheп, who, whosе, whiсh and holry. Аftеr thе quеstion word wе usе thе samе stluсturе as a Yes/No quеstion: auxiliary vеrb + subjесt + main vеrb. Prеsеnt simplе

When do you usuаIly leсше?

Prеsеnt сontinuous

Whаt аrе уou doiпg?

Prеsеnt pеrfесt

|Лrhу hаvе уou stopped?

Past simplе

How did уou feel? Where were you living? Who hаd уou told?

Past сontinuous Past pеrfесt саn/сould must/hаve to Question words as thе subjeсt

Whаt ссtпI do? Where сould hе go? Whаt must I do? Whаt do I hауе to do?

Somеtimеs thе quеstion word is thе subjесt of thе sеntеnсе. In this сasе wе do not usе do/does/did' Who did уou meеt iп Епglоtld? Who met уoLl аt thе аirport?

(,vou, is thе subjесt) (,rvho, is thе subiесt, .r,ou, is thе obiесt)

|\.ltсlt do саts есlt?

(,сats,is thе subjесt) (,who,is thе subjесt, ,sеafood,is thе objесt)

|\-llo еаts sеt.tfood?

106

*

L


GRA м i|A R

Hе9ative qшestions

Shoгtаnswеrs

27

QUЕsтI oNs

1

A positivе quеstion сould havе a уeSot иo answеr. Do you like dogs? ) Yеs,I do' / No, I don,t' We usе nеgativе quеstions whеn wе еxpесt thе answеr lt'ill bе llо. In soсial situations this makеs it easiеrfor the othеr pеrson tо rеplv politеlv. Сomparе: Do уou like Mехiсап food? (thе answеr sееmsvеry strong) ) No, пot reаllу Don't vou like Meхiсаn food? (thе samе answеr Sееms morе politе) ) No, not reаIIу' To makе a short answеr Wе lеpеat thе auxiliary vеrb. Do you speаkFrenсh? Hаve you seenthis ftIm? Did you stау loпg? Will уou be lаte? Hаvе you got а peп? Cаn уou drive?

Yes,I do. No, I hаveп,t. No, I didn,t. No, I woп,t. Yes,I hаve. No, I саn,t.

IО7


!Nт ERмЕDlAтЕ

L A NGU A GE

P RA с т ! с E

Writе a question for еaсh answer. a)

Gеt up? At about 7.З0 usually. |{hд.t...t.iуlш..dp..Ypц...w.цл.L!у.g.e..t..*p'?.

b)

I was rеading Wаr апd Peасe.

с)

I wеnt thеrе to buy somе food.

d)

So far I,vе only еatеn brеakfEst. Now you havе to put it in tfiе

е)

ovеnl

l Yеstеrday?I fеlt absolutеly {wful. I,m washing my hair. I сan,t talk, sorry. BесausеI havеn,t paid thе еlесtriсity bil1! My bikе? I lеft it at sсhool. Мy party? All my friеnds arе сoming.

2 A family of thrее livеs nеxt door. I play with my littlе brothеr. Мrs Dawson tеaсhеs mе maths. I usually еat a sandwiсh for lunсh. Horror films frighten mе. I talk most to my friеnd Dina. I sit nеxt to Maria in Еnglish. Мusiс hеlps mе study. Writе a short answеrfor eaсh quеstion,beginning as shown.

108

a) Havе vou bееn ill long?

No,

b) Arе vou rтaiting for rnе?

Yеs,

с) Did \,ou go to thе сinеma?

Yеs,

d) \Vill r.ou bе hеrе tomorгoи'?

Yеs,

е) Did r'ou har.е to pav a lot?

No,

fl Сan уou hеlp mе with this problеm? po yоu know lr'hеrе thе thеatrе is? 8) h) Is Gеorgе going to bе thеrе?

No, Yеs, No,

I hаvevъt


D-. )d.

Explanations Тag questions: form

r

A tag quеstion is a short phrasе at thе € П C rrj ] stаtепlеnt that turns it into a quеstion. Tag quеstions arе formеd usiпg зuх1.iз11еs,.iо.l'е' llаt,еor a modal). A positive statеmеnt has a nеgati\-е ta.q.аrс r.:се-r.еise'

rst.

Youspeаk Frenсh,doп,t уou? You doп,t speоk Frenсh, do уotl?

r

rfц].

Тag quеstions:use

r

!цi

Hеrе aIе somе еxamplеs of tag quеstiоrrs s1 :,l".-.:{d:ffеrеnt r.етb fотms and a mixturе of positivе and nеgativе ta.чs.

Prеsеnt simplе Prеsеnt сontinuous Prеsеnt pеrfесt Past simplе Past сontinuous Past pеrfесt саn сould should lrcог.

].liqLLlL

You dotl,t kllоrr гl;; .il:i..1.r dо tоц? Wе,re аjol'i,i{

.lrir-iji..|'

.7rеп,t $e?

Hе,s moуеd llоttst- ltаstt.t ltе? You didп,t tеIl ltir' сliсl lou? I wаsп,t drit'itt"1 {z.;: rl rrs 1.' Shе hаdll,t ttlеt iilll: [i-":,..hаd shе? Thеу ссttl,tL,е ltсr. .':: саtt tltrl ? You сottldll,Г'-gll. l,:. 'i i:.;,:'i ссшld t otl? You shouldtt,Г ./г rl;'li sltoulсI lou?

Nеgativе tags: if Wе usе a nеgati\tе tag'.\е .\:-.:

.i.е з:l:.'l.tl lтili bе r'cs.

А:You speаk Freпсh, don,t уou? B:Yes, thаt,S right, I do'

hs. unсh.

Thе intonation on thе tag сan еithеr risе -: :;.-: _ if it risеs thеn it is a rеal quеstiоn _ thе s:'еlsе: tS :.l,эtsurе and nееds information. Тhе othеr pеIson rтil] с..l:.:...с s:еакing аttеrrтards.

l-

А:You speаk Freпсh, don,t уott? B : Y е s ,t h а t,sr фt, I do . I leап r c,,llt/lii';'I..j .,:.ill;Fr 'lttсеt+,ltеltI w аs аstud ent. _ if it falls thеn it is iust a quеstion ft.: С.];]]::::3tion_ thе first spеakеr Wants to сhесk information and lгill с,:,:t:nuе spеaking aftеrwards. А:You speаk Freпсh, doп't уott B:Yes, thаt,s right, I do. А:Good, beсаusе wе need Soltlеotlеr'.lгr.;l;s/.lt.this emаil whiсh we,ve iust rесeived. r

Positivе tags: if Wе uSе a pоsitir-е ta.q\tе е\pесt thе answеr wi||beno. А:You doп,t speаk FrепсLt,do l,ott? B: No, sorry, I doп,t' Thе intonation сan risе or fall just likе rтith a nеgativе tag.

109


lNт ERмЕDIA т Е

L A NGU A GE

Problems with

PRA с т l с E

r

Thе tag for I оm is аrеп,t.Тhе tag for let,sis shаll. I,m а fool, аren,t I? Lеt,sgo to the сinemсl,shаll we?

l

Aftеr an impеrativе wе usе wil/ уou? or won,tуou? Sit dowп,won,t уou? Sit down,will уou?

tags

Thе imoerativе with bе a|so usеs wil/ ot won,t.

Be quiеt,will уou?

Bе quiet,-won,tуou? This is ап ordеr!

Thе impеratir.е rvith ltсп,еa|so usеs tvill or woп,t' Hаvе сl sевt' v,on,t уou?

Reply questions

Wе сan usе a shoгt quеstion to rеplу to what somеonе says. Wе do this to shoиintеrеst, surprisе or unсеrtainty. The mеaning is likе ReаlIу? or Is thаt true? I'l,е ttеуеr еаtеп spаghetti. ) Hаveп,t уou? 1surprisе) Wе,re lеаviпg аt 6'00.

(not surе) ) Are we? Thе rеply quеstion usеs an auхiliary vеrb likе a tag quеstion, but thеrе is no сhangе of positivе to nеgativе. l ndi r e сt qu e s t i o n s

r Wе сan bе morе politе by bеginning a quеstion with a short phrasе likе: Do you know ... ? Сould уou tell me '.. ? r Thе word ordеr of an indirесt quеstion is likе a statеmеnt,not likе a dirесt quеstion. Whеreis the post office? dirесt: indirесt: Сould you tеll me wherethe post offiсe is? (NoT $fu+ibt]*pe'+ dirесt: indirесt l

110

ф) Wheп does the ftlm stаrt? Do you kпow wheп the film stаrts? (NoТ фl

Yes/|'{oquеstiоns usе if Is this the right street? dirесt: indirесt: Do уou kпow if this is thе right strееt?


GRA п nп nA R 28

QUEsтI o Ns

2

This unit also inсludеs furthеr praсtiсе for Gтammar 27 ' Add a short answer to eaсh sеntenсе. a) Havе you еvеr bееn to Brazi|?

No,

...I,.hду'eit

b) Do you likе sausagеs? с) Arе you сoming to thе matсh tomorrow? d) Did Hеlеn phonе you today? е) Has Jaсk donе his homеwork? 0 Сan Robеrt and Suе skatе? g) Will you bе latе? h) Has Juliе got a brothеr? i) Is that your housе? i) Did Janе givе you that book? Add a reply quеstionto еaсh sentenсе. a) Wе,vе got a tеSt tomorrow.

....Н.qу.e.'w.p.......... ?

b) I don,t undеrstandthis sеntеnсе.

?

с) Fiona phonеd me last night.

?

d) I don,t likе iсе-сrеam.

7

е) Tom is lеaving tomorrow. f) Thеrе,sa poliсeman аt thе door.

?

g) Lisa has iust had a baby.

?

h) I havеn,t еatеn Сhinеsе food. i) Тhеrе isn,t any milk in thе fridgе.

?

i) I mеt David in Franсе.

?

Add a tag question to eaсh sentenсе. a)

,. Wе'rеnеarlythere,...I.Г9.!!.|..W 9....l

b) You havеn,tgot a SpaIеP€ П , ........... с) Yоu,tесoming to my party,......................... ? d) You won,t bе latе,........................' ? е) Harry,sfiftееn,......................... ?

0

s)

Katе and Pat live in Lееds,......................... ?

h) i) l) 111


INт ERмEDlAт E

tA NGU A GЕ

4

{|Ж

I

P RA с т l с Е

Make a new sentenсеwith a tag question whiсh has the samе meaning as the first sеntenсe,beginning аs shown. Make any neсessaryсhanges. a) I,m surе that Paul doеsn,t like football. b) I,m сhесking that you,vе got a sistеr. You с) I don,t think thаt you,vе donе yоur homework! You d) l,m angry thаt you sаt nеxt to Еllеn! You е) I,m surpгisеd that thе guеsts havе aтrivеd.

Тhе guеsts 0 I,m сhесking that yоur namе is John. Your namе 8) I'm surprisеdto mееt you and think that your namе might bе John. Your namе h) You,rе сеrtain that you didn,t lеavе your wallеt on thе dеsk. I

i) You,rе surprisеd that William has got marriеd. William

j) You,rе сhесking that this book is by Мaтtin Aimlеss. This book

5

Underline the best sеntеnсe in eaсh сontеxt. a) Why did you forgеt your kеys! You arе silly! 1 I didn,t tеll you to forgеt thеm, did I? 2 I told you not to forgеt thеm. didn,t I? b) Ugh! I сan,t bеliеvе it! I,m surе thеy must tastе horriblе! 1 You likе еating snails, don,t you? 2 You don,t likе еating snails, do you? с) If wе go to Brazil, wе might havе pтoblems with thе languagе. 1 You spеak Portuguese' don,t you? 2 You don,t spеak Pоrtuguеsе,dо you? d) I told you to kееp thе paтtУ a sесrеt.It,s supposеd to bе a surprisе for Stеlla. So, I just want to mаkе surе. 1 You didn,t tеll hеr, did you? 2 You told hег, didn,t you?

I Т12


GRA tliiA R

28

QUEsтloNs

е) Well, Mr Robinson, I think it,s timе you tоld thе poliсе thе trrrth. You sее, wе,vе found your fingеrprints on thе murdеr wеapon. 1 You didn,t murdеr Lord Chumlеy, did you? 2 Yott murdеrеd Lord Chumlеy, didn,t you? 0 only two minutеs to the еnd of thе matсh and Unitеd aге still 5_1 in thе lеad. lt looks сеrtain now. 1 Unitеd arеn,t going to win, aге thеy? 2 Unitеd arе going to win, arеn,t thеy? g) I havеn,t sее Ann for agеs.Shе,sworking abroad I think. 1 Shе,sgot a job in Franсе, hasn,t shе? 2 Shе hasn,t got a job in Franсе, has shе? h) I just сan,t answer this quеstion. It would bе niсе to havе somе hеlp. 1 You сould hеlp mе, сouldn,t you? 2 Yol; сouldn,t hеlp me, сould you?

6

Rewriteeaсh question,beginning as shown. Do not сhange the meaning. a) What,s thе timе?

lvlt..th..,t.уue-.H.?..'....'....' Сouldyoutеll ...W ^"

b) What dоеs this mеan? Do you know .........

с) How muсh does this сost? Сould you tell mе '........... d) What timе doеs thе musеum opеn? Do you know ......... е) Am I in thе right sеat? Сould you tеll mе ............ f) Whеrе,s Ashаm Strееt? Do you know ......... g) Is this ТrafalgarSquarе? Could you tell mе ............ h) Whеn doеs this bus lеavе? Do you know .........

113


I

Explanations Introduсing nеw

r

Wе oftеn usе thеreto introduсе nеw information. Typiсal struсturеsarе: Thеre аre mаnу possibilitiеs. somеthing еХists: There,sа footbаll mаtсh everуSаturdау. somеthing happеns: There аre twelvestudentsiп this сlаss. numbег or amount: modals: Thеre сould/mау/shouldn,t bе а problеm. There seems/аppeаrs to be а mistаke. Tlrcrеsееttts/сlРРеаrs to be:

r

Wе сan also usе ir to introduсе nеw information. Typiсal stluсturеs arе: т I m е 5 'o a \-s'o atеS: It,s onе o,сloсk'It,s Tuesdаy. It,s rаiniпg.It rаiпеdаll пight. thе rr'еathеr: opinions: It wаs а diffiсult сhoiсe. adjесtivеs: It,s strаnge thаt we,vепеvеrspokeпbеforе, It looks likе: It looks like the suп is goiпg to сomeout this аftеrпooп. It seеms/аppeаrs: It seеms/аppeаrs (thаt) our nеw teасheris |аne.

information

a :-^ -

l

l ^ -, -

l^ r

Notе thеsе struсturеswith look, seem and аppeаr.Look is usually followеd by аs if + subjесt + vеrb, ot bу likе + noun phrasе. It looks аs if Саrol hаs woп. She looks like а rеаIсhаmpioп. Seemand аppеаrarе followеd bу (thаt)+ subjесt + vеrb. It seems (thаt) the Brсlziliаnsаregoing to wiп. It аppeаrs (thоt) one of thе сustomеrsсаllеd thеpoliсe.

Referringbaсk

If rеfеrsbaсk tо somеthing alrеady mеntionеd. Thereis а shop аt the eпd of thе street.It is open еverydау. Notiсе in this еxamplе how thе nеw information is introduсеd with thеrе.

Rеferring to a

Thеreсaл rеfеr to a plaсе. А fаmous writеr used to liуе therc' Who is thсlt ovеr therе?

pl aсe

it's and ifs

If,s is a сontraсtion of it is or it hаs' 1rsis thе possеssivеform of if. I Iikе tllis llotеI.It,s (=it is) сotnfortаblеапd its restаurаntis good. It,s \= it has) lot a lo\,el!,slt'imпiпg-pool,too'

thеу,rе and thеir

Thа''rе is a сontгaсtion of tllq, аrе. Тhеir is thе possеssivеform of theу. .\сllо' сltldDolttiliquе llаt,eаrтived.Theу,re both weоriпgthe sаme dress! Аsk tllеlttto lеаl,etheir сoаtsiп the hаll.

174


G R A l uп nA R

1

,Т AND

т, |E RE

Undеrlinethе сorreсtword in eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

2

29

Arе thеir/thеtrany еggs in thе fridgе? It,s/Itsrеally сold this morning. Petеr saуs they,re/therearriviлg at about 5.00. I likе this bikе btlt its/it,swhееls arе too small. |s there/theу,reanуbodу their/therе? It,s/Itsa pity wе missed thе opеning of thе film. housе. Patriсk and Bridgеt havе sold thеir/theу,re What a lovеly dog. What,s it,s/its name?

Put it or thеrеin eaсh spaсe. т-L

iS a trееin thе gardеn.,,.!:...''....is an applе trее. a) ...!.I(у.o:?.... is going to rain. looks as if ................ b) ................ in this town. arе no Iеstaurants is strangеthat ................ с) ................ ,................ .Who,s is only mel, that at thе door?, d)

,..'............. is thе onе at thе еnd of thе strееt., е) ,Whiсh housе is yours?, sееmsto bе somеthing undеr thе сupboard,but what is 0 Wasnobody g) ................ appеarsthat ................

3

whеn I phonеd.

Rewriteeaсh sentenсе,ending as shown, so that it has a similarmeaning to the first sentenсe,and so that it сontains it or therе. a) Nеаr thе hotеl is a small rеstaurant.

.|here

ts а sуиаLlraЁацrаnt

nеar thе hotеl.

b) You Wеnt to Thailand for your holiday too, whiсh is strangе. to Thailand

for your holiday too. с) Мy road has a big trее at thе еnd of it. road. d) Brian sееms to havе lеft. has lеft.

е) Today is rеally сold! todar-. f) Budapеst is a long way from hеrе. tо Budapеst'

g) Your torсh hasn,t got any battеriеsin it. toгсh.

h) Wе appеar to bе lost again! lost againl 115


Еxplanations in, inside, out,

r

outside

1n dеsсribеs somеthing сontainеd by somеthing еlsе. Therе аrе sottlе сllps iп tltсlt сцpboаrd. Insidе has thе samе mеaning but is usеd foг еmphasis. Lttсkill, tltеrе у,t.tsttobod1'itlside the burпiпg housе.

l

О ц t m е a n s ,a r r .ar -fr o m thе insidе'and also .no t in thе plaсе w hеr e yo u u s u a l l v а rе ,. Сlosе tltе dоor ott t,our w,сtуout' (= shе,s not at homе) I,ttt sorтl',Kаtе,s ttot hеrе right пow. Shе,s out. ,out ОtLtsidеmеans of a partiсulaг room or building' but still nеar it,. Kаtе,s outside iп the gаrdeп' I,Il just саlI hеr.

E xpr e ssi on swi t h

Тhеrе arе Inany еХprеssions wtth iп. This is a sеlесtion. Notе that somеtimеs thе

in

dеfinitе artiсlе fЙe is not usеd.

сountriеs сitiеs strееts roads

(no artiсlе) Mу pаreпtsаrе iп Саnаdа аt the momeпt. (no artiсIе) Mу sisterliуes in Mаdrid. (no artiсlе) [асk livеs in Gаrden Aveпuе. She wаs wаlkiпg in the roаd, not oп thepаvement.

hospital

Sаllу is iII апd is iп hospitаI.

prison

Keith stole Some monеу апd eпded up iп prisoп.

.thе mirror, Тony сould seе his fасе iп the mirror, .holе/сraсk in, There wаs а hole in mу shoe. .hand, Еllеп hаd сl buпсh of flowers in oпe hапd. .armсhair, She sаt iп аn аrmсhаit,. .thе сountry, Pсlul апd Mоry live iп the сouпtry, not iп the сitу.

oи dеsсribеs a thing touсhing thе suгfaсе of anothеr thing. Doп,t leаvе уour bоg on the f7oor. Thеrе,s а photogrаph of Loпdoп oп tl.tеwаll.

with Expressions on

Тhеrе arе manY ехDгеssions with oп. Тhls is a sеlесtion. transport .с h a i r ' ,t е 1 е r- i s i o n , ,l т a l l , iniilг iрq .lрft,/,т ioht'

,s i d е , .pavеmеnt,

116

Тlrcrе*'еrеfa+,pаsseltgеrsoп the plапe/bus/trоiп' SItе sсltott а сhсlir. |\.ltаt's on television/the rаdio this evening? Lеt's ltс-tttg tltis piсfire on thоt wаIl. Tiltt сttt ltis foot oп a pieсe of glаss. Tlrcrе's а сitlеltlсlon the left. Tltеrе оre smаIl hoцses oп this sidе of thе strеet, Sltе wсls wаlkiпg iп the roаd, not on the pаvemeпt.

(no artiсlе) (no artiсlе)


GRA м tvtA R 3o

at, in or to?

l

P LA сE A ND P o slтloN

At and in areboth usеd to dеsсгibе a реrson,s position. Аf shows a gеnеral loсation at a point or plaсе. In is usеd rгith thе namе of a сontainеr, plасе or arеa to show that somеonе or somеthing is insidе it. Study thеsе еxamplеs. ithе plaсе in gеnеral) We met аt the аirport, rinsidе thе building) Wе met in the аirport buildiпg.

l

I,ll see you аt the сiпemа.

thе plaсе in gеnеrаl)

I,ll see уou in the сinemа. We аrrivеd аt Prаgue Airport.

tlrе ptrасеi

We аrrivеd in Prague.

ihе сitl'

iпsldе thе building)

Тo is usеd with vеrbs of mоtion. Lаst пight we.went to the сinemа. Сould you tаke this letter to thе post сlfil-;г"7 I seпt a pаrсel to mу sister.

Ехprеssionswith

Thеrе arе many еxprеssions with сf. This is а sеlеL.-iiо]]a:r.l notе thаt somеtimеs

@t

thе dеfinitе artiсlе fhe is not usеd. .thе bеginning,/,thе еnd, ,thе fгont,/,thе baсk, ,homе,

There,s сt Сt-tfёаt the old t*':tl,lеstrееt, Do уott sit сlt tllе fтaпt ,:r аt the bасk of the сIаss? (no aгtiсlе) |ohп istt't сlt sсl.tоol' (no artiсlе) Hе,s сlt ltotttе.

'work'

Мr Kittg rr.z.sliГ сt rrоrk if-ii.r.l.?l.

,sсhool,

obovе/bеloщ

l

avеr/under

{no altiсlе)

Abovehelow mеan.highеr/lowеr than'. Тhеr.саг'зе usеd rгithоut an objесt. You сап see the top of the tower аboуe thе trееs" From thе mountаin, I сould seе tltе Iаkе bеlotl " Оvеr/under mеan,dirесtly abovе/bеlorr.'. Тhеl.- L'':'tLlпееc an obiесt. The аIien spасeship hovered over the buildiпg" I kеep my suitсаse uпder mу bеd.

s

,aсross, oг .соr-ег[пs. Оver сan also bе usеd likе There is а footbridge over the motonуа|. Therе wаs а plastiс sheet over thе ltolе ill Гlт;.rогt.

nехt to/bеsidе, nеor/bу

l

l

oppositе

l

(= aсross) (= сovеring)

Neхtto andbesidеmеan,еxaсtly at thе sidе оf'. Bеsiсlесan bе morе formаl. Mаriа sits пeхt to Pаulа' Сomе аnd sit beside Шrcon thе softl. . Neаr mеans ,сlosеto,. By mеan .at thе sidе of and is oftеn usеd in dеsсriptions of rooms. Tom,shouseis nеаr the sportsсе|ltrе. Therewаs а tаble bу the witldolt'.Hе l+,аsstсltldiпgby the door. We hаd а holidау пeаr thе seа. (сlosе to thе sеa - a few kilomеtrеs away) oppositemеans .еxaсtly on thе othеr sidе of, a spaсе. Thereis а bаker,sopposite our housе'

t1.7


r lNт ERш| ЕDlAт E

L A NGu A GЕ

PRA с т l C Е

ll 1

Underlinethe сorreсtword in eaсh sentenсe. a) Theгe'sa small shop at/by thе еnd of thе road. Lr) Paula was standing oп/withonе foot. с) Lauтa has movеd аt/to Barcе|oлa. d) Don,t wa|k аt/in thе road! It,s dangеrousl e) From thе planе wе сould sее thе mountains below/under. f) Brian spеnt his holiday аt/iп Hungary. it. g) Whеn thе horsе сamе to a small Stlеam it jumpеd аboуe/oуer h) Julia,s housе is аt/oпthе othеr sidе of thе strееt. D Lisa сut hеr foot аt/oп somе brokеn glass. j) Tim was sitting iп/oп an armсhair.

2

lf thе word undеrlinеd is not аppropriate, writе a new word in the spaсe.тiсk (/) the spaсе if the word is сorreсt. a) Janе,s sistеr has a iob at Мanсhеstеr Airport. b) I mеt David yеstеrdayф thе сity сеntrе. с) Еllеn had a largе holе at hеr lеft boot. d) Jaсk sits in thе baсk of thе сlass. е) Thеrе was a small tablе at thе bеd. f) Thе robbеr was holding a gun in onе hand. g) Thеrе was a bеautiful portrait hanging at thе wall. h) William didn,t fееl wеll and his doсtor sеnt him to hospital. i) Thе сhildrеn usually sit at thе baсk sеat of thе сar. j) To rеaсh our villagе wе takе a road abovе thе mountains.

3

Complеte eaсh sentеnсewith one suitab|еprеposition. a) Мaria tivеs ...ilt..

Bеllingham Road.

b) Can you put thе platеsbaсk ..........

thе shеlf plеasе?

.. your dеsks!

с) Plеasеdon't stand

.. thе сountry.

d) I,d rеally likе to livе

е) Go down this strееt,and you,ll sее thе сinеma

.. thе right.

f) Тhе poliсе sеarсhеdthе building but thеrе Wasno onе ............ g) I rnеt Anna .........

thе bus yеstеrday.

h) Soгry,Gеoгgеisn,t hете at thе momеnt. Hе,s ........... i) Aliсе wants to know what's i) Just as Tom aгтivеd

118

.. tеlеvision this еvеning. .. thе bus stop, the bus lеft.


GRAi'llttAR

4

3O

PLAсЕ

AND

P o s l тl oN

CompIеtеeaсh sеntenсewith one suitableprеPosition. onе hand. a) Thе statuеwas holding a sword ..'Lw.'',,.'',,.'.. thе сinеma this wееk? b) What,son ..................... с) Whеn I look

.. thе mirror, I don,t rесognizе m}.sеlfl .. your bag?

d) What havе you got

.. thе pavеmеnt.

е) Pеtе fоund somеonе,swallеt

0

.. thе сity.

My family movеd from thе сountry

your pullovеr. 8) You,vеgot a small hole ........... .. thе fеnсе and into thе gardеn. h) Thе burglar сlimbеd

5

UnderIine the сorrесt word or phrasе in еaсh sеntenсе. a) Karеn is living аt/fuLondon Strееt. b) Мaggiе sits bу/nехt fo Sally in thе physiсs сlass. с) I want to sеnd this lеttеr аt/to Btazil'. d) Whеn I opеnеd thе box, thеrе was nothing in/iпside. е) Еxaсtly bу/oppositethе сinеma, thеrе,s a rеally good rеstaurant. f) Wе had a holiday in a small villagе bу/пeаr Montе Сarlo. g) Paula lay down аt/oп the floor to do hег еxеrсisеs. h) Wе had a lovеly mеal in/oп thе planе.

6

Complete eaсh sentenсе with one suitabIe preposition. a) Byе for now. I,ll sее you .,'4t..............sсhool tomorrow. b) Wе put a blankеt

.. thе injurеd man to kееp him warm.

It's not far. Wе,rе gеtting d) Wе found oul сat hiding е) Daniеl hung his сoat ........... \) I dесidеd to go to thе shops су\ What timе is thе nеws

o,

.. a сar. thе baсk of a сhаir. .. my bikе. .. thе radio?

h) I dесidеd to visit my grandmothеr .'.......

hospital.

t79


Underlinе the соrreсt word or phrase in eaсh sentеnсe. gеt tiсkеts. а) Wе aттivеd еarly, sо thсlt tvе/!17-9цlg1_to b) It wаs too/eпoughlong tо wait, so Wе Wеrrt homе. с) Tim and Неlеn havе arгivеd, and theу,re/therewaiting outsidе. d) Thе boу whiсh/wltose bikе I borrowеd had forgotten about it. е) Wе wеnt to thе bеaсh for/so thаt a swim. f) Ann fеlt lonеlv beсаusе/sono onе had invitеd hет to thе party. g) Despitе/АItllougll I fеlt tirеd, I workеd until latе. h) Wе spеnt a lovеly holiday in/into thе сountry. i) Yеstеrdaу was so/suсh сold that I stayеd at hornе. j) Hoтvevеr/h spitе of the rain, wе wеnt for a walk.

2

For eaсh question,сompletethе sесond sentenсeso that it mеansthe samе as the first, using no more than three words. a) Although it was latе, wе dесidеd to go foт a walk.

It was tate....h4L..уlg...d.*.цded......... to go for a walk. b) John is somеone with whom I usеd to work. .......with. John is SomеoneI ................ с) Thе еxarn Was so diffiсult that I сouldn,t finish it. It was d)

.... diffiсult еxam that I сouldn,t finish it.

Although it was raining, wе workеd in thе gardеn. ...., We workеd in thе gardеn.

Dеspitе

e) Lеt,s spеnd thе aftеrnoon at thе bеaсh. How .......... fl

thе аftеrnоon at thе bеaсh?

Ann,s housе has got four largе bеdrooms. ....four largеbеdroomsin Ann,s housе.

с') We might fееl hungry, so wе,ll takе somе sandwiсhеs.

o/

.... hungry.

Wе,ll takе sоmе sandwiсhеs so that wе h) Тhе сat hasn,t сomе homе, whiсh is strangе. hasn,t сomе homе.

r) ;";;;:;;;;

;;;;.;; ;; ;".*:'::;сat Нaтrv hasn,t got ..........

l)

Whеrе,s thе National Мusеum? Would

tzo

to go on holiday.

.... tеlling mе whеrе thе National Мusеum


GRA м м A R

3

3

31 сo Nso LlD A тI o N

Deсidеwhiсh answеr (A, B, с or D) best fits eaсh spaсе. A саseof mistаkenideпtiф Whеn Diana got off thе train, (\) ',.,0.....Was a Woman rтaltingfor hеr (2)'.'.,,...'. ?, shе askеd.,(4)...........a сaг ltaiting for thе platform.,(3)........... shе thоught thаt hеr ., Diana Wasnot vеry surprisеd,(6) busy tо mееt hеr (8) ..........thе Station. aunt must havе bееn (7) ..........'

you (5)

(9) ........... was drеssеdr.еlr' shе did not rесognizеthе Woman,(10)........... arm, shе was (|2l '.''',.'''. formally,and had a small briеfсasе(11).....'.....hеr thе сar.Тhе tirеd aftеr thе journеy that shе was happy to 8еt (13) ........... Woman, (14) ........... , just said a fеw words to thе drivеr,and thеn walkеd arтar-. shе was. .It,sstrangеthat shе didn,t еvеn introduсе Diana wоndеrеd (15) ........... hеrsеlf,,shе thought. 1) A who 2) A bеlow З) A You Diana, arе you 4) A Thеrе's 5) A out 6) Aso 7) Aso 8) Aat 9) A Howеvеr 10) A shе 11) A at 1z) 13) ^еnough A with 14) A howеvеr 15) A whеthеr 4

B thеrе Bto B You,rе Diana, isn't it B Thеirs Bin B dеspitе B too Bto B Sinсе B who Bin Bso Bby B dеspitе B thеrе

С whosе Сon С Arе you Diana С Its С insidе Ctoo С еnough Сin С In spitе of С and C undеr С tоo Cat С although С who

Dit Din D You arеn,t Diana D lt,s D outsidе Das D vеry Dfor D Although D whosе Dbv D vеry D into D in spitе ot D hoи'еr.еr

Complеte eaсh sеntenсе with onе suitable prеposition. thе bus, and Katе sat Thеrе was anothеr Woman (a) ...9.k..,.......... ( b ) ......' ............. h еr . and star tеd сhatting. Shе said shе w as go ing ,I ,vе go t ..'...''a p laсе ( с ) ..................... an intеr viеw (d) .. Fo r bеs Ro ad to o . ,I s it (е) .. thе bus stО! ] it s n ot с a l l е d М u r с o t t H o u sе,,said Katе. thе r ight (g) f a r ' I t ,s ( 0 ..................... ,In faсt, Ilivе (h) Woman rеpliеd.

.. thе еnd о f thе st:ееt'' thе .. . Whеn ] 1ооk .эu: Оr Il-t\-

wi n d o щ I с a n s е е pеo plе w o r king (i) ...........

\\'hеn t:еl- аr r il-еd

( j ) ..................... t h е sto p, thеy go t o ff and w alkеd uр thе str ееt to gеthеr .

rz7


lNт ERlvlЕDl A т E

tA NGU A GЕ

P RA (т l с E

What would you say in thesе situations? a) You Warrtto know if Andrеw hаs еvеr bееn to Amеriсa. Ask him. b) You Want to know if Andrеw has еvеr bееn tо Amеriсa. Ask Amanda.

l-{аsАn.drewevor beе.wta АуиerLcа?

с) You Want to know if Rita likеs rap musiс. Ask Isabеl.

d) You Want to know if Rita likеs rap musiс. Ask hеr. е) You Want to know if Nigеl еnjoyеd thе film. Ask him.

0

You want to know if Nigеl еnjoyеd thе film. Ask Pеtra.

ёol| lbu rvаnt to know if Maria is going to London nехt su[rmеr. Ask hеr. h r You rvant to know if Мaria is going to London nеxt summеr. Ask Patriсia. i ) Yоu tтаnt to аsk Patriсia if vou сan borrow hеr mobilе phonе. Ask hеr.

i) 6

You want tо ask Patriсia if shе сould lеnd you hеr mobilе phonе. Ask hеr.

Complete eaсh sеntеnсe,using thе verb givеn whеre neсessary. a book, havеn,tyou?, .Yеs,thanks., ?, .I ехpесt so.,

a) ,(havе 1ot)'...Y.Q.+.Y93a.t.''...,,

b) .Thеy,ll bе baсk by 6.00' с) .(go)

.... for a rтa1k,sha1l wе?

.Good idеa!,

.'.. now, arе you? Stay a bit longеr., d) ,You (lеavе) ,Sorry, I сan,t. I havе to сatсh thе bus., .. ?, .YеS,I think so. е) Jim and Sara havе sееn thе fi1m, .Yеs, of ,You сan mееt Hеlеn at thе statlon, .... ?' 0 сoursе I сan., .No, I wasn,t., g) ,(bе) .... hеrе yеstеrday, wеrе you?, .... ?, ,Sorry, I h) .You don,t happеn to know thе timе, d o n ' t .' i) .Both drivеrs Wеrе driving too fast, right.' ,Y o u ( f о rg е t ) ................ ')

t22

.... ?' ,Yеs, that,s

,No . H еr е it is., .......thе milk, did yo u?,


GRAмlt{AR

31

( o N s o L l DA тl o N

з

Rewritеeaсh pair of sentеnсesas one sеntenсе.Do not сhangе thе meaning. a) Suе rеad a book. Shе rеally еnjoyеd it. whiсh

еnjoyеd. Suе...Г9Д,.8(...?!..b.a,ak'.w.Lу,Lсb..'thr"..r9.4.l,LY........ b) Somе friеnds visitеd mе. Thеy brought rnе a prеsеnt. who Thе friеnds

prеSеnt.

с) I stayеd in a hotеl. It was сhеapеr than this onе. that Thе hotеl

this оnе.

d) I borrowеd a friеnd,s bikе. Hе wantеd it baсk.

whоsе Тhе ............

. baсk.

е) I saw thе vasе in thе shop. I wantеd to buy it' that I wantеd

.....shop.

A girl sings in thе group. Shе,sgot grееn hair. who Thе girl ol

6/

grееn hair.

I mеt a girl. Неr brothеr is in rny сlass. whоsе . сlass.

h) Wе,rеtaking thе train. It lеаvеsat 4'З0.

that Thе train

. at 4.ЗО.

A man knoсkеd at thе door. Hе was sеlling brushеs. who Thе man

brushеs.

j) I saw a film with Lukе. It was intеrеsting. whiсh Тhе film

intеrеsting.

|2З


lNт ERrи ЕDlAт Е

tA NGU A GE

8

P RA с т l с Е

Look сarefully at eaсh line. Somе lines are сOrrесtbut some have a word whiсh should not be thеre.тiсk (/) eaсh сorreсt Iine.lf a line has a word whiсh should not be therе, writе the word in the spaсe. А cаseof mistоkenidеntitу Aftеr a few rninutеs, thе сaг stoppеd in front of a largе hotеl. Thе drivег who opеnеd thе door, and said, .Рlеasе folloъ'mе., Тhеy lt'еnt up in to a lift.

Problem сhесk

2...w.hq, 3

Thеn thеrе was a long сorridor with two or thrее

4

doors. Although it sееmеd stlangе so that thе сar hadn,t

5

takеn hеr to hеr aunt,s housе, Diana who wasn,t surprisеd.

6

Hет aunt, rтho shе n'as vеIy riсh, оwnеd sеvеral largе

7

hotеls, и.hiсh shе oftеn stayеd in thеm. I supposе shе fеlt

8

so muсh borеd at homе that shе dесided to stay hеrе. ,Рlеasе you Wait hеrе, will you?, said thе drivец and

9 ..................... 10

disappеarеd into a room at thе еnd of thе сorridor.

11

Тhеrе sееmеd to bе a lot of pеoplе that in onе of thе

12

Iooms. Thеn thе drivеr, who hе hadn,t bееn gonе lоng,

13 .....................

сamе baсk at and askеd Diana to follow him. Thеy wеnt

14 .....................

into a largе room full of pеople, who all startеd сlapping. Тhеrе was a postеr that it said, .Diana Harris, Supеrmоdеl.'

15 .....................

,oh dеar,, said Diana, ,I think so thеrе,s bееn a mistakе!,

t7 .....................

16 ...................".

Chесk thе different usеs of so, too and enoughin Grammar 22. When do we usе 50 and such? Cheсk the diffеrеnсes bеtween olthough, however and dеspitе/inspitе of in Grammar 23. Can you add any more еxpressionsto thе list of funсtions in Gramar 24? How importantis the intonatlonof your voiсe in sounding politе? What do you say in similаrsituationsin your Ianguagе? Сheсk in Grammar 25 for when you сan leavеout re|ativеpronouns. Cheсk in Gгammar 29 for the mеaning of thеу,rе,thеir and thеrе. Chесk in Grammar 30 for thе differenсesbetwеen ot' in and to.

rz4


'l

rld

Еxplanatio n s on and qt

tin

iп in in iп

Yеars Мonths Sеasons Parts of thе day

1999 |апuаrу thesummer thе morпiпg/аftеrпoon/еvепiпg

.o п

on Wedпеsdaу, on Fridау morпiпg on mу birthdау,oп СhristmсlsDоу

Days of thе wееk Spесial days lаt Тimеs of thе day ,thе wееkеnd,

аt 4.00, сlt middау, аt midпight

Holiday pеriods

сlt С hri s tmrls/Е t;ts tеr

Меals

аt breоkfсls t/luпсh/diпner

аt the weеkeпd

.night, Parts of thе day:

: е l at i on t o t o d a y

5 Sеptеmbеr 6 Sеptеmbеr 7 Sеptеmbеr 8 Sеptеmbеr 9 Sеptеmbеt

:аrts of yesterday,

уestеrdаymorпiпg this morпiпg tomorrowmorпiпg

: э day and : Эmor r ow I a l e n dar . е fe r e n сe s

r

аt пight

thе dау bеforеуеstеrdау yеstеrdау todау tomorrow the dау аftertomorow уestеrdауаftеrпooп this аfterпooп tomorrowаfterпоoп

In thе UK pеoplе saу thе seуепth of Sеptеmberot Sеptеmbеrtlrc sц'еlttjl' Pеoplе wtite 7 Septеmbеror 7th Sеptеmbеror Sеptеmbеr7th. Full datеs arе writtеn DaylМonthlYeat

l

эr, sinсe and аgo

lаst пight toпight tomorrowпig|tt

7/9/0З.

In thе US pеoplе saу SеptеmbеrSеуerland writе Septеtпbеr7. Full datеs arе writtеn Мonth/DaylYеar: 9/7/0З.

Wе usе for arrd siпсеlуith thе prеsеnt pеrfесt tо talk abol.rttllilе' i оеriod of timе aлd sinсe rеfеrs to whеn it startеd.

I,vе livеd hеrefor siх уeоrs. I,vе livеd hеrеsiпce 2oo1. Аgo mеans ,bеforеthе prеsеnt, Wе аrriуеd |Ive hours аgo.

' :еiегs tо а

I stttdiеd Frеttсlt for fl+o I еаrs I , v e bееt t 1 1 ' . ? i r i i ; s. .i t l с е З . З 0 ' I kllеlу t|trttсlgеs tlgo!

125


lNт ERM ЕDl A т E

L A NGU A GE

P RA с т l с E

during or fofl

During and for arе both used to talk about pеriods of time. Duriпg answеrsthе quеstion ,Whеn?,. Лor answеrsthе quеstion ,How long?,. I didn,t feel nervousduring the pеrformапсe. The performаnсelоsted for forф-f|vemiпutes.

by or untiP

By means .on or bеforе,. Until mеans .up to,. We,ll be therebу 6,oo. I wаitеdfor Аleх uпtil 6.oo, аnd thenI lеft' Pleаsegive me уour homеworkbу Frtdау. I,ll be аwаy uпtil Fridау.

on timе or in timе?

oncе and onе dау

now and nowаdауs

(pеrhapsеarliеr) (all thе timе up to 6.00) (Thursdaywould bе finе) (all the timе up to Friday)

oп timemеans .at thе right timе,. In time mеans ,with еnough timе to do somеthing,. The plаne took off eхасtlу oп time. We аrrived in time to hсшeа meаl beforetheplаne left. Оnсe mеans,at onе timе in my lifе, and only rеfеrsto thе past. Опe dаy сaл rеfеr to thе past or thе futurе. Оnсe I owned а motorbike. Опe dау I wаs tлlаIking throughthe towп сeпtrewhеn I met |ill. Оne dау I,ll be fаmous! ,at thе Now mеans .at thе prеSеnttimе, or ,immеdiatеlу,.Nowаdауsalso mеans prеsеnt timе, and is usеd to makе a strong сontrast With thе past. Peterusedto live in Rome,but пow he,s liviпg iп Floreпсe. Youhауeto ftnish...Now/ Nowаdауs peopleаre not аs polite аs theу usedto be. Notе that thе word ,aсtually, in Еnglish doеs not mеan ,at thе prеsеnt timе,. It mеans .in faсt, or .rеally,.This is a сommon mistakе.

thеn, oftеrwords, аftеr and lаter

.nеxt, in a sеquеnсе, аfterwаrds Theп and аfrеrwаrds arе similar. Thеn is usеd likе is usеd likе .at a latеr timе,. Аfrerwаrds сan сomе at thе еnd of thе sеntеnсе. We went to the сiпemа, аnd theп we hаd сtpizzа. We went to the сiпеmа, аrld оfterwоrds we hаd а pizza. We went to thе сinemщ aпd hаd а pizzсt оfterwаrds. Аftеr is usually followеd by an objесt. After the film we hаd а pizzа. After thаt we ууeпthome. Lаter mеaпs,aftеr somе timе,. \,[rs |rltttеs ist't,tlrcrе сlt tllе tпonlent. Сап you сome bасk lаter?

ot the end, in thе еnd and ot lost

Аt tlrc elld rеfеrs to a point in timе. Аt the епd of tlrc film wе аll сried. Itl tllе еtld mеans .aftеr a lot of timе, or еventually,. Wе wсtitеd for Тim for аgеs, аnd in the eпd we lеfr. Аt lсlst makеs a сommеnt that wе arе plеasеd a long wait has еnded. At lаst,we саn bе togеther!

I .:

ir

&.

t26


GRA I ulvlA R 32 тlr ilE Ex P RЕss loNs

Underlinethe сorrесtword or phrasеin еaсh sеntеnсе.

I

r) tg .

a) I mеt Тina а dаy/onе-dоуlast wееk. еvеrУonеsееmsto wаtсh toо muсh tеlеvision. lэ) Iп thesedаys/I'trowаdс|ys с) This morning/ThemorniпgI was busу in thе gaг.dеn. d) Wе havе to finish this pтojесt bу/ttпtilthе еnd оf thе lтееk. llе'tf 'J.i... е) Byе. I,ll sее уou the dаy аfter tomorrolr'/tltс f) Duriпg/Whilethеfilm I rеmеmbегеdrтhегеI.d lеш пr-kеr-s. g) John playеd tеnnis, aпd аfter/аfrerwсlrds had а shоrtег. h) Hеlеn,s birthday is in/oпJanuary 1Oth. Complеte the seсond sentenсeso that it has a similаrmеапiпgto thе first sentenсe. a) Wе had lunсh, and aftеrwards wе wеnt foт а соffее.

Aftеr....W9. h4!d./.И4.q(...h..qd..LИ.n.рh,..W.9..|t:э!A..3.r.'"q,..с. b) Jill is nеvеr latе for lеssons. Jill is always................ с) I won't lеavе bеfore 8.00. I,ll bе hеrе d) I,vе bееn living hеrе for thrее months. I startеdliving hеrе ........... е) Whеn wе mеt for lunсh it was 12,О0. Wе mеt for lunсh f) What do you do in your сountly on Januагr.1st? What do you do in your сountly on thе .... g) I,ll sее you not tomorrow but thе nехt dar'. ['ll sееyou thе h) It,s 10.00and I,vеbееn waiting hеге sinсе , "t.!l.t. hours.

I,vеbееn waiting hеrе ........... CompIеtееaсh sentеnсewith onе suitableword. mv biгthday? a) Would you likе to go out .''..Q.уI............ b) Rita movеd to this town four yеaгs..........

I won,t phonе Jason now. I,ll phonе him d) I wokе up twiсе е)

0

.. thе night.

.. midnight thе frog turnеd into а prinсе. Pеoplе in сitiеs usеd to takе thе bus, but

'. most usе thеir сars.

o\ Lu с k i l y R a с h е l ar r ivеd j ust ..................... timе to сatсh thе tr ain. б/ h) Wе fеlt finе in thе rеstaurant, but wе both fеlt ill

r27


lNт ЕRмЕDlAт Е

I A NGU A GE

4

P RA C т Iс Е

Rewritе eaсh sentenсe so that it has a similar meaning and сontains the word in bold. a) I spеnd the summer at thе sеasidе. in

....'{.."9'q...tp...th*.lgliq!э.'!.ry..th{,..{*.ry!.цp-r,.

b) I startеd at this sсhool in 1,997, sinсе с) Gеorgе had a bath and aftеr that washed his hair. thеn d) Dina lеft my housе at 10.00.

until е) Thе train arтivеd еxaсtly when it was supposеdto. on timе I won,t arrivе latеr than 2.00. by

s) Paul triеd hard but finally gavе up. end h) I was too latе to say goodbyе to Lisa. timе

5

Сomplete еaсh sеntenсewith one suitable word. a) Did you slееp wы ..I\'{.t..

night?

b) ..................... thе hot wеathеr,wе havе our mеals in thе garden. с) ..................... thе lеsson,Мikе and Carmеn dесidеdto play basketball. d) John hasn,tsееnСristina ..................... thrееwеeks. е) I know that ...........

day you will bе a star!

f) It,s vеry impoгtant to aгrivе ......... timе for thе еxamination. g) Thе тobbеr ran out of thе bank and was arrеstеdshortly h) Thеrе is a lot of noisе in our Strееt.........

r28

night.


Explanations Сount ab]e an d

r

A сountablе noun has a singular and a plural form. Тhе piural may bе irrеgular.Wе сan usе numbеrs with it. one book,threebooks oпepossibiliФ, tуvopossibilities, onepiесe,four piесes oпеperso|l,threepeople one сhild, ttцtoсhildreп onе-womап,four womеп

r

An unсountablе noun has only onе form. Wе сannot usе numbеrs with it. work love progress wаter iпformаtion Еnglish (languagе)

r

Typiсal unсountablеs arе:

unсount abl е

Matеrials and substanсеs: Abstraсt idеas: Aсtivitiеs: Human fееlings:

Сount abl e and

r

Notе thе words bеlow whiсh arе unсountablе in Еnglish but сountablе in many othеr languagеs: ассommodаtioп,аdviсе,bеhаviour'bttsiпеss,саsh, equipment,furniture,heаIth, homework, iпformоtion, knowIedge, Iuggаge, moneу,p еrmissi oп, rubbish, Sсenery|trаffiс, trаvel, wеаther,work

r

Сountablе nouns сan bе singulaг or plural. Thе book is over therе. The books аte oуer there. Unсountablе nouns arе always singular. Freпсh is diffiсult. IIis аdуiсе-wasvery useful.

r

With сountablе nouns Wе сan iцseо/аn arrd some. Sue hаs got а book/somebooks аboutАnсient F,gуpt. With unсountablе nouns Wе сannot lшseа/ап. Sue hаs got some moneу to go on holidау this уeаr, Сould I hауesome iпformаtion?

l

Someis сommon in positivе sеntеnсеs.Аnу is сommon in quеstions and nеgativеs. We,vеgot some juice, but wе hаven,tgot аnу glаssеs. Hаve уou got аnу сups?

r

But Wе сan :uSеSomеin a quеstion if it is an offеr oI rеquеst. Сould I hаve Some morеteа,pleаse? And wе сan usе апу in positivе sеntenсеsif wе mеan .it dоеsn,t mattеr whiсh,. I,m freеаnу dау пeхt week'

unсount abl е : gr ammar

somеor аnу?

plаstic, iroп, wood,pаpеr, wаter,аir, сoffee Iife, [un, freedom,progress,heаlth, time work, trаvеl, sleep,footbаll, help, rеsеаrсh hаppiпess,аnger,hoпеstу,hope,respесt,сourаge

tz9


lNт ЕпмEDlAт E

L A NGU A GЕ

l

P RA C т Iс E

Anу always has thе mеaning of ,no limit,. Comparе: (I know what to do) Is thеresomething I сап do to help? (I,ll do whatеvеr I сan) Is thereаnуthing I cап do to help? Hаve уou got some letters for mе? (Thеrе arе partiсular lеttеrs I am еxpесting) Hаve you got аnу letters for me? (I havе no idеa if you havе lеttеrs for mе or not)

mony and much

Маnу is usеd for сountablе nouns and muсh is usеd for unсountablе nouns. Thеy arе usеd mainly in quеstions and nеgativеs. How mоnу сhаirs аrе there? Therеаrеп,tmаny сushioпs. How muсh money hаvе we got? Thereisп,t muсh wаter here.

Change of

r

me ani ng

Somе words сan bе сountable oI unсountablе with а сhangе in mеaning. Thе сountablе mеaning is spесifiс and thе unсountablе mеaning is gеnеral. а ftsh (thе animal) а busiпеss(a сompany) а noisе(a spесifiс nоisе) а hаir (a singlе piесе) а pаiпtiпg (onе objесt) а work (a work of art) а loаf (a loaf of brеad) а coffee(a сup of соffее) a paPer (a nеwspapеr) а wood (a small forеst) rlп iroп (for prеssing сlothеs) а glаss (for drinking)

r

other problеms

130

somefish (a portion of food) business(in gеnеral) noise (in gеnеral) hаir (a||tоgеthеr) pаintiпg (thе aсtivity/hobby) work (in gеnеral) somеbreаd(in gеnеral) someсoffee(thе matеrial) Somepаper (thе material) somewood (thе matеrial) someiron (thе matеrial) someglаss (thе matеrial)

Look at thеsе еxamplеs: I hеаrd а Strапgeпoise. I boughtа pаintiпg lаst week. Diапа hаd а vеrygood eduсаtion. A knowledge of boаts is usфI. Сап уou buy а loаf from the shop?

I cап,tstаnd пoise. Do you like pаiпtiпg? Eduсаtion is very importапt. Kпowlеdge is the keу to SuссeSS' Сап уou buу some breоd from thе shop?

r

Onе group of nouns only has a plural form and takеs a plural verbzclothes, сontепts,feelings, glаsses(for your еуеs),iеапs, stаirs, trousers Mу trousеrsаre too tight. The stаirs аrе vеry Steep.

r

Onе group of nouns сan bе followеd by еithеr a singular or plural verb: аrmy, аudieпсе,сlаss,сompапy,сrowJd,fаmily, goverпment,grouP,public, teаm The Governmеnthоs/hаve deсidedto resigп.

r

Thе word .nеws,is followеd by a singular verb. The neу,s is on.

r

Thе word ,poliсе, is followеdbу a plural vеrb The poliсe аre сomiпg.


GRA м п nA R 33 сo UNтA BLЕ

A ND UNсo UNтA BtЕ

NoUNs

Underlinethe сorrесtword or phrasein еaсh sentеnсе. How muсh/Howmапy pasta havе wе got? Whеrе is/аrеmу nеw trousеrs? I put some/аnyсhoсolatе somеwhеrе,but whеrе is it? Pеtеr wеnt to brу а/somеglass so hе сould fix thе brokеn и.indorts I,m afraid wе havеn,t got muсh/mаnуtime, fl How muсh/How mаnу flltлiturе shops arе therе? g) I,vе found thе milk but I сan,t find а/someg|ass. h) Mary,s adviсе wаs/werеnot vеry usеful.

a) b) с) d) е)

2

Put one word in eaсh spaсe.Put a dаsh (_) if thе spaсeshouIdbe b|ank. iron? a) My tlousеrsnееd ironing. Havе you got ...?!!k.'........'.. .. loaf, plеasе? b) Сould you go to thе bakеr,sand buy infoгmationabouttrainsto Paris. с) I,d likе ..................... vеry good hеalth. d) Louisеhas ...............'..... е) Thе war еndеd f) Vanеssabought

.. yеars ago. .. papеr and rеad it on thе bus.

adviсе,plеasе? g) Сould you givе mе ..................... .. peoplе in this villagе? h) Do you know

3

Complete the seсond sеntenсeso that it has a simiIarmeaningto the first sеntenсeand сontainsthe word in bold. a) Lеt mе tеll you what I think you should do. adviсе

Lеtmе .g Lu.'a. у.q.|L..{.o'|w,..4dу]{.?,...............

p,'

b) I nееd a сlеan pair of trousеrs. any I havеn,tgot ............ с) Thеrе isn,t a lot of watеr in the pool. muсh и-atеr iп thе рoоl. d) I havе to wash my hair.

washing My hair е) Thе book didn,t сontain any information. in Thе information ......... 131


l Nт ERмEDlAт E

tA NGU A GE

4

P RA с т l с Е

.l Choose thе best alternative, or 2, to сomplеteеaсh sentеnсe. a) Thе firе is going to go out. Сan you go and gеt...!!.|n9..w.p'q.\'........ 1 a wood

2 somе wood

b)

monеy all ovеr thе floor! ; ;;;;

;;;;,";";; -;, с) Lе r n o n a d е ? Sо rr y , no , w е havеn,t go t ..........'.. 1 somе

2 aг'у

d ) Pеtеr kееps

at thе bottom of his gardеn.

1 a сhiсkеn

2 somе сhiсkеn

е) Thе information Wе wеrе givеn 1 wеrе vеry usеful

2 was vеry usеful pеoplе wеrе thеrе on thе bus?

f)

1 How many o) 6/

2 How muсh

Lo o k a t R i t a ' s h a i r. 1 It,s grееn

............. !

2 Thеy,rе grееn

h) I ,v е с a l l е d t h е p o liсе and ............ 1 thеy,rе on thеir way

2 it,s oл its way

i ) T h е a s s е m b l y h a l l w as full o f ..............

1anoisе 5

2noisе

Complete еaсh sentenсe with onе suitablе word. a) I wantеd to havе a bath but thеrе wasn,t any hot '...wАt.ar......'. b) Whеn is thе ......... on? I havеn,t hеard any today. с) Tim,s еyеsight was bad and hе had to havе nеw d) Laura had to pay еXtra at thе airport bесausе shе had too muсh e) If you Want to makе an omеlеttе thеrе arе somе .........

in thе fridgе.

f) You сan,t сut that With a knifе. You nееd somе gt \\-е nееd somе brеad. Сould you go and buy a largе h r \\- h е n |f u g$ ц r o i я т lan ^llt n{ t} r рho usе hе r r .asar r еstеd|э Уa...........

|З2


Еxplanations lnd e fi ni t е ar t i сl e:

r

а on

Wе use а/аn whеn thе listеnеr doеs not knolr- rthiсr pеrson oт thins Wе arе talking about. Сomparе: Tim works iп а fасtorу. Tim works iп the fасtorу down the roа'd.

r

lrl'е dс:: : яl].-'т lthiсh faсtory) trr-еkl.-..'' ;тhi;h faсtоrl-l

If wе rеfеr to somеthing for thе first timе it lтill bе:lе-'.,'.г.:.::lа:1оn ior thе listеnеr and so Wе usе а/ап. Оthet rеfеrеnсеs to thе s:rrе li:r::: jsе ii].

bесausеnow thе listеnеrknows what wе arе talkins аi:::. I,veboughtа пеw mobilephone, It,sgrеаt.Thе pltottе: ||':..: r

Wе :usеа/аn to dеsсribе somеthing. Kоzаkstап It,s а lovеIydау.

is ап епoпttotls сО|l,Itrl

Notе thеsе two Ways of saying thе samе thing: Ап oсеlot is а wild оnimо|

similаr to а leopаrd.

oсelots аrе wild animаIs, similаr to leopоrds' r

Wе usе а/ап to dеsсribе thе job or thе сharaсtеr of a pеrs:l Mаry is аn eпgineer.

l

Peter is а fool!

A/аn mеan .onе,, So Wе сannot lцsе а/ап with unсountabLе :] . .:.s (not two) I,ve got а brother апd а sister. Сап уou give me somе informаtioп?

Zero artiсlе

(not *111fвfl++t1+j-ч

r

Notе that а/ап arе unstrеssеd,and arе plonounсеd /эr and ::

r

Wе usе Zеro artiсlеwith plurals and unсountablеnouns rr'lе:. ..".+ ,:= :з.king gеnеrally.Сomparе: Dogs аre пot аllowedin this shop The dogs next door bаrk аll пight. MiIk is good for уou. The milk on the top shеlf is fаt-freе.

lno ar t i с| е )

Hеrе arе somе еxamplеs showing thе usе of zero artiсlе tt. i:.r .е:еiаl.r-: Мatеrials: This сhаir is mоdе of plсlstiс ,;,"'|lеothеr' Food and drink I lovе сhoсolаte. I doll,t likс orLul!е illiсе.

l

Abstraсt idеas:

Wаr is а terriblе thiпg,

Languagеs:

Spаnish is spоkeп bу,сlboutзl-.ll-r /lj:;:;.]i: !.0Рlе.

Aсtivitiеs:

Speаkiпg is not pеrпiffе.7 ,7llrjlli iilс il-,ltttitt,-ltiot-t.

Zеto artiсlе is usеd with most сountriеs, statеs and сitiеs. Маrie сomes fтom Frопсe. Los Аngelеs is iп СаIiforniа' But сountriеs whiсh arе a group or plural havе a dеfinitе artiсIе. Wе left the Uпited Kiпgdom апd сrossеd to the |iethеrlапds. Notе also that Grеаt Britаin has zеro artiсlе. 1 З3


lNт ERп iЕDlAт Е

tA NGU A GE

PRA с т l (E

Zеro artiсlе is usеd with gеographiсal arеas,lakеs, mountains and islands. We уisitеd Lake Viсtortа. It,s iп Eаst Afтicа. Theу сlimbеd Mt. Everest iп reсordtimе. Heleп speпtlrcr holidаyson Сrete. Zеro artiсlе is usеd with most strееts. I bottg|tttllis dressfrom а shop iп Bond Street. But wе usе flle for thе phrasе the High Street (this mеans thе main shopping strееtin a tolvn). Zеro artiсlе is usеd with namеs of buildings with a plaсе namе bеfoге. \\,еt'isitеdBlenheim PаIасe аnd Сoventry Саthedrаl. But iте use thе whеn thеrе is a phrasе With oraftеr thе noun. I1.еI'isitеdthe Houses of Pаrliоmeпt. Zегo aгtiсlе is usеd with namеs, blt the is usеd with titlеs. Саrol Pаrker is the Miпister of Сommunicаtions. Zеro artiсiе is usеd with mеals whеn wе rеfеr to thеm in gеnеral. Dinпеr is аt 7,З0. But сomparе with thеsе еxamplеs whеrе Wе arе not talking gеnеrally: (mеntionеd for first timеt therewаs а dinner. 'lt tlrc епd of the сoпfеreпсе Tltе dinner thеуserveherеis reаllyfапtаstiс. (wе know whiсh dinnеr) Zеro aгtiсlе is used with gеnеral historiсal rеfеrеnсеs Prehistoriс Europe/Anсient Rome is а fаsсiпаtiпgperiodof history. Zегo artiсlе is usеd with bу for gеnеral forms of tlansport. \\е t+,еnt thеrebу саr. But сomparе with thеsе еxamplеs whеrе Wе arе not talking gеnеrally: I\е wеnt thеrein а reаIlуold саr' (mеntionеd for first timе) 1\'еt+,епt thеrein the саr mу sisteruses. (wе know whiсh сar) \otе a]so that wе saу on foot. Zетo artiсlе is usеd with сеrtain buildings, whеrе thе purposе of thе building is morе important than thе plaсе itsеlf. Сomparе: (whiсh prison is not importantt littt is in prison. \{у сompаnуis rеbuildiпgthe prison. (onе partiсular building) \\:огdsof this typе arе: be iп ot go to hospitаl, prisoп, bed, сlаss, сourt be аt or go to work, sсhool, universitу,seа With ,homе, be аt home,go home

t34


GRA lvlr и A R 34 A RтlсtЕs

1

Sее Grammar З5 for aсtivitiеs inсluding fhe. 1

Under]inethе еrrors in these sentenсes.Rewriteeaсh sеntеnсе. a) Havе you еvеr visitеd Unitеd Kingdom?

. Н,qу.е..Yo.ф...eу9I..w,|ited'..th*..шlзItel.!1,.vd.qwL?

b) on our trip, wе visitеd thе СantеIbury Cathеdral. с) Lovе is wondеrful thing. d) Тhе pеts arе not pеrmittеd in this hotеl. е) Rabbit is small wild furry animal with long еars. f) Thе Nеw York is in Unitеd Statеs of thе Amетiсa.

2

Put o/on or leavе the spaсe bIank. a) ....;.... lоvе makеs thе world go round. Gеrman сar. b) Shеila has got West Strееt.

offiсе in с) Rita works in ........... friеnd who is d) I,vе got ........... е) Paul goеs to

еlесtriсian.

musiсians. spесialsсhool for ...........

sсhool. hospitaland сan,tgo to ..'........ 0 Jaсk is in ........... doсtor. univеrsity and study to bе ...'....... g) ValеriеWantsto go to

3

For eaсh question,сompletethe seсond sentеnсeso that it meansthe same as the first, using no more than threе words. a) Мary tеa,сhеsЕnglish. Мary ....1{..qr!:.'.'.......... b) Сharlеs has a faсtory job.

Еnglishtеaсhеr. ....faсtory.

Сharles works

с) You arе not allowеd to park hеrе. not allowеd hеrе. d) Fabio is on a ship at thе momеnt.

At thе momеnt

....sеa.

е) Wе walkеdto thе station. Wе wеnt to ..............

foot. ......... 135


Explanations Dеfinite artiс|e: thе

r

Wе usеthe whеn it is сlеarwhiсh thing or pеIson Wе arе talking about. Thе points bеlow еxplain this in morе dеtail. Сomparе: The wаr between thе two сouпtries lсlstеdfor siх wееks. (wе know whiсh war) Wаr is в tеrriblе thiпg. (war in gеnеral, so Zеro artiсlе)

r

Wе oftеn usе thе whеп wе rеfеr to somеthinя that wе mеntionеd bеforе, usiпg сt/аtl, |\|еsаw a good film lаst пight. It'wаs the пew film bу Вerghiпi. But lvе сan usе the for thе first timе that wе rеfеr to somеthing if it is сlеar from thе Contехt whiсh onе Wе mеan. I\,lrcrе,sthe пewspаper?

r

\\'е oftеn usе tllе with phrasеs inсluding of Сomparе: Т]tе fiItttl+,сlsсlbout the lovе of а girl for her саt. lor,с ls Ll \\'otЙеrftllthing! (lovе in gеnеral, so Zеro artiсlе)

r

\\-еusе |llс rthеn thеrе is only onе of somеthing. It is сlеar whiсh onе Wе mеan. Hotц tttсtttt' L1;tro|lа|lts llсп,еlапded on the moon?

r

Wе usе tlle for nationalltiеs and оthеr groups. I rеаllу аdmirе tltе Itаliсltts, The old, the siсk аlld tltе L|t|еttlploуеd пеed our spесiаl саrе.

r

l

1.36

Notе thеsе othеr usеs оf rhe:

Playing musiсal instrumеnts: Timе:

Dо l'ottplсtу,the guitаr?

Supеr1ativеs Fixеd phrasеs Namеs of ships Oсеans Rivеrs

Тltis is the biggеst oпе. / You аrе the flrst. Tltе sooпеr the bеttеr.

ht tllе pсlst/itl the future But: сt prеSепt

I,\'еsоilеd on the Neptune. The PасifLс, the Atlоntiс The Amаzon,

the Dаnube

The is usually pronounсеd idэl bеfoтесonsonants aг'd lбу'l bеforе vowеls. Thе begiппiпg' The епd,


35

G R A l Y | п nA R

A R тl с L Еs

2

UndеrIinethe сorreсtword in eaсh sentenсe. Whеrе,s ап/thееlесtriс hеatеr? I сan,t find it. What hаppеnеd at аn/the еnd of а/the fi|m? David has ап/thеappointmеnt at а/theoptiсian,s. Ап/The old pеrson sometimеs fееls lonеly. Pеtеr owns а/the largеst modеl planе in а/the wofld. Luсkily а/the firе brigadе soon сamе and put otlt а/the fire. Harry,s mothеr bought hlm а/theguitar for his birthday plеsеnt. I,m thinking of buying а/therlew pair of trousеrs. In thе еnd thеrе was а/thewar bеtwееn thе two сountriеs. i) I didn,t know аn/theanswеr to а/thеquеstion, so I lеft it out.

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

2

Completethе seсond sentenсеso that it has a similarmeaningto the first sentеnсe. a) Franсеs is a vеry good pianist.

. vеrywеll.

.P.l4.4p.. Franсеs'..B!лY.l..t.h* ''..

b) Poor pеoplе nееd hеlp from thе Govеrnmеnt. Thе Govеrnmеntshould ................

......poor.

с) Traсеy,sbikе is fastеrthan evеryonе еlsе,s. ... fastеst.

Traсеy,s d) Tom has a doсtor,s appointmеnt.

doсtor,s.

Tom .......... е) The film was about an artist,slifе.

... of an artist.

Thе film

f) Thе only goal of thе matсh was sсorеd by ltaly. Thе only goal of thе matсh 3

... Italians.

Put o/on or thе in eaсh spaсe or leave the spaсe blank.

i, ...thP.'lаrgеstсruisеship in ....t!*'.world. a) ..'тIt--.Prеsidеnt happinеssWasimportant. сlassagrееdthat ........... b) Еvеryonеin ...'....... door. strangеpеIson at ........... с) Thеrе's d) Somеonе who saw

robbеry сallеd

poliсе.

tall man sat in front of mе. film, ........... bеginningof ........... е) At ........... sandwiсhand lvaitеdfoг station,I atе ........... n Whеn I arrivеdat ........... train. ...........

good job. gоod еduсationusuallygеts........... pеIsonwith ........... Еmbassyсinеmа? nеw film at ........... h) Havе you sееn ...........

s)

Iз 7


lNт ERIv| EDl A т E

L A NGU A GE

PRA с т tс Е

Inсludеspraсtiсеof Gтammar 34 and З5. Put а/on/thеin eaсh spaсe, or leave the spaсe blank. a) .!.|.|9.,.. Сhinеsе eat..qt........lot of ...:.....riсе. b) ........... most pеoplеthought that ........... BеatlеsWеrе........... vеry good 8Iouр. с) I usuallr-drink ........... glassof ........... milk in morning. d) \\-hat's diffеrеnсеbеtwееn rabbit and ........... harе? е) ........'.. first pеrson who сrossеs finishing linе is f) playing guitar is ........... intеrеsting g| ........... Rеbессagot on hl Тhеrе's

nеWspapеrshop at

il In ........... past, most of it I nееdеd

bus and bought еnd of

population livеd in

winnеr. hobby.

tiсkеt. strееt. сountry.

nеw pair of trousеrsso my mothеr gaYе mе

monеy.

Сorrесt thе еrrors in thеse sentenсesby adding or removing o/аn/thе. ai Сould you gеt loaf of brеad from bakеr,s?

...Qq.+!'d..'уp,|+..g'e..t..4..!qnf..рf..b'rgad..fro,ш.. ................t......v...

b i Тhе milk is good for thе сhildrеn. с t Тhе John is at a work at momеnt.

dt \\:еtravеllеd to thе Hungary bу a car. е) Havе you got a brothеr or thе sistеr? fl \Var bеtwееn two сountriеs Was longеst in the history. 8) Who was first astronaut who walkеd on moon? hl \ilе is longеst rivет in world.

138


GRAlyllvlAR

3

35

A R тl C L Es

Rewrite eaсh sentenсe so that it has a similar meaпing and сontains the word in bold. a) Wе travеllеd thеrе by train.

on

....Wr..trqу.p'|!,e!(...thf,:e..p'r!..th&.trqLw..

b) Thеre isn,t a largеr sizе than this onе. largеst с) Clara sings for hеr living. singer d) Pеople who are unеmployеd oftеn fеel dеprеssеd.

thе е) Anna is lеarning to bе a guitarist. play Мikе is an offiсе.workеr. works

s) Mariе is a Frеnсhwoman. Franсe h) David is still working. at

4

2


F lNт ЕRмЕDlAт Е

tA NGU A GЕ

5

P RA C т I(E

Complеtе the seсond sentеnсeso that it has a similarmеaningto the first sentenсe. a) I didn,t еxpесt to sее Darrеl.

....Dfl.rrr,'|..у/q{.,tht,',,..'....'lastpеrsonIеxpесtеdtosее. b) Do you havе a dog in your housе?

Do .............

homе?

с) Niсk tеaсhеs сhеmistry. Niсk is

......tеaсhеr.

d) Мy friеnds gavе mе a wondеrful prеsеnt.

......gavе mе Waswondеrful. е) Thе Australian сapital is Canbеrra. Сanbеrrа

......Austтalia.

Thе Frеnсh lеsson is thе first tomorlow. ......Frеnсh.

s) Somеonе is phoning you. Thете,sSomеonеon .......'..... h) *:

::: : :::: ::::::]::::

6

:::

::

::.*}';,

"".,

еntеrtaining.

ln eaсh pair of sentenсes,fill in onе spaсe with the and the other spaсe with a dash (-) to show no artiсIe. a) 1 For mе, .....Т.... football is my lifе. 2 ..Ih?.' football in thе sесond division is a muсh lowеr standard. b) 1 Thеy say that 2 Тheу say that

lovе makеs thе world go round. lovе of a mothеr for hеr сhild is thе strongеstkind.

с) 1 ........... information in this artiс]еwill bе vеry usеful for my projесt. 2 ........... infoгmatiоn about thе Govеrnmеnt,sdеfеnсеplans is hard to find. d ) 1 ........... studеntsin mv nеw сlassall sееmvеry friеndly.

2 .....'..... stцdеntsshould bе in thеir сlassеsby 9.00. е) 1 I nееd ........... hеlpl 2 Тhanks vеrv muсh for ........... hеlp you gavе mе yеstеrday. 1 ........... сomputеrsin thе January salе arе not too еxpеnsivе. 2 Тhеsе davs еr-егybodynееds to know how to usе ........... сomputеrs. o)

6/

1 ........... Еnglish arе famous for thеiт strangеsеnsеof humour. 2 ........... Еnglish programmеsarе quitе еasy to find on satеllitеTV.

h ) 1 Мany of my fтiеnds aте studying

businеss at univеrsity.

2 Мy fathеr is involvеd in ........... businеssof buying and sеlling housеs.

r40


Explanations l

аll

А/l is usually followеd by a plural noun and vеrb. All students аre eхpeсted to аrrive on time. In thе еxprеssions аll dаy, аIl пight, аlI the time, thе noun is singular. Wе сan also say АП (of) the ... , and in this еxprеssion wе сan rеplaсе tllе bу a possеssivе adjесtivе (mу etс.). AIl (of) the tickets for the mаtсh hоd been sold. AlI (of) my fтieпds hаve bikes. Nof is also usеd with с/l. Not аII studeпts hаve bikes. Not аII (ofl my fтiends hауe bikes. А// is also usеd as a pronoun at thе bеginning of a sеntеnсе. AIl I wапt is somе peасе апd quiet! Аll I пeed is f,400! All I hаve is f,50! Аll is not noгmally usеd as a singlе-word objесt. Instеad Wе usе everуthiпg. TеlI me everything thсlt hаppeпеd oп your holidау. ( N О Т ф ,..) a

some Someis usеd in thе samе waу. Some is not usеd wtthпot. Some students аre eхpeсtеdto help.

10, none

.п o Wе сan lSе no with a singular noun or a plural noun. No students аrrived oп time for the lаst lessoп! No student аrrived on timе for the lаst lesson! Wе do not usе lсo if thеrе is anothеr nеgativе word. In this сasе Wе usе rz,?),. I didп,t See anу students аrriving oп time for the lаst lеsson' .

noпе Wе do not usе No of ... ot No the ... . Instеad, Wе usе пoпе of t|rcor ttolrcon i|s own. Nonе of the guests аrе here yet. , ,Were therе апy lеtters for me?, Sorrу, пone for уou. .alе,. Тhis is morе Notе that in thе first еxamplе thеrе is a plural vетb сommon, although a singular vеrb is possiblе.

T4I


r : lNт ЕRlvtЕD l A т Е

L A NGU A GЕ

P RA с т I с Е

i

i

ll

Тo еmphasizе the idеa of пonewе сan usе пone аt аll, ot rlot one|ot пot а ... . ,How mаny peoplewеresurftпg?,) ,Noпe аt аll! , ,Hotvmаnу peopleweresurfiпg?,) ,Not oпе! , ,Hott,mаnуpеoplewеresurfing?,) ,Nof о singleoпe!,

I

i

i

i

;'

Othег еxamplеs: Хot one persoп hаs doпeаny homеwork! I ltсп,еn,thаd а siпglephoпe-саlltodау.

i

tI l

tI I ilfi

eoсh, еverу

It

t

tI

.

fi

fl' I fi,

t

I, i' ll i

! lt

fl'ery \\е usе everywhеn wе think of all thе mеmbеrs of a group togethеr. Evеry boх wаs wrаppediп сolourеdpapеr. \\Ъ сannot saу еverуof. \\е сannot t|Seeveryaftеr thе subjесt,or at thе еnd of a sеntеnсе.

llI ii

tI

I' II Ifi

еL7сJl

\\.еusе еасh whеn wе think of thе mеmbеrs of a group sеparatеly,onе by onе. Sltе spеntsome time tаIkiпg to eаch pеrsoп in the room. Еосlt is oftеn usеd with one, There-weretenpeople iп the room' Eаch one wаs weаriпg сl hаt. Еасltof ... сan bе usеd. Еасh of уou ссt|1саrry oпepаrсel. Еt'tсllсarl bе usеd aftеr thе subjесt,or at thе еnd of a Sеntеnсе. I4у sisters eаch hаve their otцlnroom, Мy uпсlegаve my brotherапd I $50 eаch' (= gavе $50 to еaсh of us.)

fl

l

Тhе mеaning of еасh and everyis similar and oftеn еithеr word is possiblе. Thеr arе both followеd by a singular noun. Еасh person iп the room wаs weаriпgа hаt' Еvery person iп thе room was weаringа hаt.

both' еithеr' nеithеr

I

both Bofli rеfетsto two things and mеans ,thе onе and thе othеr,. It is usеd with а plural noun and vеrb. Note thе struсturеsand positions. Both people/Both the people/Both of the people in the room wereweаriпg ltсlts.

fi t

The people iп the rоom utereboth weаrtng hоts. Тlrcrеwere two peoplе iп the room. Both (of them)wereweаriпghаts, Both of уou саn help mе. You саn both help me.

I

t.

t42


GRAll|мAR

36

DЕтER I U l l N ER s

AND

P R o N o u Ns

.

eithеr Еither mеans ,this onе or thе othеr onе,. It is followеd by a singular noun and vеrb. Wе caп pаint it уeеn or blue. Either colour mаtсhesthе lуаIls. .еnd, or .sidе, thеn thе But notе that whеn wе use eitherwith thе words mеaning сhanges to both. Thеreаre treеson either side of the street. Wе сan :шsеeithеr of, Either of the books will be very usфI.

t

neither Neithermеans .not this onе or thе other onе,. We саn,tpаint it greenor blue.Neither сolour mаtсhesthe wаIls. Thereаr? treeson пeither side of the street, Neither of these books wiII be very useful.

r43


l Nт ER1t.|E D l A т E

tA NG

1

U A G E PRA C т I с Е

Undeгline the сorreсt word or рhrase in еaсh sentеnсе. a) b) с) d) е) f)

2

Thеrе wеre noпe/цgpeoplе at the bus stop. Мy two brothеrs eасh/everyhavе thеir own сar. N.ofonе/I'lotno studеnt has сomе latе this wееk! Someof/Somerеstaurantsсhargе еxtrа for brеad. Sоrry, but I сan,t hеat either/neitherof you propеrly. \Vhеn I got on my bikе I notiсеd that both фres/evеrytyrе werе flat.

Put one suitablеword in еaсh spaсe. a) I sеnt lеttеrsto tеn pеoplе,but '......l..t......... .'.....!ne-....... rеpliеd! b) [,m sorry,but thеrе arе

.. tiсkеts lеft foт thе сonсеrt.

с) ..................... I atе for brеakfаstWasa banana. d) I tгiеd

but ..................... onе was сlosеd. .. thе supermarkеts,

е) I had two phonе сalls, but thеrе wеrе

.. foт you, I,m afraid.

f) Both roads lеad to thе сiW сеntrе.You сan takе ..................... onе.

3

Rеwritеeaсh sentenсеso that it has a similar meaning and сontains the word in bold. a) All thе dogs in the gardеn wеrе barking. еvеry Nobody at all сamе to thе mееting. singlе с) Not onе of my friеnds has got a сar. nonе d)

Тhis сhair is not сomfortablе, and nor is this othеr one. nеither

е) Thеге wеrеn,t any boys in thе сlass. no

0

Wе only Want to listеn to a fеw CDs. all

o\

6'

Thе two books alе intеrеsting. both

1.44


GRAtlltlAR

4

36

DЕтЕR I Y | l N ЕR s

AND

PRoNoUNs

Completеthe seсond sentеnсeso that it has a similarmеaningto thе first sentenсе. a) Thеsе books arеn,t intеrеsting.

ga.k.. ll / g.r.c. inte.rнt.ul...'........... шonе ....df .thr,:.g.'b.

b) You havе only tеn minutеs lеft.

All ............. с) Thе hotеls wеrе both unsuitablе. Nеither d) No onе rеpliеd to my lеttеr.

Not a ......... е) Paul and his brothет David arе ill. Both .......... Nobody in thе tеam playеd badly. All ............. g) Thе poliсе sеarсhеdall thе housеs in thе strееt. Еvеry ......... h) Not all thе quеstions in thе tеst WеIeеasy. Somе .....'...

5

Undеrlinethe сorreсtсontinuationof eaсh sеntenсe. a) Wе lookеd at two diffеrеnt housеs but ... 1 both of thеm wеrе too small. 2 еithеr of thеm Was too small. b) Liz invitеd a dozеn guеststo hеr party but ... 1 no turnеd up.

2 nonе turnеd up.

с) Hеlеn and Mark arе wеll bеhavеd, but plеasе lеt mе know if 1 both of thеm misbеhavе.

2 еithеr of thеm misbеhavеs.

d) Мiсhaеla fееls so tirеd bесausе shе ...

1 didn,t slееp for a singlе momеnt.

2 slеpt all for a momеnt.

е) Writе down thе numbеr of the саг on this list ... 1 еaсh timе onе passеs. 2 all thе timе onе passеs. How many pгеsеntsdid you gеt on уouг biгthda}-?... 1 onе at all. 2 Nonе аt all.

s) Thеrе wеrе tеn pеoplе standing at thе bus stop and ...

1 all pеoplе had umbrеllas. 2 еaсh onе had an umbrеlla.

h) Wе wrotе all our answеrs оn thе blaсkboaгd but ...

1 no onе of us was right.

2 nonе of us lvas right.

145


Explanations Adjесtives

Adjесtivеs dеsсribе a noun and arе usеd in front of nouns. Тhеy havе thе form for singular and plural. Thеy do not сhangе for malе and fеmalе.

Order of

r

adjeсtivеs

Whеn wе havе morе than onе adiесtivе, Wе usе this ordеr: Opinion Sizе A8е Shapе Tеmpеraturе Сo1our Мatеrial Purposе(whatit is for?) Final noun

lovеIy,difftсult lаrge,long old, sесoпd-hапd round,square hot, сold greeп,blue woodеп,plаstiс swimming pool swimmiпgpool

Hеrе arе somе еxarnplеs: (agе,matеrial, purposе, noun) Ап old lеаthеrfootbаIlboot. A lovеlуgrееnsilk shirt. (opinion, сolouц matеrial, noun) It is not advisablеto put morе than thrее adjесtivеstogеthеr.

G r adabl e adjесtives

r

In thе .matеrial,and ,purposе,сatеgоriеsWе сan havе nouns usеd as adjесtivеs: plаstiс, steеI,swimming,footbаlI.

r

Look at this sеquеnсе: boiliпg

hot wаrm сool сold

frееzinE

Adiесtivеs in thе middlе of thе sеquеnсеarе сallеd .gradablе,.Wе сan makе thеm strongеr or wеakеr with words |ikе very,а bit, eхtremelу.

Adjесtivеs at thе еnd of thе sеquеnсе arе сallеd .non-gradablе,. Wе сannot makе thеm strongеr or wеakеr bесausе thеy arе alrеady еxtlеmе. But wе сaп еmphasisе thеm with аbsolutеIу. I t wа s а b so lutelуbo iI inginА thеnslаstw eek.(No Тф) Adjе сt i ve s е n d i n g

Adjесtives еnding -lng dеsсribе somеthing that wе arе rеaсting to (outsidе

-ing and -еd

us ). .\d1есtir-еsеnding -eri dеsсribе our fееlings and rеaсtions (insidе us). .\1r'rt'ork tсls tiring. It mоdemе tired.

Тltis fllttt is iпterestiпg. I,m iпterested in thе film' othеrs of thе samе kind aтe:ехсited/ехсitiпg, embаrrаssed/embаrrаssiпg, worriеd/worry,itt g, bored/boring.

l

t46


GRAtltlAR

ld|eсtives with bg

r

[trт'omе, feеl, look

37

A o | Ес тl v Е5

AND

A Dv ЕR B5

Adjесtives сan bе usеd on their own, without a noun, aftеr thеsе vеrbs. Sue hаs become riсh. This beаch is fапtаstiс! ill! You look I feel terrible! If wе usе morе than onе adiесtivе, notе thе usе of сommas and thе rr'ord 'and': Sue hаs beсomehаppу апd riсh' Sue hаs bесomehаppy, rtсh аnd fаmous. Wе сan lsе oпe instеad of rеpеating a noun. I like уour new сoаt. It,s а rеаllу lovelу one! Оt Advеrbs dеsсribе a vеrb. An advеrb says how (quickly),whеn (tomoog1vl) whете (overthеre)somеthing happеns. Many ,how, advеrbs arе formеd by adding -Iу to an adjесtivе. quiсk - quiсkly саreful _ саrefullу slotlt- slowly

Advеrbs

Adverbs of degreе (intensifiers)

l

Somе advеrbs havе thе samе form as adjесtivеs.Еxamplеs inсludе: fаst, hаrd, eаф, lаte, high, Iow,right, wroпg' This trаiп is very fаst, (adi) This trаiп goesfоst. (adv) It wаs а very hаrd question.(adj) We wоrkedhаrd. (adv)

r

Notе that thе advеrb hаrdlу is not rеlatеd to thе mеaning of hаrd. I сould hаrdlу Stапdup. (.hardly, = almost not)

r

Rеmеmbеr that frеquеnсy advеrbs сomе aftеr be and auxiliaтiеs,but bеforе othеl vеrbs. Kаtherine is пeуer lаte, She hаs пever аrrived lаte. Kаtherine пevеr аrrives Iаtе.

r

Advеrbs of dеgrееarе usеd with adjесtivеsto dеsсribе how muсh. Peter is very/reallу/ехtremelу hoppy аt his пew sсhool. othеr advеrbs of dеgrее are:.а little, а bit, quite, terriblу.

-J.47


l Nт ЕRlt'lED l A т E

L A NG U A G Е PRA (т ! с Е

Put eaсh group of words into the best order. a) old a plastiс largе bag grееn

...1...l4rg9..o.[d.з.rз*r*..p[Ntp.a,.hqlg

b) woodеn squarе two tablеs с) rеd a drеss silk bеautiful d) silvеr a of jugs antiquе pair е) bowl small a plastiс

f) winding road сountry long a g) boots somе old football dirty h) сotton long a skirt yеllow i) squееzеdсold juiсе a freshly glass orangе of

2

Underlinе the сorreсt adjесtive in eaсh sentenсe. а) b) с) d) е) f; g) h) i)

l сan,t drink this tеa! It,s wаrm/b-oiliц*! Look at that skysсrapеr! It,s lаrge/gigапtiс! Jill сouldn,t drivе any furthеr that day as she Was so tired/tiriпg. I lovе summеr evеnings whеn at last it fеels cool/freezing. Тhе first part of thе film was rеa||уeхсited/ехcitiпg. That was thе bеst play I,vе еvеr sееn. It was good/fапtаstiс' You |ook ulorried/ulorrying.Isanything thе mattеr? Wе won,t go сamping until thе wеathеr is moте boiliпg/wаrmеr. If you fee\ bored/boring,whу don,t wе go to thе сinеma? in anсiеnt history. i) I didn,t think you wete interestеd/interesting

148


GRAlt.|i.lAR

3

з7

^ D| Eс тl v Еs

AND

A Dv ER Bs

Rewrite eaсh sentenсe so that it has a similar meaning and сontains the word in bold. a) Thе old сouplе livеd togеthеr and wеrе happy. happily

...Th*..q!d..сo.*B!е..Liуed,..hqBp'i!у..tpgp'.thr,.у

b) This has bееn haтd work for you. workеd с) Chris and Paul arе slow walkеrs. walk d) Gеorgia is a good pianist. plays е) Suе is a graсeful danсеr. danсеs

0 Katе is ill. wеll g) Мiсhaеl,s skating wаs wondеrful. skates h) Мary is a сarеful writеr. writеs D Alеx didn,t slееp wеll. slеpt i) Ann сomplеtеd thе сoursе with suссеss. suссеssfully

149


lNт ERмEDlAт Е

tA NGu A GE

4

P RA с т ! CE

Completе eaсh sentenсe with one of thе words from the box. Usе еaсh word onсe only.

a)

Whеn I hеard that Suzannah had passеdhеr driving test I was rеally

...l,gBpу',..''' .

and nеvеr stеpson pеoplе,sfееt. b) Jaсk danсеsvеry ........... .. kееp his еyеs opеn. с) Аlan Was so tirеd that hе сould .. , but wе didn,t likе thе food in thе rеstaurant. d) Тhе hotеl was and spеnt a month in hospital. е) Alison was еxtrеmеly..................... and was stoppedby thе poliсе. f) Jonn,vwas dтiving too ..................... .. good. 8) It,s not a wondеrful film, but it,s and was givеn an еxtra holiday. h) Gina lтогkеdvегy ........... i) Whеn I rеalizеdI hadn,t paid for thе сoat, I felt .......... еxpеnsivе. i) I сan't affoгdto buy that bike bесausеit,s ..................... 5

Underline thе еrrors in thesе sentenсes.Rewrite eaсh sentenсе. a) Pеtеr has bееn n'orking very haтdl}z

.................. ..l,.g rd.: ..hц..b.gt..у.p.rBiш..уr:rУ. .'.Pst.pr

b) Мy sistеr bought mе a bluе lovеly woollеn swеatеr. с) This book I,m rеading is еxtrеmеly еxсеllеnt. d) David fеlt badly bесausе he,d shoutеd at his mothеr.

е) Еvеryonе in thе tеam playеd good. f) Too muсh еxеrсisесan makе you fееl tiring.

s) Paula fеlt happily when hет еxams Wеrеovеr. h) Hans has arrivеd latе at sсhoоl nеvеr.

i) Onе boxеr hit thе othеr rеally hardly right on thе сhin. i) I,m not rеally intеrеsting in this сar.

150


I

Explanations Сomparatives and superlativеs: me ani ng

Сomparativеs and

Comparativеs сomparе two sеparatеthings. Моry is а better plаyer thап Мoпiса. Supеrlativеsсomparе onе thing in a group With all thе othеrs. Sаrаh is the best plауеr in the teаm. r

Onе syllablе Compaтativе adjeсtivеswith onе syllablе arе normally formеd by adding -er to thе adjесtivе.In onе syllablе words еnding with onе сonsonant, thе final сonsonant is doublеd. Words еnding in сonsonant + -y сhangе -y to -i. big _ bigger dry _ drier Iопg_ Ioпger Supеrlativеadjесtivеsarе normally formed by adding -estto thе adjесtivе. big - the biggest dry - the driest Iong- the longest

r

Two or morе syllablеs Comparativе adjесtivеswith two or morе syllablеs arе normally formеd with morе. intеrestiпg_ more intеresting modеrп_ more modern Supеrlativеadjесtivеsarе normally formеd with most, iпterestiпg_ the most interesting moderп- thе most modern

supеrIativеs:form

Somе adiесtivеswith two syllablеs сan bе formеd in еithеr way. oR the сommonest сommoпer сommoп more сommoп thе most сommorт сo|nlnorl othеr еxamplеs inсlude: quiet,tired,сlever,polite,simple' r

lrrеgularforms

Notе from thе еxamplеs abovе Ihat thе is usеd with supеrlatives.Thе + supеrlativе сan also bе usеd without a noun. Sаrаh is the best swimmer. Sаrаh is the best'

Notе thе following irrеgular forms:

the best the worst bаd the fаrthеst/furthest fаrther/further fаr thе leаst less little thе most moчe much/mапу And thеrе is а spесial usе of o/d to dеsсribе family mеmbегs that has an irrеgular form: the eldеst elder oId

good

bettеr worse

This is mу elder brother' |апe is their eldest dаttghter.

151


lNт ERП , lЕDlAт E

Adverbs

L A NGU A GE

P RA с т I (E

сommon In gеnетaladvетbsfollow the same rulеs as adjесtivеs,although many short advеrbs сan makе сomparativеs in two ways. Сould you drive slower, plеаsе? Сould you drivе more slowlу, pleаse? Саn уou work quiсker? Саn you-workmore quickly? loud, Advеrbs that сan usе bоth forms likе this inсludе: eаrly,fаr, fаst, hаrd, lаte, quick,slow.

Making сomparisons

l

Thаn is usеd with сomparativеs. Mаry is betteт thаn Mопiса. Маry is а better plаyer than Мoniса.

r

Notе that ъ,hеn we сomparе aсtions, Wе usе an auxiliary at thе end of thе sеntеnсе. (NoT ... tш+цояiа+lар) Маry,plауs betterthаn Мoniса does. (NoT ... thаtl I llаъ'е dвпe) Yo|t,l,еdone more ууoтkthаn I hаvе. Wе сan also say: Маry plаys better thаn Мoniса' You,vedonemorework thоn me.

lntеnsifiеrs

r52

l

justaS ... сlsis usеd whеn wе сomparе two еqual things. Mаry is just аs good аs Саthy. Маry is just аs good а plаyer аs Саthу.

l

not аS ... сlSis usеd whеn wе сomparе two things that arе not equal. Саthу is not аS good аs Маry' Саthу is t|ot аS good а plаyer аs Моry.

r

As wеll as saying morethаn, Wе сan also say lеssthаn. This gаme is tnore interesting thап the lаst oпе. I think this gаmе is less iпteresting than thаt oпe.

с Wе сan usе advеrbs of degrееto make сomparisons. Advеrbs of dеgrееinсludе: bit, muсh, а lot, fаr. This house is much/а lot/far biggerthап thаt oпе. Thе ItаIiаn ftlm wаs tnuch more iпtercsting thап this one. That film wаs fаr less frighteпing thаn this oпe.


GRA м luA R

1

сo ]t,lP A Rlso Ns

Underlinethe сorreсtWord or phrasein еaсh sentеnсе. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

2

38 м A кlNG

Thе fish was so tаsty аS/цstаsц--цsthе mеat. moreiпtеrestingI,vе еvеr геad. This book is the most interеstiпg/the in Еuropе. This tеmplе is thе eldest/oldest That drеss is a lot longer thап/thаtthе othеr onе. than bеing stuсk in a traffiс jam. Nothing is worse/worsf That skysсrapеris onе of thе tаllеr/tаllestbuildings in thе world. Thе tеst Wasn,tаs hаrd аs/hаrdсs I thought. Aсtuаlly, today I fеe| more bаd/worsethan I did yеstеrday. our journеy tooklonger thаn/thelongestwе еxpесtеd. Сould you work morequietlу/morequietеrplеasе?

Completе еaсh sentеnсewith a сomparative or superlativeform of the adjесtivе in bold. lnсlude any other neсessarywords.

rivеrin thеworld. a) ThеNilе is ..th*.'!l.ryэ.Ч.t.................. lоng b) I was disappointеd as thе film was

.... than I

еxpесtеd. entеrtaining ....trains.

с) Most planеs go a lot fast

......... days of thе yеar.

Wasonе of .............. d) Yеstеrday hot

....thе othеr onе.

е) I think this book is muсh good f) Thе twins arе thе samе hеight. Tim is

.... Suе.

tall g) Thе first еxеrсisеWas еasy but this onе is diffiсult ....thе Paсifiс Oсеan.

h) Thе Меditеrranеanis not largе i) This сlassroomis ............... ttig j) This is ...............

........ thе onе nеxt door.

........ tеlеvisionprogrammеI,vееvеrwatсhеd.

bad

153


lNт ERIшЕDlAт E

L A NGU A GЕ

3

P RA с т l с Е

Complеte the seсond sentenсе so that it has a similar meaning to the first 5entenсe. a) David is a bеtter runnеr than Paul.

Paulis not...g{.3 !.p'd..g'..rr'ш.e:..4.s...2q

b) Nobody in thе сlass is tallеr than Alison. Alison is the ......... с) I havеn,t writtеn as muсh as you. You,vе writtеn d) Janе,shair isn,t as long as Sophiе,s. Sophiе,shair is е) No studеnt in thе sсhool is noisieт than I am! I,m thе Г) This еxhibition is muсh morе intеrеsting than thе last onе. Тhе last еxhibition was not g) This is as fast as thе сar сan go. Тhе сar сan,t .......... h) Katе atе mцсh lеss than Andrеw did. Kаtе didn,t

4

Put one suitabteword in eaсhspaсе. yourtеam. good........g.,|......... a) our tеamis ......jц'.t....'.. .......'..4.,t........ Thеy,rе both thе samе. famous paintings in thе world.

b) This is onе of .............. с) Еvеryonеdid ..........

work........'.

Philip

d) You,rе not a safе drivеr! You should dтivе ......... е) Ann is tallеr

slowly.

tallеstin .. Мikе but thеir son Dаve is .....................

thе family. .....intеresting I,vе

f) What an awful book. It,s onе of еvеr rеad. g) It makеs no diffеrеnсе,bесausеthis road is

^, 5

my shorts. ..yеstеrday, soI,mwеaring

;;;;;;; .......::.1l.::i.'o

Correсt thе spel|ingof thеse words where nесessary. a) bigеst

t54

bad

0

fatеr

k) fiter

b) grеattеst

s) smalеst

l) tighter

с) shоrtеr

h) longеst

m) nеwеst

d) likеliest

i) harddеr

n) hеaviеr..

е) tallеst

i) wеttest

o) widdеr


GRA}TiTAR

6

3E

I uA кlNG

Co ]Y|P A RlsoNs

For eaсh question,сompletеthe sесond sеntenсеso that it mеansthе samе as the first, using no more than three words. а) Сould you not talk so fast, plеasе?

plеasе? Сouldуou''..t.lt.[K,'ry!4r9,{'L.a'w.l.Y,

b) The last film wе saw Was morе frightеning than this onе.

........as thе last onе.

This film

с) Nobody in thе сlass сooks bеttеr than Sam. Sam is

...'....in thе сlass.

d) You ran a lot fastеr than I did.

I didn't run ............

you. ...............

е) Small сars arе molе есonomiсal than largе сars. small сars.

Largесarsarе .............

0

Skating isn,t as еxсiting as skiing. Skiing is ...............

skating.

s) Riсhard doеsn,t work hardеr than Alan. Alan works just ............

Riсhard.

h) Jaсk isn,t as intеrеstеdin football as his brothеr is. Jaсk,sbrothel ............... i) Bill is thе youngеst in thе family. Еvеryonееlsе in thе fаmily i) I havеn,t еatеn as muсh as you. You'vе еatеn .........

in football than hе is. ........Bill.

155


s Еxplanation U nde r st andin g phrasal verbs

r

Thе tеrm ,phrasal r-егb' mеans a normal vеrb likе get, Iook, tсke followеd by onе or two рrеpositlons likе bасk, off, up еtс. Look at thеsе еxamplеs: | Г l е о ' t I а kе tlti; |:UtеtО tttуI еасhеr . (nоrmal r'еrb пrеaning: .to movе somеthing from onе plaсе to anothеr,) 2 Tсlkе off t't.tr sltсlеs|lеfоrеvoц сomе iп' ( p h ra s a l r - еr b п r еaning: .to r еmo \'е so mеthing,) o f 0 sto r п t. З 1 1 gt o o k o ff itt tltе tttiс1dlе l p h г a s a 1r- еr b п r еaning: .r тhеn a planе go еs up into thе air ,) \\-hеn tl.rеpтеpositiorr is addеd thе mеaning of thе original vеrb сhangеs. Soпlеtiп.lеsthеrе is still a rеlationship and you сan guеss thе mеaning (sее 2 abor-е),somеtimеs thеrе is a nеW mеaning that is сomplеtеly diffеrеnt (sее З a b o v е) .

Verbs with three parts

r

Thеrе arе diffеrеnt typеs оf phrasal vеrbs, dеpеnding on whеthеr thеrе is onе prеposition or two, and whеthеr thе vеrb and prеposition сan bе sеparatеd. In this book Grammar 38 and З9 сovеr diffеrеnt typеs.

r

Thеrе arе many phrasal vеrbs, and only a fеw сommon onеs arе givеn in thеsе two units. Whеn you sее a nеW phrasal vеrb for thе first timе you should study thе сontеxt of usе, and сhесk thе mеaning in a diсtionary. Phrasal vеrbs arе partiсularly сommon in informal writing and spеесh.

Мost of thе vеrbs in thе list bеlow nееd an objесt, and thе objесt сan only сomе at thе еnd, aftеr both thе prеpositions: I,m lookiпg forwаrd to mу holidауs. * With vеrbs markеd with an astеrisk thеrе is no objесt, and thе final prеposition is not usеd. саtсh up with* (rеaсh somеonе by going fastеr) Yоu сап rеst now сtпd саtсh up with us lоtеr. You,regoiпg too fаst! I ссlп,t саtсh up! (rеduсе thе amount of) Shеilа hсls deсided to сut down oп holidаys this уeаr. You,rе eаtiпg too mапу Sweets.You should сut dowп. сut down oп*

(visit fo т a sho r t timе) Lеt,s drop iп on Dауid while we,re iп Pаris. Thе пехt time уou,re nеаrby,plесlse do drop iп! drop iп on*

(havе a friеndly rеlationship with) get oп well with his mаths tесlсhеr. dОеSt1,t rL1|llеs g It rr'ork itl tllе sаmе offiсе, but we doп,t get on.

gеt сllottg/onwith*

156


GRAммAR

39

P н RA sA L

vER Bs

1

keepup with" (movе at thе samе spееd as) You,regoiпg too fаst! I саn,t keеp up with уott. Pаttу finds this сlаss diffiсult,аnd саn,t keep up. live up tо (bе as good as somеonе ехpесts) The ftlm didп,t live up to our eхpeсtаtioпs. look fotwаrd to (think you will еnjoy) I,m lookiпg forwаrd to goiпg on holidау this уeаr. Notе that fo is a prеposition hеrе and so is followеd by thе -itlg fotm of thе vеrb. Iook out onto/over (havе a viеw of) our hotel room looks out ot|to the lаke. put up with (aссеptwithout сomplaining) I cап,tput up with аll this noise! ruп out of (havе no morе of) I thiпk the саr is аbout to run out of petrоl! Thereisп,t аnу morеmilk. We,уerun out. Verbs with two parts:transitive аnd inseparable

Thеsе phrasal vеrbs takе an objесt (thе word for this is ,transitivе,).Thе objесt must сomе aftеr thе prеposition, not bеtwееn thе vеrb and thе prеposition (thе word for this is .insеparablе,). саlI for (сomе to your housе and сollесt) We,lIcаll for уou аbout8.00 so pleаsebe reаdу. (NoT a]a+юн#) саIl on (visit for a short timе) I саIIed on Profеssor|ones аnd wished her а Hаppу Birthdау. deаIwith (takе aсtion to solvе a problеm) Сould уou deаl with this сustomer,sproblempleаse? get аt (try to say, suggеst) Hеleп сouldп,t uпderstапdwhаt her boss wаs gеtting аt. get over (rесovеrfrom) Peterwаs ill with f7u,but hе'sgettiпg over it пo-w' heаdfor (gо in thе dirесtion o0 The esсаpеdprisoneris thoughtto be headiпg for Loпdotl. join in (takе part in, сontributе to) When Aleх stаrtеdsitlgittg,a'еry'ollеioiпed iп. seeto (pay attеntion to, оftеn mеaning .геpair,) The brаkesoп your саr needseeing to. stаnd for (tolетatе) I will not stапd for so muсh tаIkitlg! tаkеаfter (bе similaт in appеaтanсеor сharaсtеr) Kаren tаkes аfter her mothеr.They,revеry similаr. 157


r INт ERп nEDlAт E

tA NGU A GE

P RA C т IC Е

iri

t Complеtе еaсh sentеnсe(a-h) with an ending (1_8). a) If you havе any kind of problеm, iust сall mе and I,1ldеal b) I,vе bееn so busy latеly that I,vе dесidеd to сut

3

с) Ann and Suе arе rеally looking d) our tеасhеr told us that shе would not stand е) Nеarly еvеrybody says that Мark takеs fl Jaсkiе is vеry ftiеndly and gеnеrally gеts g) Half-way through thе raсе, Мartin found that he сouldn,t kееp ........... h) Wе wеrе told that thе сonсеrt was going to bе good but it didn,t livе ........... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2

for сhеating in our еnd-of-tеrmtеst. on wеll with thе pеoplе shе works with. with it as soon as I сan. aftеr his fathет,ssidе of the family. down on thе amount of timе I spеnd watсhing tеlеvision. up with thе othегs any morе. up to our еxpесtations at all. forward tо sееing you both again in July.

Undеrlinethе сorreсtprepositionin еaсh sеntеnсе. a) Сan you еxplain that again? I don,t know what you,те gеtting ф/with/d b) Hе,s a vеry striсt tеaсhеr.Hе doеsn,t stand for/up/withany bad bеhaviour in сlass. с) I еnjoyеd London, but it didn,t rеally livе up to/with/formy еxpесtations. d) I smokе 20 сigarеttеs a day, but I,m trying to сut off/through/down. е) I think shе has got over/by/downthе brеak-up with hеr boyfriеnd. 0 I,ll сa||bу/iп/foryou at еight o,сloсk, аnd thеn wе,ll go to thе party togеthеr. g) I,m going сrazy! I сan,t pttt off/up/doууnwith so muсh сonfusion! h) I,m luсky, I gеt oп/off/overrea||уwеll with my сollеaguеs. i) If you miss too many lеssons,it,s diffiсult to сatсh over/щ/with. i) It,s diffiсult to kееp аloпglbу/upwith сhangеs in bio-tесhnology. k) Мy сar needs a serviсе - thе еnginе neеds sееing iп/to/аt' of ink. l) Thе printеI is working, but it,s run аwау/out/dowп

158


GRA}liiAR

E

3

39

PнRAsAL

l

v ЕRBs

Complete eaсh sentenсewith a suitableform of onе of thе phrasalverbs in the box. Use eaсh one onсe only. gеt on with in on forwатd to run out of a)

:r',,1:::il:iii;;lll

ll,p..t'q....... m}.ехpесtation s. Thеbookyoulеnt .,.d'idi.t.,.|уvp.. ^"

b) Any timе you,rе in thе arеa,fееl freе to

....u5.

orangеjuiсе. \\:ouldr-оu likе somе

с) Soтry,wе havе .......... watеr? d) Unfortunatеly Susiе doеsn,t

.... hег nеrr.nеighbouгs.

е) Bill lеft bеforе I did, but I ran and

0

I,m rеally

'... him' .... my holiday in Italy nеxt rд-ееk.

s) It was a diffiсult сlass,and I сouldn,t

....thе othег

studеnts. h) You should

4

.... smoking if you сan,t stop сomplеtеlv.

Rewrite eaсh sеntеnсe so that it does not сontain the words in itoliсs,but does сontain a phrasa!verb. a) Brian and his mothеr аrе vеrysimilаr'

.,'P.r'Lзw..t.q.krд''ъft.er..b'll...унthr-:'

b) Thеrе isп,t апy food left! с) Мikе and Tom аrеп,tverygood fтiеnds' d) Jеan is very good at hаndliпgpеoplе,sproblems, е) Thе handlеbars on my bikе nееd fiхiпg. fl Julia Was vеry ill, but she,s reсovеrednow. g) What еxaсtly arе you suggesting? h) Paul,s nеw sсhool wаSrt,tаs good аs hе eхpeсtedit to be.

159


lNт ER1YtEDlAтЕ

tANGuAGЕ

5

PR A C т I с E

Rewritе eaсh sentenсe so that it has a similar meaning and сontains the word in bold. a) Somеone needs to look at thе сеntral hеating systеm. seeing

...1.!*'.сp.lзt.rg.|.'hpg.&ш.'tу.tt.o..|у.L...ц{44.{..'tz+i|

b) Lеt,s pay a surprisеvisit to Julia whilе wе,rе hеrе. drop с) Wе,rе going in thе dirесtion of Paris. hеading d) our hotеl room has a viеw of thе main road!

looks е) Two сhildrеn startеdplaying, and thеn thе othеrs playеd too. Ioinеd Wе paid a visit to my aunt on hеr birthday. сallеd

s) I,m afraid that wе

havеn't got any eggs lеft.

run h) Мoniсa will сomе and сollесt you at 6.30.

сall

D Nobody understood what I was trying to say. gеtting I сan,t bеar so muсh air pollution! put

160


Еxplanations Чelrbs with two piаrt.s:transitive arпdsеparabIе

Тhis obiесt Thеsе phrasalvеrbs takе an objесt (thе word for this is ,transitir.е't. сan сomе aftеr thе prеposition or bеtwееn thе vеrb and thе pгеpositiоn rso thе vеrbs arе,sеparablе,). We brought up this сhild. We brought hеr up. In gеnеral, as in thе еxamplеs abovе, objесt phrasеstеnd to bе put aftег thе prеposition whilе pronouns (suсh aS уoщ it, him, her,uS, them) arе alи'ar.sput bеtwееn thе vеrb and thе prеposition. briпg up (look aftеr a сhild until adult) Tom,sаunt brought him up аfter his pаreпts diеd. cаll off (сanсеl) The sсhool саlled off the mаtch bесаuseof bаd weаther, сIeаrup (makе сlеan and tidy) Сould you hеlp mе сIeаr up the room аfter thepаrty? сut off (bе disсonnесtеd during a phonе-сall) I,d just got throughto Delhi wheп I wаs cut off. This is usually usеd in thе passivе. filI in (сomplеtе by writing) Сould you ftlI this forrп in with аIl уour detаils,pleаse? give up (stоp doing somеthing) Pаul hаd to give up уmпаstiсs beсаuseof iпjury. kпoсkout (makе unсonsсious) Bryson knocked his opponeпt out iп the seсoпdrouпd. Iеtdowп (disappoint, fail to kееp a promisе) Аnn sаid she would help,but she let me down. look up (find information in a rеfеrenсеbook) I looked this word up in а diсtionаrу апd in аn enсуclopediа' piсk up (сollесt in a сar) The tахi wiIIpick you up аt 6.З0. put off (postponе) The wеаtherwаs bаd, so theуput off the mаtсh for а weеk. put up (providе aссommodation in somеonе,shousе) A frieпd in Prаguеput me up for а сoupleof пights.

761


lNт ERlY lED l A т E

L A NGu A GE

PRA C т lс Е

tаke up (start a hobby or aсtiviф Sаm hаs iust tаken up pаrасhutiпg. try oп (put on сlothеs to seе if thеy aте suitablе) I tried the coаt oп, but it was too big апd thе wrong сolour. turn oп/off (bеgin or stop opеrating еlесtriсal еquipmеnt) Don,t forgetto tutn off thе light beforeуou go to bеd. wаsh up (сlean plates, knivеs and forks еtс.) Аfrer thepаrф, Mаrtin'wаshed up аIl theglаsses. Verbs with two parts: intransitivе

Thеsе phrasal vеrbs do not havе an objесt. brеаkdown (stop working, еspесially сars) Thе саr broke dowп when we wеreoп the motor.wау' drop out (stop beforе you finish) Two of the runnersilropped out hаlf-wау throughthe rасе' get oп (makе progrеss) Ninа likes her new сollege,апd is gettiпg on ууeII. get аwау (esсapе) Оne of the burglаrswаs саught,but thе othergot аwсtу. rrow up (сhangе from a сhild to an adult) I grew up iп а smаIl town iп Peru. set off/out (begin a journеy) We set off eаф to аvoid the traffiс. tаke off (whеn a planе lеavеs thе gтound) Оur plапe took off more fuаn thrеehours lаte. turn uР (агтivе, often unехpесtеdly) We inуitеd twentуpеople,but oпIy five turned up.

L62


GRA м ttiA R

40

P H RA sA t

vERBs 2

Complete eaсh sеntanсеwith onе suitab]еword. a) Jеss askеdif shе сould hеlp mе b) I nееd a diсtionary, so I сan

ltЪ'r!э,''.....up thе diгty dishеs. .. up this word.

с) If I Wеrеyou I,d ..................... off еarly bесausеЕdinburgh is a long way. d) our mееting tomorrow has bееn

.. off, I,m afraid.

е) I,m not surе about thе sizе of this сoat, so сan I .......... f) Robеrt had to

it on?

.. in a foгm, giving all his pеrsonal dеtails.

g) You,ll nеvеr guеsswho ...........

up at our sсhool party last wееk!

h) Six pеoplеappliеdfor thе job, but onе of thеm ..................... out. Rewriteeaсh sentеnсеso that it has a similarmeaning and сontainsthe word in bold. a) Don,t lеavе the lights on whеn you lеavе thе sсhool. turn

..........T.у+.суу..the..|g.hts...qff..w.h*ru.у.q!{..L9fl'.V.f

b) Jaсk aтrivеd half-way through thе lеsson. turn с) You сan stay with us foг a wееk. put d) Мarta is doing wеll in hеr Еnglish сlass.

gеt е) Lidia spеnt hеr сhildhood in Uтuguay. grеW

fl How do you start thе сomputеr? turn

s) Сarol сhесkеd thе datеs in an еnсvсlоnеdia. look h) Surfing is a grеat sport. Whеn did you staгt doing it? takе

163


lNт ЕRIvtED ! A т Е

tA NGU A GЕ

PRA с т l ( Е

Comp|eteеaсh sentеnсe(a_h)with an ending (l-8). a) It,s\,еryсold and wеt at thе momеnt So Wеlvеput ....3.... b) Маr}z'spalеnts wеrе quitе striсt and brought hеr ........... с) \buг room is vеry untidy! Сould you сlеar d) I tvas talking to Hеlеn whеn suddеnly wе WеIесut е) Zoе triеd to pеrsuadеhеr mothеr to givе fl Тim startеdpainting his room this morning and hе,s gеtting gt If vou likе, wе сould сomе and piсk ht \ branсh of a trее fеll and knoсkеd 1 it up plеasе,and put еvеrything away. ? Pеtеr out for a fеw momеnts. З off our gardеn party until nеxt wееk' -1 up smoking, but shе didn,t havе muсh suссеss. 5 on vеry wеll so far. 6 off and I сouldn,t gеt hеr numbеr aftеr that. ] r'ou up in our сar at about 7.00. 8 up to bе vеry politе and obеdiеnt.

G

dr

t64


Underlinе thе сorreсt word or рhrase in еaсh sеntеnсе. a) I think my sсhool is just аs good/bе.ttеtthan yours. b) Thеrе arе еnough applеs for onе eасh/еvery. с) Sharon has bееn wоrking verу hаrd/hаrdly. d) Сould you givе me ап/somе information, plеasе? е) Тhis тs thе bеst/betteriсе-сtеam in thе worldl f) I,vе bееn working in this сompany for/sinсe thrеe months. g) Thеrе are пo/пoпе еggs lеft in thе fridgе. h) Thе news is/аre on in a fеw minutеs.

2

Dесide whiсh answer (A, B, с or D) best fits eaсh spaсе. Lifе on thе fоrm I wa s ( 1 ) ....P.....by r ny unсlе and aunt and (2) '.....'....o n a small far m in thе wеst of Еngland. I think it WaS bеttеr (3) ...........living in a сity, bесausе (4) ...........day I ran about in thе opеn air. (5)

I wеnt to sсhool,

my aunt and unсlе ( 6 ) ........... I d i d w as play o n thе far m all day. (7) ........... workеd with thе animals, and although thеy workеd vеry (8)

, thеy

always еxplainеd (9) ....'......things to mе. Thеy didn't havе (10) b u t t h е y ( 1 1 ) ...........w еllw ith еvеr yo nеl and w е didn,t havе (12)

monе,Y, of thе

problеms of living in thе сity. I always fеlt (13)

on thе farm. Thеrе lтas

( 1 4 ) ........... n o i s е o r po llutio n, and it w as (15)

pеaсеful. Тhat,s pr ob ab lr-

why I bесamе a farmеr whеn I was oldеr.

1) A livеd up to 2) A grеw up 3) Aas 4) Aеvеry 5) Aby 6) Aеvеry 7) AЕithеr 8) Ahardly 9) Aintеrеsts 10) Amuсh 11) A droppеd in 12) Ahappily 1З) ^muсh 14) Аarry 15) Atoo

B takеn aftеr B ioinеd in Bmorе Bin BnowadaYs Bеaсh BBoth Bhardеr Bintеrеsting Blots B got along Bnonе Bahappy B no Bmuсh

C tur nеd up

D bгo ughт uр D put o ii

C than

D thе

С for

D bоth

С in timе

D unti1

С no nе

D a]l

С Nеithеr

D \1i

С har d

D har dеs t

С intеr еst

D intеI еs tеd

С manl-

D too

С kеpt uр

D dеalt with

Сno

D any

С hapрi

D thе happy

С no nе о f

D no t

С rеa]h-

D as

С gr o w n up

165


INт ЕRrvlEDlAтЕ

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PRA с т l C E

For еaсh question,сomplеtethе seсondsentenсеso that it meansthe same аs the first. using no more than thrеe words. a) Thеsе сlassroomsarеn,tvеry largе. хor.e .,.!f .t.!*:e

сlassroomsarе vеry largе.

b) Luсa won,t lеavе hеrе bеforе thе еnd of April. Luсa will bе hеrе

thе еnd of Aоril.

с) Wе don,t allow smoking in this сinеma. No .............

in this сinеma.

d) Can you tеll mе what you think I should do? Сan you givе mе

....'........ ?

е) Yоu,vе bееn waiting longer than I havе. I havеn,tbееn waiting ................

you havе.

f) It,s 4.00 noщ and I startеdwaiting hеrе two hоurs ago. l,vе bеen waitinghеrе '..........

..2'ОО.

g) All сlassroomsmust bе kеpt сlеan. Еaсh ..........

...must bе kеpt сlean.

h) Мost of thе сlasswalks to sсhool. Most of thе сlassсomеs tо sсhool i) This is as far as Wе сan go along this road. Wе сan,tgo ..............

along this road.

j) Тhе firе brigadе arrivеd too latе to saYеthе burning housе. Thе firе brigadеdidn,t arrivе .........

....to savеthе

burning housе. Rewriteеaсh sеntеnсеso that it сontainsа form of a phrasalverb using thе word in bo]d. Makе any othеr neсessaryсhangеs. a) You сan сomе and stay with mе. put

...I. сaw..p. иt..уi14..|4,Р'.... b) Сarlos сan't stand thе traffiс anymorе.

put с} Pеtеris making good progrеssat univеrsity. gеt d ) I,il tidy up thе room if you do thе washing-up.

сlеar

166


GRAмIl|AR

41

с o N s o t l DA тl o N

4

е) Wе,rе going in thе dirесtion of Madrid. hеad Why don,t you sеarсh for this word in thе diсtionarr-? look

s) Janе is vеry similar to hеr fathеr. takе h) Kеlly,s fathеr is trying to stоp srnoking. givе

5

Look сarefulIyat еaсh line. Some lines are сorreсtbut somе havе a word whiсh shouIdnot bе there.тiсk (/) eaсh сorreсt line. lf a linе has a word whiсh should not bе therе, write the word in the spaсe. Holidаy problеms Last month wе dесidеd to drivе to Sсotland for a

1 ..........{........

fеw days, for a short holiday. Wе wеrе thе rеally

2

looking it forward to a quiеt rеst in thе сountry.

3

Unfortunatеly, a lots of things wеnt wrong. First of all, thе сar WaSbrokе down iust aftеr wе had lеft

4 .....................

homе, and we had to phonе a garagеand thеn

6

wait by thе sidе of thе rоad for hours ago. By thе

7

timе thе сar had bееn rеpairеd,it was toо muсh latе

8

to go on, so Wе Wеnt thе homе. Thе nеxt day wе sеt

9

thт

5 .....................

off morе еarly to avoid thе traffiс, but wе had forgottеn that it was a publiс holiday. Еvеry onе singlе pеrson

10

in thе сountry must havе had thе samе idea, so wе found oursеlvеsin a long traffiс jam. Wе aftеr dесidеd

T2

that thе bеst thing to do was to takе aftеr a diffеrеnt rоad, and look up for a hotеl. First wе got lost on

Т4

a narrow сountry road, and thеn thе сar onсе lan out of thе pеtгol. Finally, Wе gavе up and wеnt homе

T6

for thе sесondtimе.

18

11 1З 15 I7

t6 7


lNт ЕRrilEDlAT Е

tA NGU A GE

6

РRA с т l C E

Put one suitable word in eaсh spaсe, or leave thе spaсe b|ank. Whilе Lara was visiting (a| .,,,tk,,,,.. Unitеd Statеs, shе dесidеd to go by ( b ) ................ p l anе fr o m (с)

Nеw Yo r k to (d) ................ W еst Сoast.

Shе had alrеady stayеd with hеr friеnds (е) ................ two wееks, and thеy,d told hеr that (f) (g) Сalifornia was a morе еxсiting. ,It,s ( h ) ................ W a r mеr /and yo u,ll bе ablе to sw im in (i) ................ P aсifiс Oсеan!,, thеy said. Lara didn,t havе (i)

information about flights, so

s h е wе n t t o ( k ) .. '............. tr avеl agеnt,snеx t do o r to (l) .............''. blо сk of flats whеrе shе was staying. Shе disсovеrеd that thеrе wеrе two flights (m) ................ n е x t m o r n i n g , b u t shе сo uldn't gеt (n)

Sеat o n (o ) ................ o f thеm .

For еaсh question, сompletе the sесond sentenсe so that it mеans thе same as thе first, using no more than threе words. a) Nobody at all piсkеd up thе littеr. шot ....4..{l.Щ'L?'..........

pегSorrpiсkеd up thе littеr.

b) Thеrе isn,t any сhееsе in thе fridgе. Thеrе is

.... in thе fridgе.

с) Pеoplе who arе riсh arеn,t nесеssarily happy. Т h е ...........'

no t nесеssar ily happy.

d) Janе,s drawing is bеautiful. Janе draws е) I havеn,t sееn a Worsе film than this onе. This is

.... I havе еvеI Sееn.

f) Hеlеn lеft Paris in July. Hеlеn stayеd in Paris

8

....July.

Put one suitable word in eaсh spaсe.

a) You woтk..W!:*9!l,........ hardеr......th!!w..'... I do. b) In '........ futurе,pеoplеwill livе longеr с ) A l е х p 1 a y s .........

.. thеy do now.

guitar in ..................... r o сk band.

d ) Т h е r е i s ..................... ho t и 'atеr lеft, but thеr е isn,t........... еt Hе соuld go norт hе'd ansrr,еlеd

.. thе quеstions on

s i d е s o f t h е f о rm. f ) J o g g i n g i s n ' t .. .....''.. g) i,ll rтait hеrе

intеr еsting

.. playing tеnnis.

.. 6'00, so try and bе hеrе

h ) T h a t и .a s g rе a t l I t r vas thе.'............'...... mеal yo u,vе

168

.. thеn. .. сo o kеd !


GRA r vtгYtA R41

9

4

сo Nso tI D A Тlo N

Underlinethе errors in thеse sеntеnсеs.Rеwritеeaсh sеntеnсе. a) I,m rеally intеrеstingin thе travеl.

9,L.,. ..,.. ..Lш.t.r.qY. нt.pd ..уrl.qr .rчt!.l.у ...t.Irw.

b) Katе,sbrothеr is doсtor. с) I atе a food With Jaсk, and aftеr that I wеnt homе.

d) Thе milk is good for you. е) Сan you givе mе an adviсе? f) I'vе lookеd in thе box. A1l is brokеn, I,rn afraid. g) Thеy will havе finishеd thе nеw hospital until thе еnd of Мay. h) Thеrе,s a poliсе waiting outsidе. i) I сomе to сlass with thе fееt.

i) Your hair arе vеry bеautiful.

)roblem :h e с k

Тime words like fol sincе and ogo are Iinked to the use of tensеs. Сheсk Grаmmar 4 , 5 ,6 a n d 7 . Тhe same word сan be сountabIе and unсountable with a сhange of meaning. Whiсh words of this kind do you know? Cheсk with Grammar 33. Compare thе uses of artiсles with artiсles in your language (if it has artiсlеs). Note that the сhoiсe of artiсlе сan depend on meaning and сontеxt. Сhесk with G r a m m a r 3 4 a n d 3 5. Avoid using morе than thrеe adjeсtivеs together. Note the d;fferenсе bеtwееn hord and hordlу' Cheсk with Grammar 37. What is the differenсe betwееn сomparative аnd superlatives? Arе thеy usеd in thе same ways in your language? Cheсk with Grammar 38. Ph ra s a l v е r b s с a n h avе many meanings, so сheсk in a diсtio nar y. М аkе suгe that y o u k n o w wh е re i n the еntr y fo r the main ver b yo u сan find thе phгasa|vеr bs (it i s r i g h t a t t h е e n d o f the entr y, after thе var io us meanin9s o f the main ver b usеd alonе).

t69


Еxplanations Whеn you lеarn a nеlY vеrb, it is advisablе to сhесk in a diсtionary whеthеr it is followеd by thе -ittg foтm (atso сallеd thе gеrund) or an infinitivе with or without ro. If thе infinitivе is without to it caгl bе сallеd a barе infinitivе. Grammar 42 and 4З inсludе somе of thе most сommon vеrbs, but thеsе arе only a sеjесtion. Verbs foIlowеd by

l

-ing or infinitive: l i t t Ie or n o с h a n g е of mе a n i n g

Somе r.егbs сan bе follorvеd еithет bу an -iпg form, or fo + infinitivе, and thеге is littlе oг no сhangе in mеaning. Vеrbs in this list inсludе: bеgilt, сotltitll|е,|lot bеоr, hоtе' itltепd, Iikе, lovе, prefer, stаrt I\.ltеtt sltеstood ttp, thе Prеsidеt.ttbegаn to speоk/speаkiпg. Some peoplе аt thе bасk сontinued сhаtting/to сhаt' I ссltl,tbeаr listening/to listen for о loпg time. Whаt do уou inteпd doing/to do сlbout it? I don,t like wаtсhing tеlеvision. I prefer reаding/to reаd. I thiпk уou should Stаrt prаctisiпg/to prасtise now!

r

Thеrе сan bе a small diffеrеnсе bеtwееn likе to do aлd like doing. To + infinitivе suggеsts that somеthing is a good idеa although you don't nесеssarily enjoy it. The -iпg form shows you еnioy somеthing. I like to hаve а short wаlk аftеr my evening meаl. I like listeniпg to thе rаdio.

r

Notе that With ,ptеfеr, we prefer onе thing to anothеr thing. If thе things arе aсtivitiеs, thе -ing form is usеd. Tom prefеrs rеаding to wаtсhing

l

televisioп'

Hаte doing ts morе сommon, ехсеpt in thе fixеd еxprеssion

.I hatе to tеll you

t h i s , b u t ...'. I hаte doing the wаshiпg-up! I hаte to tell уou this, but wе,vе missed the lаst trаiп! r

Whеn Wе usе thе modal уеrb would with likе, love, prеfer and hаte wе must usе ro + infinitivе. I,d like to go to Portugаl this summer. I,d prefer to do it mуsеIf, if уou doп,t miпd,

Verbs followed by to + infinitivе

| 7О

Somе vеrbs сan only bе followеd by thе infinitivе with fo. Thеsе inсludе: аfford, аsk, сhoosе, hаppen, help, mапаge, offer, rеfusе, wаit, want


G R A м ttiA R

42

vERBs

Fo LLo w ED

1

BY -,,vG o R lNЕlNlтlv E

I саn,t аfford to go to thе сinemа twiсe iп otlе ъ,eek. Iп the eпd, Lаurа chose to studу Есoпomiсs. Do уou hоppen to kпow the time? Сould someonehelp me to саrry this? * (Hеlp is also used without to. Сould you help me сarry, tltis?) |im саn,t mcШu|gеto come this evening. I offered to give her а lift, but she sаid she,d orderеdсl tахi. Thе mапаgerrefused to see me. Thereаre somеpeoplewаiting to seeyou. Whаt do you wаnt to do this eveniпg? Vеrbs followed by to + infinitive, or tfiot-сIausе

r

Somе vеrbs сan bе followеd by thе infinitivе with fo, or a thаt сlausе. It is possiblе to lеavе ol,ltthаt in еveryday spеесh.Thеsе vеrbs inсludе; аgree,deсidе,ехpeсt,hope, leаrn,preteпd,promise, seem,wish We deсided to go home' Mike eхpects to win, I hope to see уou lаter. Heleп preteпded to be ill'

Wе deсided (thаt) .wewould go home. Mike eхpeсts(thаt) he will wiп. I hope (thаt) I,ll seeyou lаter' Helen pretended (thаt) she wаs ill'

Notе that if we usе a thаt-с|alsewe follow thе tеnsе rules of геportеd spеесh. So, for еxamplе, will changеsto would in thе past: Sаrаh аgrees to meet уou аfter school. Sаrаh ауees thаt she wiII tпeеt уou аfter sсhool. Sаrаh аgreed to meet me аfter sсhool. Sаrаh аgrеed-(thаt) she would meet me аfter school. Thеrе is a small diffеrеnсe bеtwееn leаrn to aг,dlеаrn thаt. At schoolGrаhаm leаrned to speаk Freпch.(lеarn a skill) Аt sсhoolwe leаrned thаt the Еаrth goesround the Suп. (|earninformation) Notе thе two forms of seem.It + seem+ thаt-с|alsеis vеry сommon. You seem to know the апswer! It seems thаt you know the аnswer' Wish fo||owed bу to + infinitivе has a similar mеaning to 14)аnt. I wish to leаve еаrIу todаy' Wish fo||owеdby a thаt-с|alsеusually inсludеs would ot could. I wish (thаt) I could leаveeаф. I.tltish (thаt) mу teасher would let mе leаveeаrlу.

t71


lNт ER1t,lED l A т Е

L A NGU A GЕ

P RA с т l C Е

Undеrlinеthе errors in thеsе sentenсes.Somе sentеnсеsdo not havе еrrors. Rewrite еaсh sеntenсе that has an error and tiсk (/) the sеntenсeswhiсh are сorreсt. a) Jim сan,t afford going to thе сinеma twiсе a wееk.

..Jlуt+. .с4n:t' gff.q.r d...tp3!..ta...tk..qiшryl!| ..fu.Lсe ..ql ..w. *'k'

b) David wishеs lеaving thе room.

с) Arе you waiting to usе thе phonе? d) I,d rеally likе going swimming on Saturday. е) Еmma prеtеnded lеaving, but waitеd оutsidе. fl Jamеs agrееdto mееt mе at thе bеaсh. g) Мy bikе sееms having somеthing Wlong with it.

h) Thе dirесtor геfusеdanswеring Hеlеn,s phonе сall.

2

Complеtеeaсh sеntеnсеwith a form of one of the verbs from thе box. Usе еaсh verb onсе only. сontirruе еxprсt prеfеr offеr t._ ,

a) John rca||у'...!..9.Y9{......... spеnding all day at thе bеaсh. b) I,m сomplеtеly brokе, so I сan,t .. to go on holiday. с) Еxсusе mе, but do you d) Wе е) Carolyn

.. to know thе way to old Strееt?

.. our tеam to win, but thеy wеrе badly bеatеn. .. to spеak Frеnсh and Gеrman whеn shе Was at sсhool.

.. spеaking. 0 Еvеn whеn thе еxaminеr told him to stop, Robеrt g) I,m sorry, but I сan,t listеn .. to to this awful musiс! h) Last wееk Chris i) Paul ........... j) Sam usually

t7z

.. to hеlp mе paint my bikе. to havе a bad lеg so hе didn,t havе to go to thе gym. .. playing foоtball to doing homеwork.


G RA м п nA R 42 vERBs

3

Fo LLo W ЕD

BY.,,{ G

o R lNFlNlтlv E .I

Complete the sесondsentenсeso that it has a similarmеaningto the first sentеnсe. a) МY tеaсhеr wouldn,t lеt mе lеavе еаrly,

r,..gд.r!у. .L?.t'''ryp...Lqу rеfusеd'..t,a.. My tеaсhеr

b) Jill sang without stopping for an houт. Jill сontinuеd.............. с) Apparеntly you,vе pаssеdthе еxam. It sееms d) Riсhard thinks hе,s going to do wеll. Riсhard еxpесts е) What arе your plans for thе summеr? ? ............

What do you intеnd f) Сlеаring up my room is somеthing I dislikel I hatе g) Liz said shе,d go tо thе сinеma with mе. Liz agrееd h) Tina and Brian arе gеtting maггiеd. Tina and Brian havе dесidеd Sее you latег, I hopе. I hopе

i)

What do you fanсy doing this еvеning?

What do you want

4

Complete eaсh sentenсe with onе of the words from the box.

to bе worriеd. a) Greg oftеn ...{9.e.!w...... to tеll you this, but wе,vеlost all our money. b) I ..................... с) Do you

.. to go for a walk this aftеrnoon?

Ann to wait for mе, but shе didn,t. d) I ..................... .. to bесomе a сhampion skatеr. е) Katrina

0

Thе poliсе offiсer

s) Pеtеr..........

.. to listеn to my еxplanation. to work on Saturdayinstеadof оn Friday.

to sееyou againsomе timе. h) I,d ..................... i) Aftеr a lot of thought, Jim finally

i) I askеdmy tеaсhеrfor hеlp, and shе

.. to spеnd his holidаr in Pеru. .. to gir.еmе е\tIа lеssons.

t7З


INт ЕRп nЕD! A т E

L A NGU A GE

5

P RA с т ! CЕ

Rewritе еaсh sеntеnсe so that it has a similar mеaning and сontains the word in bold. a) What aIе you thinking of doing? intеnd

....'' tp... d.q.? .d.q. .у.q.*. s4d.. ...!:{h!|.t. .iw.

b) I find gеtting up еarly unbеarablе! bеar с) I,1lsее you in thе moming, I еxpесt. to d) ,I,ll bе baсk at 6.0o., said Susan.

promisеd е) Pat was taught to drivе when hе Was young. lеarnеd .Would you likе mе to hеlp you?, I askеdJoе. offеrеd

s) Еllеn didn,t havе еnough monеy foт thе tiсkеt. afford h) 'I won't help!' said Tom. rеfused

t 74


Explanations Vеrbs fol|owed by -ing or infinitive: сhan ge of me an i ng

Somе vеrbs сan bе followеd еithеr bу an -iпg form, or fо + infinitir-е, and thеrе is a сhangе in mеaning. Study thе еxamplеs bеlow сaгеfulir.. remembеrand forget doiпg (or remembеr/forget followеd bг fllrzf-сlausеifor Wе usе remember/forget mеmoriеsof thе past (thе aсtion happеnsbеforеthе rеmеmbегingl'\\ъ usе rеmembеr/forget to do for aсtions somеonе is/was supposеdto do (thе rеmеmbеring happеns bеforе thе aсtion). (tеll € rеmеmbеr) I remembet telling уou! (go out € rеrnеmbеrl Then I remembered thаt уou werеout. (rеmеmbеr) takе) tаke keys! Remember to уour (Iеarn € forget) I,ll neverforyet leаrпing to drive! phone promisеd (promisе € forgеt) to I forgot thаt I,d уou. (forgеt ) post) Sorry,I forgot to post уour lettеr. meап Wе usе meап doing (ot meаn followеd |эу thаt-c|ausе)whеn onе thing rеsults in or involvеs anothеr. Wе usе meап to do to еxprеssan intеntion. (= involvеs) Keеpiпgftt meапs tаking eхerсiseeverуdау! Wheп I miss the bus, it meаns thаt I hаve to wаlk to sсhool. (=involvеs) (=intеndеd) |ап meапt to wаtсh theprogrаmme,but shе forgot. stop Wе usе stop doiпgwhen wе еnd an aсtion. Wе usе Stopto do whеn wе givе thе rеason foг stopping. (= gavе up lеarning) |o hаs Stopped lеаrпiпg Frеnсh. (= in ordеr to look) We stoppеd to look сlt thе view. Stop iS not followеd by a thаt-с|alа'se.

trу Wе usе try doiпgwhеn wе do somеthing and sее what happеns. Wе usе tl1'to do whеn wе makе an еffort to do somеthing, but don,t nесеssarilysuссееd. If you hаve а heаdасhe,try tаking two of thesepills' (= еxpеrimеntt Peter trted to lift the tаble, but it tltаs too heоуу,

(hе failеd in this саsе,

Trу is l;ot followеd bу a thаt-c|alsе.

Vеrbs fo|Iowedby -ingor infinitive without to:сhangе of meaning

r

Sоmе vеrbs сan bе followed by an objесt + ing, or an infinitir-е rтlthоut Гtl. .r-еrbsof Thеrе is a сhangе in mеaning. Thеsе vеrbs arе somеtimеs сa1lеd pеrсеption, and inсludе: fеel, heаr, listeп to, see, wаtсh

r

If wе sее or hеar only part of thе aсtion, or it сontinuеs. 1\.еusе thе -illg form. If Wе sее or hеar thе wholе aсtion from bеginning to еnd. rте usе thе infinitivе without fo. 175


lNт ЕRUIEDIA т Е

L A NGU A GЕ

I

PRA C т Iс Е

Сompaте: I сould fеel mу hаnds shаkiпg with fеаr! I felt the buildiпgmove! We wаtсhed |oe eating his lunch. We wаtched Ioе eаt his lunсh'

(сontinuing aсtion) (сomplеtеd aсtion) (part of thе aсtion) (wholе aсtion)

r T h е s е v е rb s с a n b еusеdw ithathаt-с|alsеw ithaсhangеo fmеaning. (= beliеvе) I feel thоt tltis is the time to resign. (= rесеivе nеws) We hеаrd that у,ottweтe ill. (= rеalizе) I sаw that it wсlstoo lаte'

Vеrbs followеd by -ing or noun

in an -iпg form or a rroun. Somе vеrbs сan bе followеd еithеr by anothеr vеrb *саn,t hеIp, *kееp,mind, prасtise, саn,t stаnd, Thеsе inсlu dе: сlislikе, еtljoу,fапсу, * Тhosе maгkеd har'е two mеanings.

I dislikе going out iп the rаiп' I rесtllуdislike mу new boss. Еveryoneenjoуs going to pаrties. I eпioуed this lessoп' Do уou fаnсу going to the сinemа? I fапсу а swim! I саn,t help feeling huпgry. I cаn,t help mуself! Keep this, Doп,t throw it аwаy' Sue keepsphoning mе Iаtеаt niфt.

(=I сan,t stop) (= сontinuеs with a bad habit)

Do you mind wаiting? Do you mind сold weаther? I must prасtise speаking Freпсh more often' |utiа prасtises the violiп everydау. I саn,t stаnd wаkiпg up eаrlу' I сап,t stаnd hot апd spiсу food. Verbs followed bY -ing, or noun, or thot-сlausе

r

l

an .iпg form, or a Somе vеrbs сan bе followеd еithеr by anothеr veтb in These inсludе: аdmit, deпу,imаgine,Suggest' noun, ot a thаt-с|aшsе. The Minister аdmitted tаkiпg а bribe. PаuI аdmitted thаt hе wаs wroпg. Tiпа deпied steаling the moпeу' Вoth men deпiеd thаt they hаd done aпуthing wrong. Imаgine trаvelling to оnotherplаnet! Do уou reаIIуimоgiпe thаt I wаnt to seeуou аgаiп? l suggestgoiпg for а pizzа. l suggestthаt-we go for а pizzо. сan also bе followеd bу should' Suggest I suggest thаt wе should go for а pizzа.


G R A м п nA R 43

vЕRBs

Fo LLo W ED

BY -,NG o R lNFlNlтI v E

2

Сontrasts with vеrbs from Grammar 42 are inсludеd hеrе. Underlinethe сorreсtword or phrasein еасh sentenсе. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

Tom suddеnly rеalizеd hе,d forgotten to loсkЛoсkinghis door. on thе wаy baсk we stoppеd to hауe/hаvingsomе tеa. Сould you stop to tаlk/tаIkiпg,plеasе. Lеarning a languagе mеans to be/beiпgintеrеstеdin anothег сultцге. thе windoщ but it was too high to геaсh. Ann triеd to open/opeпiпg Plеasеrеmеmbеr to tаke/tаkiпgthе dog for a walk. for the first timе. Сathy says shе,ll nеvеr forgеt to skу-dive/skу-diving I don,t rеally rеmеmbеr to stаrt/stаrtingsсhool whеn I was fivе.

Еor eaсh question,сomplеtethe seсond sentenсeso that it meansthe same as the first, using no more than thrеe words. a) Would you likе to go to thе bеaсh?

o" .,..Y.9.*'fT'rpу....'..'..... goingto thеbеaсh? b) Thе boy admittеd stеaling thе bikе. stolеn thе bikе.

Thе boy admittеd с) Why don,t wе wait for thе bus?

waiting for thе bus. d) David oftеn intеrrupts mе. ............. mе.

David

е) Is it all right if you сomе baсk latеr? сoming baсk latеr? f) Think What bеing a millionairе would bе likel a millionairе! ;;;;;;;;;";. -, I ................

;;;;;;;;.;. eatinga lot.

Underlinethe сorreсtverb in eaсh sеntenсе. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

Hеlеn enjoyed/Фosэtolеarn Frеnсh. I rеally can,t stапd/аffordto travel by planе. Do уo.; mind/wапtcoming baсk in half an hour? buy somе potatoеs,but shе forgot' Tina suggested/meапtto opеning thе offiсе safе. Еmily denied/refused Bill admitted/аgreedmaking a sеrious mistakе. to sеnd mе to a diffеrеnt sсhool. Мy palеnts disliked/deсidеd I rеally likе/fаnсya trip to thе сountry. 177


lNт ERмЕDIAт E

L A NGU A GЕ

4

Ж

PRA с т l C E

Сompletееaсh sentеnсеwith a form of onе of the verbs in thе box. dеny

ry a)

If r.ou . .t.r.Y........... to work a bit haгdеr,I,m surе you,ll pass thе еxam.

bl

Кеr-in.........

сl

Тhе buildеrs arе not surе of thе еxaсt datе,but

to havе toothaсhе,and lеft sсhool еarly. .. to startwork

soon. dt Еmma

.. to сall you last wееk, but shе forgot.

еr Тhе \\.oman arrestеd by thе poliсе f r \ou should

.. rоbbing thе bank.

.. spеaking to an audiеnсе, to gain сonfidеnсе.

g r I t ' s i n t е rе s t i n g t o ..................... mysеlf living o n a dеsеr t island. ht I phonеd thе dirесtor six timеs, but shе

.. to spеak to mе.

Сomp|еtе еaсh sentenсе with one suitabIe word.

a, Don,t .fqrg.p.t'...... to buy somеmilk on your way homе. bi If ]'m latе, it

.. I have to wait until thе nеxt lеsson bеgins.

С ' I ..' ...' .............. t h r o w ing thе ball, but I didn,t br еak thе w indo w . dr Pau] сan,t .......... е ' Lisa

thinking about his favouritе tеam.

.' forgеtting whеrе shе put hеr kеys.

f r Gina ..........

to сlimb in through thе windoщ but it was loсkеd.

g , I ..................... plаying w ith my fr iеnds w hеn I w as littlе. h r ] сan,t

.. walking homе in thе rainl It,s horriblеI

' )ra l'

t/,'

t78

-. '/---v?


Еxplanations r

Some vеrbs arе followеd by a partiсular prеposition. \bu сan сhесk this in a diсtionary. Somе сommon еxamplеs aге givеn bеlorv.

About dreаm know tаlk

I dreоmed аbout Hаrry lаst пight. Do уou kпow а lot аbout eсonomiсs? Whаt аre уou tаIking аbout?

AL

Iаugh look

Doп,t lаugh аt me. Look аt thаt bеаutifulсherrytree!

For аpologizе apPlу аsk Iook pаy wаit

I must аpologize for being lаtе. |ill hаs аpplied for сl пewjob. Why doп,twе аsk for the bill? I,m looking for thе bus stаtion. Sheilаpаid for mу tiсket. I,ll wаit for уou outside.

Iп believe suссeеd

Do you believe iп ghosts? Hеleп suсceedediп сolleсtingtЗ5 for сhоrity'

of ассuSe remind tаste

Albert wаs ассused of spyiпg. This сity reminds me of BueпosАires' Does уour сoffeetаste of soаp?

Оп depепd relу

I might сome,It depеnds oп thе weаthеr. You саn relу oп Аnn to work hоrd.

To beloпg eхpIаin Iend listеп tаlk

Doеs this beloпg to уou? Сould уou eхplаin something to me pleаsе? Briап leпt his саr to mе for the weekеnd. Wе сan also say: Briап lent me his соr. You,reпot listening to me! Еlleп wаs tаIkiпg to her motheroп theplюltе

179


lNт ERlt,lЕDl A т E

L A NGU A GE

r

be + аdjeсtivе prеposition

180

PRA с т I C E

In quеstions thе prеposition usually goеs at thе end. Whаt аre уou tаlkiпg аbout? Who аrе уou looking for? Whаt аre уou listeпiпg to?

Notе that in thе list bеlow thе following adjeсtivеsoссur twiсеi аngry|аппoуed, plеаsed,sorry,one of thе prepositions is usеd whеn thеy rеfеr to pеoplе and onе whеn thеy rеfеr to things (this is shown in thе list). Аbout

аngry (+ things), апnoуed (+ things), eхсited,hаppу,pleаsed (+ things), right,sorry (+ things), иpsef Helen is eхcited аbout wiпning the prize. I,m sorry аbout your difficulties' Саn I help?

Аt

bаd,good Dorа is reаllу good аt mаths.

For

fаmous, lаte, reаф, sorry @ pеoplе) Оur сiф is fаmous for its beаutiful buildiпgs. I wаs sorry for Georgеwheп he cаme lаst in the rасe.

From

different This room is different ftom the othеr oпе.

In

iпterested Аre уou iпterested in сomputers?

of

аfтаid, foпd, frightened,fuII,jeаIous,tired Mу sleepiпgbаg wаs full of апts!

On

keen I,m not very keen on fтiеd food.

To

kiпd, mаrried, used Ellen is mаrried to lаck.

with

аngry ( pеoplе), аnпoyed(+pеoplе), bored,pleаsеd(+ peoplе) I,m reаIIуап8rу with уou.


GRA п nI YlA R 44

vERBs

Fo LLo W ЕD

BY P RЕP o sI TloNs

Complеtе eaсh sеntenсe with one suitаble word. a) Fiona is vеry diffеrеnt

'ft.q.ш

... hеr sistеr. my instr uсtio ns.

b ) Pl е a s е t r y a n d l i stеn .........

.. its pеaсhеs.

с) Мy homе town is famous

.. r-оl.t'

d) Еxсusе mе, but doеs this umbrеlla bеlong ? е ) W h a t е x a с t l y wa s A listair talking .....................

So mе info r matio n. f ) I t h i n k wе s h o u ld ask ..................... growing hеr own vеgеtablеs.

g) Gеmma is vеry kееn ..........

2

СompIete thе sentеnсes with onе word from list A and onе from list B

suссееds

A B

....g,t........ mе bеhind my baсk. a) I don,t likе him. I think ь" ....!q.ш.W......'.. walking to thе top of thе

b) I,ll bе surprisеdif hе .........' mountain.

....not сontaсtingyou.

с) Isabеlsеndshеr lovе and Shе,sbееn rеally busy.

d ) I t ,s d i f f i с u l t t o k no w w hеn thе bus w ill сo mе. I t ............ thе timе of day. е) Shе,s vеry intеlligеnt. Shе

......a lot

есonomiсs and

things likе that. f ) T h i s d i с t i o n a r y i sn't minе. I think it ............... g) This musiс

......mе

J o r gе.

thе timе I spеnt in India.

Complеte thе sentenсes with one word from list A and onе from list B.

annoyеd

A B

a ) I wa s .......r .U l 1 t.....,... '..\b! ! 4t'.. thе tr ain timеs. I t do еs lеavе at 16'зi) b) I lovе sсiеnсе' but I,m not vеry с ) I s t a n b u l i s ....... '....... d ) A r е y o u .......... .. е) I'm f) Е|iza is vеry

mathешаtiсs. thе bеautiful Bluе М o squе. A mеr iсan mo viеs fr o m t1-tеf1i:lеs]

P aul. H е sho uld havе сallеd I ]]е'f J : hе hasn,t. hеr dog. Shе rr.alksl| еr'еrr-dar.'

g ) I k n o w i t ,s ri d i с ulo us, but I ,m quitе ......'..

spidеr s' 181


lNт ЕRп n Е D l A т E

L A NGU A GE

4

PRA C тI C Е

Rewrite eaсh sentenсe so that it has a similarmeaning and сontainsthe word in bold. a) Diсk found his work boring. borеd b) Тhis town is a bit likе Glasgow. rешinds

с) Sara has a good knowlеdgе of biology. knоws d ) I,m trying to find thе art gallеry.

loоking е) I likе сгеam сakеs. fond f) Suе is Adrian,s wifе. to

s) Dina always trеats animals kindly. kind h) Ugh! This сakе has a rubbеry tastе!

rubbеr i) You makе Lisa fееl jealousl

is

i)

Our nеw housе makes mе fееl еxсited! about

r8z


GRA ltiм A R

5

44

vЕRвs

Fo LLo W ED

BY P REP o slтlo Ns

For еaсh question, сomplete thе seсond sentеnсе so that it mеans thе samе as the first, using no morе than three words. a) You,vе made mе angry.

you. ...... | .'.ryL.1'l.rу''.w.|th.....'...

b) I,d likе my lunсh now.

foг lunсh.

I,m ............ с) Geography is Riсhard,sbеst subjесt.

......gеogгаph-v.

Riсhard is vеry d) Thе bad nеws madе mе fееl upsеt.

......... thе bad nеws.

I ................

е) Мy dog was in my dтеamslast night! ......... my dog last night.

I ................ f) Suе is a теliablе pеrson.

......Suе.

You сan g) Jaсk borrowеd my bikе foт thе weеkеnd. I lеnt my

......for thе wееkеnd.

h) Thе dark makеs mе afraid. thе dark.

I,m ............

6

Сomplete eaсh sentеnсewith onе suitablеverb аnd preposition. a diffiсult problеm ....'..t.0,,..,,',ls. a) Wе askеdour tеaсhеrto ...%Р'Lr!iY!,'',....' .....an old lady in my bloсk of flats. b) Thе ring I found r-)

Wе may сome to your party, but it .........

our finding a

babysittеr. d) Whеn Joе flеw to Australia, his aunt

his bad bеhaviour. to his neighbours................

е) Harry .........

0

You ............

my brothеr.You,rеvеry alikе! mе ................

s) Tony .........

passinghis driving tеStat thе first attеmpt.

h) Sееyou in a minutе! I,ll ...........

7

.....his tiсkеt.

you outsidеthе сinеma.

Comp|eteeaсh part sentenсe(a_g)with one of the endings (1-7). a)

Еllеn is not rеally interеstеd.....+....

1 at making nеw friеnds.

b) Thе hotеl was diffеrеnt........... с) Littlе Suziе was jеalous

2 abottt losing my nеlt. сalсulatог.

d) I was rеally annoyеd

4 in lеarning horr.to ski.

е) Paul is vетy kееn

5 of hеr nеw sistеr at first.

0

6 frorn what в-е еxpесtеd.

o\ 6/

Janе is теally good I don,t think I,m rеady...........

3 for anothеr big mеal.

7 on сollесting old bоttlеs.

183


r a

!,

р

I ш

Il l

Explanations \\.ords ltkе еveryoпe,апуthiпg etс. arе сallеd indеfinitе pronouns. Thеy rеfег:: pеoplе, things or plaсеs without saying еxaсtly who, what or whеrе thеy aг.

Inde fi ni t е pr on ou ns

Pеoplе:

Someoпе

(1пyo|1е

еvеryoпе

пo or1е

Тhings:

something

апуthiпg

everуthiпg

пothing

Plaсеs:

somewhere

ап1'nuherе

Timе:

sometime

апytime

еverу'+uhеre (all thе timе)

nowherе (nеvеr)

In thе ,Pеoplе, list wе сan makе a form wtth -bodу with no сhangе in mеaning: somebodу, апybodу, evеrybodу,пobody, r

Indеfinitе pronouns arе followеd by a singular vеrb, but wе rеfеr baсk to thеrn in a sеntеnсе with theу/them/their, Someone is wаitiпg for you. Theу hаve bеeп wаitiпg for somе timе' Someone phoпеd, апd I told them уou were out.

somеonq onуonе еtс.

\t-ords wtth some- and оny- follоw thе rulеs givеn in Grammar З3: l

Sotttеis сommon in positivе sеntеnсеs and аnу in quеstions and nеgativеs. Тllеrе,sSomеone аt the door' Somеthing is worrуingmе.

Dоes аnуone know thе аnswer? Тhеreisn,t апуbodу аt homе.

ш

еvеrуonе' no onе etс.

l

But Wе сan lSе Somein a quеstion if it is an offеr or rеquеst. Сап I аsk уou something?

r

.{nd Wе сan uSе аny in positivе sеntеnсеsto mеan ,it doеsn,t mattеr whiсh Wе соп go аnywhere we want duriпgour holidауs.

l

Sottlеhas thе idеa of a dеfinitе idеa, and апу has thе mеaning of ,no limit'. Сomnarе: (thеrе must bе a partiсular pеrsonl Is someone сomiпgto сolleсtуou? (anyonе at all) Is апуoпe сomiпgto сollесtуou? Hаvе уou got some letters for mе? (Thеrе arе partiсular lеttетsI am еxpeсting) (I havе no idеa if you havе lеttеrs Hаve уou got опу letters for mе? for mе or not) \\'ords with every-mеan all thе pеoplе, things or plaсеs in a group. Еverybodу Iikes Sue. Everythiпg in the room wаs red. Еvеryoпe (two words) has a diffеrеnt mеaning. It mеans eасhsiпgleoпе ani ' usеd to givе еmphasis. In pronunсiation, both words havе еqual strеss. Thеrеwereteп сhoсolаtesiп the boх апd уou,vеeаteпevеry one!

i 184


GRA } |м A R

l

45

P Ro No UNs

Еverythiпg is usеdas a singlеword subjесtinstеadof a//. Everythiпg hаsgoпеwrong. (NoT А]aa*цщ) AII mу plапs hаvegonewroпg. Words with no- mеan no pеoplе, things or plaсеs. No oпe kпows the апswer. Nobodу is аt hоme. There is nothing to eаt' Doublе nеgativеsare not usеd. No oneknows. (NOT llffi)

l:flеxive

l

lpoпouns: myself йЕ.

Rеflеxivе pronouns arе usеd for асtions that wе do to oursеlvеs. We enioуеdourselves. I hаve сut myself. Hаve you hurt уourselves? Did уou cut уourselft Theу iпtroduсed thеmselves. He сut himself. She iпtroducedherself. Vеrbs oftеn usеd in this way inсludе: сut, епjoy,hurt, introduсe,kill' Аt thе епd of thepIау, Сleopаtrа kills herself. But othет vеrbs arе not normally usеd with a rеflеxivе pronoun, еvеn though thеy are in othеr languages.Еxamples: сhапge(сlothes),сomPlаiп,deсide, drеss,feеI,meet,relах, remember'rest, sit dowп, stоnd up, wаkе up| wсtsh|worry. Rеflеxivе plonouns arе also usеd foт еmphasis. |oп cookedаII the food himself. (no onе hеlpеd him)

lrпpеrsonalone

r

In normal сonversation we lse уou to rеfеr to ,pеoplе in gеnеral,. Аs уou get older уou teпd to forgetthiпgs. You tаke the trаiп to the аirport from the СentrаI Stаtion' But in formal spеесh and writing wе сan lse oпewith this mеaning. This is сonsidеrеd ovеr-formal by many spеakеrs. Опe tаkes the trаiп to the аirport fтom the Сentrаl Stаtion. Тhеrе is a possеssivеform one,S' Оne,s luggаgе is саrriеd iп а speсiаIcompаrtment. If oпе is usеd as a subjeсt,all latеr rеferenсеsalso usе oиe. Оne tаkes the trаin to thе аirport ftom thе Сentrаl Stаtion аnd oпe сап rеSеrve one's seаt in аdvапсe. If you ||Seone|you must сontinuе to usе it. Do not mix one and уou' In еvеryday spеесh it is morе сommon to usе you or a passivеthan to lsе one. You cап reservеsеаts in аdvапce. Seаts cаn be reserved iп аdvаnсe'

185


lNт ERмЕDIAT Е

L A NGU A GE

1

UnderIinеthе сorreсtword in eaсh sentеnсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) hl i) j)

2

PRA с т I (Е

Thеrе isn,| апуoпe/пoone iп thе gardеn. Еxсusе mе, сould you movе? I сan,t sееаnythiпg/somethiпg. Тhеге is оnуthing/nothiпg to drink. Тhете,sсtпуone/someoпe to sее you outsidе. you Want. You сan do апythiпg/something Аtt}'otrc/Someoпe stolе thе monеy, but wе don,t know who. I don,t know апуthing/пothiпg аbout it. Хo otlе/Somеone would tеll mе thе answеr,so I guеssеd. I,vе lost my bag and I сan,t find it somewhere/ап1шhere' I must havе put my bag somewhеre/апywhеre, but I don,t know wherе.

Сompletethe sесond sеntenсeso that it has a simiIarmeaningto the first sеntеnсe. I сould do.

al

wvthLуu ..

Ф....

t

!..9.....

r....

l

lr than anyonе.

bt \o onе L'

\o onе Was on timе yеstеrday. Еvеryonе

d r I havеn,t got any woгk. I ,r ,еg o t

......to d о"

е} Тhеrе's somеthing I,d likе to ask you. \I a y I ........

.........l

t-) \Vе,ге all milk drinkers hеrеI Еr,еrybodv

g) lVhеn I phonеd, thеrе was no rеply. \o onе h ) .\rе wе going to bе dтivеn thеrе?

Is ............... I makе nеw friеnds whеrеvеr I go. Еvеrywhеrе You had a сall this morning. Somеonе

186

.. miШi


GRA ltл [nA R 45

3

P Ro NoU Ns

Comptete eaсh sentеnсe so that it inсludes a suitable form of onе of thе verbs from the box, and a rеflexive pronoun.

a) Havе a good holiday, both of you!

...?'!Ц.Q'Y......... .у.q.4r.{.el,Y.9.,!'

^nd b) Our tеaсhеr told us to stop shouting and to с) Whеn I fеll off thе horsе, I didn,t d) Bеth knows a lot of Frеnсh,but сan,t

.....еasily.

е) Lеt mе

0

...... I,m SusanPеrry. Thе aссidеnt wasn,t your fault. Don,t

s) h) Whilе Tom was piсking up thе brokеn glass,hе

4

Rеwriteеaсh sentenсeso that it has a similarmeaningand сontainsthe word in boId. a) Thе box isn,t еmpty. something

''.Thp-r.,/.l'.l9.|у!p.t!,'L'Lш..iru.t.k..h.QX,.''.,.,...'.., b) All thе pеoplе wеrе danсing. еvеrvone с) I fееl annoyеd. sоmеthing

d) Wе havеn,t got any food. nоthing е) Thе offiсе is еmpty. no onе

*l

fl Julia is vеry popular. еvеrybody g) You сan havе whatеver you likе. anything h) The bеst plaсе is homе. Nowhеrе


lNт ERM EDlAт E

L A NGU A GE

5

P RA с т l с E

Complete еaсh sеntenсewith onе suitableword.

knowsthе answег! a) Тhat,san еasyquеstion!Еу.еrу,h.qdу.. b) Is ..........

thе mattеr?Can I hеlp you?

с) .'................... is Wrongwith thе сar,and it won,t start. d) Тhеrе,s е) Тhеy introduсеd

.. to seе you. Shall I ask thеm to wait? .. as Hеlеn and Ann.

'. nеvеI rеally knows what will happеn, doеs onе? g) ..................... I,vеdonе so far today has gonе wrong! f)

you сould say would makе mе сhangеmy mind, I,m afraid. h) .......''............ . i) Did you do it all by ..................... . i) Yеs,I did it by..................... 6

Undеrlinеthе errorsin thesе sentenсes.Rewriteeaсh sentenсe. a) somеonе spokе to mе, but I сan,t rеmеmbеrits namе.

..'5рlиpp.уlp,lP!k.'t!..уИe,...и4t..I..aцkt..r?'n4eууlhe.r'

b) A1l in thе gardеn has bееn growing a lot lаtеly.

с) Сarol didn,t do nothing yеstеrday. d) Thеrе isn,t no onе waiting for you. е) Pеtе and Katе еnioyеd thеmsеlfs at thе party. f) onе fills in an appliсation form, and thеn you Wait for an answеI. g,) Wе nееd to do somе shopping. Thеrе isn,t somеthing in thе fridgе.

f: 188


Еxplanations s (apostrophes)

r

Wе usе apostlophе 3 to show that somеthing bеlongs to a pеrson. Wе сan usе thе ,s form without a following noun if thе mеaning is сlеar'

This is fim,s sсаrf. Thoseаre Heleп,s gloves. Whеre is the direсtor,s offiсe?

This is lim's. Thoseаre llelеn,s.

r

An apostrophеis somеtimеsusеd whеn somеthingis part of anothеr thing. Whаt is the book,s title? Whаt is this plапt,s паme?

r

With plural nouns wе add thе apostrophе only. Thoseаre the students, coаts,

r

A spесial usе оf ,s is to rеfеr to Somеonе,shomе, a shop namе or a plaсе namе. Georgеbought this melon iп the grеengroсer,s/ iп Smith,s. I went to the doсtor,s аnd the dentist,s oп thе sаme dау.

r

If thеrе is no possеssion,wе do not usе an apostrophе.Notе this сommon mistakе:W.

r

Notе that an apostrophе сan also bе a short form of is ot hаs. (It,s= It is) It,s а lovelу dаy. It,s got а bаttery' [t,s = It hаs)

r

Wе usе of tо show that onе thing bеlongs to or with anothеr thing. ,NoT tlф4t*4\ The end of the street. (NoТщ) The lаst twentуpаges of the book.

r

Сompound nouns are formеd from two nouns togеthеr.Thе first noun is 1ikе an adieсtivе and dеsсribеsthе sесond noun. I sаw the shirt iп а shop wiпdolу. I boughtSomепew footbаIl boots.

r

Compоund nouns arе vеIy сommon in tесhniсal dеsсriptions. Looseп the сorner brаckets first.

r

Somеtimеsa hyphеn is usеd to join thе words. Chесk in a diсtionaI\.to 5ее whеn a hyphеn is used. I boughtа сhoсolаteiсe-сreаm.

189


lNт ERlYlЕDl A т E

tA NGU A GE

P RA C т ! C E

;,t

iil rll ill

Possessive

r

Possеssivеadjесtivеsarе usеd bеforе nouns. Thеy arе: your mу their her its his our

r

We do not usе an artiсlе (theot a) with a possessivеadjeсtive. Pеter is mу сousiп. He doesп,tliуe iп our town.

r

Wе сan add o$)nto a possessivеadjесtivе for еmphasis. Pаul сooksаIl his olуп meаIs' This isn,t mу own bike. I,ve borrowedit fтom а fтiеnd.

r

Possеssivеpronouns arе usеd instеad of a possеssivеadjесtivе and noun. Тhеy arе: yours hers his miпe ours theirs

l

Possеssivepronouns stand on thеir own. Thеy arе not usеd with anothеr noun. (possеssiveadjесtivе + noun) This is mу bike, (possеssivеpronoun) This bike is mine.

r

Notе that therе is no apostrophе in possеssivеpronouns еnding in s. Whose keуs аre these?Are theу уours or mine? Yours аre oп thе tаble. Theseаre mine,

adjесtives

Possessivе pronouns

Double possеssive

Thете arе two сommon situations whеrе Wе use two possеSsivеforms togеthеr. Both arе whеn wе dеsсribe thе rеlationship bеtwееn pеoplе. 7 of arrd apostrophе Jo is а frieпd of my brother,s. 2 of arrdpossеssivеplonoun I met а cousiпof mine аt thepаrф, A сommon usagе of this struсturе is to dеsсribе things ownеd by pеoplе. Do уou like this new hаt of miпe?

190


GRA ltл м A R 46

P o ssEssloN

Undеrlinethe сorrесtword or phrasein eaсh sеntеnсе. a) Janе mеt a friеnd of herhers in thе strееt. owи dесorating. b) Luсy doеs all herself/her с) Arе thеsе sсissorsyour/уours? d) Thе dеsk nеxt to the window is mу/miпe. е) Chris and Anna introduсеd mе to a nеighbour of their/theirs, f) Еxсusе me, is this уour/yoиrsseat? g) David asks if you,vе sеen that old сoat of his/him. h) Pеtе has borrowеd mу/minebtkе' i) Wе havеn,t brought our/oursbooks with us. j) Thе dog is blaсk and whitе, aпd its/it,sеaтsarе vеry long.

2

Put an apostrophe wherе neсessary. a) Tеll Мoniсa its Еlеnas tuгn, not hеrs.

l ..Е[p. ш.i..t*nу'' .узp !..h*w,' .....',, .'.T. ... Ц.gq.nug..,it.,

b) Aliсеs youngеr brothеrs сallеd Bill. с) Tims sandwiсhеs Wеrеtastiег than ours. d) Thе films bеginning is good but its еnding is wеak.

е) Arе thеsе kеys yours or hегs? f) Barbaтafills in thе patiеnts rесord сards at thе doсtoгs. g) Whеn its raining, еvеrybodys rainсoats 8еt н.еt. h) Thе managеrs assistantrеads all thе сustomеrslеttеrs. Your sistеrsdog runs fastеr than ours. i) Onеs our tеaсhеrsсar and thе othеrs a visitoгs.

191


lNт ERtUlЕDlAт E

L A NGU A GE

3

P RA C т l с E

Make two сompound words from the words listed. a) football

сhееsе boot

sandwiсh

b) window

pосkеt

shop

...f.q.q tb.qu.' ha.a.t.''....., e..l.q!Йw.LсJ*....... ..'.....ah*I сoat

с) gatе gardеn light

biсyсlе

d) dеpагtmеnt сottagе storе сountry е) еnginе Г) post

firе

shaгpеner offiсе

g) ground

4

singеr roсk

pеnсil

rеpolt

sсhool

football

h) assistant shop

station

railway

Еor eaсh quеstion, сomplеte the seсond sentenсe so that it means the samе as thе first, using no more than threе words. a) Naomi is a fтiеnd of my sistеr,s.

Naomiis...rrv.f;,.tl+t.*!:t............... friеnd. b) Thеsе shoеs bеlong to sam. Тhеsе

shoеs.

с) I mеt onе of my friеnds outside thе sсhool. I met a

outsidе thе sсhool.

d) This is my favouritе programmе on telеvision. proglammе.

Тhis is е) What arе your tеaсhеrsсallеd? What .........

....names?

fl Havе you got a thing for opеning tins? Havе you got .. .......... ...................' ? g) Thosе bikеs bеlong to our neighbours. Thosе

bikеs. .............

h) I put my books on thе tablе in thе kitсhеn. I put my books

192

............. table.


GRA м lvlA R 46

P o ssЕss loN

Undеrlinethе errors in thesе sentеnсеs.Rewriteеaсh sentеnсe. a) Thеrе arе two bus stop,snеar my housе.

r .'ууLу b'ш|'.#.a ..h.!И$.a e..аr e'.tN.a.. .,'rhr"r РJ..'n&а

b) our сat slееp,sall day in it,s bеd. с) Havе you mеt thе sistеr of Janе? d) Сrеaturе,s likе thеsе livе at thе sеa,s bottom. е) This book is thе minе.

f) Thosе arе two friеnds, of my fathеrs. g) Еvеrybodys drawing,sWеrеbеttеr than our,s. h) Arе thеsе your,s or minе glovе,s? i) Thе housе stand,son it,s own at thе strеet'send. j) I notiсеd thеsе shoе,s in a window,s shop.

19З


ЕxpIanations This unit inсludеs words and phrasеs usеd to organizе idеas in spеaking and writing. Notiсе thе position of thе words in thе еxamplе sеntеnсеs.Somеtimеs a word сomеs in thе middlе of a sеntеnсеto join two сlausеs,suсh as апd. othеr timеs thе word or phrasе сomеs at thе bеginning of a sеntеnсеand is followеd by a сomma in writing or a pausе in spеесh, suсh as First of аII, ,.. . аnd, both, too,

l

Апd is usеd to ioin words or parts of sеntеnсеs.To еmphasizе thе faсt that thеrе arе two things Wе сan :шseboth ... апd. Helеnput oп her сoаt аnd piсked up thе suitсаse' Helеnpiсked up both her suitсаseоnd her umbrellа,

l

Too,аs well, аs wеIIаs and аIso areusеd to dеsсribе two aсtions at thе samе timе. Notе thе positions. Hеleпpiсked up her suitсаseапd her umbrellаtoo. Heleпpiсkеd up her suitсаseапd her umbrеIlааs weII. Hеlenpiсked up her suitсаseаs weII аs her umbrellа. HeIeпpiсked up her suitсаsе,her сoаt апd аlso hеr umbrellа'

r

Notе thе possiblе positions of For eхаmple. Diеt t,аriesftom plасe to plасe.For eхаmple, in hot сouпtries,pеoplеteпd to еаt morеfпlit. Iп hot сountriеs,for eхrlmplе, pеoplе teпd to еаt morеfruit'

r

Wе :usesuсh сs in thе middlе of a sеntеnсеto givе ехamplеs. It is thе samе as like. Suсh 4s сannot bе usеd at thе bеginning of a sеntеnсе. Iп hot сouпtriеs,suсh аs Greесe,pеoPle tend to eаt more fтuit.

r

Wе сan usе First (of аIL)to bеgin a list of points in formal spеесh and writing' For othеr points Wе usе Seсondlуеtс' Televisioпhаs сhаngеdoцr lives iп seуerаlwауs.First of оIl, it hаs .'' . Secondlу,morepeoplе''. . FinаIIу, ithаs сhопgеdthewауthаt... .

r

To introduсе our final point in formal spеесh and wгiting Wе сan saу In сonсlusioп. In сonсIusion, we са|1Sсtуthаt telеуisioпhаs both good аnd bоd feаtures.

аs wеIl, olso

For exаmplе, such аs

First (of oll), sеcondlу etс., finolIу

As well os this, besides this

i t94

Thеsе arе usеd in formal spеесh and writing to show that wе arе adding a point" Thе mеaning is .and, but thе phrasеsсomеs at thе bеginning of a sеntеnсе. Televisioпhаs сhапgedour lives in severаlwауs,First of аlI, it hаs ',. , Sесondlу,morepeople... . Аs weII аs this/Besides this, morepeople... '


GRAItilt,lAR

47

LlNкlNG

W o R Ds

hl foct, octuollу

Iп fасt and асtuаIIуare used to givе morе dеtail' or to givе surprising information. Dаve hаs SevеrаIdogs.In fаct, he,sgot four. (morе dеtail) I thought Giпа wаs а doсtorbut, iп fаct, she,sа vet' (surprisе) I thought Giпа lцаs а doсtorbut, аctuаllу, she,sа vеt. (surprisе)

ln mу viещ pеrsonаlIу

Thеsе arе usеd in formal spеесh and writing to introduсе ouг own idеas. Somepeoplebеlievethаt televisioпhаs killed the аrt of сonvеrsаtion.In mу view/Personаllу, I think it givespeoplesomethingto tаlk аbout.

сither, or

l

Еither ... or ts usеd to dеsсribе a сhoiсе or an altеrnativе. Wе cаn either go to the сinemа, ot Stау аt home. Either .weсаn 80 to the cinemа, or we саn stау аt homе. (NoT он'иe*'+5э ...) Notе that thе struсturе Оr...or...doеs not еxist in Еnglish. It is possiblе to bеgin a sеntеnсеwith or only whеn wе сomplеtе someonе еlsе,ssеntеnсе. А: ,We сouldgo to the сiпеmаI suppose..., B: .... ot we сouldstаy аt homeаnd wаtсh а video.,

hlstеod (of)

r

Wе luseiпsteаd(ofl to mean .in thе plaсе of somеthing еlse,. Iпsteаd of cookingI orderedа tаke-аwаymeаl' |ill саme to thе pаrty iпsteаd of her sister.

r

At thе еnd of a sеntеnсе,iпsteаdis usеd without of I didn,t cook.I orderedа tаke-аwауmeаI instеаd.

Eхcept and eхсeptfor mеan,not inсluding,. Theу gаvepresentsto evеryonеeхсept me. We hаvepаiпtеd аIl the house,eхcept (for) the fтont door.

Пmе words with othеr meanings

r

We lse eveпto say that somеthing is surprising. Sаm studies very hаrd, He evеn gets up аt 5.З0 to studу! Eуeп Sаm fouпd thе eхаm diffiсult.

l

Even is also usеd to еmphasizе сomparativе аdjесtivеs. This questioпis even hаrder thап the lаst oпe.

Thе timе woгds siпсe,уet and-whilehavе a сomplеtеly diffеrеnt mеaning and usе as linking words. With this usе thеy arе moIе сommon in writing. since rrrearring'as' уet meanilg,although'

I сouldп,t swim, sinсe I hаd а сold' No oпe rеpliеd to mу kпoсk, уеt аll the lights wеre

on. while meaning .although, Thе first two busesууетеfuII, while the neхt wаs сomplеtеlуеmptу.


lNт ERмEDlAт E

L A NGU A GE

P RA C т Iс E

Undеrlinethe сorreсtword or phrasеin eaсh sentеnсe. a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h)

2

Мrs Davis taught ls eхсeptfor/мstesd-ofМr Taylor. Wе сan either/orwait hеrе, or phonе for a taxi. Неlеn plays thе guitar arrd аlso/toowritеs songs. In Sсandinаvian сountriеs, for eхаmple/suchаs Finland, thеy havе vеry сold wintеrs. Еvеryonе in thе tеam playеd bad|У аIso/eхcePtSam. All thе shops wете сlosеd, siпсe/уеtit was a publiс holiday. Jaсk studiеs аnd/bothgеography and history. Thе Pеakworth tеnt is strong and watеrproof, siпсe/уetlight to сarry.

Rewritеeaсh sentеnсeso that it has а similarmeaning and сontainsthe word in bold. a) Dеbra visitеd both thе сastlе and thе musеum. too b) Jill was thе only pеrson who сamе latе.

еxсept с) Althоugh I said it was raining, it isn,t! faсt d ) Karеn hurt hеr lеg, so shе сouldn,t play tеnnis.

sinсe е) Мy opinion is that smoking is bad for you. viеw I atе thе сhoсolatе сakе and thе applе piе. as wеll as 8) Daniеl playеd in goal, in his brothеr,splaсе. instеad h) Finally, I,d likе to thank thе hеad tеaсher,Ann Colеs.

in

196


GRA м П 'lA R 43

LtNкI NG W oRDs

Deсide whiсh answer (A, в, с or D) bеst fits eaсh spaсe. сars to Nowadaysthеrе arе many good rеasonsfor using biсyсlеs (1) ,,,,Q-.... silеnt and сlеan, travеl in сity сеntrеs.(z) ,..,,'.....,biсyсlеs arе (3) (4) ........... kееpspеoplе arе еasyto park. (5) ........... , using a biсyсlе(6) ........... fit. Howеvеr, сity сеntres must (7)

havе сyсlе lanеs (8)

bе frее of

Amstеrdamin thе private сars сomplеtеly.Somе largе сitiеs,(9) ........... Nеthеrlands, arе alrеady organizеd in this way. (10)

, a сombination of the usе of biсyсlеs with vеry сhеap or freе publiс transport solvеs thе problеm of traffiс jams and makеs thе сity сеntre a morе pleasant plaсе. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 4

Abut A As wеll A both A also A And A and A in сonсlusion A suсh as A suсh as A pеrsonally

B B B B B B B B B B

еxсеpt foт First of all and for еxamplе thеy Yеt both еithеr yеt as wеll finally

C instеad of С In faсt C too C еxсеpt C Whilе С also С bеsidеs this C also C in my viеw С for еxamplе

D suсh as D Pеrsonally D as wеll D and as wеll as this D Sесondly D too D both Dor D whilе D aсtually

Comp|ete eaсh sentenсеwith a word or phrase from thе box. Use eaсh word or phrasе onсe only.

Julia rеmеmbеrеdto bring thеir diсtionariеs. .....wе,vе rеpaintеdthе b) Wе,vе rеpairеdthе roof, and ............ a) Еvеryonе .,.%9?.P.t..,,. wholе housе. с) d) I managеd to losе

, I don,t think that therе arе aliеns or flying sauсеIs. my passpolt and my wallеt.

е) I wаs going to go to thе сinеma, but I wеnt to thе thеatrе

0

Pеoplе think that Тim is shy, but

s) Somеillnеssеs,............ h) Wе,rеgoing to ..............

hе,s vеry talkativе. .....thе сommon сold, do not havе a сurе. ..' gо сamping, or stay with somе friеnds.

197


lNт ERмЕDlAт E

tA NGU A GЕ

5

PRA с т l с Е

Complеtethe spaсes(a_j)with the wоrds (1_10).

(a) .'..?.....I,d likе to thank еvегyonе who has hеlpеd with thе sсhool play. (b) ...........thе aсtors, and thе stagе hands, havе workеd vеry hard, and . I would (d) '.......... likе to thank all thosе who havе sold tiсkеts. This yеar wе had an (е) ........... еvеryonе who madе thе сostumеs workеd hard (с)

largеr audiеnсе than last yеar, and (fl

Тuеsday еvеning, еvеry singlе sеat

was sold. This yеar thе play ran for a wееk (g) ...........for two days. Wе did not havе a lot of timе for rеhеarsals, and (h) ..'........thе play Was a grеat suссеss. (i) ..........., I fееl that wе should сongratulatе all thе aсtors for thеir wondеrful pеrformanсе. (j) ..........., I,d likе to givе Judy Walkеr, thе dirесtоr, this prеsеnt from еvеryonе at thе sсhool. 1 еvеn 2 уet 3 as wеll 4 еxсеpt for 5 first of all 6 in сonсlusion 7 also 8 pеrsonally 9 bоth 10 instеad of

198


Explanations СapitaI letters

r

Capital lеttеrs (also сallеd uppеr-сasе lеttеrs) arе usеd:

to bеgin a sеntеnсе for namеs of pеoplе for addrеssingpеoplе for pеrsonal pronoun I

for titlеs of books еtс. for namеs of plaсеs for сalеndar information r

This is а beпutifttlpIасе. |iпl, HеIеtt \{rs |oltеs, L-tlсIеPеtеr, \Ituтl I sаt+'Еllеtt lсlst ttigllt, .|\.аr опd Pесlсе,is а grеаt book. Frаtrcе, Huпgаry Wedпеsdау,Mаrсh, New Yеаr,sDаy

In book and film titlеs, small words \ikе аnd, а/the and prеpositions do not usually havе сapitals, unlеss thеy arе at thе bеginning. ,Four Wеddiпgs апd а Fuпеrаl, is а fuпnу fiIm.

r

Somе words сan bе writtеn with сapitals, or in lowеr-сasе. Thеsе arе:

namеs of thе Sеasons dесadеs jobs сompasspoints r

iп Spriпg, iп spriпg the Fifties, the fifties Sапdеrsoпwаs а goodpresidеnt. Pаul met PresidentBruпsl'ryiсk. I live iп thе пorth of Sсotlапd. SаIIуworksiп theFаr Еаst.

(gеnеralusе) (job titlе) (dеsсription) (plaсе namе)

Full stops arе usеd at thе еnd of a sеntеnсе. Thеy arе also usеd in abbrеviations to show that lеttеrs in a word arе missinя. e.g.

etс.

Full stops arе oftеn lеft out aftеr thе abbrеviations Мr and Мrs. Сomma (, )

r

A сomma in writing rеprеsеnts a briеf pausе in spеесh. It is also usеd in lists, еxсеpt for thе last two itеms whеrе wе usе спd. I bought somе bапсlпсls|sОme ОraпgеSсtttdsotttеpotatОеS. If thе last two itеms of thе list arе long thеn rге dо usе a сomma. Аll dау wе сlеопed tltе f|oors, л,сtsllеt,l tltе у,лlls, сllt,1tiсliеd tltе llottsе.

r

Linking words at thе bеginning of a sеntеnсе arе follorr-еdbv сommas. First of аII, this сап be dаtlgеrous. Linking words in thе middlе of a sеntеnсе har.е сommas bеforе and aftеr. Апп, on the other hапd, did tlot a9rее'

r

Сommas arе usеd with non-dеfining rе1atir.есlausеs. Toпу, who is usuаlly lаtе, turпed up аt 10,З0.

r

Сommas arе usеd in dirесt spеесh. ,I,ll bе Iаtе., Iim sаid'

t99


!Nт ЕR]tлЕDlAт E

L A NGU A GE

P RA C т IC E

But thеy arе not usеd afteтrеporting vеrbs in rеportеd spеесh. |im sаid he would be lаte' Commas сannot bе usеd to join sеntеnсеsdirесtly, without any othеr сhangеs.Look at this еxamplе. Two meп werewаIkiпg down the streеt.They werecаrryiпg а boх. Thеsе two sеntеnсеsсannot bе joinеd simply by сhanging thе full stop to a сomma. Tут'emgэ ь,erеwelkiпg detll tllе streеa thE'tvеrе сerr''iпt а brx. But thеrе arе othеr Ways to сombinе thе sеntеnсеs.For еxamplе: Two meп werewаIking dowп the strеet,саrrying а boх. Two men cаrrying а boх werewаIking down the street. Semi-сolon (;)

Wе сan join two sеntеnсeswith теlatеdmеanings using a sеmi-сolon. Roаd usersаnnoy pedestriаns;pedestriаnsаtтtтoуroаd users. A sеmi-сolon is also usеd to sеpalatе long itеms in a list. Studeпtsаre аsked пot to leаvebicyclesby the erltrаnce;not to leаvebаgs in tlu sitting room;аnd not to leаve сoаts in the dining room.

Colon (:)

A сolon introduсеs itеms in a list. Thеreаre two rules:one, don,t do it; two, don,tget саught. It сan also introduсе an еxplanation of thе prеvious part of thе sеntеnсе. Finаlly, we hаd to Stop:wе were tired апd it wаs dаrk.

Speeсhmarks (, ,)

Spеесh marks (also сalled quotation marks) arе used with diтесt spеeсh. Punсtuation goеs insidе. Thеy сan bе singlе or doublе. ,It might rаin lаter,,I eхplаined. ,Whу аre we leаving so eаrly?,,HeIеn аsked.

(tttr)

Titlеs of books, films, plays еtс. arе put insidе single quotation marks. Punсtuation is put outside in this сasе. We weпt to а performаnceof Ibsen,s,Ghosts,. Howеver, in printеd tеxt, thе titlеs of books, films, plays etс. arе usually put in italiсs. Question mark (?) and exсlamation mark (!)

200

Quеstion marks only oссur aftетthе quеstion. Whаt,s the time? Еxсlamation marks arе usеd in informal wгiting, but arе not сonsidетеd appropriatе in formal writing. You,Ilnevеrguesswhаt! I,veiust got eпgаged!


G R A м t ul A R

48

с A P l тA t

L EттER s

AND

P U N с тU A тloN

Underline the sentеnсewhiсh is punсtuated сorreсt|y. a) 1 2 3 b) 1 2 3 с) 1 2 3 d) 1 2 3 е) 1 2 3 0 1 2 3

2

,Would }zoumind tеlling mе whете wе arе?,Pеtra askеd. .Would you mind tеlling mе, whеrе Wе arе Pеtra askеd?, .Would you mind tеlling mе, whеtе Wе arе,, Pеtгa askеd? I agrееd,that a сottagе in thе mountains, would bе bеttет. I agтееdthat a сottаgе in thе mountains would bе bеttег. I agrееdthat a сottagе,in the mountains would bе bеttеr. Angеla who arrivеd aftеr I did, askеd mе whеn thе play finishеd? Аngе|a,who arrivеd aftеr I did, askеd mе whеn thе play finishеd. Angеla, who arrivеd aftеr I did askеd mе, whеn thе play finishеd. .I,ll seе you latеr.' Pеter told mе, not to wait and said ,I,ll sее you latеr., Petet told mе not to wait and said, Pеtеr told mе not to wait and said I,l1sее you latеr. In thе еnd I wеnt homе, I was wеt and hungry, and felt ill. In thе еnd I wеnt homе; I was wеt and hungry; and fеlt ill. In the еnd I wеnt homе: I was wеt and hungry and fеlt ill. I bought somе flour, somе еggs,two lеmons and somе sugar. I bought somе: flour, somе: еggs,two: lеmons and somе sugar. I bought somе flour somе еggstwo lеmons, and somе sugar.

Rewriteeaсh sentenсeputting in any nесеssaryсapitallеttеrs. a) wе,rе mееting unсlе david on tuеsdar-еvеning at еight.

'..Y{.е:'r.е.'ryL.е-o'.tLу.g.'!l.цдL*'.D.qуL'd,,оn.Tшэt.dау..."

b) last fеbruary i mеt mтs wilkinson fог thе first timе.

с) tim livеs in the south of franсе nеal сannеs.

,thе геmаins of thе day,. d) wе saw a grеat film at thе abс сallеd

е) wе Wеnt to a paftУ at mrs harrisons, housе on nеw yеar,sеvе.

f) julia,s rеading .a portrаit of a lady' by hеnry jamеs.

zoL


lNт ERмЕDlAт E

L A NGU A GE

3

PRA (т I(E

Rewrite eaсh group of words so that it сontains the punсtuation listed. a) First of ali who is going to сarry thе suitсasеaskеd Еmiliе (onе full stop, onе сomma, one quеstion mark, spеесh marks)

..Еi.r'tt''.a.f-,q!L,..у'tfu'..l+,go.tу.g..t.q..(4.Г.Т{..the'.sш

b) Katе said shе,d bе on timе but I didn,t bеliеvе hеr (onе full stop, onе сomma)

с) Jamеs said that hе,d missеd thе train got lost and bеen arrеstеd (onе full stop, two сommas)

d) Whеn thе bеll rang our tеaсhеr stood up and said Stop writing plеasе (one full stop, thrеe сommas, spеeсh marks)

е) on thе othеr hand wе сould go to thе сinеma сouldn,t wе said David (onе full stop, two сommas, onе quеstion mark, spеесh marks)

Good morning Alan said Tina how do you fееl today (onе full stop, onе сomma, onе quеstion mark, spеесh marks, one сapital lеttеr)

s) If I wеrе you I,d ask for somе hеlp or pеrhaps start again (onе full stop, two сommas)

h ) Тhе old stadium Was еvеntually dеmolishеd vеry few pеoplе wеnt thеrе and

it was bесoming dangеrous (onе full stop, onе сomma, onе сolon)

202


Explanations Adding -ing to

r

vеrbs

onе-syllablе words whiсh еnd in onе vowеl and onе сonsonant doublе thе last сonsonant. swim/swimming

put/puttitxg

Comparе thеsе words whiсh do not doublе thе сonsonant: shoot/shooting lift/liftiпs r

Two-syllablе words whiсh еnd in onе vowеl and onе сonsonant doublе thе last сonsonant whеn thе strеss is on thе sесond syllablе. bеgiп/beginпing

сontrol/сoпtrolling

Сompaте thеsе words with thе StrеSson thе first syllablе. woпder/woпderiпg thrеаteп/threаteпiпg onе еxсеption to this rulе in British Еnglish is trаvel/trаvelliпg. r

е ndi n g in

Words whiсh еnd in onе vowеl, onе сonsonant and -e drop thе final -e. write/writiпg lеаvе/leаvin{

Тhе suffix -ful has only onе /. beаutiful suссеssful Whеn -/yis addеd to makе an advеrb,thе / bесomеsdoublе. bеаutifullу suссеssfullу Thеrе is a usеful rulе: l bеforе e еХсеpt aftеr с. niece fteld but reсeive But notе that this rulе only works whеn thе sound is ,ее,/i:/.For еxamplе in this word thе sound is diffеrеnt and e сomеs bеforе l: reign

S i | е n tlеttеrs

r

Many words сontain lеttеrswhiсh do not form a sound. Thеsеате somеtimеs rеfеrrеdto as ,silеnt lеttеrs,.Thе silеnt lеttеrsarе undеrlinеd. btlmb doubt plumbеr thumb kn kпee f;пifе know ps psусholoу psусhiаtrist Sс dеsсeпd сlsсепd

t

qandu Thе lеttеr 4 is always followеd by и. questioп squid асquirе

20З


l Nт ЕR1t , l Е D l A т Е

L A NGU A G

E P RA C т!с E

Words сommonly spеllеd wrongly arе also inсluded hеre. Corrесt the spelling where neсessary.

2

a)

6/

b) swrmlng

h) beatitul

с) foto d) qеstion

D i)

е) whistle

k) phyсhiatrist

fl knowеn

l) suсеsfull

thiеr

o)

rесiеpt bеgining

Usе the letters in braсketsto make a word whiсh fits the spaсе. a) Suе said shе,d (nеhop) .'..B!м'ш..

mе but I havеn,t

(irеdvесе)...Г9&9tY.9d.. a сall yеt. b) Whеn thе refеrееblew thе (stеwlih)

thе playerslеft

thе (еdlif) с) Еllеn (fесlyslusuсs)

сomplеtеd the сoursе in nuсlеar

(shipsсy) d) I didn,t (wonk)

how to сut the string Without a

(inkе0 е) Thе poliсе arrеstedthе (itfеh) (nеgvial)

as hе was thе bank.

0 Jim asked a (siqontue) (nilsigеnt) g) At thе (nigеngibn) (wivе) h) Thеsеanсiеnt(mulсosn) (yitbuеlfual) ................ 3

204

, but his tеaсhеr wasn,t of thе film, I had a poor ................. arе . madе.

Write eaсh verb with an a) сontrol

g) upsеt

b) thiсkеn

h) hook

с) grip

i) writе

d) сhoosе

j) improvе

е) fly

k) swim

0 makе

l) ridе


G п A !ш n' A R

4

49

s P Et L l N G

AND

P R o N U N C l A т!o N

1

Correсt the spеIlingin this tetter. Dеar Bесky, I,m soгy that I havеn,t writеn to you for so long. I,m afтiad I,vе beеn vетy bussy at shool, and I havеn,t had muсh timе for wтitеing lеtеrs. Last wееk I finisеd my examenations, so now I,m gеting rеdy to 80 on holyday. I was wundеring wethеr you wood like to сome to stay foг a fiеw days? You сann mеat my frеinds, and wе сoud all go swimеing. Thе whеathеr is rеaly good now hеar in ltaly, and I,m shure you will engoy youтshеlf. Bеst wishеs, Silvia

5

correсt these words сommonty spetledwrongly. a) tommorow b) Wеnsday с) advеrtismеnt d) nеihbour е) thrugh f) grеatfull g) nессеssarry h) dissappointеd i) wheathет j) rеmbет k) libary l) ansеr

6

Undеrline the silent letter/s in these words. a) dеbt b) еxhibition с) high d) knifе е) lamb f) psyсhologist g) rесеipt h) what i) yaсht

i) autumn k) answеr l) daughtеr m)haШ n) light o) salmon p) wholе q) would r) wтiting

zo5


ЕxpIanations Same sound, diffеrеnt spеlIing

In Еnglish onе partiсular sound сan bе spеlt using diffеrеnt lеttеrs.In еaсh group bеlow thе sound undеrlinеd is thе samе. Vowеls съmPаny brцther IQуe trauble rцbbish blopd rogd most home thoush laуу eоrth filrther wgrd hurt xtаit greцt lцte wфht |lorv shout drgwn Ploцsh Consonants relаfron shoсk Sure сoпsсious deliсious сhurсh ftlrniflre wаtсh Ieiцure meаSure сoпfil5ioп

Same pronunсiation, differеnt spеlling and meaning

Words whiсh look si mi l ar

Words with a syllable whiсh is not pronounсed

Diffеrеnt words сan have exaсtly thе samе pronunсiation. Common examplеs are: аlIotryed/аIoud Sore/Sсlw сourt/саught stаir/stаre 'wаste/wаist lesson/lesseп fаre/fаir ftnd/fined two/too пoRпow wаit/weight 'vаm/worп Somе words may havе only a lеttеr or two diffеrеnсе to othеr words, but thеy havе a сomplеtеly differеnt mеaning. Bе еspесially сarеful with thеsе сommonlу сonfusеd woтds: quiet/quite lаter/lаtter rесent/reseпt аcсept/ехcept through/thorough formerly/formаIlу iпsure/eпsure Iose/loose Somе words arе partiсularly diffiсult to spеll beсausеthеy sееm to havе a фlablе whiсh is not pronounсеd. Thе еxamplеs bеlow show how many syllablеs arе aсtually pronounсеd in spеесh: tеmpеrаture(3 syllablеs) Iibrаry(3 syllablеs) (3 syllablеs) vegetаble Wedпesdаy(2 syllables) (3 syllablеs) people(2 syllablеs) interesting

Nouns and verbs with с and s

Noun Vеrb

How to improve spelling

I T I

206

аdviсe аdvise

prаctiсe prасtise

Usе a diсtionary to сhесk thе pronunсiation of nеw words. Rеlatе thе spеlling of new words to words you already know. Мakе lists of thе words you usually spell wrongly. Tеst yoursеlf or ask friеnds to tеst you. Rеad widеly to givе you еxpеriеnсе of thе way words arе spеllеd.


G R A п ni l I A R

5o

s P ЕL L !N G

AND

P R o N U N с l A тI o N

2

Words сommonly spеllеd wrongly arе also inсludеd hеrе. Find pairs of words with thе same sound undеrlinеd. a) Qщ)-=b)plum \ с)hеart \ \ \+ d)сatсh е) phonе f) gure g) dgцbt h) foad i) сaution

2

l

Ч: ril I

,'.ii

,t .ч

.!r ?

*

"5:

3

сompany mеаsuгe furniturе

5 6 7 8 9

^fisrатцlе brqwn toast сonfusion park

Underlinethe сorreсtword in eaсh sentenсе. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

,t

l 2 3

Plеasе stop looking at mе likе thatl It,s vетy rudе to stаir/ttatе. I think you should prасtiсe/prаcfisediving еvеry day. Thе doсtoт gavе Martin a through/thoroughеxamination. about languagе сourses? Could you givе mе somе аdуice/аdvise Wе wantеd to go by train, but wе сouldn,t afford the fаir/fоre. Сould you wait a momеnt? I,m not quiet/quiterеady. is hard unlеss you havе timе to сhесk first. Rеading аllowed/аIoud Sorry I didn,t сomе to уolur partУ, but I just fе|t two/tootirеd. You сan havе modеl J6 or modеl J8, but the lаtеr/lаtteris morе еxpеnsivе. Thе baсk of thе сhair is nеarly falling off _ it,s rea||Уlose/loosе'

Тiсk (/) if a pair of words rhymes. a) swееt/еat

..{..

i) сhosе/bruisе

с) worn/torn

t) lowigo k) abroad/affoгd

d) losе/loosе

l) quitе/diеt

е) tеa/bее

m) fuiеnd/lеanеd

b) worsе/horsе

fl

thought/short

g) latеr/lattеr

n) blood/food o) wеight/hеight

h) word/hеard

zo7


lNт ЕRп nЕDl A т E

L A NGU A GЕ

4

P RA с т l ( Е

Correсt thе spelling in this lеtter. Dеar Silvia, Thanks for your lеtеr and your invittation to ltaly! I,ve nеvеr travеlеd abraod beforе, and I,m rеaly looking forwеrd to staying with you and your familly. I'тв spokkеn to my palrеnts and thеy,vе aggrееd.Тhеy say they,rе going to phonе soon to disсus thе arangеmеnts. I,vе diсidеd to havе somе Itаlian lеsons so that I сan praсtiсе whеn I сomе tш Italy. I,d likе you to writе somе simplе sеntanсеsfoг mе. Plеasеnotе my nеъt. adrеss.Wе movеd last wеak and now I,vе got a muсh biger bеdroom. bеst wishеs, Bесky

5

Corrесt these words сommonly speIledwrongly. a) vеgtаblе b) lаngagе с) qеuеu d) rесiеvе е) pеplе f) bеatiful g) intlеsting h) bisсit D сiеling j) difrеnt k) knowligе l) indipеndant

6

zo8

Тhere is anothеr word with exaсtly the same pronunсiation as the word givеn. Write it in the spaсе. a) atе

h) nun

b) bеen

i) peaсе

с) Сzесk

j) pеar

d) flour

k) right

е) hole

l) rosе

Г) mussеl

m) sеw

8) no

n) starе


Underlinеthe сorreсtword or phrasein eaсh sеntenсе. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

Paula kееps talking about that nеw bikе of fo91g/hеr/hеr,s. I askеd my tеaсhеr for hеlp, but shе rеfusеd to help/hеlpinyrr,е' David isn,t intеrеsted аt/for/iпсоllесting stamps. Suе сouldn,t swim аIthough/аsshе had a bad сold. It,s rеally dark. I сan,t sее апуthiпg/somethiпg/nothiпg. I rеally ег'joу to speпd/speпdiпgtirlre with you! Ann is not vеry good аt/bу/forFrеnсh. Hеlеn hasn,t told mе аnуthiпg/nothingabotlt thе trip.

Deсide whiсh answеr (A, в, с or D) best fits еaсh spaсe. Ап unfortunвtе misuпdеrstапding o

Last yеar wе (1) .'''у-.,.. to havе an еxpеnsivе holiday, so wе (2) somе friеnds, Brian and Ann, who (З)

to visit

tо live by thе sеa. Thеy (4) ...........

to put us up foг tи'o ъ'ееks, and as wе always (5) ...........sееing thеm, it ( 6 ) ........' ..t o b е a go o d idеa. Thеy аskеd us if w е (7) .....'.....slееpingo n thе s o f a , a n d s a i d t h a t thеу r тo uld (8) ........'..to makе us сo mfo r tablе. W е (9) ........... to gеt thеrе by bus, and тvhеn rте aгrivеd rте сould (10) ....'.....'Bгian and Ann tо bе glad to sее us, but it w as o bv ious s i t t i n g i n t h e g a r dеn. Thеу (11) ........... t h a t t h e y h a d n ,t (12) .........'.to sее us. Тhеr ' said that r те had (1З)

to tеll

thеm whеn Wе WеIе aггiving, and thеr- t 14l .......'.'.asking us horr. long wе wеrе going to stay. Wе (15) .........'.fееling еmbarrassеd, so thе пе.rt dar. rте wеnt homе.

1) A сontinuеd 2) A fanсiеd З) A mеant 4) A offеrеd 5) A dеniеd 6) A bеgan 7) A mindеd 8) A praсtisе 9) A suggеstеd 10) A watсh 11) A intеndеd 72) Аprеfеrrеd 13) A forgottеn 14) A lovеd 15) A imagined

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

сouldn,t affoгd triеd kеpt admittеd imaginеd sееmеd suggеstеd mеan tried sее prеtеndеd forgottеn dеniеd wantеd minded

С likеd С iтlshеd С ho pеd С еnior-еd С еnjol-еd С imaginеd С rтantеd С lеarn С managеd

С C C С С С

kееp еxpесtеd promisеd sееmеd kеpt сouldn,t hеlp

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

promisеd dесidеd happеnеd intendеd prеfеrrеd еxpесtеd rеmеmbеrеd try stаrtеd wait suggеstеd еxpесtеd сhosеn сouldn,t stand seеmеd


lNт ЕRM EDl A т Е

L A NGU A GЕ

P RA (т l с E

For еaсh question, сomplеte the seсond sentеnсе so that it means the same as thе first, using no more than threе words. a) Jеff was thе only studеnt who forgot thе tеst.

Еvеryonеrеmеmbеrеdthе tеst !хсe.РtJ9.ff. b) Robеrta knows this town bеttеr than anyonе. this to w n bеttеr than Ro bеr ta.

N o ..' ....... .'.

с) Тhеsе two pairs of glovеs bеlong to thе twins. glo vеs.

Т h е s е a rе ............. d) Andy wouldn,t сarry my bag. A n d y ....... ..

my bag.

е) Pеtеr is rеliablе. You сan

.... Pеtеr.

f) Sеrеna is onе of my brothеr,s friеnds. Sе rе n a i s .............'.

........my br o thеr ,s.

g) Тhе snow bеgan yеstеrday еvеning. I t ...............

........yеstеr day еvеning.

h) Do you think yоu сould сlosе thе window? Would you mind

4

.... thе window?

Look сarefuIIyat еaсh linе. Somе linеs arе сorrесt but some havе a word whiсh shouId not bе there. Tiсk (/) еaсh сorreсt line. lf a line has a word whiсh should not bе there, writе the word in the spaсe. Winnittg а millioп

2r0

1 ... .......!........

Li f е с h a n g е d сo mplеtеly fo r Сar o l М ilеs w hеn shе w o n д1,OOO,O00in thе lottеry. .I dесidеd that to buy a tiсkеt

2 ....th4lt......'.

wh i l е I wa s wa iting fo r takе thе bus. I didn,t gеt еx сitеd

3 ...................

a b o u t i t , b е с ausе I didn,t еХpесt mе to w in. I n faсt, I

4 ...............' ...

сomplеtеly forgot it to сhесk my numbеrs, until a

5

f ri е n d r е m i n d е d fo r mе to do it. Yo u сan imaginе ho w

6 ... .............' ..

s u rp ri s е d I was], Сar o l had o ftеn bееn dr еamеd abo ut

7 ...................

b е i n g ri с h , b u t shе has go t disсo vеr еd that having lo ts ,I о f m o n е y d o еsn,t alw ays r nеan bеing happy. сan,t

8.... ............... 9 ...............' ' ..

е n ] o y f o r a n y t hing no w . W hеn I go o ut w ith my fr iеnds,

10 .................

f o т е х a m p l е , thеy еithеr еXpесt mе to pay o r thе bills,

11 ... ............' ...

o r t h е y ,r е a n g r y w ith mе w hеn I o ffеr to pay it. So mе p е o p 1 еt h е y a rе j еalo us o f my go o d luсk, I think, and

. 12 .......' ......... -l3 ...................

a с с u s е m е o f t hinking o nly abo ut mo nеy. No bo dy sееms

14 ..................'

t o h a v е u n d е r stand. I tho ught I w o uld еnj o y mysеlf, but

15 ..................

е v е I y o n е h a s star tеd to tr еat mе w ith diffеr еntly, еx сеpt fo r

16.................

o n е f r i е n d o f minе w ho has askеd mе to lеnd it him д10,000! , 17 ... .' ...........' '


GRAtvtMAR

5

5l

( o N s o L l DA тl o N

5

Complete еaсh sentenсе with one suitablе word. Ап аftеrпoon аt the bus stаtioп Н a n n a h h a d b е е n waiting r al ...fa.r ......,...., aсo llеaguе o f (b) ......... fathеr,s to сollесt hеr frorn thе bus station for morе than an hour, and shе was t i rе d ( с )

.. w aiting. Тhеr е w as (d) ..................... еlsе thеr е, and it had

( е ) .................... raining. . A fr iеnd o f (f) .......... to takе on hеr trip, but shе (g)

had 1еnt hеr an umbrеlla

.. to bе gеtting и'еt. Pеrhaps hеr

f a t h е r W a S a n g r y ( h) ................'.... hеr , shе tho ught, o r had simply ( i ) ..................... t o сo llесt hеr . H еr mo bilе pho nе W asn,t w o r king and thеr е W a s n ,t ( j ) .......' .......,,.... a pho nе.bo x in thе bus statio n. W hy did ( k ) ............ ........a lw ays 80 W lo ng w hеn shе tr avеllеd by bus? (l) ............ .... thе bus was сrowdеd and shе fеlt vеry unсomfortablе, or it (m) ......... stopping and thе journеy lastеd for hours. Suddеnly shе (n)

.. a сar

s t o p p i n g o u t s i d е . ( o ) ..................... W as w aving at hеr . I t w as hеr fathеr l

6

Rewritе this letter, сorreсting the spеlling and adding any neсessary сapita| letters and punсtuation. 17 Harford Strееt, Bilsworth, Bк3 4JG Tеl:08143 678З dеar david it was gratе too hеrе from you aftеr sо lоng 1 еn1oiеd hеaring al1 l-ourе knеws i didn,t rеallizе that you,d spеnt a r-еar abbгоad r.ou пlust har.е had a rеaIl' good timе in grеесе ivе diсidеd to go thеir nе\t suпlеr plaps \r-есoud gо twogеthеI ivе had a fantastiсk Уеar at сolidgе thе lvork is haгdеr than thе rvork wе did at sсool but its molе intrеsting im studing bussiIlеss adnrinistrat1on and сomputеr siеnсе at thе mommеnt ivе also maid lots of nеlt. frеinds im thinkеing of сomming to bristol for a iеtт dаl-s tо l-lssit m.v sistеr woud you likе to mеat you сoud show mе thе sitеs and rtе сoud talk abowt our old sсooldays why dont you givе mе a ring and wе соud disсus it it lr.oud bе wundеrfull to sее you aganе bеst wishеs еl1еn

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Put one suitab|eword in еaсh spaсe. I?

going out to lunсh, wе stayеdat hоme. a) ...IЦI94!...' ...pr.......''..... b) Thеrе wеrе a dozеn olangеs in thе bowl but you'vе еaten .........

.. onе. it's

с) I t h o u g h t i t W as W еdnеsday to day, but ..................... Tuеsday! d)

;;i;......,IwouldlikеtothankеvеIyonеwhohasgivеn .....brother,s,but isn,t a friеnd of е) Tеd is a friеnd

0

}oе bought two shiгts and a jaсkеt

. W hеr е did yo u buy s) I r е a 1 l yl i k е t h i s nеw сo at o f .....................

it?

o n a piесе o f br o kеn glass. h) к a t е f е l l o v е r a nd сut ..................... i) I suppоsе it dеpеnds

.. whеthеr you bеliеvе

.. UFos

or not. j) Тhе tеst Was so hard that ...........

our tеaсhеrdidn,t know thе answеrs.

What is thе diffеrenсe bеtween these pairs of sеntenсes?Cheсk with Grammar 43 if you are not sure. a) I triеd to takе аn aspirin. I triеd taking an aspirin. b) I rеmеmbеr to do my homеwork. I rеmеmbеr doing my homеwork. с) Thе boys stopped having a rеst. Thе boys stoppеd to havе a rеst.

Problem сheсk

Тhe samе verb or adjeсtivesсan be fo]lowed by different prepositions.Cheсk these meaningsin a diсtionary: a) You rеmind me of my brothеr. Can you rеmind mе about thе tеst? b) Wе,rе plеasеd with him. Wе,rе plеasеd for him. Wе,rе plеasеd by him. 3

Only use onein formal spеeсh and writing. Don,t mix onе and you.

4

Rememberthat using an apostropheсan mean that a letter is missing(it3 = it ls) or it сan show possession(АnnЗ hot). Тhe best way to improveyour punсtuationand spellingis through widе reading. Make lists of words you often spell wrongly.

z 12


.\ , hе nyou fi n d a .е w Wor d

If you arе rеading and you find a word you do not knoи,, do not immеdiatеly usе a diсtionary. Ask yoursеlf: r l

Is this an important, usеful word? Do I nееd to know thе еxaсt mеaning?

If thе word sееms important, and you havе timе, thеn of сoulsе usе a diсtionary and add thе word to your voсabulary notеbook. If thе word sееms unimportant, or you arе rеading just for plеasurе, or you don,t havе timе, thеn you сan: l r r r \ , l aki ngt h e mos t : f your diсtionary

lеavе it and сomе baсk latеr try to guеSs thе mеaning of thе word from thе сontеxt сomparе thе nеw word with othеr words that look similar, thеn guеss ask somеonе

Сhoosе a diсtionary whiсh has all thе information you nееd. To usе a diсtionary еffесtivеly you nееd to know: r r r

how to find words in alphabеtiсal ordеr what thе abbrеr,iations in еaсh еntry mеan how to look for rтords if vou don,t find thеm at first (е.g.look furthеr down in thе samе еntтv to find othеr rvords in thе family or thе сolloсationyou arе looking for)

(. е е pl n ga ' эсabu l ar y . ot е book

r

whеn to сarry it with r'ou

r

whеn to uSе it and whеn not to usе it r r -о u mlght gеt bo r еd if r .o u usе it t oo muсh)

Мany pеoplе, whеn thеy find a nеrт rгord. iust rtritе thе translation at thе sidе of thе page and do nothing morе. But this is not thе bеst rгar' to 1еaгn a и.ord; first it is hard to rеmеmbеr words in isolatiоn' and sесond r.оu nееd ехtra information about how thе word is usеd, not jtiSt its basiс mеaning. So it is a good idеa to kееp a voсabulary notеbook tтhеrе \-ou сan rеr-iеrr.and rеvisе nеw words. For еaсh word in thе book you might \rаnt to inсludе: Dеfinition Grammatiсal сlass (е.g. noun) Pronunсiation Translation Сolloсation (words whiсh сombinе with thе main rтord) An еxamplе sеntеnсе that shows how thе rr-oтdis usеd Frеquenсy (many diсtionariеs havе a systеm to show how сommon it is) Formal or informal

z1З


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If you put thе words in a notеbook it will bе еasiеrto rеmеmbеr thеm. But if you organizе thе words insidе thе book thеn it is еvеn bеttеr.Hете arе somе idеas: r l l

Rесord words in alphabеtiсal sесtions. .Familiеs and Friеnds,' Makе sесtions for diffеrеnt largе topiс arеaslikе .Hobbiеsand Intеrеsts,,,Plaсеs,. Мakе a .Lеxiсal sеt,.ThiS is a small gloup of words basеd on onе spесifiс topiс. Gardеn flowеrbеd hеdgе shеd lawn You сan writе this as a word sDidеr:

r

r r

o1А

Мakе а ,Word family,. This is a group basеd оn word formation. noun bеauty adjeсtivе bеautifu] vеrb bеautify Мakе sесtions for idioms and spесial еxprеssions. Мakе sесtions for words that arе usеful to you pеrsonally, or that intеrеst vou, oI that сausеyou problеms.


Words сan bе formеd by adding a prеfix to thе bеginning oг a suffix to thе еnd. Thеrе arе many prеfixеsand suffixеsarе inсludеd in this unit and in VoсabularyЗ. Еxamplеs of prеfixеs:un-, dis-, im-, misuп- + сеrtаiпunсertаiп dis- + аppeаrdisаppeаr im- + possiblеimpossible mis + uпderstапdmisuпderstсlпd Еxamplеs of suffixеs:-nеss,-ful, -less,ship hа'ppу+ -пеsshаppiпеss саrе + -ful саreful eпd + -lеss endless frieпd + -ship frieпdship

Words of two or molе syllablеs еnding in.y сhangе -y to -l. Sее Grammar 49. Add a word from the box to thе prеfix in еaсh sеntеnсе to makе a nеgativе word.

1].'.]];.i1dvantagе

aglее

lllll]].]l.Tж*s

patiеnt

a) I didn,t rеad all of thе book bесausе I found it ш.LW...e.ГS{.tI.Ш$.' . b ) С y с l i n g h a s o n е dis'.............

. I t makеs yo u fееl ho t and sw еaty.

с) Suе had a tiсkеt for thе thеatrе, but un........

shе fеll ill that night.

d ) Т е rr y с a n ,t s t a n d w aiting in quеuеs, bесausе shе,Sr .еr y im............... е ) М y b r o t h е rs a l wa ys dis..'..'..'...'.

iтhеn it,s timе tо do thе w ashing-up .

f ) A f t е r J a с k l o s t h i s io b, hе и -as un................''...... fo r thтее mo nths. o h , I с o m p l е t е l y dis.............. r гith l-o u. I think it r гas a gгеat film. 8) h ) B е с a u s е o f a m i s .. .... 2

, ha1f thе сlass r tеnt to thе \r lo г1gсlassr o om .

Complete thе word in eaсh sentеnсе with a prеfiх fгom thе box.

a ) М y a l a r m с l o с k d idn,t go o ff, and so I ....с'..''9','''''. slеpt this mo r ning. b ) Pе t е p a с k е d s o m е shir ts and so сks, so mе .............'.. \fеal, and his iеans. с ) I t ,s v е r y с o l d t h i s mo r ning, so W еaI yo ul ................ сo at. d) our tеam Was сomplеtеly

plar'еd br thе tеam from Walеs.

е ) I ,v е d е с i d е d t o ................ w r itе my lеttеr , bесausе I madе to o many mistak еs. f) Stеvе

сookеd thе mеat, and it rтas burnt in plaсеs.

g) I havе to 8o to thе library today and h) Thе staff wеnt on strikе bесausе thеy wеrе

nеW my tiсkеt. paid and ovеrworkеd.

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t1 Ч;

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Completе the word in eaсh sentenсewith a suffix from the box. Make any other neсessaryсhanges to the word.

a) Aftеr two yеars of friеnd....{b.ъt..'.,Katе got to know David rеally wеll. b) If you don,t spеak thе languagеyоu fееl morе likе a forеign.... on a small island. с) Sarah spеnt a vеry happy сhild................ d) I askеd a stеward.... е) Еvеry tееnage......

what timе thе planе arrivеd, but shе didn,t know. knows that parents worry a lot.

Г) Don,t foтgеt to add a spoon...... 8) wе livе in a bеautiful nеighbour..

of sugaц and somе milk. on thе outskirts of thе сity.

h)Tinapiсkеdupahand..ofsnoщandthrеwitinmyfaсе. i) Undеr the floor thеrе was a rumbling sound of maсhine desсribingits сoursеs. j) Thе сollеgesent Suе a small book................ 4

Comp|ete еaсh sentenсеwith a noun made from the verb given. a) Thеrе arе ovеr onе million ..,tЙдb.tt!|n#..'''..,,. in this сity. inhabit in thе sсhool holidays.

b) Grеg oftеn suffеrsfrom borе с) This is thе tallеst ................

. in thе wholе of the сountry.

build d) Some studеnts сan,t find suitable aссommodate to hеlp mе.

e) I was upsеt by Carol,s rеfusе f) It took Riсhard yеars to bесomе a suссеssful aсt g) Еvеry

in this сompany has rесеivеd a pay risе.

еmploy h) You nееd a lot of ......... imaginе i) Don,t forgеt to tuln off the сook i) I saw an intеrеsting advеrtisе

zt6

........to wтitе а' good stoтy. bеforе you lеavе. in thе loсal paper.


vo сA BULA RY

5

2 W o RD

Fo Rм A тlo N

1

Completе eaсh sentenсewith a nouп ending in -nessmade from a word in the box. Make any neсessaryсhanges.

of thе journеy surprisеd mе, as I thought it would bе a) Thе ..{'lp.о.rtJ.1&,!.,f.. longer. b) Suе was imprеssеdby thе

.. of еvеryonе in hеr nеw sсhool.

с) Wе knеw it was going to rain beсausеof thе d) old Мrs Holt,s

.. of thе sky.

.. was сurеd whеn shе was given a pеt сat.

е) Thе doсtor told Pеtеr that his

.. WaSa rеsult of ovеrwork.

f) Wеndy,s tеaсhеr was impressеdby thе

.. of hеr work.

.. in thеir nеw life togеthеr. 8) we wishеd thе bridе and groom h) Joe,stеaсhеrsbеgan to gIoWtirеd of his ..................... in сlass. i) I fеlt rathег сold whеn I arrivеd bесausеof thе .. of my сlothеs. i) Jеan took a tтavеl .........

6

pill, and thеn shе fеlt muсh bеttеr.

Comp|ete the word in eaсh sentenсewith a suffix from thе box.

a) Еvеryonе thankеd thе firе-fightегsfor thеir hеroИ....... еfforts. b) Paul rесеivеd most of his musiс

еduсаtion fтom his mothеr.

с) Thе govеrnmеnt is going to pгovidе mоrе housеs for homе.

pеоplе.

d) Lisa,s mothеr...........qualitiеs madе hеr a favouгitе with thе сhildrеn. whеn thе wеathег is bad. е) This road is еxtrеmеly dangеr...........

0

It was vеry fool...........of you to lеavе all thе doоrs аnd windows opеn.

s) on

rain.'.........days, we spеnd a lot оf timе indoors watсhing tеlеvision.

zt7


Undеrline thе сorrесt word in eaсh sentеnсe. a) By 11.00I fеlt so tirеd/tiriпgthat I wеnt to bеd. b) I hеard thе film was good, but it was vеtу disаppoiпted/disсlppoiпting. с) Bеing alonе in an old housе at night сan bе frighteпеd/frighteпiпg. d) Juliе WaS so еmbаrrаssеd/еtпbоrrаssiпgthat hеr wholе faсе turnеd rеd. е) Jim 1ets borеd/boriпgif hе has to study too muсh. 0 It,s vеry сoпfusеd/сопfusiпgto bе taught in So many сlassrooms. g) Andy said that thе twеnty-milе walk was ехhсtustеd/ехhаustiпg. h) Arе уoll iпtеrеstеd/iпtеrеstiпgin going to thе bеaсh tomorrow? шy boss gavе mе thе day off. i) I was rеally stlrprisеd/яtrprisiпgwinеl^t j) Why don,t you go away and stop bеing so аппoуеd/аппoуiпg|.

2

Comp|ete the word in itolicsin eaсh sentеnсe with a prefix or suffix from thе boх Make any othеr nесеssary сhanges to the word.

-agе a) h)

dis.

-ful

im-

un-

-nеss]

I supposеPaul might hеlp us, but it sееmsllkely. Frеd сan,t fill his pool bесausеthеrе's a watеt short. I found most of thе maths quеstions сomplеtеly possible.

d) Jan has takеn up photogrаphas a hobby.

Thanks for thosе notеs. Thеy wеrе rеal|у usе. f\

I like wintеr spolts so I nеvеr go skiing.

ol Whеn it,s timе for bеd I start fedrtлgslеep. ь) h) This is a rеally usuаI stamp. I,vе not sееn onе likе it bеforе. I rеally likе Dan. Hе,s always so happy aлd сheer'

I,m writing to thank you for thе kind you shоwеd mе. CompIеteeaсh sеntenсеwith a word formеd from the word in bold. сold today,сonsidеringit,s still summеI' a) It,s...l+V1'!4,t.l,1!1.L|у........ usual b) \сtualh-,I found Тony,sbook was

intеrеSting.

surprisе сJ ..............

, my fathеrusеd to go to sсhoolwith your fathеr.

intеrеst d) Thе poiiсе managеd suссеss

zt8

to find thе missing сhildrеn.


vo сA BUtA RY

Jеan,s сompositions arе always bеautiful I,m ............

3 W o RD

Fo Rм A тloN

2

writtеn.

ashamеdof Уour bеhaviour!

thorough This quеstion is .....'......

diffiсult, isn,t it!

awful Mikе triеd

to phonе Сathy sеvеraltimеs.

suссеss Thеsе instruсtionssееm ..........

. сompliсatеd.

nесеssary Somеonеhad ............

lеft thе front door opеn.

оtlviоus Complete еaсh word with a word formed from the Word in bold.

a) I сan,tsit on this сhair.It,srеallyun..Qa.ЩLfi,rt..q!b!9.. . сomfort f

Ann has lеft homе and is in...............

f,

dеpеnd

h--

Thеsе old еnvеlopеsarе ге......

t

of hеr parеnts. .. so Wе сan savemonеy.

usе Not bеing сhosеn for thе tеam Was a gтеat dis

appoint Мaria and Louis havе a rеally good

........ship.

rеlatе Bеing un....

....mеans that vou shaгеll.ith othеrs.

sеlf Not taking еxеrсisеis rathеr un hеalth David has a rеally un..............

tеmpеr,and gеts angтyеasily.

сontrol Тhеsе tlousеrswon,t gеt smallеr.Thеy,rеun.............. shrink Thеy didn,t givе Gary thе job as hе was in еxpеriеnсе

21.9


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Complete eaсh sentenсewith a word formed from the word in bo!d. and thе сashiеrgavе him onе. a) Harry askеdfor u ...'Г.*2L.Pt.....'.... rесеive .......and join thе govеrnmеnt.

b) Nina wants to bе a politiсs

.......of thе watеr hеrе.

с) No onе knows thе еxaсt deеp

to gо fishing.

d) You havе to havе a lot of ......... patiеnt е) ..'...........

is a sеriousmattеr,and you havе to think about it.

marry fl Tom sеnt in his ............. apply

for thе job thе nеxt day.

g) Hеlеn,s mind is fillеd with all kinds of unusual know h) Thеrе was no

.......for thе сrash of thе airlinеr.

еxplain

6

Complеte eaсh sentenсe with a word formed from the word in bold. a) Thе ..'tkl.t......'.......of thе diamonds bafflеd thе poliсе. thiеf b) Мost pеoplе havе no rеal ............

in ghosts.

beliеvе с) Tina had no

.......that anything WasWrong.

suspесt d) Wе mеasuredthе ............

of the тoom with a rulеr.

long е) our tеaсhеr was теally

.......whеn shе found out.

angеr

0

GеоrgеWon a mеdal for ............. bravе

s) Looking in thе mirror too muсh is an еxamplе of valn h) Do you think you havе thе ............ ab1е

220

to pass thе tеst?


Completе еaсh sеntenсe with a word from the box. Eасh word is used ТHRЕE times. havе

tаkе

grvе

a niсеdar'] a) ...ttл.u.q........ b ) A t t h е wе е k еnd I likе to r еlax and j ust ..................... no thing. a сhat w ith yo u so mеtimе abo ut A nna? с ) С a n I ............'........ d ) H е l l o ? I s t h a t thе do сto r ,s sur gеr y? I ,d likе to ..................... an appo in tm еnt. е) I'll

.. you my answеr by thе еnd of thе wееk.

f) I'm going to havе an еarly night to makе surе I .........

a good

pеrformanсе tomolrow. g) If you havе a hеadaсhе you сan

.. an aspirin.

h) Somеtimеs it,s diffiсult to .........

any progrеss with Еnglish.

i ) So rr y , I с a n ,t сo mе o ut to night, I havе to ..................... my ho mеw o r k . j) That was a lovеly mеal. I,1l k) Wе always

.. thе dishеs in a momеnt.

.. a lot of fun whеn wе go сlubbing on Fridays.

l ) W е с a n ,t wa i t any lo ngеr . W е havе to ..''..............'.. aсtio n. m)Would you likе mе to n) You сan сatсh a taxi or

.. you a lift to thе station? .. thе bus.

a go o d impгеssion. o ) Y o u s h o u l d dr еss w еll fo r yo uг intеr viеw to .......'....''......' 2

Matсh еaсh group of adjeсtives (a-i) with a noun (1-10).

a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i) i)

an ambitious/a сlеvеr/a thrее-point _.. a suddеn/aviolеnt/a loud a powеrful/a notеbook/a dеsktop a сomfortab|elathrее-sеatеr/alеathеr a nеat/a suspiсious/asoftwarе сomplеtе/striсt/quality a сonsidеtablela dramaticla short-tеrm a sеriousla dеadlУlarrinfесtious an еldеr/a muсh-lovеd/an unmarriеd monthly/affordablе/unpaid

1 so fa 2 sistег З сontrol

+ plan

5 Сomputеr 6 lПlpIovеmеnt 7 геnt 8 ехplosion 9 disеasе i0 paсkagе

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Complеte eaсh sеntenсewith a vеrb from list A and a noun from list B. appear bеhaviour

A B

l

a) You should usе Suntan lotion whеn you go to thе bеaсh to ....PI|.|К.t'

you'..... {!9.1k....... . b ) I nееd to ..................... a L'

.. on my dеskfor my nеW сomputег.

I hatе it whеn I,m using my сomputеrand еrrormеssagеs..................... on

е) It,sgoing to bе еxpеnsivеto livе in London. I,ll havе to ..................... a .. and pay for all my food. f) Bеlgium arе losing by two goals to nil against Btazi|. Now thеy havе to rеallг .. for.......... g) Could you givе mе a hand? It will only ..........

a ..................... .

h) Thе problеm with modеrn soсiеtyis that parеntsdon,t ..................... thе .. of thеir сhildrеn.

4

ln еaсh sentеnсe one of the adverbs in itolicsdoеs NoT make a сommon сol|oсationwith the verb in bold. Cross out the wrong сolloсation. a) .I,m baсk,, shе said щв4lJу/simplу/саlmly. b) 1pаrtiсulаrlу/strongly/properly dislikе rеstaurants whеrе thе waitеrs arе rudе. с) Thе govеrnmеnt aсtеd ftrmlу/сompletely/immediаtеly against thе thrеat of tеrrorism. d) Shе spоkе briefly/greаtlу/wаrmlуabotlt hеr grandmothеr. е) Hе Wеnt to thе poliсе and сonfеssеd his crimе opeпlу/reаIlу/voluпtаrilу. f) Thе priсе of oil rosе highlу/shаrplу/drаmаticаllу|ast month. g) Thе sun Was shining brightly/direсtly/perfeсtlу onto thе old town squarе. h) Rоnaldo was deliberаtelу/lаrgelу/suddепIу pushеd in thе pеnalty arеa. i) Hе hеld thе ropе and pullеd deеplу/hаrd/gentlу. i) Не always spends his monеy stronglу/саrefullу/wiselу.

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4 сo LLo сA тlo Ns

1

A ND Flx ЕD Еx P RЕsslo Ns

Complеtе eaсh sentеnсewith onе noun from list A and one noun from IistB. spaсе lоan

stomaсh pгiсе sh

a) I сan,t spеnd muсh monеy this wееkеnd.Мy ...b.\nk.. .'.4сaa.*пt...is in thе rеd. b) only forty еurosfor a top-namеsportsshoеIThat,sa геal .......'. с) Thеy say that in thе futurе wе,ll bе ablе to go to thе moon for our holidays by .............. that wе don,t

d) Thеrе,sa lot of volсaniс aсtivity on thе noтmally sее.

.. from thе bank to hеlp mе сomplеtеmy

е) I,ll nееd to gеt a .......... univеrsity studiеs.

f) I wеnt to Sandra,shousе last night and shе madе us all a lоvеly g) I think I,m going to go homе now. I,vе got a bit of a ............ Complete eaсh sеntеnсe with a vеrb phrasе from the box.

. folgеt to hard tо ьopЁ..i;:l......iikuly to * .:.1'dеsig1"6 tтy not to willing tо &Фiф*" howtо

a) Don,tbrеakit. I сan,t

лffp.сd..t!........'.. bur.a nеlt onе.

b) Тhе weathеr is сhanging. It,s gеtting muсh сoldеr and rvе'rе

havе snow tomoггorт. .. геsist.

с ) I ,d l o v е s o m е mo r е сho сo latе сakе. ]t's ............. gain br- r.ouг aсtions?

d) What do you

е) It,s thе first timе I,vе triеd iсе-skating. Plеasе f ) С a n y o u ...........

...' play сhеss as lтеll as vo u? ......геaсt to thе thrеat of war.

g) Thе governmеnt was ......... h) Don,t

laugh!

ask him about his mothеr. Shе,s bееn ill rесеntly.

i) Thеsе еxеrсisеs arе ............' _ i) Shе,s a grеat musiс tеaсhеr shе,s

.' strеngthеn your Stomaсh musсlеs. sharе hеr lovе of

Мozart with us all'

22З


C o m p l е t е t h е e x p ressio n based o n thе w o r d timе in eaсh sentenсe, using aword f ro m t h е b o х . L ;-L

in

losе

on

pass

sparе

tеll

timе

timе yo u star tеd do ing so mе w o r k! ...i1'L$! i.......... '',' bl \\'hat do you most еnjoy doing in your .. timе? a) Сomе onJohn!

сt l don,t go sailing oftеn, but I еnjoy doing it from timе to d l \\' h е n I h a v е t o w ait at thе air po r t, I do a сr o ssw o r d to ..................... th е timе. thе tim е с l \\.h е n C a ro l wa s givеn hеr fir st w atсh, shе lеar nеd to ..................... f r Sa l l y i s n е v е r l atе. Shе,s alw ays..................... timе fo r hеr lеsso ns. g t Т h a n k g o o d n е s s thе do сto r hur r iеd. Shе savеdJ im,s lifе j ust....................' t1mе. h t H u r r y u p . W е ,v е no timе to ..................... . Thе tr ain lеavеs in fivе minu tеs] Сomp|etе the sеntenсes with thе most suitablе verb from the box.

burst

сaught

gor

had

lost

Bаd€

paid

spеnt

told

took

a) PеtеI,s fathеr ...,уу,4,.4.g.'...,.. lots of monеy by sеlling old сars. bt Sophiе

.. a party last wееk and most of hеr friеnds сamе.

с l I ................. .... so mе vеr y go o d pho to s o f o ur do g w ith my nеW сamеr a . dl Davе

.. a lot of monеy on rеbuilding his motorbikе.

еl Тhе еnding of thе film was so sad that many pеoplе

.. into tеars

f t -\ссording to thе story, Gеorgе Washington always .. thе truth. .. into troublе at sсhool for playing a jokе on hеr tеaсhеr. .яl Кеlly } - t t\b u d i d n ,t u n d еr stand bесausе yo u..................... no attеntio n to thе 1nstIuсtions. il

I ....' ............ .... a сo ld last w ееk so I сo uldn,t play in thе fo o tball matсh.

1l \\-е

oo А

.. our Way сomplеtеly and had to ask for dirесtions.


v o сA BULA RY

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5 сo tto сA тlo Ns

A ND Flx ED Еx P RЕssloNs

2

Completе eaсh sentenсe with a word from the box. mad

B€sE

sесrеt

tеmpвr-,

a) I madе a сomplеtе '...ry!&.s'{'...''... of onе еxam, and had to takе it again. b) Whеn I swim undеrwatеrI сan hold my ..................... for two minutеs. с) Pеtеrtold thе boy to lеavеhis littlе brothеr..................... . d) Can you tеll thе ..................... bеtwеenbuttеrand margarinе? е) Thе loud musiс from thе housе next door drovе Мaгy 0 Whеn I stеppеdon Hеlеn,s foot again, shе triеd not to lose hеr g) I,ll tеll you, but only bесausеI know that you сan kееp a ..................... . h) Bob wantеd to сhangе his ways and turn ovеr a nеW ...........

4

The words in itolicsare in the Wrong sentenсеs.Find the сorreсt sentеnсеfor eaсh onе. a) Now that my summеr holidays havе bеgun I fееl as frее as houses.

....q..b.!rd.........

b) Without my glassеsI,m as b|ind as а pig. с) Aftеr our seaтсh,suddеnly David turnеd up as largе as rаin| d) As сool as а bаt, thе гobbег askеd fоr all thе monеy in thе bank! е) our dog еats too muсh, and is gеtting as fat as а piсturе.

0

Littlе Sarah lookеd as prеtty as а аlаtttlberin hеr nеn- drеss.

s) Takе this

mеdiсinе, and in a fеw daуs уou'll bе as right as life.

h) Don,t bе frightеnеdof bеing on this plаnе. It.sаs safеas а bird.

5

Complete the exprеssionsin itolicsin eaсh sеntеnсеwith a woгd from the box. sound

then

timе

lvidq- ".,:l:;,''l -^ lhl -:l;1;*- li

,i

a) It,sеxtrеmеlyimportant. In faсt, it,sa mrlttеr ..'...'.|LJ'9....... аnd deаth. "r grеat Ann is fun, and is always thе lifе .....,.''...,...'.... b) аtld of thepаrф, с) Thе poliсе havе beеn sеarсhing fаr аnd

.. for thе stolеn iеwеls.

d) Wе weге сomplеtеly lost, and drovе roшld сtttd e) I,vе told you

.. for hоurs.

., апd аgаin not to writе tеsts in pеnсil!

f) Thе two missing еxplorеrs havе bееn found sаfe аnd g) That man has beеn walkingup аnd

.. outside thе housе a|| daу'

h) I don,t sее Paul vеry oftеn, but I visit him пow апd .'....'...'.

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RepIaсeеaсh phrasein itolicswith one of the exprеssionsin the box. gеt take a) I,m rеally tirеd. I,m going to go to bеd beforе it gets lаte.

b) I think wе should prepаrеourselvesfor thе trip as еarly as Wе сan. с) I fеlt ill last Tuеsday, so I dесidеd to Stay аt home апd пot go to work.

d) Lеt,s go out tonight aлd eпjoуoursеIves. e) I doп,t hаve аny work this еvening, so Wе сan go to thе сinеma.

f) I,vе bееn working vеry hard, so I,m going to relах апd hаve somerest.


C o m p I е t е e a с h с o mpo und w o r d w ith a w o r d fr o m thе bo x .

сlip

aсhе

сut

glassеs

laсе

post

Ра.th

a) M a k е s u r е y o u w alk o n thе to o t...Р 4.tИ

tablе

bесausе thе го ad i' dangегous'

h') I nееd to fiх thеsе two shееts togеthеr. Havе you got a paреI

A s I wa s d o i n g up r ny sho е, my sho е...........

br o kе.

d) O n o u r f i r s t d ay at sсho o l, w е сo piеd do w n o ur timе............

yеstеr day and his fr iеnds madе fun o f him.

T o m h a d a h a i r .......... f)

It,s rеallr. Sunnv today, and I,vе forgottеn my sun.......

o\ 6/

С o u l d I h a r - е a сo uplе o f aspir ins? I ,vе go t a tеr r iblе hеad...........

h ) Thе bus sr'vеrr-еd to avoid a dog and hit a lamp

2

С o m p |e t e е a с h s entеnсе w ith a сo mpo und no un made fr o m tw o w o r ds fr o m the box. air

alarm

maсhinе

birthdаv p a r tу

сеntтal

геpo гt

sсho о l

a) I lovе.,..{,9L9'У.:,?'.,,,,.,

сlосk

сonditioning

5с*е+се

stiсk

hеating

я€ + i€ * walking

washing

'''' ,' filns lгtth r o bo ts in thеm.

l s ''''' b) old Мr Low has a bad l еg a nd a l ' , ' . . a r -s . е. : l l s . . l ihi

с) David,s tеaсhеrs wrotе l o t s o f go o r i :t . : . -. . : ' -'

d) As soon as thе е) Whеn it,s hot, thе rоom. fl Julia invitеd all hеr friеnds from sсhoo1 tо llеi g) Тhis housе has ''' :.:li thеr е is a r adiato r in еvеry room. h) If you havе any dirty сlothеs, iust рut thе]]] .ll tl.rе

227


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Тhe сompound nouns in itаlicsare in the wrong sentenсes.Find the сorrесt sentenсеfor eaсh onе. a) I сouldn,t unsсlеw tt:,ePoсketmonеу'so I сouldn,t drink my сola.

bоttle tap

b) on my Way to sсhool, I saw a fantastiс bikе in a bаthroommirror. с) Мy bikе had a flat tyrе, and I didn,t havе my televisionscreenwith me. d) As thе girls wеrе lеaving, thеy saw thеir tеaсhеr at thе bottletop. е) Whеn I saw my faсe in the sсhool entrаnсe, I knеw I rеally was ill.

f) During my favouritе sеrial, a newsflash appеarеdon thе door hапdle. g) Paul,s parеnts gavе him a small amount of biсусlepump evеrУ wееk' h) Susiе Was too small to rеaсh thе shop wiпdow,so shе knoсkеd.

4

Matсh eaсh situation with an objeсt from thе box.

a) Comb it first and thеn usе this. b) Just put all thе dirty platеs in hеrе. с) I,vе droppеd ink all ovеr my whitе trousеrs. d) Usе this in an еmеrgеnсy. е) I,vе just brokеn minе, and I сan,t wтitе. f) I,m rеally thirsty but I сan,t opеn this lеmonadе. 8) That grassrеally nееds сutting. h) It,s muсh quiсkеr prеparing a сakе with this. i) If you nееd a bath, I,ll turn it on.

i) If you,d likе a сup, I,vе just put it on.

228

1.1 PL


Vo сA вULA RY

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6 сo м P o UND

W o R Ds

Make a сompound word whiсh desсribesthe person in eaсh sentеnсe.using onе of the words in itаliсs, and a word from the box.

a) Somеonе who spеnds aI|dаy lost in plеasant thoughts.

dаv-drиуиar

b) Somеonе who owns or runs a shop. с) Somеone who is lying in the suп to get a tan. d) Somеone who looks aftеr a bаby wl:.ll'eyou,rе out. е) Somеonе whо еxетсisеswith objесts of grеat wеight'

Somеonе who is a mеmbеr of thе ftre brigade' о\ Somеonе who is in сhaтgeof thе branсh of a bаnk.

0 6/

h) Somеonе who is away from homе ol holidау,

6

Complete eaсh сompound word with a word from the box.

a) Janе has a high in..9.!.W........., but shе woтks vеry hard to еarn it. b) I,m sorry I said that. I hopе you,rе not up........ с) You havе to turn lеft at thе nеxt round......... d) Kеvin fеll down....

and huгt his anklе.

e) It,sсold today, so you,d bettеrwеat youг ovег............

. That сhild is so politе. Shе otlviouslyhad a goоd up..................... ? s) It,sa lovеly day. Why don,t wе havе lцnсh out.....................

0

of thе town. h) Тhеy live in a small housе оn the out..........-.......... It,s еasy to travеl in London if yоu usе thе Undеr......... j) on our way homе wе got soakеd in a tегrifiс down.......... ll

zz9


Replaсеthе words in itаIicswith one of thе phrasesfrom the box. in a salе bе wеll-off

pаy you bасk annual inсomе

savеup in dеbt сan,t affoгd it

lsееoяc-llttв.d . r::l,lr. ' ,: ,:,,,.'1.:.. . .r'.. r,lr',1..', ..

a) Katе,s сar Was owпеd bу someoпе elsе bеforе her.

sе,сand.hnn'd

b) Wе,rе not going on holiday this yеar, bесausе wе arе short of moneу. с) Don,t Worly, nеxt wееk |,IJ,givе you the moпеу уou lеnt mе. d) Wе dесidеd to put moneу аside so wе сould buy a small boat. е) I don,t Want to еnd up owiпg а lot of moпeу to thе bank

f) What ехaсtly is thе amount of your еаrпiпgsеvеrуyeаr? g) I bought my DVD-plaуеt wheп thepriСеSwerеreduсеd. h) Мary usеd to hауe сl lot of moпey,but shе,squitе poor now.

2

Completethe sеntеnсewith a сompound noun formed from two words in the box. onе word is used twiсe. Some сompoundsarе written as one word. assistant

bag

dеpаrtmеnt

book

dеsk

сarriеr

ffi€f;€у

сard

Р€€k€+

саsh priсе

сrеdit shop

сut storе

Мost parеntsgivеthеir сhildrеnSomе......P.q.9.kt,,.у!!!.4&Y.... to spеnd. b ) Pеrhapsyou lеft your wallеt at thе whеn you paid. яl

с) J a n е b u y s a l l h еr СD s сhеap in alan dt

................. sto r е.

I bought thе nеw novеl by Riсhard Franсis in my loсal

е) You сan buy nеarly anything in a big f) Т h е ............ o\

6J

.....w ho sеr vеd mе hеlpеd mе buy w hat I w antеd .

Whеn I go abroad I always takе a

h ) I brought my shopping homе in a strong

zЗo

with mе.


vo сA BULA RY

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7 1t,to NEYA ND sH o P PlNG

Underline thе сorreсt word or phrase in eaсh sentеnсе. Doгa eаrпs/gаins/wiиs morе money in hеr jоb than I do. workеrs Thе faсtory askеd for a тisе in thеlr inсomе/rеwаrd/lуа8es. somе monеy from mе but didn,t pay it baсk. Paul borrowed/leпt/loаned I,m sorry, but wе don,t aссеpt сrеdit сards, onl-vсаsh/сoins/moпеу. Is it all right if I pay with cheque/byсheque/fтomсheque? Wе don,t exсhangе goods unlеss you still har.е thе bill/сheque/rесeipt. 8) I,m afraid I,vе only got a €50 notе. Do you havе сhапge/tпoneу/rеst? thе bank morе than d50oo. h) I still debt/owe/owtz

a) b) с) d) е) f)

4

Complete the shopping situations (a-h) with a remark (1-8). a) I сan,t dесidе whethеr to buy it or not, so I think

ь

b) Havе you got a pair likе this in rеd? с) Сan I pay by сrеdit-сard?........... d) Can I hеlp you? No thanks, е) That,s fl45, plеasе.

0

Thanks vеry muсh for your hеlp. ...........

ol o/

Thеrе isn,t a priсе labеl on this shirt.

h) This сomputеr looks diffiсult to usе. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

5

Not at all, madam. It's а plеasurе. I'm just looking. Сould you еxplain how it works? How would you likе to paу? Wе,rе out of stoсk at thе momеnt. SorгУ. Sorry, wе only aссеpt сash or сhеquеs. How muсh is it?

complete eасh phrase with a suitable word from the box. ;... lоaf

Ё*et

al a ...P19!f*t...... of bisсuits b)a

.. of toothpastе

с)a

.. of tomatoеs

d)a

.. of milk

e ) a largе..........

of tissues

f)a

.. of сhoсolatе

g)a

.. of bananas

h)a

.. of brеad

2З1


lNт ЕRмEDlAт Е

r

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Deсide whiсh answer (A, в, с or D) best fits eaсh spaсe. Shoppingiп the street Whеn | (1) '...с.... shopping, I enjoy visiting strееt(2) and looking foг (3) ........... (4) . I wandеr aгound looking at еaсh ..........' , and asking about (5)........... . Many (6) ...........on salеarе lеss(7)........... than thosеin high-stгееt shops, though thе (8)

is not always as good. It also depеnds on how

muсh you want to (9) ........... . Clothеs arе often (10) ........... , but it is diffiсult to (11) (12) thеm on. It,salways '.........'looking at sесond-handbooks,

'

bесausеyou сan (13) ........... a lot of money in this way. Frеsh fruit and vеgеtablеsarе usually good (14)

, and thеrе is always an exсеllеnt sеlесtion. Thе main problеm is whethеr you сan сarry homе lots of (15) ...........

bags! 1) A 2) A З) A 4) A 5) A 6) A 7) A 8) A 9) A 10) A 11) A 12) A 13) A 14) A 15) A

2З2

likе markеts valuеs сounter сosts produсеs еxpеnsivе еxpеnsе spеnd fashion purсhasе worth borтow hеalth hand

B makе B tradеs B сheaper B tablе B priсеs B shopkееpеrs B сost B paсkagе B use B сhеapеr B сarry B morе B spеnd B valuе B papеrs

cgo C shops C spесial C stall C vаluеs C offeтs С priсеd C kind C makе C worn С try C bееn C save C timе С morе

Ddo D salеs D bargains D dеpartment D figurеs D goods D сheapеr D quality D сash D logiсal D wrap D timе D сount D tastе D hеavy


Complеte еaсh sеntenсe with a word from thе box. сalpеt

сurtains

€'lshi€n

drawеr

pillow

гadiatoг

sofa

soсkеt

a) Is that сhair сomfortablе, oг would you likе to usе a ''.!.:!..'''',1.''|.''.,....? in thе loom . b ) М a rk с o u l d n ,t usе his сo mputеr as thеr е w asn,t a....'................ in еvеr r -I o om ' с ) T h i s h o u s е h a s сеntr al hеating, and thеr е,s a...............''..'. d) I was so tirеd that I fеll aslееp as soon aS my hеad touсhеd thе ....'.... ? So mеo nе is star ing thr o ugh thе w in d ow. е ) С o u l d y o u d raw thе ..................,'. 0

Мy bеdroom has a fittеd

.. whiсh сovеrs thе wholе floor.

g) Thе knivеs and forks arе in thе seсond

.. on thе lеft.

h ) С o m е о v е r h е rе and sit nеx t to mе o n thе ............ 2

Complete еaсh рart sentenсe (a-h) with one of the endings (1-8). a ) Pl е a s е s i t d o wn and makе vo ur sеlf . ...t.... b ) М a n y o f o u r l anguagе studеnts shar е '..'....'.. с) I likе Do-It-Yoursеlf, but I,r.еdесidеd tо har,е d ) A l a n s е е m s t o havе so man\.сlo thеs tl-r athе сan nеvеI find...'....... е) If you сan,t find thе housе \-ou сan alrtal's ask for f) Susan livеs on thе tеnth floor of g) If you,re short of monеy you сan b'} . .... . . h) As wе livе in a sеmi-dеtaсhеd housе, tr.еilез: 1 room foг all of thеm in thе wardrobе' 2 a bloсk of flats on thе south sidе of thе сitl-' З

dirесtions at thе bus-station.

4

at homе, whilе I makе somе tеa. aссommodation in thе villagеs nеarbr'.

5 7

thе dесorating donе by a loсal firm. alot of noisе through thе Wall from thе fami]r. nеrt door.

8

furniturе from thе strееt markеt nеal thе сathеdтal.

6

Z3З


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Eaсhsentenсeсontainsan inappropriateword or рhrase.Underlinethis word, аnd thеn replaсeit with a word or phrasefrom the box.

a)

Unfortunatеlythе ball hit thе housе and brokе a gass.

. win.dq.w....

b) I washеd my hands in thе bathroom and driеd thеm with a сlothс) Thеrе was a small woodеn door lеading into thе field. d) As I sat down at thе kitсhеn tablе, I knoсkеd my сup onto thе ground.

е) In thе сornеr of Toе,sroom was a small library for his books. fl All round thе gardеn thеrе was a high woodеn wa]l. g) on thе roof-tops Тina сould sее a tall firеplaсе pouring out smоkе. h) Thе floor of thе kitсhеn is a bit lowеr, so mind thе stair.

4

Underlinethе сorreсtword in еaсh sentеnсe. Will you bе аt home/аthouse|ater this еvening? Paul,s room is at thе top of the stаirs/stеpsoppositе thе bathroom. Сan you rеmеmbеr to сlеan the wаsh-bаsin/sinkin thе bathroom? Thе looms downstairs arе so low I сan touсh t}reroof/сeiliпg' Tony is a kееn сooker/сook and always usеs an еlесtriс сooker/сook. You,ll find platеs in thе сupboаrd/wаrdrobe nеxt to thе fridge. Ann was sitting аt/tohet dеsk, but Сhris was sitting iп/oп an armсhair. I won,t bе long. I,m just going upstairs for а bаth/аbаthe. Lisa didn,t likе doing homеwork/housework, so shе paid a сlеanеr. Undеr thе housе thеrе,sa саve/сellаrwhеrе wе kееp our old things. i)

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

2З4


vo CA BULA RY

5

a LlvtNG

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Complеte the sentenсeswith a сompound word formеd from two words in the box. onе word is usеd twiсе.

a) It,svеry сold in my ...hr.drgp.r!*..... , and I find it haгd to slееp. b) Sarah spеnt all afteтnoon sitting in a laтgе

'.....in front of thе ТV. I lеft my soсks soaking in thе ......in thе bathroom. d) Do you think you сould put all yоur rubbish outsidеin thе ...'..................... ? е) Thеrе,s a bеautiful ......full of rosеs right outsidе my window. Don,t worry about thе washing-up. Wе,ll put еvеrything in thе 0 u)

s) I сan,t opеn thе fтont door. Somеthing is stuсk in thе h) If you rеally insist on smoking, plеasе usе this i) Сan you сomе .........

i)

6

In this

? Thете,ssomеonеat thе dooт for you. ......arе thе diсtionaтiеs and an еnсyсlopеdia.

Complete eaсh sentenсewith a verb from the box in a suitable form. You сan use a verb more than onсe.

a) I,vе got nowhеrе tо stay tonight. Can you ......P'цl......... mе up? b) We,vеbought a nеW housе but wе сan,t .......... in until nеxt month. с) Adrian doеsn,t

.. on with his nеighbоurs, bесausеthеy,rе so

d) Jan likеs сooking, but shе says it .. up a lot of hеr timе. е) Don,t forgеtto ..................... off thе tеlеvisionbеforеyou go tо bеd.

0

Hеlеn has dоnе most of thе dесoтating and plans to tomorrow.

.. it off

.. out onto a bеаutiful garden. 8) I havе a largе room, and it h) Karеn and Мikе live nеxt door and thеy oftеn .. in for a сhat.


F.

Under|inethе сorrесtword in eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

2

Whеn hеr biсyсlе was stolеn, Jill bесamе ехtrеmеly аngrу/nervous. whеn hе had to makе a spеесh. Pеtеr fеlrtаshrlmеd/embаrrаssеd I always writе thank-you lеttеrs, iust to be geпtle/polite. You nеvеr do anything to hеlp mе! You,rе so lаzу/tired. Реnny nеvеr doеs anything silly. She,svеrу sепsible/seпsitivе. Thе сhildrеn had to stay in thе housе all day and fеlt bored/tired. Jaсkiе doеsn,t Worry about anything and is always сheerful/sуmpаthetiс. and often shouts at pеoplе. Мr Jaсkson is vеry аnnoуed/bаd-tempered Whеn hе hеard about thе aссidеnt, Alan was verу dаmаged/upset. I,vе got an important еxam tomorrow and I,m a bit jeаIous/пеrvous.

Сompleteеaсh sеntenсewith one of thе verbs from the box. Usе eaсh verb onсe only.

Say.сhееsе,I a) Plеasеlook at thе сamеra aла ,',{у1Li!a,,.,,,.'........ b) lf you agrеewith what I say, just с) Thе food in thе rеstaurantWastеrriblе so wе dесidеd to .......... Ann,s namе thrее timеs bеforе shе hеard mе. d) I had to .............. е) Thе littlе boy fеll ovеr and thеn startеdto .......'.....' f) At thе еnd of thе Prеsidеnt,sspеесh,thе сrowd bеgan to .............. instеad. g) Paul hardly evеI says ,no,. Hе tеnds to h) Whеn I try to

3

I put my lips togеthеr but I сan,t do it!

Сomplete еaсh sentenсe with a word formеd from the word in itoliсs. . a) You сaп,trеIyonJoе.Hе,svеry .,,'*шp]уg.P.!.?.......' b) Сarla has vеry |itt|epаtienсe.She,svеry ........... с) Jaсk shows лo interestin this subiесt.Hе,s ........... d) Pat is laсking in hoпesty.Shе,s.......... е) Bill doеsn,taсt likе a friend.Hе,S........... of this work. Shе,s 0 Lisa doеsn,t havе muсh eхperieпсe g) Pеtеrnеvеr aсtspolitelу.He,s '.......... h) Thе offiсial did not help ж vеry muсh. She was i) Graham doеsn,tсonsiderothеr pеoplе.He,s with thе poliсе. Shе was i) Ann rеfusеd to сo.operate

236


Vo сA BULA RY

4

9 P ERSo NA L

r ilAттE Rs

Complеte eaсh sentenсewith an adieсtive from the box. Usе еaсh ad|eсtivеonсe only.

Whеn hеr tеam lost thе сup final, Suеfеlt u",у .d.kЩР!intet.. . whеn Jaсk aссеptеdmy invitationto dinnеr but b) I was ......... didn,t сomе. a)

с) Мark was ............

when hе saw smokе сoming from thе planе,s

еnginе. d) Thanks for youг lеttеr. I,m е) David Was ............

........to hеar that you,rе fееling bеttеr. to tеll his parеnts that hе had bееn sеnt to prison.

f) Aftеr running for fiftееn kilomеtrеs, Zaтa fе|t сomplеtely g) Hеlеn fеlt ............

whеn shе saw hеr boyfriеnd talking to anothеr

h) Mrs Hobson told us about hеr lifе. Shе,sa

5

........pеrson.

Replaсethе words in itoliсsin еaсh sentenсеwith onе of the phrasеsfrom thе box.

a) I,m reаllу lookiпg forwаrd fo a fеw wееЬ, holidav!

...Iq.ryst ryg. f.q.r.................

b) Sarah has dесidеd to do without еаting сhoсоlatе.

с) I wantеd to study biology, but my tеaсhеr disсourаgedme. d) Sports programmеs on tеlеvision reаlly a||пo|,|пe. е) Do уoll fеel like going to thе сinеma this еl.еning?

0 Why сan,t you tеll thе truth? I'rr, tired of vout еxсusеs! o\

ьJ

Tеrгy and I /ikegoing for walks in thе сountry.

h) Gеoгgе agrееd to hеlp mе, but t}:еn disаppointеdmе-

zЗ7


lNт ERмEDlAт E

tA NGU A GE

6

PRA с т l с Е

Complete еaсh sentenсewith a word from the box.

. a) Тhе сhildrеn wете happy bесausеthеir tеaсhеr was in a good ....ryl4.a.d........ b) ..................... to Мт Dawson, our сar was rеpairеdin timе for our holiday. to makе us сomfortablе. с) Ruth was hеlpful, and wеnt to a lot of ..................... d) Harry was leaning out of thе window and shouting at thе top of his е) Whеn Aliсе hеard thе bad nеws, shе burst intо

0

Nеil is a vеry kind pеrson.His ..........

is in thе right plaсe.

for a long timе. 8) If you do somеthing bad, it will bе on your .......... and shoutеd at pеoplе. h) I was rеally angryl and lost my .............

D

? Wе neеd somе hеlp. Could you givе us a ............'...,...,

j ) Thе first timе I saw a horror film, I was sсarеdto ..................... .

7

Matсh positive and negative words and put them in the сolumns below.

Pоsitivе

ktnd

2З8

Nеgativе

r.у!P'l:Ч!{.!!.w-


*.

. ъd

ъ.*е.

Complete eaсh sentеnсе with a word from thе boх. alikе

соuplе

сhildrеn h**sbаяd

housеwifе

еldег

sins1е

friеndship

еngagеd trтirt

вo ь io ur l еir s аgо ' a) J a n е g o t m a rr i еd to hеr ,,,:'\:*'|.::,':',;'' b) J a n е ' s f ri е n d s t h ink that shе ar ld Bo b ar е tl.iереr fесt Т h е y h a v е n ' t Sot аn\

sistеr, Мary, w-asborn half an hour bеforе shе r r .as.

d) Janе,s е ) Janе and \Iarl- look f)

.' i еt, but thеv w ant a lar gе faп.rilr-. .. but arе not еxaсtly thе samе.

М a r y i s n ,t m a rr iеd. Shе says shе pr еfеr s to bе .........'

s) Sh е s a y s s h е b е liеvеs in....................., but dо еsn,tbеliеvе in mar r iаgе. о/ .. sistеr. Shе сalls thеm hеr ,littlе sistеrs,. h) Diana is Janе and Mary,s

2

.. for thrее yеars, but hasn,t got marriеd yеt.

i)

Diana has bееn

i)

Shе has a сarееr and doеsn,t likе thе idеa of bеing a

Complete еaсh sentеnсе with a noun formed from a vеrb in thе box.

aсquaint

сеlebratе die . engagе

grееt

marr,v fеlаtе

rеsеmble

сaПlеto hеr рartr.. a) All Suе,sfriеndsand'....Г!..!q|t.|р.|1,{/.rg[g.tiu.ql..' b ) I o с с a s i o n a l l y m ееt Tеr r y, but hе,s mo r е an ..............

''' tl- rarlа

friеnd. с) Whеn Paul arrivеd, hе rесеivеd a Warm and friеndh d) Six months aftеr thеir

\ 1 1 с 1 l : . . ] :i l ] J L i S a !] o t

marriеd.

....iгt tl-tеr..i'..:r-'\ilеnthсil tеam

е) Тhеrеwas a grеat won thе сup. f) In an idеal

::l.l -'r'ifе ...., husbatl,'l sharееaсh othеr,s

problеms. g) Dina and hеr mothеr look alikе T hеr е i s a s t I l r ] ] { bеtwееn thеm. h) Tim сried whеn hе hеard about thе

of his old dog.

2З9


l N тЕ R l t, l E D l AтE

L A NGU A GЕ

з

Undеrline thе сorreсt word in eaсh sentenсе. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

4

Childrеn arе not allowеd to sее this film. It,s foт аdults/old on|у. By thе timе thе vеt arrivеd, thе iniuтеd сat Was alrеady deаd/diеd, Unfortunatеly it rainеd on Niсk and Hеlеn,s weddiпg/mаrriаgedaу' David and Diana havе two sons and one dаughtеr/girl. I think we should try to undеrstand thе pтoblеms of.аged/oldpеoplе. Thеrе should bе morе faсilitiеs fot уouth/уoungpеop|е in this town. wеrе invitеd to Jaсk,s party. Morе than fifty relаtivеs/pаreinfs today. I'm еightееn yеars old. It,s mу аnniversаry/birthdаy

Сomplete eaсh part sentenсe(a_j)with an ending (1-10). a) b) с) d) е)

0 8) h) i) i) 5

P RA C т IC E

I,vе startеdgoing Whеn littlе Tina is grown I wondеr if you сould put Carol doеsn,t rеally gеt Еvеryonе says that Tom Lеt,s havе somе friends Do you think you сould look Why don,t we all gеt Еllen and Laura wеrе brought If I havе timе I,ll drop

1 2 3 4 5 \ 6 7 8 9 10

takеs aftеr his fathеr. togеthеr again next Friday еvеning? up by an aunt aftетthеir paтеntsdiеd. in on Stеvе for a сhat. aftеr my dog whilе I,m awaу? out with Gеorgе,syoungеr sistеr. round for dinnеr on Friday. on wеll with hеr mother-in-law. up she Wants to bе an astronaut. us up for a few days nеxt wееk?

Matсh еaсh sentenсе (a_h)with a sеntenсе (1-a) whiсh helps to explain the mеaning of the word in itolics. a) Wе,vе got a nеW пeighbourсallеd Hеlеn Willis. ....я.... b) This is Suе. Shе,sa соlleаgueof minе. с) Andrеw is going to bе our bеstmаn. d) At thе еnd of thе еvеning I thankеd ottt hоst' е) I,m surе that Мary will bе a wondеtfu| bride. f) Nеxt wееk I,m going to stay With mу grаndpаrепts............ ....'.,..'' g) I,vе alwaysgot on wеll with mу sister-in-lаw' h) Gеorginais thе idеal guest...,....'... 1 2 З 4 5 6 7 8

240

I was happy that hе,d invitеd mе to his party. Еvеn bеforе shе married my brothеr wе,d bесomе good friеnds. Shе always offers to hеlp in thе housе whеn shе stays with us. Wе both work in thе samе dеpartmеnt at thе bank. Shе movеd into thе house nеxt door yеstеrday. Thеy,rе both in thеir sеvеntiеs,but thеy livе a vеry full lifе. Whеn John and I gеt marriеd, hе,ll stand nеxt to John. Shе,sa drеssmakеr,and has dеsignеd hеr own wеdding drеss.


I O FAIt,IItV AND

VOC A B U L A R Y

6

F R I E NDS

CompIete eaсh sentenсewith a word or phrase from the box. Use eaсh word or phrase onсe only.

touсh with you nеxt a) It would bе niсе to mееt again. I,ll get ...Lу7.'........... week. for thе wееkеnd.

b) I,m afraid Sonia isn,t here. Shе Wеnt .......... с) I keеp leaving and сoming baсk. I,vе livеd here

.. for sеvегal

yеals. .. his own aftеr his wifе diеd.

d) Matthew brоught up the сhildrеn

its gIandmother. е) Thе baby was сalled Clare, ........ .. at the momеnt but hе,ll bе baсk in half an hour. 0 Petеr is

s) Ann

dесidеd tо gеt maгriеd

.. the wishеs of hеr parents.

h) Aftеr theiт final quarrеl, Сarrie told Lukе theil rеlationship was

7

Who arе thesе peoplе? a) your mothеrs, parеnts b) your mother,s brothеr c) youт mothеr,s sistеr d) your husband,s son from a prеvious maггiagе е] thе sistеr of thе pеrson you marry

0

your brothеr,s (or sistет,s)male сhild

g) your brothеr,s (or sistеr,s)female сhild h) a сhild with no brothеrs and sistеrs i) somеone from anothеI сountry

i)

somеonе you have not mеt bеforе

241


Underlinethe сorreсtword in eaсh sеntenсе. a) b) с) d) е)

Тhе trousеrs arе thе right lеngth, but thе stomасh/wаis.t is too small. I likе this watсh, but thе strap is too small for my pаIm/wrist' Thе hand has four fingеrs and a thumb/toe. Whеn Robеrt is nеrvous hе tеnds to bitе his nаils/joints. This bag has a stIap and I сan сarry it on my пeсk/shoulder. 0 Gina twistеdhеr апkle/elbowaлd shе сan,t walk vеry еasily. g) Paul droppеd thе stоnе on his foot and brokе two toеs/fiпgers. h) Whеn you,rе worriеd linеs appеar on your еуebrows/forеheаd. Deсidewhiсh answеr (A, B, с or D) best fits eaсh spaсе. Сlothes Сhoosing сlothеs сan bе diffiсult. Somе pеoplе Want to bе (1) ....a...., but thе,, don,t want to look ехaсtly (2) ...'.......еvеrybody еlsе.Not all сlothеs arе (3) ........... for work or sсhool, pеrhapsbесausеthеy,rеnot (4) еnough' or simply not (5)

. It is еasy to buy thе (6)

sizе, and find that

your trousеrsarе too (7) .'',..,....,еspесiallyif you,rеa littlе bit (8) ........... . \Ъ{. (9) ........... сlothеsmakе you fееl (10) . , but whеn thеy havе (11).....'... in thе washing maсhinе, thеn you havе thе samе problеm! If you buy light (12)...'.......сlothеs, thеn thеy might not bе (13)........... еnoughfor wintеr.lf your shoеsaIе not (14)........... for thе сold, you , and if you arеn,t(15)........... might look good, but fееl tеrriblе! 1) A of fashion 2)Aalikе З)Afittеd 4) Aformal 5) Aсomforting 6)Afalsе 7)Astraight 8) Aslim 9) Aloosе r0) Athin 11) Alеssеnеd 12) of сottоn 1З) ^ Awarm 14) Atight 15) Aworn

242

B fashionеd Blikе Bsuitablе Bstriсt Bсomfort Bmistakе Bсlosе Bovеrwеight Blosе Bslim Brеduсеd B in сotton Bсold Bеnсlosеd Bсlothed

C fashionablе Csimilar Ссomfort Сuniform Ссomfortеd Сwrong Cstiff Сthin Сloosеnеd Сnarrow Сdесrеasеd C сotton Chot Сfirm Сdrеssed

D fashion Dsamе Dеqual Dsuitеd Dсomfortablе Dеrror Dtight Dеnormous Dlost Dsparе Dshrunk D сottonеd Dсool Dwatеrproof Dfittеd


vo CA BULA RY

3

l1

тH E Bo D Y A ND с L oтнE s

Complete eaсh sentenсеwith a verb from thе box. Usе еaсh verb onсе only. look

put on

.. mе. It,s far too big. a) This drеss doеsn,t rtt as astlonautsfoт thе paтty. b) Thе сhildrеn dесidеdto ..................... trousеrs.Shе saysthеy,теmorе с) Sue always sеemsto ..................... сomfortablе. youngеr. d) I likе your nеw hairсut. It makesyou ..................... .. you. е) It,s a niсе pullovеr, but thе сolour doеsn,t

0 ol 6r

himsеlf as a poliсеmаn. Thе еsсapеdprisonеr managedto ..................... my сlothеs. I got up latе аnd had only a fеw minutеs to .........

h) I don,t think that yellow soсks .........

4

ф l

fuт I

.ш ршш

a blaсk suit.

Matсh the words from the box with thе definitions.

a ) part of an itеm of сlothing for сovеring thе arm

.....|,I,*у.q...''. b) Woman,sor girl,s сlothing that сovеrs thе body from shouldеrs to knее or bеlow с) jaсkеt togеthеr with trousеrs oг skirt madе fгom thе samе matеrial d) a soft сovеring for thе hеad woтn by 1,oungpеoplе, and in somе sports е) trousеrsthat еnd abovе or at thе knее f) itеm of сlothing for womеn or girls that hangs from thе waist and сovеrs all or part of thе lеgs g) itеm of сlothing for womеn or girls сovеring thе uppег half of thе body h) soft itеm of сlothing that сovеrs thе lowеr lеg and foot insidе thе shoе

243


lNт ЕRlt,lЕDlAт Е

L A NGU A GE

5

PRA с т I (E

Complеtе еaсh expression in ffoliсswith one of the parts of the body from the box.

a) Thе word is on the tip of my ...'.t.q'уu!4&... , but I just сan,t rеmеmbеr it. b) Crossingthе mountains оn my own Wasa ..........'........'.-rаising advеnturе. с) I know this is haгd to bеliеvе, but you must .........

the truth'

d) It is now ovеr thiгry yеars sinсе man first set ...'....,...',...'... on thе moon. е) Afteг his long tгip Tom,s parеnts welсomedhim with opeп..''....'.. f) Pеtеrknows thе songs by '....'............... and doеsn,tnееd to look at a book. 8) TIy to stay сalm, and don't loseуour ......'.... finе.

, and еvеrything will Lrе

h) Havе I rеally won thе prizе,or arе you orr|уpulliпg my '....''...,''....'... ? i) Lisa nееds somе hеlp with hеr suitсasе.Сould уotl giveher а .....'..'. but shе didn't Sееmе. i) I wavеd at Ann, hoping to саtсhher ..,,,...,..,, 6

244

Labеl the drawing with the words in the box.


Complete eaсh sentеnсewith a vеrb from the box. еxplodеd tгappеd IT

into а bus at thе traffiс lights. a) Yеstеrdaya lorry ...9.r.4{.r9!.'.. .. sеvеralpassеrs-by,though not sеriоusly.

b) Thе falling roof tilеs с) Thе old woodеn building

.. in a high wind. .. at thе railway station last wееk.

d) A tеrrorist bomb

thе town during thе night. е) Thе rivеr burst its banks and ..................... thе main road yеstеrdav. 0 Roсksand mud from thе mountain .........'........... g) Thе storm at sеa ......... sеvеralsmall fishing boats. .. two familiеs in thеir homеs for six houгs.

h) Thе rising watеr

2

Undеrlinethе сorreсtword or phrasе in еaсh sentеnсe. Thе doсtor gavе Suе a pIglсl1ptipdreсipefor somе mеdiсinе. Tim,s mothеr usеd a thеrmomеtеr to takе his fever/tempеrаturе' It took Juliе a long timе to get ovеr/getoffhеt illnеss. Thе сut on Katrina,s lеg took a long timе to сure/heаl. I сouldn,t run bесausеI had a hurt/pоinin my lеg. 0 I bought thеsе sеa-siсknеsspills from thе сhemist,s/physiсiап,s. g) David was ill with с flu/flu for two wееks. h) Diсk сouldn,t spеak bесаusеhе had a throаtасhe/sorethroаt.

a) b) с) d) е)

3

Complete eaсh sentenсewith a word from the box.

l ^.

t

a) A long whitе ...P.4I!.192' was wound around my alm. b) This

.. was built only two yеars ago, but is alrеady too small'

с) Thе

.. in thе bеd nеxt to minе Wasa man with a brokеn lеg.

d) Thе doсtor told Jim that hе would havе to havе a/an е) David,s bеd is in a small

.. with two othеrs.

.. in thе сitr.. fl Joanna was opеratеd on by thе bеst g) Somе pеoplе fееl faint whеn thеy sее ............. h) Stеphеnwas hurt in an aссidеntand a passеr-byсallеda.an ...........

245


lNт ERltлEDlAтЕ

L A NGU A GE

4

PRA C т Iс Е

CompIete eaсh sentenсewith a сompound noun made from two words from thе box.

a) Thе roadswеreсrowdеdand I was stuсkin u ...tr4ffi.q:

jg.rуL....'..... to'

hours. b) Thе

.....is bad in this сity. It,s gеtting haтd to

brеathе! с) All thе lights wеnt out bесausеthеre was a ................ d) I lеft my сar in thе wrong plaсе and thе poliсе gavе mе a ..................... е) I сouldn,t usе thе railway yеstеrdaybесausеthеrе was a ..................... f) I had to pay a fоrtunе to leavе my сar in a multi-stolеy ......... g) I waitеd at thе

for hours but all thе busеs wеге

full. h) Thеrе is always a lot of traffiс i) It doеsn,t rain a lot hеrе. and

i) The Govетnmеnt has dесidеd to ban all сars from thе

5

Matсh the beginningsof the sentеnсes(a-j) with the endings (1-10). a) b) с) d) е) Г) g) h) i)

Firе-fightersmanаgеd to put ..Q.. Aftеr a few minutеs a fire ...... It was bеliеvedthat somеonеsеt ...... Luсkily Paul сarriеd a firе ...... Thе firе was startedby a ...... Меtal mеltеd from thе intеnsе ...... I сould hardly brеathеbесausеof thе ...... Thе old thеatrесaught ...... Thе woodеn hut was buтnt to ...... |) In sесondsthе building burst ......

246

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

firе aссidеntally. fire to thе housе dеlibеratеlт. spark from a passing train. into flamеs. hеat insidе thе burning сar. out thе firе after two hoursthiсk сloud of smokе. -еxtinguishеr in his сar. a hеap of ashes. еnginе arrivеd at thе blazе.


vo сA BUtA RY

6

I

l2

EvERYD A Y

P RoBL Е luls

Matсh eaсh sentenсe (a-h) with a sеntencе (1-a) whiсh has a similar meaning. a) They arrivеdtoo latе to sее ьеr. ....3-.... b) Thеy didn,t think it was safе. They askеd hеr to сome nеxt wеek instеad. L) d) Тhеy arguеd with hеr. е) They wеrе injurеd. They didn,t know whеrе thеy wеrе going. s) Thеy askеdsomеonеto tеll thеm thе Way............

0

h

h) Thеy,vе сanсеllеd thеiт party. 1 Thеy askеd for dirесtions.

z

Thеy had a row with hеr.

3 Thеy missеd hеr. 4 Thеy wеrе hurt. 5 Thеy put hеr off for a wееk. 6 Thеy felt it was dangеrous. 7 Thеir party is off. 8 Thеv,d lost thеir way.

7

Matсh the beginningsof thе sentenсes(a_i)with the еndings (1-9). a) All thе suгfaсеsin thе living room arе ....3.....

1 baсk to front.

b) Thе bathroom door

2 bloсkеd.

с) Thе sink is ...........

3 dusty.

d) The breadhas ...........

4 сrеasеd.

е) Thе сola has ........... 0 You,rе wеaring your pullovеr

5 gonе flat.

o\

6/

Thе tablе сloth is

6 gonе stalе. 7 in a mess.

h) That shirt nееds ironing, it,s vеry ...........

8 stainеd.

i) Мy lifе is ...........

9 won,t loсk.

247


Deсidеwhiсh answer (A, B, с or D) bеst fits eaсh spaсе. Holidауs Мost pеoplе еnjoy going (1) .,,.Q...., for thеir holidаys,and having thе opportunityto (2) ........... in an intеrеstingсity or a sеasidе(З) ........... . If you spеak (4) languagеs,you сan makе nеw friеnds, and (5) homе somе intеrеsting(6)

as prеsеnts.But bеforеyou сan do that, you havе to

(7) ....'...... your dеstination,and that is oftеn a problеm!If you fly, thеn you may find that your flight has bееn (8) . (9) ........... by train сan also bе diffiсult, sinсе trains arе oftеn (10) ...........inthе summеr' and you might havе to rеsеrvеa (11)........... in advanсе.WhiсhеvеrWayуou(12) , you сan havе problеms with your (13)

, and it is oftеn diffiсult to find good (14).......'... . Apart from this, you might not bе ablе to affordthе (15)........... I

1) Aout 2)Arеmain 3)Arеsort 4) Astrangе 5)Afеtсh 6) Amеmoriеs 7) Arеaсh 8) Awaitеd 9) AJournеys 10) Afilling 11)Apost \2) ^voyagе 1З)Abaggagеs 14)Astaying 15)Afarе

Bforward Bpass Bpost Bstrangег Btakе Bsouvеnirs Barrivе Brеvеrsеd B Travеls Boссupiеd Bсhair Btravеl Bluggagе Bhomеs Bfair

Сabroad Сspеnd Ctoo Сforеignеr Сgo Сmеmoirs Cgo Сdеlayеd С Voyagеs Covеrdonе Сsеat Сtrip Cgoods Сlodgеs Сfar

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

forеign stay onе forеign gеt rесоllесtions travеl bookеd Passеs сrowdеd position tour saсks aссommodatiоn fur

Completе eaсh sentеnсe with a word from the box. Usе еaсh word onсе only. aftеr

d9ttlt

fol...:.,..... off

in

out

.UР

a) Thе сar brokе .....4'a.w.у1,...... in thе mountains, and wе сouldn,t find a garagе. b) Jamеshad to sеt ..................... at dawn to сatсh thе еarlytrain. с) Suе,sbikе passеdmе, and I had to ridе fast to сatсh d) I arrivеd at thе airport, сhесkеd

.. with hеr.

.. , and thеn had somе сoffее.

е) Wе wеrе hеading..................... Paris,but we Wеrеnot in a hurry to gеt thетс. of monеy aftеra wееk,and had to go homе. 0 Jill ran ..................... g) our nеxt-door nеighbours lookеd .. our dog whilе wе Wеrеawa\'' 248


vo сA BULA RY

3

13 тRA vEL

A ND H o LlDAYs

Complete eaсh sentenсewith a word formеd from thе word in bold.

a) They told mе to ask at thе ...t.пfp.rrшt!!.L.....dеsк. inform b) Thе plane gatherеd spееd as it roarеd аlong thе

run с) Thе ...........

. of our planе has bееn dеlaтеd.

depart d) Thе plane madе a bumpy

and I fеlt ill.

land е) Thе сlerk askеdmе if I had madе a ................ rеservе

0

I got a sеat bесausеof another passеngеr,s сanсel

s) Wе arrivеdlatе at the ..........'.

, and missеd thе plаnе.

air h) Wе fastеnеdour sеatbеltsand prеparеd for

takе

4

Complete eaсh part sentenсe(a-|)with onе of the endings (l-l0) and make a сompound word. a) b) с) d) е) f) 8) h) i) j)

1 I sеnt my friend a post .'...7'.... z I fastenеdmy seat 3 Wе stayеdon a smаll сamp ........... 4 I always forgеt my guidе 5 Don,t forget to takе your swim If you losеyour pass........... 6 7 Wе stayеdin a quiet guеst ......... '. Thе train timе 8 9 I used to likе going to the sеa NowadaysI,m afraid that hitсh ...........10

suit вith гou to thе bеaсh. tablе tuгnеd out to bе lттong' bеlt, and rsaitеd foг takеоff. poгt, гou шust tеll thе poliсе. hiking саn bе dangегous. sidе rthеn I rтas littlе. сaгd of thе tоrtтr rд'hеге I stayеd. book lr-hеn I risit оld сitiеs. housе dollтt b1'thе гivеr. sitе iust outsidе thе town.

I F.

249


lNт ERillEDlA т Е

L A NGU A GЕ

5

P RA C т I(Е

Underline the сorreсt word in eaсh sentenсе. a) In Grеeсе wе visited sеvеral апсieпt/апtiquetemp|es. b) Whеnevеr Luсy travеls by boat she feеls seаsiсk/dizzy. с) Brighton is a populаr/touristiсsеasidеtown. d) Holidays in thе mountains are always more rеlахed/rеIахiпg. e) Wе always еаt thе loсаI/topiсаlfood when wе,rе abroad. f) on my summеr holidays I likе gеtting suпtаnned/sunburnt. g) It may not bе еasy to find aссommodation at reаsoпаble/logiсаlpriсеs. h) Aftеr сyсling a|| daу, Bill was сomplеtеly eхhаusted/tired. i) Thе ownel of the hotеl gavе tls a hospitаble/wаrmwеlсomе. j) Jaсk likеs spеnding most of his holiday in thе open/plаiпair.

6

Тhe words in itolicsare in the Wrong sentenсes.Find the сorreсt sentenсеfor eaсh one. a) Wе spеnt two wееks in a lovеly sеasidеstаtion.

...r?^!.A.tr...........

b) Jim stayеd thе night in a small bеd and hostel. с) Karеn was еxhaustеd after hеr fiftееn-mi|eholidау' d) Martin and Carol had a grеat timе on thеir сamping саrds. е) As it was сhеapеr,I bought a lеturn sfop. f) We managеd to find somе pеtrol at a rеmotе filling villаge, g) Thе bus madе an ovеrnight brеаkfаstin a town nеar thе bordеr. h) Thе family rentеd a сottagе in a сountly wаlk for the summеr. i) If you,rе a studеnt, you сan savе monеy by staying in a уo:uth tiсket. j) David nеvеr сarriеd сash on holiday. Hе always takеs сredit resorf.

250


U n d e r l i n е t h е m o st suitable w o r d in еaсh sеntenсe a) Unitеd managеd to bеаt/will Сitr' in thе 1astl-tlinutе оf thе matсh. b) At thе еnd of thе play, еvеI\:onе irl thс thеаtг- с't'р/tl,lе,1 оpplвttdеd. с) If you Want to еnterfor/sigt;oil thе сo]llLrеtition.r-оl:.11nееd a form d) Thе сyсling сlub is doittg/|tol,1itt. а lllееt1ns Ilе\t Тhur5da\-. f)

Thе youth orсhеstra has сlсtе,lрс'riоrtttе,1 all or-ег Еurоре. I,m doing/goiпgfishing nе-\t \\ ееk. Dо \-ol-l\тant to сomе?

о) Thе final sсorе \{aS 2_2, so Rоr.еrs ,1rеtу/есltLаIlеd thе gamе.

b/

h) David pсtssеs/spеttt7s an houг еl'етr' dar- plaу_ingсomputеI gamеs. i) Did you епjov/plесlsе r-оuгsеlf at thе fоlk fеstival? i) Wе wеrе latе and so rте /ostlilissed thе bеginning of thе film.

2

Мatсh eaсh word from thе box with one of the explanations. athlеtеs group

audiеnсе rnеmbеrs

сast 5р€€t€*€f5

сompеtitors tеam

fans viеwеrs

a ) Pеoplе who watсh a sporting pеrformanсе.

, ,i, r эit 'q't 'Q.iч............... b) Pеopiе who еxеrсisе and takе part in gamеs of spееd and strеngth.

с) Pеoplеwho support a sport, or a famous pеrson. d) Pеoplе Who togеthеr takе part in a sport. е) Pеoplе who all bеlong to thе samе сlub.

f) Pеoplеwho play roсk musiс togеthеr. g) Pеoplе who listеn to or watсh aplaу or pеrforпranсе. h) Pеoplе who watсh tеlеvision. i) Pеoplе who aсt togеthеr in a play. i) Pеoplе who arе all trying to win thе samе рrizе.

251


l Nт ERlt, lЕDlAт E

L A NGU A GE

3

P RA с т l C Е

Complеtе еaсh sentenсewith a word from thе box.

in thе сompеtition. a) Hеlen won first .'.P.r.L'&.............. b) Whеn Stеvеwon thе raсе,hе was givеn a gold ........... bеforеwе сould gеt into thе сinema. с) Wе had to wait in a ................ d) Raсhеl had to push hеr bikе aftеr shе gоt a flat .'........ е) Thеrе Was so muсh shouting that no one hеard thе тefеrее,s f) I,vе got a sparе .......for tomorrow,Sсonсеrt. Do you Want to сomе? g) Havе you sееn thе nеw

....'..of paintings at thе National Gallеry?

h) I,m going fishing tomorIow. I,vе just bought a nеW i) Katе Wasthе first тunnеr to сrossthе finishing ................ i) wе didn,t еnjoy thе film bесauseWе Wеrеtoo сlosе to thе

4

Complete eaсh sentenсеwith a word from the box.

out his a) Lеnny,Thе Fist, Smith, the boxеr, said hе would ....kлp..c.K..... opponеnt. up. b) Carol won thе matсh bесausеthе other playеr failеd to ..................... in and all sing togethеr. с) Thе singеraskеdthе audiеnсеto ..................... d) It was a rеasonablеfilm, but it didn,t rеally

.. up to my

еxpесtations. е) Tom and Suе usеd to f) From my sеat, I сouldn,t

.. out togеthеr. .. out what was happеning on thе stagе.

for bad bеhaviour g) The rеfеrееmadе it сlеar that hе would not ."................... h) Pеtеr had to

z52

.. out of the raсе aftеr his сar bтokе down.


VOC A B U L A R V

5

14

l N тЕR Es тs

F R EE тIмЕ

Matсh eaсh aсtivity (a-h) with a plaсe (1-8). a) Sunbathing and wеaring swimming соstuшеs.

1 a stagе

b) Watсhing еlеphants danсing.

2 a running traсk

с) Doing kеep fit еxеrсisеs.

3 a party

d) Crossing thе finishing linе.

4 a funfair

е) Taking a dog for a walk.

5 a сirсus

0

6 a park

Cеlеbrating somеonе,s biгthday.

s) Riding

a ghost train or a big whееl

7 agym

h) Speaking сlearly so thе audiеnсе сan hеaт.

6

AND

8 a bеaсh

Deсide whiсh answer (A, B, с or D) best fits eaсh spaсe. Musiс What kind of musiс do you (1) '...a'.', ? Some peoplе likе going to (2) ........... сonсеrts, and listening to (3) . The (a) Wеar vеry formal сlothеs, and thе (5) ...........is silеnt until thе end of thе (6)

. Perhaps you,rе a (7) roсk musiс .,'...,'.... Roсk сonсеrtsarе oftеn hеld at football (8) ........... or in parks. (9) ...........of thе audienсе danсе to the musiс, or sing thе songs. (10) ........... musiс is (11) at wеddingsand partiеsin many сountries,and somе pеople (12) ........... their own musiс at homе. Nowadayswе (13) musiс in shоps and lifts, and many pеople (14) ...........thеir own musiс with thеm, or еvеn (15) ...........to musiс when thеy study. Musiс is еvеrywhеrе! 1) A listеn 2) A сlassiс 3) A a group 4) A musiсians 5) A spесtators 6) A happеning 7) Аfarr 8) A matсhеs 9) A Меmbеrs 10) A Historiсal 11')A aсted L2) Аdo 13) A listеn 14) A сarry 1.5)A hеar

B еnjoy B сlassiсs B an orсhestra B aсtors B pеople B aсtion B enthusiasm B stadiums B Seleсtions B Nation B formеd B gеt B hеar B wеar B havе

С C C C C С С C C C C C C с C

havе сlassiсal a band musiсals guеsts musiс rеadег pitсhеs Pеrsons Тraditional donе makе pетfoгm lift follow

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

prеfеrring сlassifiеd a rесoтd instrumеnts audiеnсе pеrformanсе friеnd pools Тhosе Anсiеnt playеd takе undеrstand play listen

25З


Deсidе whiсh answеr (A, B, с or D) best fits eaсh spaсe. , l /l',ti iп thе сouпtrу 'с Тl.tеhоusе is situatеd among bеautiful (1) ....n .. , two milеs from thе nеaгеSt i i l i a g е , s u r r o u n d е d ьy (2) l.tоusеis a (4)

. o n a (3) ........... a sho r t distanсе fr o m thе

, and a small (5)

flows past thе еnd of thе gardеn

tтhiсh aiso сontains a small (6) . ........ . Тhе namе of thе housе, Rosе Сottagе. . o n t h е g a r d e n ( 7 ) . .'........,fto m w hiсh a (8) ........... lеads to thе (9) ........... d oс: o n t h е ( 1 0 ) ...........flo o rthеr е is a lar gе (11)...........r o o m,a dining lo o m, a k i t с h е n , a лd ( 7 2 )

and to ilеt. (1З) .......... thеr е ar е thr ее bеdr o o ms. Тhе:.

i s a l s o a g a l a g е n е x t to thе ho usе. Thе villagе has a po st (14)...........,a Sma ]l s h o p a n d a p u b , a n d thеr е is a r ailw ay (15) ...........thr ееmilеs aw ay. 1) A viеw 2 t A g ra s s З l A mountain - l t A wo o d 5 ) A rivеr оt A sеa ,t A g a t е E t A ro a d 9 t A forward 10t A bottom 11l A lоungе 12 I A bathroorn 13l A ovеr 1+) A shop 15t A station

B sсеnеry B flats B pеak B grееnеry B сhannеl B bath B door B path B front B baсk B sеating B bath BUp B сеntrе B stop

С С с С С С С С С С С C С С С

sights еarth hill junglе strеam watеr opеning way first ground saloon basin Upstairs plaсе post

D looks D fiеlds D summit D forеst D сana] D po nd D еntranсе D pavеmеnt D furthеr D еarth D living D washing D Highеr D offiсе D basе

U n d е r l i n e t h е m o s t suitab|ew o r d in eaсh sеntеnсе. 3 r \\-е arrangеd to mееt in thе сеntrе of town in thе main plасe/5qцщg. b Тhеir сottagе is in thе hеart of somе bеautifttl сouпtry/сouпtrуsidе. с Т}-tесhildrеn spеnt all day playing on the sandy bесlсh/sесlsidе. dr I droppеd rny iсе-сrеam on thе еаrth/grouпd,so I сouldn,t еat it. еl Тhis fооtpаth/pаvеmeпt|eadsaсross thе fiеlds to thе villagе. f) Thеrе и,as a wondеrful sсeпеrу/viеwfrom my hotеl room. 8) \'ou сan,t stop hс..re.Сar-pаrk/Pаrkiпg is not allowеd in this strееt. h) Hе1еn dесidеd to lеavе tlne сouпtry/Iапd and work abroad.

254


т Vo CA BULA RY

3

l5

P tAсЕ s

CompIete еaсh sentenсe with a word from the box.

a) The poliсе offiсer askеd me to сomе with him to thе pоliсе ....t.Иtl!.k..'' .. turn right. b) Whеn you rеaсh thе road с) Thе mayor,soffiсе is in thе town ......... of flats. d) Margarеtlivеs on thе top floor of a ..................... е) Cars havе to stop for you if you usе a pеdеstrian .. of town do you livе in? f) Whiсh g) You сan buy frеsh fish in the markеt

.. evеry Fridаy.

lights. h) Takе thе first turning on thе lеft aftеr thе nеxt sеt of .....'... .. and сars arе bannеd. i) Thе сеntrе of town is now a traffiс-frее j) A nеw shopping 4

.. has bееn opеnеd on thе еdge of thе town.

Replaсethe words in itoticswith onе of the words from the box.

a) It,s muсh hеalthier to livе in a сountry area, fat away from the сity.

....r*ry!!.....

b) Sue has just movеd to a neаrbуtown.

с) Wе livеd in the middlе of nowhеrе in an out of the wаy сottagе. d) Paris is the most importапtсity of Franсе. е) Thеrе is not a lot of world nеws in this nеwspapеr.

0

I do my shopping at thе neighbourhoodshops, not in thе town сеntrе.

g) At wееkеnds the town сеntrе is always fuII of peoplе. h) Therе is far too muсh pollution nowadays in ciф arcas'

255


INт ERп nЕDlAт E

tA NGU A GE

5

P RA C т Iс E

Comp|ete eaсh сompound noun with a word from the box.

a) our сhildrеn spеnd a lot of timе having fun at thе loсаl plaу'3'Г.о.*v1d. b) When you rеaсh the сross..... , takе thе road to Linton. Yоu havе to turn left whеn you rеaсh the nеxt round......... L)

d) Wе сan,t leavе thе сar hеrе. We,ll havе to look for a сar...... е) Follow this foot..... until you rеaсh thе main road.

0 o) 6/

Thеrе was an old Woman sеlling fruit at thе road..... Paula livеs on thе out..................... of thе town, whеrе thе сountrysidе bеgins.

h) You сan сross thе railway linе by walking ovеI a foot.....................

6

Мatсh the words from the box with the еxplanations.

a) A strong building madе in thе past to dеfеnd pеoplе against еnemiеs.

...aq{tle

b) A small housе on whееls whiсh is pulled bу a сar' с) A housе whiсh is onе of a pair of housеs joinеd togеthеr. d) A housе with only onе floor. е) This сarriеs a road or railway over a rivеr. f) A house whiсh is part of a row of houses all joined togеther. g) A smallhouse in thе сountry. h) A tall building standing alonе, or as part of a сastlе or сhurсh.

256


its

Undеrlinethe сorreсtword in eaсh sentenсе. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

2

with your soup? Would you likе a breаd/tp]] сonsistеdof сold fish and sa]ei' Thе first сoursе/p/сfe That was a rеally lovеly food/meаI. Plеasеlеt mе !аr :l: r-оu' I fеlt so thirsty that I drank two саns/tiпsof Согkr С...з. Nowadays many pеoplе tluу frozeп/iсеdfood in5tеai :: ::еsr fоod Сould you givе mе thе rесeipt/rесipe for this сakе? It r се.iсi.l;s. This piе is fantastiсl It's rca||уtаsteful/tаstу, Hеlеn is a rеally good сook/сooker. Сan I havе a fork/spooпso I сan stir my сoffее?

Comрlete eасh sentеnсewith a suitabIeverb from thе boх.

add.

glatе

t:1,:,

pееl

mlx

a)

feirsЕ

squееZе

I : : ; : S.

b) Put all thе ingrеdiеntsin a bowl and с) Fi rs t ...........

thе o nio ns into small piесеs.

so mе сakеs this mо тn::.: d) I wa n t е d t o ..................... .. salt and pерpе: ;

е) Tastе thе soup, and

.. thе potatoеs,and thеn сut thеm l:l:-.

f\

tastеgrеatif you ............'....'... :a= б/ Thеsеvеgеtablеs h) .. somе сhееSе,and sprinklе it оr-еl::е

;:е in hot oil.

o)

D i)

.. a lеmon and sprinklе thе julсе О\.i] .].: .. thе riсе in saltеd watеr for tеn п-ilг.:;s

CompIetеeaсh phrasewith a suitabIeword from thе box. baсon

bisсuits

buttеr

сhips

fork

fl++

sauсег

саlt a) pеppеIano ....ч:,.i.::....'......

е ) :isr end

b) knifе and .....................

fl

о :] ;nJ

с) еgg and .............'.......

оO)

r-lln,]nd

d) brеadand .....................

I r t еa a nd

Йnegar

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --

-..г .--.

257


lNт ERпnЕD!Aт E

L A NGU A GЕ

4

5

PRA с т I C E

Complete thе phrasе with a suitablе word from thе box.

a) u '..l.Lkе''....... of bтеador сakе o f сho сo late b) a ................. ....

o f br еad е) a .....................

o f j am с) a .....................

g) a ..................... o f salt

d) a ................. .... o f tеa

h) а ..........

f)

o f w atеr a ..................... o f milk

Мatсh eaсh desсription with the name of a kind of food from the box.

a) Grееn or purplе fruit whiсh grows in bunсhеs.

qrаpe

b) Small vеgetablеwith a strong smеll and tastе.

с) Plant with largе grеen lеavеs usеd in salads. d) Меat from a young shееp. е) Mеat, vеgеtablеsor fruit bakеd in pastry. 0 Small swееt fruit with rеd or yеllow skin, and a stonе in thе сеntrе. g) Solid food madе from milk.

h) Piесе of pork or lamb with a bonе, сut from thе тibs of thе animal.

I

t;

6

Completе еaсh sentenсе with a word from the box.

. a) Wе wеrеn,tsurе what to havе, so wе askеdfor thе '...',.!у|.e.!P!.....''. ......., and lеft thе rеstaurant. b) Тony finished his mеal, paid thе с) Aftет two сoursеswе fеlt full, so wе didn,t havе any d) Wе had a vеry tasф Indian

.......for thе main сoursе.

е) This is a populaт rеstaurantand you havе to f) Thе sеrviсеwas еxсеllеnt so Wе lеft a largе 258

.......a tablе. .......on thе tablе.


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Complete eaсh sentеnсеwith o or soП'e'or leave the spaсe blank. сhiсkеn, plеasе,a laгgеonе for roasting. a) I,d likе ,..g'..........'.... b) Could I havе

.. brеad, plеasе?

snaсk bеforеour bus lеavеs? с) Do wе havе timе for ..................... lunсh with mе on Thursday? d) Would you likе to сomе to ...'................. е) Theте,s fi

.. milk jug in thе сupboard nеar thе fгidgе.

Gеorgе has dесidеd to go on

s) I,m going to havе h) For brеakfastI еat

.. diеt, starting nеxt wееk. .. сhееsе and tomatо sandwiсh. .. toast and marmaladе, and dгink а glass of

milk. yoghurt? Pеrsonally,I сan,t stand it! Do you likе ..................... .. сhiсkеn, but fеlt too ill to еat anythiпg еlsе. Tim managed to еat

8

Label the vegеtables using thе words from the box.

259


Undеr|ine thе сorreсt word in еaсh sentеnсе. a) Pеnny took thrее еxams and managеd to pсlss/suссееdthem a|]'' b) Мost pеoplе would prеfеr a iob/work whiсh Was nеar homе. с) Тim had to leаrп/tеасh fifty сhildrеn how to swim. d) I сan,t сomе to thе сinеma tonight. \,m rеоding/studуiпgfor a tеst. е) Rita did vеry wеll, and was givеn maximum grаdes/mаrks' f) Еvеry Friday, thе building workеrs arе givеn theit sаlаrу/wаges. g) It,s hard rеading аloudДoudly whеn you don,t undеrstand thе words. h) Thе managеr told David to makе an appliсatioп/iпvitаtioп for thе job. i) Ann works in advеrtising and еаrпs/wiпs a vеtу high salary. i) Would you likе to сomе into my burеаu/offtсе?Wе сan talk thеrе. Completе eaсh sentеnсе with a word from the box.

a) Bеforеhеr history еxam' Laurа lеaтnta list of datеsby ',.ha4rt.....'... b) Thе managеrwill bе with you in a momеnt. Hе,s on thе . с) I havеn,tspokеnSpanishfor agеsand I,m a bit out of ..................... . d) Еvеr sinсеTim lost his job hе,sbееn out of ..................... I е) Bringingyour mobilе phonе to thе сlassis againstthе ..................... t) This faсtoryisn,tvеry modеrn.Мost of thе maсhinеsarеout of ..................... g) our maths tеaсhеr is always latе. Hе,s nеvеI on h) Мrs Smith isn,t hеrе at thе momеnt.Shе,saway on ............. Completeeaсh sentenсewith a word from the box. stand

takе

it up in thе baсk of thе book. a) If you don,t know thе answеr,...|p.p.K......'... b) Мy boss wouldn,t lеt mе

.. timе off to go to a football matсh.

с) Stop talking,and ..................... on with your workl d) Gеorgеfinds it hard to

.. up with thе rеst of thе maths сlass.

е) Сarol stayеdin Franсеand managеdto ........... f) If you spеakso fast I сan,t

up thе languagе.

.. down what you'rе saying.

it in. g) Don,t forgеtto сhесk ovеr your work bеforеyou ..................... h) Мrs Wood is going to ..................... in for your tеaсhеrwhilе hе,saway.

260


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Complete еaсh sentenсewith a word formеd from the word in bold. a) Nowadays it,s vеry important to get a good .....dш.ш.Yу....... ' еduсatе pеoplе to find nеw jobs. b) our сompany hеlps еmploy с) Paul has good idеas,but writes very ........... сarе d) Helen has bесome a ................

businеsswoman.

suссееd e) I hopе to lеavе sсhool with somе useful qualify

0

for tеn years, and paid mе wеll.

Мr Dalе Was my еmploy

s) Aссording to thе

, thе Frеnсh lеsson startsat tеn.

time h) Cathy has thrее jоbs, so shе has a high

сomе

D

John,s know

i) All thе

of history is amazing for a boy of his agе. in this сompany aте givеn frее mеals.

employ

5

Matсh eaсh sеntenсе(a-D with a sentenсe(1_10)whiсh has a similarmeaning. a) She was givеn thе saсk....,,7....'

1 Shе was givеn a bеttеr job.

b) Shе got a risе.

2 Shе answеrеd an advеrtisеmеnt.

с) She got a promotion............ d) Shе rеtirеd.

3 Shе deсidеd to lеavе. 4 Shе did thе job сarefully.

е) Shе did it for a living.

5 Shе didn,t havе a job.

f) Shе rеsigned.

6 She earned hеr money that way.

g) She was unemployed.

7 She was dismissеd.

h) Shе appliеd for thе iob. ...........

8 She wanted a bеttеr job.

i) Shе was ambitious.

9 Shе was old and stoppеd woгk.

i) Shе was сonsсiеntious............

ll

10 She was given morе monеy'

26l


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Deсide whiсh answer (A, B, с or D) best fits еaсh spaсe. The wroпg аge for school! Arе thе yеars you (1) ....P.... at sсhool thе bеst years of your life? Pеrsonally,I found most (2) rathеr unintеrеsting.Wе had to sit at our (3) ........... in silеnсеand (4) blaсkboardаnd (6)

attеntion.Thе tеaсhеrsusеd to (5) ........... on thе us diffiсult quеstions.Wе also had to (7) ........... lots

of homеwork, and (8) ...........it in on timе. Wе had to Wеar a sсhool (9)

and wе had to obеy lots of (10)

. I (11) sсhool as soon as I сould and startеd(12).'.'......'.I rеadbooks at thе publiс (13)........... , and latеrI dесidеd to (14)

сollеgе. I rеally еnjoyеd studying bесausеI was oldеr and knеw that I wantеd somе (15) . Whеn I was at sсhool, I was iust the wrong agе! 1) Ago 2) Alесturеs 3) Aсhairs 4) Apaу 5) Arеad 6) Amakе 7) Aanswеr 8) Awritе 9) Auniform 10) Aways 11) Apassеd 12) Аiob 1З) Abookshop 14) Ago 15) Aqualifiсations

262

Bhavе Blеssons Bdеsks Bmakе Bsit Bdo Bdo Bhand Brobе Brulеs Bqualifiеd B labour Bshеlvеs Battеnd Bеxaminations

C pass C thеm C posts C hаve С writе C gеt C takе C pass C drеss C laws C еxaminеd С еmployее C library C study C papеrs

D spеnd D сlass D parts \ D follow D talk D ask D finish D сomplеtе D сloth D timе D lеft D work D univеrsit1 D follow D gradеs


Underline the сorrесt word in еaсh sentenсe. a) Bеforе Wе sеt off, wе listеnеd to thе сIimаtе/wеаthеl forесast. b) Paula saw a flash of lightning/thunder and thеn hеard a dееp bоom. с) Thе traffiс had to s]oи- down bесausе of thе thiсk fog/vаpour. d) Thеrе won,t bе muсh rain. It,s only a short showеr/streаm. е) Spring is my favourlte seаson/tеrmof tlrе уеat

f) Last summеr Was vеrv hot, and thеrе was a rca| heаtwаvе/tеmperаturе. g) Look at thosе сloudsl Тhете,s going to |эe a blаst/storm. h) on a hot day in summег, I look forward to thе сhillу/сool еvеning. i) We werе сaught in thе rain and got dаmp/soаkеd to the skin. j) In thе morning thеге rтas half a mеtrе of iсe/sпow bloсking thе road. Choose the word whiсh best matсhes thе desсription. a) Largе whitе watеr bird и'ith a long nесk. b) Four lеggеd animal with horns, good at сlimbing. с) Sеa animal with a shеll and fir-е pаirs of lеgs' d) Insесt with largе bеautifully сolouгеd lr.ings' е) Small rеptilе with fouг lеgs and a long tail. f) Small flying insесt whiсh drinks blood fгom thе skin. g) Small long-еarеd animal that livеs in a holе. h) Animal with long lеgs and nесk and orangеr- skin. i) Еight-lеggеd сrеaturе whiсh сatсhеs insесts. j) Young animal whiсh barks, oftеn a pеt.

duсk/qч19) goat/shееp сrab/frog bее/buttеrfly lizardlsnakе flylmosquito mousе/rabbit сamе1/g1гaffе bat/spidеr kittеn/puppy

Completе eaсh sentеnсewith a word from the boх. bark

berry

blossorn

brffi€h

lеаf

root

thom

tтunk

a) Suе managеdto rеaсh tь" ,.,hrдnrh.... of a trее and сlimb up to thе window. b) I fеlt ill aftеrI atе a rеd..................... from a bush in thе woods. с) Thе wall was сraсkеd by thе d) In the autumn, еvеry .........

.. oi a trее growing undеrnеath it. on thе tIееtuгns yеllow and then falls

off. е) Liz hurt hеrsеlfon a ...'....... f) Thе

whilе shе rvaspiсking somе rosеs.

.. of this tIее сan bе теmor'еdand usеd as a kind of papеr.

g) In spring all thе applе trееs arе сovеrеd in lr-hitе h) An oak trее has a vеry broad

.. , somеtimеs two mеtrеs thiсk.

z6З


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Choose the best ending (1-a) for eaсh sentenсе(a_h). a) In сitiеs thе air is hard to brеathеbесausеof сar '...f..... b) Thе еarth,sсlimatе is сhanging bесausеof ........... с) Not having еnough of somеthingis сallеd a .'.........

d) Air, sеa and land сan suffеr from е) Throwing things away unnесеssarily is сallеd f) A mixturе of smokе and fog is сallеd g) Things whiсh wе throw away arе сallеd h) To avoid wasting things Wе сan usе ...........

1 Wastе 2 pollution 3 rесyсling 4 gtobal warmin5 5 rubbish 6 еxhaust fumеs 7 shortagе 8 smog

Dесidе whiсh answеr (A, B, с or D) best fits еaсh spaсе. The threаt to the Eпvironmeпt Nowadays pеoplе arе morе awarе that wildlifе all ovеr thе world is in (1) '...А..'. Мany (2) .....,..'.. of animals arе thrеatеnеd,and сould еasily bесomе (3) ........... if wе do not makе an еffort to (a) ........... thеm. Therе arе many rеasonsfч this In somе сasеs,animals arе (5) ........... for thеir fur or for othеr valuablеparts оt thеir bodiеs.Somе birds, (6) as parrots,arе сaught (7) ....'......,and sold as pеts. For many animals and birds, thе problеm is that thеir habitat _ thе (8) ........... whетеthеy livе _ is (9) . Мorе (10)........... is usеdfor farms' for housеs or industтy, and thеrе arе fеwеr opеn (11) than thеrе onсе wеrе.Farmеrsusе powеrful сhеmiсalsto hеlp thеm grow bеttеr(12) ........... , ьт.r: thеsесhеmiсalspollutе thе еnvironmеnt and (13) ...........wildlifе. Thе most suссеssfulanimals on earth _ human bеings _ will soon bе thе only onеs (14)........... , unlеssWе сan (15)........... this problеm. 1) A dangеr 2) A marks 3) A disappеarеd 4) A harm 5) A huntеd 6) A likе 7) A livеly 8) A spot 9) A еxhausting 10) A еaгth 11) A spaсеs 12) A produсts 13) A spoil 74) survivеd ^ answеr 15) д 264

B thrеat B morе B vanishеd B safе B сhasеd B suсh B alivе B point B dеparting B land B air B fiеlds B harm B ovеr B сalсulatе

C problеm C spесiеs C еmpty С protесt С gamе C or С for lifе С plaсе С еsсaping С soil С up C hеrbs С wound C missing C solvе

D vanishing D forms D еxtinсt D sеrvе D еxtinсt D whеrе D for living D sitе D disappеaring D arеa D parts D сrops D wrong D lеft D еxplain


-l vo CA BULA RY

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т} |E NA тURA t

ЕNvlRo NlvlE Nт

Complete eaсh sentenсewith a pair of verbs from the box with opposite meanings.

a) Pеoplе should bе еnсouraged'to ..'РI!.t.*t.''.....,. the environmеnt, rathеr T.

than ...'4.%!trК.У......... it. b) Wе should tly to ...'.....

disastеrshappеning, not just

.......thеm happеn. С) Еveryonе should try to .........

bеaсhes,and not

thеm. d) It would bе a good idеa to

.......morе treеs,not to

.......tlееs. е) We сan usе things again if We .............

rathеr than

thеm. 7

Completе the sentenсeswith the pairs of words from the box.

a) Еlderly pеople oftеn move away from tьe ...9!.Ц..

....a.a.*|ЁrY.....'.. .

b) I,vе often walkеd ovеr thе

......., but I don,t like сlimbing

с) A boat сan sail up a ...........

, but a d) If you go for a walk, stay on thе ............ animal

to livе in thе

.......is too small. . If you follow any of thе

.......youmight gеt lost.

е) Farmers try to gеt rid of all thе ............

and inсrеasе thе quantiф of

.......thеy grow.

0

I сomе from a littlе ..........

. Thе nеarеstbig .......................... is

Bеdford.

s) onе fiеld has a woodеn ..............

, the othеr has a .........

made of bushes. h) In the middlе of thе

.......Was a lovеly old ............

with a

garden.

265


UnderIiпethе сorreсt word in eaсh sentenсe. a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

2

In thе UK it,s a ,mobilе phonе,, but in thе US it,s a сellphoпe/pосkеt phone. In Britain most privatе сals run on gаs/petrolor diеsеl. Ann,s friеnds bought hеr an eleсtriс/elесtriсаI mixet for hеr birthday. Pеtет had to push his bikе whеn hе got a flat фe/wheel. This сar has got a rеally powеrful eпgiпe/mасhinе. Whеn thе maсhinе is on, a littlе rcd light/torсhсomеs on. Thе noise of the workmеn banging in паils/sсrеwswas disturbing. Thе radiators will havе to bе fittеd bу a heаtеr/plumber'

Matсh thе words from the box with the expIanations.

уиасLtLуlэ

a) Usе this if you сan,t stay in to takе your сalls. b) Usе this to makе сalls whеn you,rе out and about. с) Usе this to do your own drеssmaking. d) Usе this to gеt тid of dust and dirt. е) Usе this to takе a.snapshot for your album.

0

Usе this to dеalwith dirty сutlеry and сroсkеry.

s) Usе this if you nееd sevеralpagеs all thе samе. 3

Complete eaсh phrase in itoticswitha verb from the box.

a) I,m sorry I сan't talk nоw, but |,||...rLry..........bаck in half an hour. b) Thе poliсе think that a сar bomb was usеd to ....'.....'''. '...'..uP thе building. с) Thеsе tyrеs aIе stlong, and Won,t .. oиf for ages. d) Janе,s old сar usеd to .. dowп all thе timе. е) You carr......''.......''''.. in thе сomputеr to thе soсkеtby thе window. f) If you don,t pay thе еlесtriсity bill thеy will

.. уou off.

g) I think it,s timе to ..................... offthe tеlеvisionand go to bеd. h) Whеnеvеr thеrе is a thundеr storm, all thе lights ....'........'...'''. out' D It,snot nесеssalyto ....'....,'.', '.....'up thе enginе first, although it,s so сold. i) If you lеavе thе radio on all night thе battеrywill .....,...... '....'...out.

266


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Complеte the sentenсеsabout сomputегswith a word from the box.

жL a) Thе сomputеr storеs large amounts of inforrnation оn its ....h4!:d.'dkk'.

.

b) Whеn a program is гunning, it is using thе сomputеr,s............ с) A small piсturе that rеprеsеntsa pгograrnis сallеd an .............. d) Thе flashing symbol that shows whеrе tеxt will appеar is thе ......... е) When you,vе finishеd Wliting tеxt you oftеn want to ..............

0 o'\

6t

You сan сliсk thе lеft or right mousе organizations usе thе intеrnеt to providе informatiоn about thеrnsеlvеs_ thеy put thе information on thеir ..........

h) You сonnесt thе сomputеr to thе intеrnеt via a .......... i) Hold down the lеft mousе button and drag thе сursor aсross any tеxt that

you want to ..............

5

Replaсеthe group word in itolicsin eaсh sentenсewith an examp|еword fгom the box.

a) Thе poliсе disсovеrеd lhе vehiсlemorе than twеnty milеs away.

....4Lr..........

b) My sistеr bought mе this gаdgetto сlеan my tееth as a prеsent. с) Thе buildеrs lеft thеir equipmeпtoutsidе thе housе. d) Thе сost of thе kitсhеn inсludеs an elесtriсаlаppliапсe. e) This kitсhenuteпsilis lightwеight and non-stiсk. f) I had to uSе a tool to сut thе floorboards in half.

g) onе of thе robbеrs was сarrying aweаpo|l'

Нd-

h) This iпstrumeпtis rathеr hеavy to сaшy.

267


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Comp|etе eaсh sentenсеwith a word from the box.

.::]:]::::3.,*]'i:q'w I

ll

a) Lisa turnеd thе door .'.!3!I.у!4'L.Q..... , opеnеd thе door and еntеrеd thе room. b) My watсh stoppedworking bесausеthе ..................... had run out. с) Thе tеlеvision Won,t work in this тoom. as thеrе isn,t an еlесtriс d) Bill prеssеdthе light

.. , but nonе of thе lights was working.

е) To wind up this old сloсk you nееd a speсial kind of f) Мary put thе kеy in thе ............

but it wouldn,t turn.

g) I,vеbought an еlесtriсkеttlе,but thе lеad hasn,t got a ..................... on it. h) Thе еlесtriс bеll didn,t work bесausеthе

7

.. had bееn сut.

Matсh eaсh sentеnсewith the neсessaryobjесt from the box.

a) Thеrе is no air in еithеr of thеsе tyres.

oI,LуVI,D b) Do you fanсy some tinnеd bеans for lunсh?

с) Thе grassin thе baсk gardеn is awfully long. d) Sam has bееn lеtting his bеard grow but now hе,s going to shavе. е) Whеn it,s long likе this you nеed moте than a towеl. Q I,vе got to сut thе еnds off thе lеgs of my nеw iеans. 8) lo you think I,ve got a tеmpеraturе? h) It,s diffiсult to sее wild animals whеn thеy,rе so far away.

i) Jеan was сomplеtеly lost, and nееdеd to know wherе north was. |) You сan,t go out with all thosе сrеasеsin your shirt.

268


U n d e rl i n е t h e сo r r eсt w o r d in eaсh sеntenсе. a ) I h a v е t o d o so mе sеr ving.D o r -o u har 'е а:i;i ';;..71.] b) You nееd spесia| glttе/stiсkеrlтhеn r-ou Пakе ]]l.с.' eеroрlanеs. с) I always сarry a саrviпg kпifе/pеtlklti|сin Illr LrrrСiсi, .i,:.i' d) Paul kееps his papеIs togеthеr ш'ith a rtilbеr l..tl;,lrl,i.i.;r е ) Sh е е t s o f p a pеr сan bе fastеnеd to gеthеI r vith а р,-tр,r.',i: z :ггt' f) I wrappеd up thе parсеl using brown papеr and rсlpсtГril:.;' r s star tеd tгimmin8 \1аlr .. :l ..' g ) H е l е n t o o k thе сuttеr s/sсisso and h) oh bothеr! onе of my shirt bottoms/buttonshas fa]lеn oit' it brokе. i) As David was tying his shoelсlсе/shoеstring, i) Littlе Susiе usually tiеs up hеr hair with a rеd ribbotl/strip.

2

Matсh eaсh sentеnсе with the neсessary objесt from the box.

diary notеpad

diсtionary я€ti€е

сorrесtion fluid

еnvеlopе rulеr

sharpenеr

filе

stamp

a) It's important to lеt еvеryonе know what timе the mееting starts.

..,,уи,t.+Qе....

b ) Hang on a minutе, I,l1 just writе down thosе dеtails.

с) oh dеar, I,vе writtеn my namе in thе Wrong plaсе. d) Writе down thе datе of thе nехt matсh so you don,t forgеt. е) I'vе writtеn my lеttеr but I,vе got nothing to put it in. f) I kееp losing thе shееts l wrotе my homеwork on.

g) How long is this piесе of papеr еxaсtly? h) What a nuisanсе! My pеnсil has brokеn.

D Мy lеttеr,srеady for thе post. How muсh will it сost? j) I,m not rеally surе what this word mеans.

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Тhe words in itolicsare in thе wrong sentenсе.Find the сorreсt sentenсefor еaсh onе. a) You сan hang your сoat on tl:'efrreplаcebеhind thе door.

.''.Иga.k

b) It,s timе for lunсh. Can you put the doormаton thе tablе?

с) I,vе bought a bеautlful hook with long lеavеs for your room. d) Don,t forgеt to put all thе rubbish from thе kitсhеn into thе broom' е) Сathy pullеd baсk thе plаnt aг,dlookеd out at thе strееt. You сan swееp thе flooт with thе curtаinsin that сupboard. g) Мy mothеr insists that wе all wipе our feеt on thе tаbleсloth. h) Somе logs wеrе blazing and сraсkling in thе dustbin.

4

CompIete eaсh sentenсewith a word from the box.

a) Мy hair is in an awful mеss.Havе you got a ....aQЙ'.'..'....'. ? b) Whеn I gеt up I put on my drеssing

.......and go downstairs.

с) It,ssomеtimеsa shoсk to Sееyour own faсе in thе ............ d) Hеlеn always sits at her drеssing

.......and brushеshеr hair.

е) Whеn I,m in thе housе I takе off my shoеs and put on my 0 I want to сlеan my tееth but I сan,t find any g) Еvеry morning at 6.30 thе ............ сloсk goеs off and I wakе up. h) You сan wash your hands hеrе, and thеrе,sa ................ door.

0

I сan,t gеt to slееp unlеss I havе a rеally сomfortablе

j ) You сan put your сoat in thе wardrobеon a сoat ...........

270

bеhind thе


vo сA BUtA RY

2o

EvЕRYD A Y

oB,E стs

M a t с h t h e wo rds fr o m thе bo x w ith the ex planatio ns.

qtr.еet hеdgе ..:,...:,, sign .'.gatе peeеs++iаа-тrssias o)

lamp post

paYеmеnt

subwaу

This is a safе plaсе to go from onе sidе of thе stlееt to thе оtl.iеr

podеstrLqw сra$Lnq

b) This has a light at thе top in thе strееt. This is whеrе pеoplе walk in thе strееt. d) This is a kind of wall madе of a living plant. This сlosеs thе opеning in an outsidе wall. f) This is a linе of Stonеs bеtwееn thе footpath and thе road. ol

6/

This hеlps you know whеrе you Want to go.

h) Тhis is a Way of сrossing undеr thе road.

277


UnderIine the сorrесt word in eaсh sentеnсе. a) Мrs Grant is a good еmployее/еЩp]Bуеt and pays hеr staff wеll. b) Еxсusе mе, but arе you the owеr/owner of this bikе? с) Тom works in a loсal 8ala8е as a сar eпТiпеer/mесhапiс. d) I want to borrow Somе monеи so I,m sееing thе bank boss/mапаger. е) Littlе Jimmy has got a nеW profеssor/teасhеrat his primary sсhool. f) Hеlеn joinеd thе army as aл offiсer/offiсiаl,and is now a сaptain. g) Thе housе rеally nееdеd dесorating so I сallеd a pоiпtеr/wаIlpаper. h) Plеasе ask thе саsh/ссlshiеrfor a rесеipt. i) Havе you thought about gеtting a iob as a wаitеr/tаblе sеrvеr? j) I waitеd for my lеttеrs, but thе postеr/postmaпwas latе as usual. Matсh a pеrson from the box with еaсh problem.

сarpеntеr hairdrеssеr

dеntist еlесtriсian photographеr optiсian

guidе plumbеr vеt

a) Тhе lawn is rеally long and thеrе arе WееdS еvеrywhеrе.

.....i ::il.* 9!.Y2t......... b ) I want to visit as muсh of thе old сity as possiblе in an aftеrnoorr. с) Thе taps don,t work, and thеrе is watеr all ovеr thе floor. d) I want to havе a spесial portrait madе foт my еightееnth birthday. е) onе of my fillings has сomе out, and I,vе got tеrriblе toothaсhе. ll

I want to usе thе wood from thеse shеlvеs to makе a bookсasе.

g t \\rhеn I turn on thе tеlеvision, all thе lights go off. h) I сan,t sее to rеad vеry wеll and I think I nееd glassеs. i) Bеnny hurt onе of his paws whеn I was taking him for a walk.

i) It,sfar too long at thе baсk and too сurly at thе front.

272


vo сA BULA RY

21

PЕ oPL E

Complete еaсh sentеnсеwith a word from the box. еmployее supportеr

guеst hоst tеam-mаtе

a) Pеtеrhas just bесomе alan ,...l9,P'1Р'?,:^., or thе |ishing сlub. b) I startеdthis businеsswith my............. с) I'vе got a nеW

Dora, abouttеn yеarsago.

.. to hеlp par.thе rеnt. Shе mor.еdin last wееk.

d) Wе providееvеry.......'.

in thе hotе]rтith rтhatеr.еr hе oг shе nееds.

е) At thе еnd of thе party,Bill thankеdhis.'.'................. and thеn lеft' .. who wishеs to rтork at rvееkеndsshould sее thе managеr. 0 Any g) I,vе bееn a/an .. of Нull Сity FС for as long as I сan rеmеmbеr. h) Mary Wasmy

.. last yеar in thе baskеtballtouгnamеnt.

i) This iob is a lot for onе pегson,so wе think you nееd alan ........... 4

Matсh eaсh word from the box with an explanation.

a) Somеonе who doеs not havе any сouragе. сawqrd b) Somеonе who hatеs spеnding monеy and bесomеs riсh by kееping it. с) Somеonе who saYs that a bottlе is half full. d) Somеonе who is vеry wеll known in thе mеdia. е) Somеonе who is lovеd morе than any othеr.

f) Somеonе who has spесial knowlеdgе оr training. g) Somеonе who doеs somеthing silly or mistakеn. h) Somеonе who has vеry grеat ability or spесial talеnt.

i) Somеonе who says that a bottlе is half еmpty. not tеll the truth.

27З


lNт ЕR]vlЕDlAт E

tA NGU A GЕ

5

PRA C т Iс E

Complete eaсh sеntenсe with a group word from the box.

a) Thе '..Qr.e.N.....'',.. of the ship сhееredas thе nеw сaptain сamе on board. b) Paulahas just joinеd thе dramatiс..................... at sсhool. с) Thе hеad tеaсhеrthankеd thе ..................... for woтking so hard. d) Тhеrе was a long

.. of pеoplе waiting in thе post offiсе.

е) A hugе

.. had assеmblеdoutsidе thе prеsidеnt,spalaсе. f) Thе mеmbетsof thе .. play thе violin, thе piano and thе се1lo. g) A small .. of us Wеnt on a tтip to Romе lаst summеr. h) Whеn thе musiс stoppеd,thе ...............'..... applaudеdfoт tеn minutеs. i) Last yеar Hеlеn was thе сaptain of the baskеtball j) Whеn thе play еnded all thе .. сamе on stagеand took a bow. 6

Complete eaсh senteпсewith a word formed from the word in bold. a) This сity has ovеr half a million inhabit b) Мargarethas dесidеdto havе a сarеel as a ............ pоlitiсs с) Еvеry

........in this сountry has thе right to votе.

сity d) Еriс studiеd hard to bесomе a roсk guitar е) Aftеr thе стash,Carla was thе only survivе f) David's mother is a famous sсiеnсе g) At ninеtееn, Tony bесamе a profеssional сrimе h) I,vе always wantеd to bе a jazz musiс i) It,ll takе Katе yеars to bесomе a law j) Jaсk Wasmy ........in thе tеnnis matсh. opроsе

274


.l

Тenses

Prеsеnt simplе Ilуoulwelthеy likе. Do you likе? You don,t likе.

Shе'hе it i1kеs. Doеs shе likе? Hе doеsn'tilkе.

Prеsеnt сontinuous I am going. Shе/hе/itis going. Arе you going? I am not going. Shе isn,t going.

Аm I going? Is shе going? You arеn,t going.

Prеsent pеrfесt Ilуou/welthеy havе lеft. Havе thеy lеft? Thеy havеn,t lеft.

Shе/hе/ithas lеft. Has shе lеft? Hе hasn,t lеft.

Prеsеnt pеrfесt сontinuous Ilуottlwеlthеyhavе bееn waiting. Havе you bееn waiting? We havеn,t bееn waiting.

Shе/hе/ithas bееn waiting. Has shе bееn waiting? Hе hasn,t bееn waiting.

\Ъu/lте/thеr-arе going.

Past simplе 1 I/you/shеlhelitlwеlthеystartеd.(rеgular) Did you start? You didn't start. 2 Ilуolllshelhelitlwеlthеy wеnt. (irrеgular) Did you go? You didn't go. Past сontinuous I/hе/shе/itwas going. Was hе going? Shе wasn,tgoing.

You/wе/thеyWеrеgoing. Wеrе you going? You wеrеn,tgoing.

Past pеrfесt Ilуoul shelhе/itlwе/thеy had lеft. Had hе lеft? Тhеy hadn,t lеft.

275


lNт ERIt,lED!Aт Е

L A NGU A GЕ

P RA с т l C Е

Futurе pеrfесt I/you/shе/hе/it/wе/thеywill havе finishеd. Will thеy havе finishеd? Thеy won,t havе finished. 2 Reported Speeсh 'I always drink milk.' .I,m lеaving., ,I,ll bе baсk soon.' .I,vеforgotten it.,

Hе said (that) hе always drank milk.

'I took it.' ,I was rеading., ,I had lеft by thеn., 'I must go.' ,I сan hеlp., ,I would likе to hеlp.,

Не said hе had takеn it.

Shе said shе was lеaving. Hе said hе would bе baсk soon. Shе said shе had forgottеn it. Shе said she had bееn теading. Hе said hе had lеft by thеn. Shе said shе had to go/must go. Hе said he сould hеlp. Shе said she would likе to hеlp.

3 Passive Tenses Aсtivе Hе hеlps. Hе is helping. Hе has hеlpеd. Hе hеlpеd. Hе was hеlping. He will hеlp. Hе will havе hеlpеd.

Passivе Hе is hеlpеd. Hе is bеing hеlped. Hе has bееn helpеd. Hе was hеlpеd. Hе was bеing hеlpеd. Hе will bе hеlpеd. Hе will havе bееn hеlpеd.

4 lnfinitives Pтеsеnt: Plеsеnt passivе: Past: Pastpassivе:

to likе to bе likеd to havе likеd to havе bеen likеd

5 Partiсiples (-ing forms) Prеsеnt: Prеsеntpassivе: Past: Pastpassivе:

276

liking bеing likеd having likеd having bееn likеd


lnfinitive

Past simple

Past partiсiple

bе bеat bесomе bеgin bеnd bitе blow brеak bring build burn burst buy сatсh сhoosе сomе сost сut dеal dig do draw drеam drink drivе еat fall fееd fееl fight find fly forbid forgivе frееzе gеt givе go grow hang havе hear hidе hit hold hurt kееp know

was/wеrе bеat bесamе began bеnt bit blеw brokе brought built burnt/burnеd burst bought сaught сhosе сamе сost сut dеalt dug did drеw drеamt/drеamеd drank drovе atе fеll fеd felt fought found flеw forbadе forgavе fuoze got gavе wеnt grеW hung had hеard hid hit held hurt kеpt knеw laid 1еd

bееn bеatеn bесomе bеgun bеnt bittеn blown brokеn brought built burnt/buгnеd burst bought сaught сhosеn сomе сost сut dеalt dug donе drawn drеamt/dreamеd drunk drivеn еatеn fallеn fеd fеlt fought found flown foтbiddеn fотgivеn frozеn got givеn gonе Srown hung had hеard hiddеn hit hе1d huгt kеpt knoв-n laid lеd

|aУ lеad

277


tNт ЕRlu| EDlAт E

tA NGU A GE

PпA с т l C E

lеaгn lеavе lеnd lеt liе light lose makе mеan mееt paУ put rеad ridе ring rise run say sее sеll send sеt shakе shinе shoot show shut sing sink sit slееp spеak spell spеnd stand stеal stiсk swim takе tеaсh tеaг tell think thгow undеrstand wakе wеar win writе

278

learnt/lеarnеd lеft lеnt lеt |aУ lit lost madе meant mеt paid put rеad rodе rang Iosе ran said SAW

sold sеnt sеt shook shone shot showеd shut sang sank sat slept spоkе spеlt/spеlled spеnt stood stolе stuсk swam took taught torе told thought thrеw undеrstood wokе wore won wrotе

lеarnt/lеarnеd lеft lеnt lеt lain lit lost madе meant mеt paid put read ridden rung risеn run said sееn sold sent sеt shakеn shonе shot shown shut sung sunk sat slеpt spokеn spеlt/spеllеd spеnt stood stolеn stuсk swum takеn taught torn told thought thrown undеrstood wokеn worn won Writtеn


T

Ability 18, 19 Adjесtivеs 37 Advеrbs З7 Advising 24 After 32 Ago 4, З2 Аll З6 Аlthough 23 Апуoпe, аnуbodу,аnythiпg 45 Artiсlеs fа/ап,the,zero] 3З, 34, 35 As 22 As а result 22 Asking for information 24 Asking, agrеeing and refusing 24 Аt lаst З2 B е а b l et o |8 ,7 9 Bесаuse 22 Both З6 But 23 Bу З2 Сап |8 Саn,t 18 Cап,t hаvе 19 Сapital lеtters 48 Сеrtainty 18, 19 Comparativе adiесtivеs 38 Comparative adverbs 38 Compound nouns 46 Сould 1.8 Сould hауe |9 Countablе and unсountable 33 Dеspite 23 Didп,t пeеdto 1.9 Double possеssivе[а ftieпdof |ohn,s] 46 Eаch 36 Either,nеither 36 Еither,or 47 Епough Nof + adjесtive+ enough 22 Not + enough+ rro.un 22 Eveп though 23 Еvеntuаllу 22 Every 36 Everyone,evеrybody,everythiпg 45 Eхcept 47 Filst сonditional 13

For timе .1,6, з2 puгposе 21 For eхаmple .|7 Fтеquenсr'аdverbs З Funсtions 2.l у,ill, shаll, goittgto 9 Futurе сontinuous 9 Futurе pегfесt 9 Futuге timе 8. 9 Going to 8 Hаd better \8 Hаd to 79 Hаvе somethinуdonе 77 Hаve to 18 Hopе 15 Howeуеr 23 If I wereyou 14 If oпIу |5 ffsentеnсes 13 In fасt 47 Iп orderto Z1 In spitе of 2З Iп the еnd 22, 32 Indirесt quеstions 28 Infinitivе of purpose 21 Iпsteаd 47 Intеnsifiers |very,reаIIу,eхtrеmelfl 37 It and there 29 .[tsand It's 29 Lаter З2 Мaking offеts 24 Mапу and much З3 Mау 18 Mау hаve 19 Might \8 Might hаvе 19 Modals in сonditional sеntenсes 14 plеsеnt and futurе 18 past 19 NIust tB Must hаve L9 Needn,thауe L9 No 36 No-onе,nobodу,nothitlg 15

279


lNт ERмEDlAт Е

L A NGU A GE

P RA C т l с E

None of 36 Not а 36 Nowаdауs З2 Obligation 18, 19 Offering 24 Оn the other hаnd 23 Оn time 32 oпe 45 opinions and adviсе 18, 19 Оught to 18 oughtto hаve |9 Passivеvoice 16, |7 Past сontinuous 4 Past pетfесt simplе 5 Past simple 4 Permission L8, 24 Phrasal vеrbs 39, 40 Plaсe and position 30 Plurals 33 Possеssivеad|eсtivеs |mу etс.] 46 Possеssivеapostrophе 46 Possessivеof 46 Рossеssivеpronouns fmiпe etc.] 46 Possibility or unсertaintу |8,19 Prеpositions 30, 44 Plaсе and position 30 аt, to, in аbove,beloщ over,uпder in, out, iпside, on neхt to| пeаr, bу, beside oppositе Prеsеnt сontinuous 2, 3 Plеsеnt сontinuous futurе usе 8 Prеsеnt pеrfeсt сontinuous 7 Prеsеnt pегfeсt simple 6, 7 Present simple 2, 3 Present simplе timеtablе futurе 9 Pгomising 24 Punсtuation 48 Questions 27, 28 Reflexives [mуself etc.] 45 Rеlativе сlauses 25, 26 Reply quеstions 28 Reportedspеесh 1'1,12 Rеporting verbs 12 Rеquesting 24 Sау, tell, speаk IL Sесond сonditional 13, 14 Shаll 9 Short answеrs 27 Should 1,8 Shouldhаve 19

280

Siпce reason 22 time 6, З2 So 22 So much, so mаnу' So fеw, So little 22 So thаt 2| So/suсh+ adjeсtive + [noun] thаt 22 Some З6 Somеone,somebodу,something 45 Spеlling 49, 50 Statе and aсtion vеrbs 3 Suggеsting 24 Supеrlativеadleсtivеs 38 Tag quеstions 28 Tеxt organizеrs 47 Thаt 25 There and it 29 There, theу,re and their 29 Third Conditional 14 Though 23 Timе 32 iп, oп, аt during Timе exprеssions 32 with past simple and past сontinuous with prеsеnt perfeсt simplе 6 Too + adiective 22 Transitive and intransitivе vеrbs 16 Unless 13 Uпtil 32 Used to 5 Vеrbs followed by infinitivе 42, 43 Verbs followеdbу -ing 42, 43 Vеrbs followеd by prеpositions 44 Whаt I wаnt '.. 26 Which 25 While and whereаs 23 While andwhen 4 Who 25 Whom 25 Whose 25 wilt I Wishеs 15 Wouldin funсtions 13, 24 Would |tepeatеdaсtions] 5 Yet 6' 2З


ln somе сasеsmolе than onе answеr is aссeptablе.

Grа m m ar2

2 a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i) j)

Т a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

doуougo are you waiting doеsn,t know I'm having do you lеavе is happеning doyou know I,m haйng

с) | b) 1 gz 01 I doп,t belieуe has I,m lеaving arе you doing You,теbеing I'm driving arе wе еating tastеs arе you going I don,t undетstand

2 a) b) с) d) е) f)

does Sue liуe you knowJim arе you doing at the momеnt you sitting hеre we сhangе trains hеrе arе you Wеaring two pulloveтs

3 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

hаte arе you going dо you wеar think doеsn,t usually sit are you looking at Doеs this bus stop am not taking

Gra m m ar1 1a )12b)

е)8 i)s

m) 14

2a )2

е)B

Зa)

rs -i

Grammar 3

2

d )3 h )l r) 11

4 0 10 i) 6 n) 9

с )2 9tз k )7

b) 4 0 7

с) 5 ф 3 с )2

b) |

d )1 h )6 d )3

З a) Nаomi апd Bill аren,t wаtсhiпg tеIеуisioп. b) Pеter doеsn,t likе сhoсolatе сakе. с) I,m not using this penсil at thе momеnt. d) Thе сhildтеn aтеn,t having lunсh in thе kitсhеn. е) I don,t gеt up еaтly on Saturday. f) Еlеna isn,t writing a novеl. 4 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

Do уou likе doеs thе sun risе arе you rеading I'm having don,t wаtсh vidеos It's snowing arе you talking goеs Do you wеar Shе,sbuilding

5 a) b) с) d) е) 1) g) h)

writing digging taking dесiding swimming having lying reading

i) i) k) l) m) n) o)

using waiting washing riding flying studying Soing

Т a) 2 е)2

1 4a) е) 6 5 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

b) 7

08

С)2

c)+

d) 2

h)2

d) 5

h)3

Gr a m m a r4 wаs wоshing, raпg b) did you fееl с) got, rесеivеd d) went swimming bit, sсrеamеd 0 sang, atе ol fеil, happеnеd o/ h) was washing.up, brokе i) sее,missеd i) Wетеyou doing, phonеd I didп,t eпjoу thе Сoпсert. b) Did you еat all thе brеad? с) John spеnt a lot. d) I didn,t fеel wеll yеstетday е) Anna bought a сar. fl Did thеy win thе prizе? o) Paul spеaks Grееk. 6J h) I didn,t pay all thе bills. whilе Last wееk с) when d) at Whilе a)

е)

З 2

b) l t) 7

.]

ц -аn te d

d) е) 0 g)

и-asstud\-ing,phonеd fоund' rгas loоking foг was и-atсhing. arrir.ed wеnt out, was h-ing

Ь\

t ^ r on +

lil

.h оsР

r .n ''

oэ +

Grammar 5

do уou usuаllу do oniy еats Do you know arе you staring Do you spеak is staying You,rе puttin8 Are thеy spеaking

a) b)

5 a) ъ'okeup, told b) и-as\Taiting,alгived

0 ago g) whеn h) in i) Whеn i) ago с)6 d) 5 h) 4 в) 8

1 a) Whеn we hаd еrltotltпlсlt' l+'е 5сl[iп thе gаrdеп. b) Whilе I was |ookingfor mr. kеvs.l теmеmbеrеdI'd lеft thеm at homе. с) Anna usеd to play badminton whеn shе was at sсhool. d) W hen Т я o t i nt o bеd, l fе |l aslееp immеdiatеly. е) Whеn l f,nallv/,dfinallt. found thе housе, I kлoсkеd at thе door. f) Aftеr Jill ga'vе1had-g1YедNiсk his books, shе wеnt homе. g) Мaria usеd to livе/livеd in Swеdеn whеn shе was a сhild. h) I usеd to gеt up еarly whеn I wеnt sailing. i) Thе Vikings sailеd to North Amетiсa a thousand yеars ago. j) Juliet was sulе shе,d sееn thе tall man bеforе. 2 a) wаs wаiting, пoticed,hаdп,t been b) wеnt, found, had stolеn mеt, thought, had sееn d) got off, was walking, rеalizеd,had 1eft had bought, didn,t havе fl said, hadn,t aттivеd g) didn,t knolt a) had brokеn h) had flои.n b) wantеd i) had bееn had stolen d) thought i) toоk p1aсе had takеn е) had done plaсе fl nееded used to hсtуе would/usеd to rеad с) would/usеd to mееt d) didn,t usе to likе е) used to writе fl used to lir-е o) usеd to bе h) would/usеdtо с1еаi

a) b)

бJ

a) hаd tаkеtt b) didn.t usе с) didn.t har-еiе iаjn : d) usеd to рlar.

287


lNт ЕRlvtЕDlAт E

tA NGu A GЕ

PRA с т tс E

е) 0

gеt up wе,d missеd 8) would/usеd to spend 6a) Иorcn I,d иlаshed апd got reаdу I wеnt out to mееt mу fтiепds. b) I knеw muсh morе about thе job whеn I,d visitеd thеir offiсеs. с) Whеn I,d lookеd at thе nеw drеss for agеs, I askеd how muсh it сost. d) I fеlt muсh morе indеpеndеnt whеn I,d passеd my dliving test. е) Annе Wеnt on holiday whеn shе,d savеd еnough monеy. t) Whеn thе tеam had flnally won thе matсh, thеy тan round thе pitсh to сеlеbratе.

Grammar 6 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) a) b) с) d) е) f) a) b) с) d) a) b) с) d) е) t) g) h) i) i)

Hаve уou сut ,vе hаd has nеvеI sееn has stolеn havеn,t slеpt ,ve iust brokеn hasn't won Havе you evеI еatеn ,ve beеn mаrried ,vе bееn ,vе writtеn ,vе nеvеr eatеn ,ve lovеd ,vе brokеn sinсе е) yet h) So far always f) for i) often еvеr g) nеvеr j) alrеady iust ,vе llorkеd here haven,t bееn/,ve nеvет bееn Мy pеn has havе lеft ,vе iust sееn havеn,t f,nishеd you bееn ,vе lеft havеn,t spokеn Anna/shе wokеn

Grammar 7 I a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) i) 2a) b)

I,ve livеd hеrе lеft hаs just stolеn I,vе deсidеd I lost It,s startеd Wе,vе visitеd I,vе bееn standing has bееn Wе wеnt lost, 've just lost work, ,ve dесidеd с) ,vе bееn, ,vе сomе d) Have you sееn, lеft е) had, сaught 0 ,vе nеvеr еaten, ate

282

,vе сookеd 8) hopе,

havе takеn up rеaсhеd, werеn,t ,s t) has had, gonе 3a) Hаve уou seeп, ,ve bеeп Iookiпgforwаrd b) ,vе bееn studying, haven,t flnishеd с) 'vе bеen phoning, ,s gonе d) Havе you hеard, has тobbеd е) ,vе brokеn, has writtеn ,уe beeп liviпg here 4a) b) has gonе с) ,ve bеen 1eаrning d) havеn,t finished е,) iust left r) havеn,t bееn havеn't еatеn/,vе nеvеI еatеn 6/ h) forgottеn

b)

с)

h) i)

5a) so b) sinсе с) bеen d) mеt е) Ieсently 6a) b)

с) d) е) f) g) h) i) i)

f) g) h) i) j)

Grammar 8 l a) 2 е,2 a) b)

с) d)

0

o) o,

h)

D i) b)

с)

d)

е) fl o\ 6/

h)

4a)

d) / e) Тhе wеathеr foreсast says it,s dеflnitеly going to bе sunny tomorrow.

0 o)

h) 5a) b)

с) d)

tеaсhing yеt has praсtisin8 taught

Mу pеnfriend hаs bееn writing to me for уeаrs. We started this сouтse thrее wееks ago. ,What havе you bееn doing all day?, .I,vеbееn Wтitins 1еtters., Whеn did you arrivе in this сity? Havе you еver beеn to India? Paula hаs bееn sta)ring in a hotеl by thе sеa. I,vе bееn feеling ill foт thrее wееks/I fеlt ill thIее wееks ago. I,vе livеd/I,vе bееn living in this сity sinсе I was born. I,vе bееn waiting hеrе for agеs. Whеrе havе you bееn? Tony has lеft his books on thе bus. b) 2 с)1 d) 1 f)1 is joiniпg/is goiпg to joiп won,t bе 's going to snow 'm going out ,rе going to knoсk will probably ridе is going to givе/is giving 'm going to go ,rе going to hit will probably win 'm hаviпg а pаrtу going to rain our tеam Will won,t bе is going to finish ,ll mееt you arе wе mеeting/going will visit/will сomе to visit I,m goiпg swimпing пeхt Sаturdаy.Would you like to сome?

Thе boat is turning ovеr! I think it's going to sink!

е) 0 c) h)

Sorтy, I won't sее you tomorrow. I havе to go to London. Byе for now. I,ll sеe you latеr this еvеning. I'm goiпg to studу еnginееring in Frапсe. I,m going to havе a paftу nеxt Friday. Wе,rе going to the doсtoт,s, so wе сan,t сomе. Kеlly will probably gеt thе iob. Мartin,s wifе is going to havе anothеr baby. Sarah isn,t going to gеt malliеd yеt. I think it'll snow tomorrow. Тhе sсorе will bе 3_0.

G r a m m a r9 I

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

wiII bе lуiпg rings Wе,11bе moЙng doеs youт train lеavе you leavе will you bе working I,l1bе won,t stоp

2 a ) 5 t l ) z c ) 7 d) 6 е) 3 f l a a)/ b) you grow

С)/

d) е) l) g) h) 4 a) b)

с) d)

е) fl

o)

h)

you givе arrivеs, I,ll lеt bе using shе,ll havе lеft. I'll do it. ShаII we pIау tеnпis? I,m going to study Arabiс in Сairo. I'll bе homе by midnight. I,ll meеt you latеr. Will you go to thе shops for mе? We won't makе too muсh noisе. Shall I hеlp you with thosе bags? We,ll сomе baсk lаtеr if you ]ikе/Shall wе сomе baсk later? ,l1 havе finishеd

5a) b) mееt nеxt/again, I,l1phonе с) I сheсk thе spеlling d) lеt mе sharе hет е) wе have 0 lеavе/go until I c) thе lеsson has finishеd h) you bе doing

* :t


GRAм]иAR

fs

шу

п8

ъ' { { р A fl &

fi

'$ *l

a) b) с) d) е) f; g) h) i) i) a) b) с) d) e) fl g) h) i) i) a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

t

I used to ide shall I Havе you sееn hеr havе you bееn woгking I haven,t finishеd I was washing arе you staring I,m haйng stops did you last go do уou do ran was sitting don't undеrstand теalizеd 'm studying was rеading know 'm staying did you do

2)^ 6)A 10)B 14) с

3)D 7)С 11)B 15) A

a)3 e) 4

4)D 8)С 12)D

nevет latеly/reсеntly at|Ilу for By thе timе 13) ,/ 7) / 14) bееn B) arе |5) ,/ 9) bееn 16) havе 10) will 17) bе 11) shall 12) havе

a) b) с) d) е)

beforе sinсе all wееk yet As soon аs

\) 2) з) 4) 5) 6)

beeп / / havе had /

a) SаIlу sаid thаt she,d lost Ircr kеуs. b) Сhris said/told mе that hе must lеave еarly. с) Мaria and Tony said thеv would sее us tomorro1t. d; Tom said, ,I,m сoming to your party.' е) Suе said that shе,d rlтittеn а lеtter to Lisa. f) Stevе told us/said that hе was arriving at 8.00. g) .I,vеbought a nеrv bikе.' Pam told us. h) ,What,s thе mаtter?. Еllеn askеd. a) tr) с) d) е) f) g) h)

аrrived, Stеve hаd I hеlp do you usually has bееn playing I,1l was еating/having is staying havеn,t sееn you doing

1)с 5)B e)D 13) A

in

G r a m m a r1 1

Grammar 10

I think

f) g) h) i) j)

a) ithаd stoppеdiпging b) [ hаvеn,t plаyеd it bеforе. с) When did Petе Writе to you last? d) Do you evеl go to thе сinеmа? е) I wеnt to thе bеaсh еvеry day. 0 Shе,s playing baskеtball. o) I,vе bееn Waiting herе for agеs! 8a ) Hаve уou flnished уеt? b) I,ll sее you tomorrow! с) Did you havе a niсe timе? d) Do you know what I mеаn? е) Arе you сoming out for a drink latеr? 0 Havе you beеn waiting long?

I've finished I,ll bе baсk at 6.0o I,m going to go shopping I want to makе a phonе сall I'vе forgottеn my homеwork I havе to bе baсk by З.З0 I,ll lеt you know I,m going to bе latе b) 5

с)2

d) 1

d) told/saying 4 a) told е) told/tell b) spokе, said l) told/spokе с) said, told 5 a) wouldп,t bе thеrebeсаuseshе tцаs hаviпg а pаrtу b) ,d lost thе map and (hе) didn,t know thе way. с) she flnishеd thе boоk, shе was going to watсh tеlеvision d) was doing somе homеwork but hе wouldn,t bе long е) ,d got up latе and (had) missеd thе bus

G r a m m a r1 2 I

a) b) с) d) е) f)

whether,wаs whеn, would iflwhethеr' had iflwhеthеr, took whеrе Iflwhеthеr, had

Аre уou hаviпg luпсh or goiпg out What did you do yеstеrday Do you oftеn go sаiling How many Gетman books have you rеаd e) Are you going to сhangе sсhoo]s 0 Who do you sit next to in сlass

2 a) b) с) d)

if/whetherI wаs stауiпg therеаIl Summеr b) What .ploсIastinatе' mеant с) iflwhethеr I,d donе my homеwork d) whеn hеr biтthday was е) iflwhеther I,d rеmеmbеred to loсk thе door 0 whу |'d turnеd off thе tеlevision

3a)

4a)

Mike promisеd Sue he would be аt her housе before8.00.

ANsWЕ Rs

b) Сhris invitеd Jеan to (go to) thе сinеma. с) Patsy advisеd Dave not to еat too muсh. d) Niсk suggestеd going for a walk. е) Carol apologizеd for brеaking thе window. Гl Bill offеrеd to do thе washingup. .Чl Тina's mothеI сongratulatеd heт on passing hеr driving tеst. h. Рat теfusеdto opеn his mouth.

G r a m m a rI 3

а н: rc. ш-i//be b, iir'еd' lге'd sее с, takе. 1t'е.llагri\'е d r dоn.t hurn-' rtе'1lbе rгеге.rtоu]d bе аblе to Г t don.t rтеаr' r-ou.ll tЪеl ol studiеd. ттouid gеt hl had, ].d ridе i) lеnd, I,Il lеt j) had, l'd gir.е gеt fаll iп, will ,d wеrе/ъ-as, go с) knеw, ,d tеll ,]1сatсh d) run, е) тains, 'l1 go/сould go fl had, 'd join

a) b)

would unlеss с) would d) Unlеss е) Would

a) b)

a)

8

е) 1 i)

5 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) i)

fl g) h) i) j)

b)6 0 3

Would would If would unless

с)9 S) 4

d )1 0 h)z

'i)7 hаd, ,d be аble

take, ,1l fееl atе, would livе bесamе, ,d buy lеavе, will givе folloщ ,ll сomе usеd, wouldn,t bе touсh, won't bitе leavе, ,ll givе ownеd, wouldn't visit

G r a m m a r1 4

-1, a) Whаt would уou do if уott hвd wings? b) [f I weте you, I,d lеaуе norт. с) How would you fееl if r-ou livеd on Мars? d) If I wеrе you, I,d bur' a bikе. е) What would vou do if r-ou rтеге riсh? 0 What would vou 5a\-ii Jim сamс with us? o) If I wеrе 1-ou,I'd takе thе bus. h) What rvould r-ou do if vou ownеd a robot? llсldpltoпеd' u'оttltlllаt'еsi-t'еtl 2a) b) took' might fееl с) hаd dгir-еn'lтouldn,t havе стashеd

28


lNт ЕRlvlEDlAт E

d) е) f,1 g) h)

L A NGU A GЕ

P RA с т I с E

had сomе, would havе enioyеd I,d knоwn, would have sent hеlpеd, might bе had sсorеd, сould havе won worе, wouldn,t gеt

3 a) hаd lф eаrlу, wouldп,t hауe missеd b) ,d bought morе milk, would havе had с) ,d takеn/,d rеmеmbеrеd to takе a map, wouldn't have got lost d) 'd gone to bеd, would havе wokеn up е) had madе a shopping list, wouldn't havе fol8otten to buy/would have rеmеmbетеd to buy f) ,d rеalizеd you wеrе tirеd, I wouldn,t havе askеd you to go g) had sai]еd aстossthе Aflantiс, wou]d hаvе rеaсhеd h) ,d turned lеft at the station, Wouldn,t havе losт hаdn,t sunbаthеd сould stay сould swim had сould sее didn't sit had enioy сould

i)1

b)2 D2

i)r

1 a) ф someone b) с) by a doсtor d)

284

d) e)

h)

с) 7 92

d )2 h )1

3 a) hаdbrought b) had bought с) Wеnt d) knеw е) had takеn f) hadn't bought g) had finishеd h) spokе/сould speak 4 (Suggеstеdanswеrs) a) Ihаdаsапdwiсh b) you havе a good с) ,d bееn hеrе/,d сome hеrе/ ,d visitеd it d) livеd e) danсеd/соuld danсе 5 a) hadn't wasted b) wеrеn't с) wеre d) сould е) had f) didn,t havе to g) hadn,t movеd h) wasn't

Gra m m ar16

с)

g)

i) r1l

2a)2 е)1

a) b) с) d) е) f) 8) h) i) i) a) b)

f)

Grammar l5 T a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i)

е)-

f) by the postman g) by the poliсе h) by somеonе

4 a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) 5 a) b) с) d) e) f) g) h)

Was quеstionеd is watсhеd will bе finishеd has bеen elесtеd is bеing теbuilt has bеen сlosed is Wlittеn was stolen will bе mеt was won Mаnу pet dogs аrе lost еvеryуeаr, Thе injured man was takеn to hospital. A nеw bridgе is being built aсIoss the rivеI. All thе food at the party Was еatеn. Nothing will be deсidеd bеforе nеxt Saturday. Thе matсh is bеing pla}zеdon Friday evеning. Thе robbеr unloсkеd the door With a falsе key. This book was written by Sam's fathеr. hаs beeп disсoуered will bе opеnеd was paintеd by Wirl be аnnounсеd is bеing rеdесoratеd havе beеn arrеstеd aге sold by is bеing built The саsino hаs beеn сlosed. The matсh has bееn posфonеd. Еnglish is spokеn all ovеr thе world. Thе nеw swimming.pool has bеen opеnеd. This pulsе was lеft in thе сlassroom yеstеrday. Traffiс has bееn bannеd from thе сity сеntте. A new govеrnmеnt has bееn еleсtеd. Thе flat was brokеn into last week.

Gramma r1 7 1a) сut b) taken с) sent d) sеrviсеd е) broken fl offeтеd c) wеrе you born h) rеpairеd 0 was givеn i) was madе 2a) hаd his b) Was lent to mе by с) had onе of my tееth takеn d) was boтn

е) 0 c)

sold a roсk сonсеIt tiсkеt his housе brokеn into WеIе you h) was givеn this ring by my i) is bеing kеpt i) will bе sеnt

3a)

I,m hаviпg mу саr serviced tomorrow. b) I had my bikе stolen yеstеrday. с) Wе had our house paintеd last УеaI, d) I'm having my tooth taken out tomorrowl е) I,vе iust had my hair сut. 0 Wе,rе haЙng our new сalpеt f,ttеd tomoшow. 8) Ann has just had hеr portrait paintеd.

4 a) b) с) d) e) f)

is believed to be living is supposed to fall is expeсtеd to Win is thou8ht to be рlanning is said to bе making is rеportеd to disagrеe

Grammar 18 a) b) с) d) е) a) b) с) d) е) f) o\ 6/

might сan,t bе must bе сould bе might

f.) may not g) сan,t bе h) must bе i) сould bе 1.) сan,t сomе саn swim rеаllу might сan,t bе must work сan,t сomе might (bе ablе to) seе you tomorrow

youl teaсhеrсan,t сomе

h) must Llеvery hot i) сan I open

i) must bе

3a) s e) s i) D

b)D

0D i) n

с)s

s) s

d)D

h) s

4a) You ought to sеe а deпtist. b) Wе don,t have to go to sсhool tomorrow. с) That сan,t bеJohn, bесausеhe,s in Paris. d) Ann сould/might/may bе at homе. е) You'd bеttеr WеaI a Warm сoat today. 0 I may be latе. c) I don't think (that) you should/ought to go skiing. h) You саn,t lеave youт bikе herе. 5a) hауe fl had b) should g) сan,t с) must h) havе d) maylmight i) ablе е) must/should i) ought 6 a ) I think you,d bеttеr/you should takе moтe exетсise. b) Thе plane should land soon.


\ GRAмlvlAR

You сan,t usе a diсtionary. That сan,t be Suе. Shе,s abroad. I may/might сomе to youl palty. You mustn,t drop littеr in thе stIееt. g) You don,t havе to Wait. h) You should stay/ought to stay in bеd today.

с) d) е) f)

г * lrt

Grammar 19 I a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

must hаve iLropped сould/maylmight havе missеd сould/was able to should havе told didn,t have/nееd to сan,t havе takеn maylmight not havе nееdn,t have havе/nееd to buy shouldn't have

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

hаve studied sо lаte you ablе to stop him havе to/nееd to work hard havе lost his way have hurt youтself havе told me hаvе еnioyеd it havе helpеd hеr not to have lеft/to havе stayеd havе donе it

a) b) с) d)

should hауe tоkeп аn umbrellа must havе lеft it on thе bus сouldn,t gеt through should have bought hеr a pIеsеnt сan,t еat/stand olangеs might havе forgottеn thе addrеss ought to have studiеd harder сould havе had fun

е) f) g) h)

Grammar 20 a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i) |) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

аsked had had said she didn,t Want mе to сan,t have stolеn had you,d bеttеr would bе havе bееn wе,d rеmеmbетed 7)З 3 if 8) must thеy 9) havе to 10) if paint 11) сan 12) havе to

1)с 5)D 9)A 13) с

fld

a) b) с) d)

2)А 6)D 10)с 14) B

doп,t hаve to mustn,t might havе havе to

13)3 14) was 15) if 16) bееn 17) us 18) 3

3)B 7)B 11)D 15) D е) 0 g) h)

4)^ 8)с 1z )^

must сould had to should

5 a) kпсw the апswer,I would lrclp уou b) you run fast, you,ll fееl tiтеd с) was arrеstеd by an off-duп' poliсewoman d) had lеft еarly, wе wouldn,t hаve missеd the rrаin е) I hadn,t eatеn all thе lсе-сгеam f) tеll mе wherе thе bus station is g) is bеing built by thе loсa] сounсil h) wетe you, I'd go to thе doсtor's i) was brokеn фv somеonеl with/using a hammеr i) Amy to buy somе milk 6 a) hаvе to go b) I wеrе с) my hair сut d) havе missеd e) was invеntеd f) havе forgottеn g) had h) must havе workеd i) was givеn i) neеdn't havе 7 a) b) с) d) e) f) g) h) i) i) 8 a) b) с) d) е) fl g) h) i) j)

hаving our house had his сaт hе,d wouldn't take tеll mе whеn unlеss wouldn,t havе сan,t have had to askеd witteп сan,t whеrе thе train staгionWas. might havе bееn you havе to had to/must finish must havе opеnеd I wеrе tallеr! l have my сaI rеpairеd I,d sсrеam

Grammar21 So thсlt to in ordеr to dтessеd,сould/would for сouldn,t/wouldn,t сan сould I wеnt to the shops for some eggs. 2a ) b) Niсola сamе hетe to havе a mееting with thе dirесtor. с) Wе wеnt on holiday for a теst. d) Mikе plays сhеss to rеlax. е) I opеnеd thе window for somе air. 0 Cristinа wеnt shopping for somе nеw сlothеs. c) I Wеnt to a private sсhool to lеarn Еnglish. h) sam Went tо a speсialist for trеatmеnt. I

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

ANsWЕ Rs

3 a) Iф work eаф, he сould go b) wаs rеbuilt, makе it с) gavеJaсk hеr phone numbеr, hе сould/would сall d) put on somе suntan oil, I don't/won't gеt е) hid thе plеsеnts, nobody rr.ould/сouldsее ft had thе palty in a large hall, pеoplе would/сould gr arrivеd еaгly, hе сould/would get hr сhangеd sеatsin thе сinеma, I сould sее i) somе sаndrтiсhеs,wouldn,t fеel hungщ' i) 1{oгеa iunnv hat, his friеnds rтould notiсе

Grammar 22 Т a) b) с, d) е)

suclt so manrtoo so fеw so

2a)so b) с) d) е) f)

too muсh many еnough littlе

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) i) a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i)

') 5 a) b) с)

ft so m uсh gl in thе end h) so muсh il tall еnough i) so littlе

8) h) i) j) k)

fеlт suсh so too so

too as/bесause/sinсе so muсh so many so so fеw еnough so so little As/Sinсе/Bесause I stауed аt home апd hаd а rеst beсаuseI felt reаIlу tirеd. I didn,t usе that piесе of string, bесausе it wasn,t long еnough. It was suсh a diffiсult quеstion that I had to ask for hеlp. Thеrе WеIe too fеw sеats for all thе guеsts. Thеrе Wеrе too many guеsts and not еnough sеats. Wе сan,t put that box in thе сaт as thеrе,stoo littlе spaсе. I,ve got too littlе timе to do all my work. I,vе got so muсh WoIk that I сan,t go out. Shе had so many сhildгеn that shе didn,t know what to do. Thе play was so good that thе audiеnсе сhеегеd. Sorry,but I htlvеп,tgot аlottgll tirпe. Еriсa is not old еnough to drivе a сar' Paul has so manv fтiеnds that hе,s always busy.

285


I Nт ЕRlutЕDlAт E

d)

е) 0 8) h)

6a) b)

с) d) е) f) g) h)

tA NGU A GЕ

We had too little timе to 8o sight-sеeing. It,s so hot that I сan,t think! Thеrе was so muсh snow that wе сouldn,t travеl. It was suсh a long way that wе deсidеd to drivе thеrе. As I'd run a long way, I fеlt еxhausted./I,d run suсh a long way that I felt еxhaustеd. slow to be iп thе runniпg teаm' to thе housе, bесausе/as it,s not vеry faт. suсh a long film that we missеd our last bus. unhappy that shе сriеd. muсh monеy that he doеsn,t know what to do with it. old еnough to 8еt malriеd. еnough monеy to buy this bikе. enough platеs I,m afтaid.

Grammar23 I a\ b) с) d) е) f) g) h) a) b) с) d)

however Although Although on thе othег hand but dеspitе In spitе of although АIthough but Howеvеr еven

е) f) g) h)

still although Dеspitе spitе

a) the sпow, we went out for а wаIk. b) some expеIts think priсes will fall, others disagrее. с) losing at half-time, Сity won in the еnd. d) it was hot, Diana worе hеr wintеr сlothеs. е) but/, howevеr, this summеr it,s rained all thе timе. f) haйng a hеadaсhе,/his hеadaсhе, James still read until latе. g) but/, howеvet, hе (still) did wеll in thе tеst.

Grammar 24 I

a) 4 е)6

05 2 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

b) 2 03

i)в

с )7 9g

Would уou mind If I wете you, I,d wтitе go Could you Would you likе I won't do it Shall I hеlp Why don't you go Сould I boтrow should go

З a) I,il be bасk b) I,l1havе iсе-сrеam 286

P RA C т l с E

d) 10 h )t

с) I think you should talk it ovеr with youг palеnts. d) shall I сarry it? e) Нow about going to thе сinema?/Lеt,s go to thе сinеma?/Why don't wе 8o to thе сinеma? 0 Can I lеavе sсhool еaгly? g) Сould/Сan you tell mе how muсh it сosts? h) Would you likе somе lеmonadе? i) Could you opеn thе window? i) цo' I won,t. 4 a) уou miпd tаkiпg b) 'd ratheт havе/,d prеfеr с) сan you Wait d) Сan/Мay I lеavе е) you turn off f) How about going g) won't talk h) Shall I hеlp i) mind telling mе i) wете you, 5 a) b) с) d) е) l) g) h) i) i)

should Сan/Сou1d/Would Can/Could/Would W.ill/Would Lеt,s mind rathеr Can/Could/Would Would саn/may

Grammar25 I a) b) с) d)

who whose who whiсh -whosе 2a) b) that с) whosе d) who 3a)

е) that f) whosе g) whosе e) whose f) who g) who

D N

b) N с)N d) D ON 9о 4 a) The book fuсtt|ohп wаs reаdiпg wаs а bit fтфtening. b )/ с) In thе еnd, our holiday was the bеst that wе had evеr had. d) Thе dentist who I go to isn,t vеry еxpensivе. е) Thе film whiсh Wе saw last weеk was muсh betteI than this onе.

е)

D,/

9" t 5 a) Thеse аre the bovs I-went oп holidау with. b) This is the lеttет l,ve bееn waiting foт. с) That,s thе shop Suе bought hеr bikе fтom. d) That,s thе hotеl I stayеd at. е) Tim is someone I hardly еver writе to. t)/

g/

h) Unitеd wеrе the bеst team (that) wе playеd against.

6 a) Fridаy.l''lаsthе lаst timе thаt I sаw Iim. b) Thе island that/whiсh we visited was еxtrеmеly bеautiful. с) Thе girl that/who I met Was a friеnd of Philip's. d) Thе mеal that/whiсh we atе wasn,t vеry tasty. е) Gina was thе first person thаt/who I askеd. f) Thе book that/whiсh I read didn't еxplain thе problеm. g) Thе tеaсhel that/who wе usually havе was away ill. h) Thе friеnds that/who I mеt last night sеnd you theiг lovе.

Grammar26 1 a ) цthich b) What с) who d) whosе е) that 2a)

е)

his it

ь) / f) /

f) g) h) i) j)

that whosе who whiсh who с) it d) she g) thеy

3a)

The museum thаt we wаnt to vЬit opensаt 12.00, b) Thе boy whosе bikе was takеn visitеd the poliсe station. с) The friend who mеt me at thе ailpolt сaтriеd my suitсasе. d) Thе mеal that Tom сookеd was dеliсious. е) Thе friеnd who is staying with me сomes from Paris. 0 Thе man whosе wallеt I found gavе me a reward. c) The shop in thе сеntre that I go to is сhеaper./The shop that I go to in thе сеntrе is сheapеr. h) Тhе girl whosе party I wеnt to phonеd mе. i) I know somеone who likеs you. 4a)/ e) / b) what f) what/who с)/ g) What d) what h) /

Grammar 27 I a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

i) i)

Whаt time do уou usuаlly get up? What wеrе you rеading? \Arhy did you go therе? What havе you donе so faт? What do I have to do now? How did you fееl yеstетday? What arе you doing? Why have thе lights gonе out?/Why arеn,t thе lights working?/Why isn,t theте any еlесtriсity? WlrеIе did you lеavе your bikе?/Whеrе's your bikе? \'VhoЪ сoming to youl party?


G R A п nм A R

Who lives neхt door? 2a) b) Who do you play with? с) Who tеaсhеs you maths?/What doеs Mrs Dawson tеaсh you? d) What do you (usuallY) eat for lunсh? e) What frightеns you? 0 Whо do you talk to most? ol Who do you sit nеxt to in Еnglish? h) What helps you studY? 3a ) b)

с,) d)

hауeп,t am did will

е) f) g) h)

I didn,t I сan,t I do hе isn,t

Grammar 28

There is а smаII rеstаurапt 3a) b) It,s stlange that you wеnt с) Thеre,s a big tlеe at thе еnd of my d) It seеms that Brian e) It,s really сold 0 It,s a long way from hеre c) Thеre arеn't anylThеrе arе no battетiеs in youI h) It aрpeals that wе,Iе

Grammar30 цL 1a) b) on с) to d) in е) bеlow

0in g) ovег h) on i) on i) in

9o n h)/

D/

1 a) b) с) d) е)

I hаveп't I do I am she didn't he has

f) g) h) i) j)

thеy сan I won't shе hasn,t it is she didn't

2a) b) in с) in

2 a) b) с) d) е)

Hаve we Don,t you Did shе Don,t you Is hе

f) g) h) i) i)

Is thете Has shе Haven,t you Isn't thегe Did you

tn 3a) b) on с) on d) in е) on

i) iп i) ovеr/thгough f) insidе 8) on h) out i) on j) at

3 a) b) с) d) е)

аren,t we have you aтen't you will you isn,t he

f g) h) i) j)

don,t thеy do You don,t you hasn't he should I

4a) in b) at с) in d) in

e) on 0 to c) in h) ovеr

iп 5a) b) next to с) to d) insidе

e) f) 8) h)

opрositе nеaг on on

6a) аt b) ovеr с) near d) undеr

е) 0 C) h)

on/ovеI оn on in

f) g) h) i) j)

bесausе Although in so In spitе of

4 a) Pаul doesn,tlike footbаll, does he? b) You,vе got a sister, havеn,t you? с) You havеn,t donе youт homеwork, have you? d) You sat nеxt to Еllеn, didn't you? е, Thе guests havеn't arrived, havе thеy? 0 Your namе is John, isn,t it? c) Yout namе isn,t John, is it? h) I didn,t lеavе my wallet on thе dеsk, did I? r) William hasn,t got marriеd, has he? j) This book is by Мartin Aimless, isn't it? 5a)

2

е) 2

b)2 f) 2

c)z фТ

d)r h)2

whаt the timе is 6a ) b) what this mеans с) how muсh this сosts d) what time the musеum opеns е) iflwhether I'm in the dght seat 0 whеre Asham stIееt is c) iflwhеther this is Tlafalgar Squarе h) whеn this bus lеavеs

Grammar 29 thете, therе It',s thеiт its

I a) b) с) d)

there It's thеy,те its

e) f) c) h)

2 a) b) с) d)

There, It It, it It, thеIе It

e) It f) Thеrе, it g) It, there, thеrе

d)

е)

dL

bylbeside

Grammar3'l a) b) с) d) е)

in ordеr to too they,re whosе for

but we ileсideil used to work suсh a thе rain about spеnding Thеre aгe don,t/won't fееl It,s stтangе еnough monеy you mind 3)с 2)С 1)B 3 7) l) 6)d s)d 1 1 )с 10)b e) d 1 5 )с t4) a 13) d a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

4a)o n b) bеsidе с) to d) a t e) near

0 c) h) 0 i)

5 a ) Hаve уou ever beeп to Americо? b) Наs Andrсw еvеr been to Аmeriса? с) Dоеs Rita likе тap musiс? d) Do you likе rap musiс? е) Did you еnjoy the film? 0 Did Nigеl еnioy thе fllm? o) Arе you going to London nеxt o/ summer? h) Is Мaria goins to London nеxt summеr? i) Сan I borrow your mobile phonе? i) Could you lеnd me your mobilе phonе? i a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) i) 7 a) b) с)

on at oppositе insidе

You'vegot won't they Lеt,s go ,те not lеaving havеn,t thеy сan,t you You Werеn,t do you wеrеn,t thеy didn't forget

reаil а book whiсh she reаlly who visitеd mе brought me a that I stayеd in was сheapеr than d) friend whosе bikе I borтowеd wantеd it е) to buy thе vasе (that) I saw in thе fl who sings in the grouP has got 8) I mеt a girl whosе bтothет is in mv h) that wе'rе tаking lеavеs i) rt'ho knoсked аt thе dooт и/as sеШing j) whiсh I saw with Luke was 13) hе 7) shе a 1,) ,/ 8) thеm 14) at 2) vуho 9) muсh 15) ,/ 3) to 16) it 4) Тhеn 1o) you 17) so ll) ,/ 5) so 12) that 6) who

Grammar32 1 a) b) с) d) е) fl g) h) 2 a)

4)a 8)a 12)b

A N swE Rs

b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

oпe ilаy Nowadays This morning by thе day after tomolrow During aftеrwaтds on we hаd/hаd hаd luпсh, we weпt for а сoffee on timе for lеssons until 8.00 thтее months ago at 1.2.00 first ofJanuary day aftеr tomorrow for thrее

Зa)on b) ago с) latет d) duтing

е) A t f; nowadaYs 9 ln h) aftеrwards

287


lNт ERIY lЕDlAт E

L A NGU A GЕ

P RA с т l (Е

4a ) I go to the sеаsidein Sumlnеr. b) I,vе bееn at this sсhool sinсе 1,997. с) Gеorgе had a bath and thеn washеd his hair. d) Dina was at my housе until 10.00./Dina didn,t lеavе my house until 10.00. е) Thе train arrivеd on timе. fl I,l1arrivе bу 2.0О' o\ Paul triеd hard but in thе еnd hе 6/ gavе up./he gavе up in the end. h) I wasn,t in timе to say goodbyе to Lisa. 5 a) b) с) d)

lаst During Aftеr foт

е) onе/somе 0o n g) afterwards h) at

Gram m a r3 3 I a) b) с) d)

How much arе somе some

е) f) Ы h)

muсl:r How many a was

2 a) ап е) manуlb )a Г1a g) somе с) somе d) h) aпуlmanу З a) give уou soпе аdviсe b) any сlean trousетs с) Тhеrе isn,t muсh d) nееds washing е) wasn,t in thе book a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

some wood Thеrе was any a сhiсkеn was vеry usеful How many It,s grееn thеy,rе on thеir way noisе.

a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

IJаtеr nеws glasses luggagе еggs sсissors loaf poliсеoffiсеr/poliсеman/ poliсеwoman

Gra m m ar34 I

a) Hсwe you еver visitеd the Uпited Kiпgdom? b) on oш tlip, we visitеd Cantеrburv Сathеdral. с) Lovе is a wondеrfu|thing. d) Pets aIе not pеrmittеd in this hotеl. е) A rabbit is a small wild fuтry animal with long еars./Rаbbits aге small wild furгy animаls with long еars. f) Nеw Yoтk is in thе Unitеd Statеs of Ameriсa'

288

d) Thе prеsent (that/whiсh) my friеnds е) is the сapital of l) Тhе fiгst lеsson tomorгow is g) thе phonе for you h) Thе fllm (that/whiсh) wе saw last night

a)b) a с) an, d) a, an e ) a, f ) -, 8) - , a a) is ап b) ina с) Parking is d) Fabio is at e) to thе station on

6a) b)

с)

Gramm a r3 5 I a) the f) the, the b) thе' thе 8) a с) an, thе h) a d )A n i) a е) thе, thе i) thе, thе a) plауs the piапo b) hеlp thе с) bike is thе d) is/has an appointmеnt at thе е) was about thе lifе 0 was sсorеd by thе a) b) с) d)

The, the, the thе, a, thе thе, thе

е) 0 g) h)

the, thе, a thе, a, thе A, a, a thе, the

Grammar34 and 35 mixed I

a) b) с) d) е)

2 a) b)

с)

d)

е) 0

c) h)

f) _, thе, an, g) -, the, a h) a, thе, thе i) thе, thе, thе i) a, thе Сould уou get а loаf ofbreаd fтom the bаker,s? Мilk is good for сhildтеn. John is at woтk at thе momеnt. We tтаvеllеd to Hungaтy by сaI. Havе you got a brothеr oI sistеl? Thе war bеtwееn thе two сountliеs was thе longest in history. Who was thе flrst astronaut who walkеd on thе moon? Тhе Nilе is thе longеstтivеr in thе world. The, а, _, thе, u a, -, thе thе, a, a Thе, thе, thе

3a) Wе trаvеllеd thеrеoп thе trаin. b) This onе is thе largеst./Тhisis the largеst sizе. с) С]аra is a (profеssional) singет. d) Thе unеmployеd oftеn fееl dеprеssеd. e) Anna is learning to play thе guitar. 0 Mikе works in an offiсе. c) Мarie сomеs from Franсе. h) David is still at work. 4a) А b) a

с) a d)

е) 0 o)

* thе -

h) i) a

o)а p) a n

k) thе l)a m) thе n) a

r) s)a t) _

t) -

s)-

5a) Dаrrel wаs the b) you havе a dog at с) a сhemistry

d)

е) 0 h)

_ Т hе T hе _ T he T hе _

2 T he 2 t hе 222 l } :. е 22_ Z t hе

Grammar36 I a) пo b) еaсh с) Not onе

d) Somе е) еithеr l) both tyrеs

2 a) пot onе b) no с) A1l

d) all, еaсh е) nonе f) еithеr

З a) Every dog iп the gаrdеп wаs bаrkiпg, b) Not a singlе pеrson сamе to thе mееting. с) None of my friеnds has got a сar d) Nеithеr of thеsесhaiтsis сomfortable. е) Thеrе wete no boys in thе сlass. f) A1l wе Want to do is listen to a fеw CDs. g) Both books arе intеrеsting. 4 a) Nonе ofthesе books is/аre iпterеstiпg. b) All you havе left is tеn minutеs. с) Nеithет of thе hotеls was/wеrе suitablе. d) Not a single pеrson rеpliеd to my lеttеr. e) Both Рaul and his brothеr David arе ill. f) A1l of thе team playеd wеll. g) Еvеry housе in thе strееt Was sеarсhed фy thе poliсе). h) Somе of thе questions in the tеst wеre diffiсult/hard, 5a)1 е) 1

b) 2 02

с)2 ф2

d) 7 h) 2

G r a m m a r3 7 I a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) 2 a) b) с) d) е)

а lаrge old grеепplаstiс bаg two square woodеn tablеs a bеautiful rеd silk dress a pair of antiquе silvеr iugs a small plastiс bowl a long winding сountry road somе dirty old football boots a long yеllow сotton skiтt a glass of сold frеshly squееzеd orangе iuiсе boiliпg f) fantastiс gigantiс g) worriеd tirеd h) waтmеr сool i) borеd еxсiting i) interestеd


rl ANsWЕ Rs

GRAмrиAR

3 a) The old couple lived hаppilу together. b) You,vе workеd hard. с) Сhris and Paul walk slowly. d) Georgia plays thе piano wеll. е) Suе danсеs graсеfully. f) Кatе isn,t wеll/doеsn,t fееl wеll. g) Мiсhaеl skatеs wondеrfully. h) Мary wтitеs сaтеfully. i) Alеx slеpt badly. j) Ann сomplеtеd thе сoursе suссеssfully. 4 a) hаppу fl fast g) quite b) wеll h) hard с) hardly i) tеrriblе d) good е) ill i) еxtremely 5 a) Peter hаs beeп working уery hаrd, b) My sistеI bought mе a lovеl)r bluе woollеn swеatеf. с) This book I,m rеading is еxсеllеnt/eхtrеmеly good. d) David fеlt bad bесausе hе,d shouted at his mothеI. е) Еvеryonе in thе tеam playеd wеll. fl Too muсh еxerсisе сan make you feеl tirеd. s) Paula lеlt hanpv whеn hеr еxams wеrе ovel. h) Hans has nеvеr arrived latе at sсhоol. i) onе boxеr hit the othеr rеally hald right on thе сhin. i) t,rn not rеally intelestеd in this сar'

Grammar38 1a) aS tаstу аS b) the most intеIеstin8 с) oldеst d) than е) wolsе 0 tallеst o) as hard as h) WoIsе i) longеr than i) morе quietly the loпgest 2a) b) lеss еntегtaining с) fastеr than d) the hottеst е) bеttеf than 0 iust as tall as o\ morе diffiсult ё/ h) as largе as i) not as bi8 as/iust as big as/biggеr tnan i) thе worst 3 a) аs good а runпer аs Dаvid (is) b) tallest (pеrson)in thе сlass с) morе than mе/than I havе d) longеr than Janе,s (hair) е) noisiеst studеnt in thе sсhool 0 as intетesting as this one (is) g) go fastеr than this/go any fastеr h) еat as muсh as Andrеw (did)

4 a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h)

5 a) biggest b) grеatеst с) _ d) е) _ 0 fatter g) smallеst h) 6 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) i)

Wе сalled on my aunt on hеr birthdаy. 8) I,m afraid that we,vе run out of еggs. h) Мoniсa will сall for you at 6.30. i) Nobody understood what I was 8еtting at. i) I сan,t put up with so muсh air pollution.

just аs, аs thе most moте/lеss,than, did morе than, thе the lеast iust as, as lеss, than

0

i) haгdег |) k) fittеI 1) m)n) o) widеr

Grammar 40 I a) b) с) d)

tаIk more slowlу isn,t as fгightеning thе bеst сook as fast as less eсonomiсal than morе еxсiting than as hard as is morе intеrеstеd is oldеr than morе than mе

Grammar 39 1a )

е)

3 4

b) 5 t)2

at 2a ) b) for с) to d) down е) over 0 foт a) b) с) d) e) f) g) h)

с)8 96 g) up h) on i) up i) up k) to l) out

d) 1 h) 7

didn't live uP to drop in on run out of gеt on with сaught up with looking forward to kееp up with сut down on

a) Biап tаkes аfter his mother. b) Wе,ve lun out of food! с) Мike and Tom don,t gеt on wе]] With еaсh othеI. d) Jеan is vеry good аt dеaling with peoplе. е) The handlеbars on my bikе nеed sееing to. f; Julia was vеIy ill, but shе,s got over it now 8) What ехaсtly aIе you sеtting at? h) Paul,s nеw sсhool didn,t livе up to his expесtations. The сentrаIheаtiпg sуstem neеds seеiп{ to. b) Lеt,s drop in on Julia whilе wе'rе hеre. с) Wе,rе hеading for Рaris. d) our hotеl room looks out onto/ovеr thе main road! е) Two сhildтen started playing, and thеn thе othеrs ioinеd in.

5a )

у'сLsll look sеt сal1ed

е) f) g) h)

try flll turned droppеd

2 a) Tum the lights off wheп уou leаvе the school. b) Jaсk tulnеd up half-way thгough thе lеsson. с) Wе сan put you up foт a wееk. d) Мarta is gеtting on wеll in hеr Еnglish сlass. e) Lidia grеw up in Uruguay. 0 How do you tum on thе сomputеr/turn thе сomputеI on? o\ Caтol lookеd up the datеs/ 6/ looked thе dates up in an еnсyсlopedia. h) Suтflng is a gIeat sport. Whеn did you takе it up? 3a)

е)

3 4

b) 8 f) s

с)1

фт

d)6 h)З

Grammar 41 Т a) b) с) d) 2

bettеr еaсh hard somе

\)d 5)d 9)b l jt с

2)a 6)d i0)a 1 + )b

е) bеst 0 foт o)

no

h) is 3)с 7)b 11)b 1 5 )с

4)a 8)с 12)d

3a) of tltеsе b) until с) smoking is allowеd dl somе adriсе as long as f) srnсе ol сlassтoom h) on foot i) anv fuгthеr ll in timе I сtltl put you up. 1al b) Сarlos сan,t put up with the tтaffiс any morе. с,) Pеtеr is gеtting on wеll at univеIsity. d) I,ll сlеar up thе room if you do thе washing up. Wе,rе heading for Мadrid. 0 Why don't you look uP this woтd/look this woтd up in thе diсtionafy? c) Janе takеs aftеr hет fathеr. h) Кеlly,s fathеr is trying to givе up smoking.

289


I I

I

L A NGU A GЕ

l N тЕ R l t, l E D l AтE

s1) Ll 3)

the it

4)

s) was 6)

6a) thе b)

с)

d)

е)

in" foт

7) ago B) muсh g) thе 10) morе 11) onе r2) ,/ 0 _ o) lot 6l h) muсh i) thе l ) an

13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 78)

aftеr aftеr up onсе thе ,/

k) 1) m) n) o)

thе thе thе a еithет

PRA с т l C E

7a) а siпglе DJ no сhееsе с) riсh arе d) bеautifully е) thе worst film 0 until 8 a) пuch, thсttt b) thе, than с) thе, а d) somе, muсh

е) f,) 8) h)

all, both as, as until, by bеst' еvel

T a) |im соn,t аfford to go to the сinеmа twiсе а week. b) David wishеs to lеavе thе room

fl o\ h)

a) b) с) d) е) a) b) с) d) е) f;

290

l,d rеаlly likе to go swimming on Saturdаy. Еmma prеtеndеd to lеavе, but Waitеd outsidе. Мy bike seems to have somеthing wrong with it' Thе dirесtor rеfusеd to answеI Hеlеn,s phonе сall. lovеs affoтd happеn eхpесtеd lеarned

f) сontinuеd g) bеar h) offеrеd i) prеtended i) prеfеrs to let mе lеаve еаrlу singing/to sing for an hour without stopping (that) you,vе passеd the еxam to do well/that hе'll do wеll to do for thе summеr сlеаring up my loom

go to thе сinеma with mе gеt marriеd sее you latеr do this еvening

seems hatе want askеd hopеs

t) refusеd g) сhosе h) likе i) dесidеd i) agreed Whаt do уou iпteпd to do? I сan,t beal gеtting up еarly! I ехpeсt to sеe you in thе moтning. Susan pтomisеd to bе baсk at 6.00. Pat lеаrnеd to drivе whеn hе was youn8. I offеrеd to hеlp Joе. Еllеn сouldn,t afford the tiсket. Tom rеfusеd to hеlp.

a) b) с)

е)

Grammar 42

d)

to to to to

d)

9 a) I,m reаIIуilltетestеdiп trауel. b) Katе,sbrothег is a doсtoг. с) I atе somе food rvith Jaсk, and aftеI that I wеnt homе. d) Мilk is good fоr 1.оu. е) Сan you givе mе somе adr'iсе? t'\ I,vе lookеd in thе boх. Еvеrything is brokеn, I'm afтaid. o) Thеy will havе flnishеd thе nеw hospital ф the еnd of Мay./Thеy won,t havе finished thе nеw hospital until thе еnd of Мay. h) Тhеrе,s a poliсе offiсеr/ poliсеman/poliсеwoman Waiti n8 outsidе. i) I сomе to сlаss on foot. i) Your hair is vеry bеautiful.

с)

g) h) i) i) a) b) с) d) е)

f) g) h)

Gramm a r4 3 I a) b) с) d)

to loсk to havе talking bеing

е) f) g) h)

to opеn to takе sky-diving starting

2 a) уou fапсу b) (that) hе,d с) I suggеst/How about d) kееps interuptin8 еl Do/Would you mind fl Imagine bеing g) dеniеd wтitin8 ht сan,t hеlp З a1 b) с) d)

сltosе affoтd mind mеant

4a)try Ь)

deniеd admittеd dесided fanсy

е) dеnied nтetenrlрrl

с) еxpесt d) mеant 5 a) b) с) d)

e) fl 8) h)

forget mеans admit stop

fl

рraсtisе

8) ima8inе h) rеfusеd е) f) c) h)

kеpt triеd rеmеmbеr stand/bеaт

Grammar44 I a) b) с) d)

ftom to for to

2 a) b) с) d) е) f) g)

lаughs аt suссееds in apoiogizеs for depеnds on knows about bеlongs to тeminds, of

e) about f) for 8) on

3 a) right аbоut b) good at с) famous for d) intеrеstеd in е) annoyеd with f) kind to g) fтightеnеd of

4 a) Diсk wаs boredwith his work. b) Тhis town rеminds me of Glasgow. с) Sara knows a lot about biology. d) I,m looking for thе art gallетy. е) I,m fond of сrеam сakes' f) Suе is marriеd to Adrian. g) Dina is kind to animals. h) Ugh! This сakе tastеs of тubbет! i) Lisa is jеalous of you! j) I fееl еxсitеd about our nеw housе! 5 a) ,m апgry with b) с) d) е) f,1 g) h)

rеady good at fеlt upsеt about dreamеd about rеly on bikе toJaсk afraid of

6 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

eхplаiп, to bеlongеd to dеpеnds on paid for apologized, for rеmind, of suссееdеdin wait for

7a)4 e) 7

b) 6

с)5

01

c)3

d) 2

Grammar45 a) b) с) d) е)

опуone аnything nothing somеonе anything

f) g) h) i) j)

Somеonе anything No onе anywhеrе somеwhеrе

a) b) с) d) е) f) g)

do аnуthiпg knows Мary bеttеr than I do was latе yеsterday nothing/no work ask you somеthing hеrе dтinks rеpliеd whеn I phonеd/answеrеd the phonе h) someonе going to drivе us thеrе i) I go I make friеnds j) сallеd for you this morning a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

enjoy уourselves behave ouтsеlvеs hurt mysеlf exprеss hеrsеlf introduсе mysеlf blame youтsеlf talk, mysеlf сut himself

a) There,ssomеthiпg iп the boх. b) Еvеryonе was danсing. с) Somеthing has annoyеd/is annoying mе. d) Thеrе,s nothing to еat./Wе,vе got nothing to еat. е) Thеrе,s no onе in thе offiсе. f) Еvеrybody likеs Julia. g) You сan havе anything you likе./Anything you like you сan havе. h) Nowhеrе is bеttеr than homе.


GRAM]v|AR

a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i) j)

Everybodу/Eуeryone somеthing Somеthing somеonе/somеbody thеmselvеs One Еvет1.thing Nothing yoursеlf mysеlf a) Someoпеspoke to mе, but I саfl,t remеmbertheir паme. b) ЕveЦrthing in thе gardеn has bееn growing a lot latеly. с) Сaтol didn,t do an)zthing/did nothing yesterdaY. d) Theте isn,t an}zonе/Thеrе'sno onе Waiting for you. е) Pеtе and Katе еnjoyеd thеmsеlvеs at thе party. f,1 You fill in an appliсation form, and thеn you wait for an answеr./Onеfills in an appliсation form, and thеn onе walts for an answеr' g) Wе nеed to do thе shopping. Thеrе isn,t аngth]ng in thе fridgе.

Grammar46 1 a) b) с) d) 2 a) b) с) d) е) fl g) h) i) j) З a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) 4 a) b) с) d) е)

е) thеirs h) my hers i) our hеr own f) youl g) his yours i) its minе Tell Мoпicа it,s ЕIenа,sturtl, пot hers. Aliсе,s youngеI brothеr's сallеd Bill. Tim,s sandwiсhеs Wеrе tastiеI than ours. Thе fllm,s bеginning is good but its еnding is wеak. Aте thеsе kеys yours or hеrs? Barbaтa fllls in the patients, lесord сards at thе doсtoI's. Whеn it,s laining, еvеrybody,s Iainсoats gеt Wеt. The managеl,s assistant rеads all the сustomers,lеttеrs. Your sistеr,sdog runs fastеr than ours. onе,s our tеaсhеr,s сar and thе othеr,s a visitor's. footbаll boot, сhееsesапdwiсh shop windoщ сoat poсket gardеn gate, biсyсlе light dеpartment storе, сountly сotta8e flrе еnginе, roсk singer post offiсе, pеnсil shalpеnеr football ground, sсhool rеpoтt shop assistant, railwaY station mу sister,s arе Sam,s friеnd of minе my favouтitе tеlеЙsion are your tеaсhеrs,

0

a tin opеnеr arе our nеighbours, h) on thе kitсhеn Thеre аre two bus Stopsneаr пy 5a) house. b) ouт сat slееps all day in its bеd. с) Have you mеt Janе's sistеI? d) СIеatulеs likе thеsе live at thе bottom of thе sеa. е) This book is minе. r) Тhosе arе two friеnds of my fathеr,s. 8) Еvеrybody,s dтawings werе bеttef than ouls. h) Are thеse glovеs yours or minе?/Arе thesе your glovеs or mine? i) Thе housе stands on its own at thе еnd of thе strееt. 1) I notiсеd thеsе shoеs in a shop window. o)

Grammar 47 I

a) b) с) d)

iпsteаd of еithеr also suсh as

е) f) g) h)

a) b) с) d)

2)b 6)с 10)b

I

4)d 8)d

З)a 7)b

instеad aсtuall-Y suсh as еithеr

ехсept as well as this Pеrsonally both

е) 0 g) h)

b)9 04 Dв

с)3 g)10

5a)5 е)1 i)8

d) 7 h) 2

Grammar48 d) 2 с)z b) 2 01 We,remeetiпg UnсIeDаvid on 2a) Tuesdауеveпingri eight. b) Last Fеbruary I mеt Мтs Wilkinson for thе f,rst timе. с) Tim lives in thе south of Franсе nеaт Сannеs. d) Wе saw a grеat film at thе ABС сallеd ,Thе Rеmains of thе Day,. е) Wе wеnt to а palty at МIs Harrisons, housе on Nеw Yеar,s Еve. 1a)

е)

l 3

Julia's reading 'A Portrait of a Ladу, bу Hеnry Jamеs. 3 a) ,First of аll, who is goiпg to cаrry the suitсаsе?,аskеdEmilie. b) Кatе said shе,d bе on timе, but I didn,t bеliеvе hеr. с) Jamеs said that hе,d missed the tтain, 8ot lost, and bеen arrеstеd. d) \\rhеn thе bеll lang, our teaсhеI stood up and said, 'StoP writing, plеasе., е) ,on thе othеr hand, wе сould go tо thе сinеma, сouldn,t wе?, said Dar-id. 0 'Good morning,' said Tina. 'How do r.ou fееItоdav?' g) If I lvеrе r'ou, I,d ask fоr somе hеlp, oг pегhaps stalt a8a1n. h) Thе old stadium lr.as еventually dеmolishеd: r'егr'fе.rvpеoplе wеnt thеге. and it rтas bесoming dangегous. 0

Grammar 49

еxсеpt sinсе both yеt

2 a) Dеbrа уisitеd the соstle апd the musеum, too. b) Еvеryonе was on timе ехсеpt Jill. с) I said it was laining but, in faсt, it isn't! d) Кarеn сouldn,t play tеnnis, sinсе shе,d huтt hеr lеg. е) In my йеw, smoking is bad for you. 0 I atе thе сhoсolatе сakе as lгеll as the applе piе. g) Daniеl playеd in goal instеad of his bтothет' h) In сonсlusion, I,d likе to thank thе hеad tеaсhеI,Ann Colеs. 1)с 5)d 9)a

ANsWЕ Rs

a) b) с) d) е) f)

2 a) b) с) d) е) Г) g) h)

dесidittg g) thеil swimming ht bеautiful il rесеipt photо quеs t i o n i r bеgin n in g kl psYсhiatrist / ll suссеssful knort.n phonе, rесеil'е,I и.histlе, fiеld suссеssfullr-.phr.siсs knоrт, knifе thiеf' lеаring quеstion. listеning bе8inning' \-1е1V сo]umns. bеautlfullr. 6611Гrollill5- gl upsеtting thiсkеning ht hooking i) w-riting gгipping сhoosing it improvtng k) swimming fl}-ing 1) riding mаking

3 31 br сi dr е. fr .l Dеaт Bескr'-, I.m soгrr.that I havеn,t W[ittеn to .l-оuioт so long. I,m afraid I,vе bееn r-еп'busv at sсhool, and I haven,t had muсh timе fol Writing lеttетs. Lаst lтееk I flnishеd my ехaminаtions, so now I,m 8etting rеаdy to go on holiday. l lтas wondеring whеthет you would likе to сomе to stay foI a few days? You сan mееt my fтiеnds, and wе сould all go swimming. Thе Wеather is геally good now herе in ltaly, and I,m suте you will еnioy youlself. Bеst wishes, Silvia 5 a) b) с) d) е) l) g)

tomorrow Wеdnеsday advеrtisеmеnt neighbour through gratеful nесеssary

291


lNт ERмEDlAт Е

h) i) j) k) 1) 6 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

tA NGU A GE

P RA с т I с Е

disappointеd wеathеr/whеther remеmbеr library answеr deBt еxhibition hiф lnifе lamb psyсhologist rесефt what yaсht

i) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r)

Gramm a r5 1

autumд answеr dauфtеr half light salmon wholе would writing

Grammar50 a)4 е)7 i)8 a) b) с) d) е)

b )1 D2 Stаre pтaсtise thorough adЙсе farе

a)3

е)3 D _ m)-

с )9 фв f) g) h) i) i)

b )_

quitе aloud too lattеr loosе с )3

03 i) з

d )3

h)s

8)k)3

d) h) З t\

n) o) 4 Dеaт Silvia, Thanks for your lеttеr and your invitation to Italyl I,vе nеvеr travеllеd аbroad bеforе, and I,m rеally looking forward to staying with you and your family. I,vе spokеn to my parеnts and they,vе agreеd. They say thеy,rе golng to phone soon to disсuss thе allangеmеnts. I,vе dесided to havе somе Italian lеssons so that I сan praсtisе whеn ] сome to Italy. I,d likе you to WIitе somе simple sеntеnсes for me. Plеasе note my new addrеss. We movеd last weеk and now I,vе got a muсh biggеr bedroom. Bеst wishеs, Bесky a) b) с) d) e) f)

vеgetаble languagе queue rесеivе peoplе bеautiful

g) h) i) i) k) l)

intеIesting bisсuit сеiling differеnt knowlеdgе indеpеndent

a) b) с) d) е) f) g)

eфt bеan сheсk flowет wholе musсlе know

h) i) i) k) l) m) n)

nonе piесе pair wтitе rows so stair

292

I a) hers e) anlthing b) to hеlp f) spеnding с )i n фat d) as h) anything 2 I)b 2)d 3)d 4)a 5)с 6)b 7)a s)d 9)с 10)b 11)b \2)d 13) a 1 4 )c 1 5 )с 3 a) eхcеpt|eff b) onе knows с) thе twins, d) rеfusеd to сaшy е) rеly on f) a friеnd of 8) bеgan/startеdsnowing h) сlosing 4 1) ,/ 7) bееn 13) thеy 2) thаt 8) got \4) / 3) takе 9) / 15) havе 4) mе 10) for 16) with 5) it 11) oт 17) it 6) for 12) ft 5 a) for i) forgotten b) hеr i) еvеn с) of k) somеthing d) no onе/nobody l) Еitheг е) begun/started m) kept f) hетs n) saw g) sееmed o) Somеone h) with 6 Dear Daйd, It was grеat to hеar from you аftеr so long. I еnioyеd hеaring all your nеws. ] didn,t rеalizе that you'd spеnt a yеar abroad. You must havе had a rеally good timе in Glеeсе. I,vе dесidеd to 8o thеIe nеxt summеr. Pетhaps wе сould go togеthеr. I'vе had a fantastiс yеar at сollеgе. The work is hardет than the woтk we did at sсhool, but it,s moтe intеIеsting. I,m studying Business Administration and ComDutеr Sсiеnсе at thе momеnt. I;vе аlso made lots of nеw fтiеnds. I,m thinking оf сoming to Bristol for a fеw days to visit my sistеr. Would you likе to mееt? You сould show mе the sights and we сould talk about our old sсhooldаys. Why don,t you givе mе a ring and we сould disсuss it' It would bе wondеrful to sее you again. Best wishеs, Е1lеn 7a) Iпsteаd of b) evетy singlе с) in faсt d) In сonсlusion е) of my, minе

0 c)

as well yours h) hеrsеlf i) on, in 1) еven


Voсabulary2 Т a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

uпiпtеrеstiпg disadvantagе unfortunately impatiеnt disappеars unеmployеd disagrее misundеrstanding

2 a) b) с) d)

ovеrslept undеrwеar ovеrсoat outplayеd

З a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

ftiendship fотеignеr сhildhood stеwardеss tееnager spoonful nеighbourhood handtul maсhinеry booklеt

4 a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i) i)

iпhаbitапts boтеdom building aссommodation rеfusal aсtol employее imagination сookеr advеrtisеmеnt

5 a) b) с) d) e)

shorfuess friеndlinеss darknеss lonеlinеss tirеdnеss

0 g) h) i) j)

6 a) b) с) d)

heroiс musiсal homеless mothеrly

е) dangеrous f) foolish $) rainy

rеWlitе ovеrсookеd renеw underpaid

е) f) g) h)

d) е) Г) g)

unusuаIlу surPrisinglY Intеrеstingly suссеssfully bеautifully thoтoughly awtully unsuссеssfully unneсеssarily obviously

4 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) j)

uпсomfortаble indepеndеnt теusablе disappointmеnt rеlationship unsеlfish unhеalthy unсontrollable unshrinkablе inеxpeтiеnсed

5 a) b) с) d)

reсeipt politiсian dеpth patiеnсе

е) f) g) h)

Мarтiagе appliсation knowlеdgе explanation

3 a) mеss b) br еa t h с) alone d) diffеrеnсе

6 a) b) с) d)

thе|t bеliеf suspiсion lеngth

е) f) g) h)

angry bravеry vanity ability

4 a) b) с) d)

а bird a bat lifе aсuсumbег

5 a) b) с) d)

lifе soul rтidе round

6 at bl сi di е)

Voсabulary3 Т a) b) с) d) е)

tired disappointing frightening еmbarтassеd borеd

l) g) h) i) j)

сonfusing еxhausting intеrеsted suтprisеd annoying

2 a) b) с) d) е)

unlikеlу shortagе impossiblе photography usеful

t) g) h) i) j)

dislikе slееpy unusual сhееrful kindnеss

1 a) b) с) d) е)

Hаve do havе makе givе

2a)4 d)1 c)6

З a) b) с) d) e) fl g) h)

f; g) h) i) i)

7 a1 ligh b) sparе с)rime 2 a) b) с) d)

givе takе makе do 6o

b)B е)10 h)e

k) l) m) n) o)

0 hi 6 hl у g) Р€+fe€ttу h) lаJ€€tу i) c€€plу i) stf€fl€lу

5 a) bаnk асcouflt b) bargain priсе с) spaсе shuttlе

havе takе givе takе makе

6

с)5 03 1)z

proteсt,skiп сlеar, spaсе appеa1 sсreеn rеtuтn, сall rent, flat flght, suvival takе, minutе сontrol, bеhaviour

a ф * p* i а ф ь) p+оpеф с) еeвр+etеrу d) €{€а*Iу е) rеаЩ

аfford to likеlуto haтd to hopе to tп' not to

tеaсh mе how to s1owto forgеt to dеsignеd to willing to

f) g) h) i) ])

V o сa buI a r 5y

Voсabulary4

thoгoughnеss happinеss sillinеss thinnеss siсknеss

sеa floor studеnt loan mеat dish stomaсh achе

З a) b) с) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

nпdе ha d took spеnt

dl раss 8) in е r tе]l h) losе fr оn е) buгst hl pаid [ r t o t d il сa u g h t jt lost 8l got еr fl g' h'

mad t еmp е г sесгеt lеаi е. l.' g' hr

еl f' gr hl

a Plg a piсrure г a in housеs

timе sound dolrтt thеn

il|l еL1rh llitl1t

a)

lпt'е

b) с) d) е) Г)

gеt rеad\. takе a dаr- off hal.е гun ha\'е nothing to do takе it еasv

V o сa bula r y6 \

a) bl с) d}

2 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

footPаth papеr сlip shoelaсе timеtab1е

е) f) g) h)

haiтсut sunglasses hеadaсhе lamp post

sсieпсеflсtioп rvalking stiсk sсhool rеport alarm сloсk air-сonditionin8 birthday PartY сеntral hеating washing maсhinе

3 a) bottle top b) shop window с) biсyсle pump

29З


INт ERп iЕDlAт Е

L A NGU A GЕ

d) е) f) g) h)

sсhool entlanсe bathтoom mirrоr television sсrееn poсkеt monеy door handlе

4 a) b) с) d) е) 0 g) h) i) j)

hаirdiеr dishwashеr stain rеmovеt firе еxtinguishеI pеnсil sharpеnет bottlе opеner lawn moWеI food mixer water hеatеr сoffее makеr

5 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

dау-dreаmer shopkееpеr sunbathеr babysittеr wеightliftеr flтe-fightеr bank manager holidaymaker

6 a) income b) upset с) roundabout d) downstairs е) ovеrсoat

Voсabulary8 I

З a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

Voсabu|ary 7 seсoпd-hапd сan,t afford it pay you baсk savе up in dеbt annual inсomе in a salе be wеll-off

2 a) b) с) d) e) f) g) h)

pocket moneу сash dеsk сut priсе bookshop dеpaltment store shop assistant сredit сard сarтiеr bag

3 a) b) с) d)

eаms wages borrowеd сash

е) f; g) h)

6

pасket tubе tin сarton

| )С s)B e )A 13)с

294

2)^ 6)D 10)B 14)B

е) f) g) h)

сushion soсkеt radiator pillow

е) f) g) h)

b) 5 D2

с)6 c)8

glаss--wiпdow сloth - towеl dooт - gatе ground - floor library - bookсasе wall _ fеnсe firеplaсе - сhimnеy stair - stеp

I

f) g) h) i) |)

сupboard at, in a bath housework сellar

5 a) b) с) d) е)

f) g) h) i) i)

dishwashеr kеyholе ashtray downstairs bookсase

6a) put b) movе с) 8еt

d) takеs е) tum f) finish

bоx bar bunсh loaf

3) D 7)А 11) с 1s) D

4)С 8)D 12) А

2 a) b) с) d)

srnilе nod сomplain shout

3 a) b) с) d) e) f; g) h) i) j)

unrеIiаble impatiеnt unintеrеstеd dishonеst unfriеndly inеxpеriеnсеd impolite unhеlpful inсonsideratе unсo-opеrativе

e) f) g) h)

g) look h) drop

сry сhееr shakе his hеad whistlе

Nеgativе Uпpleаsаnt |azу tеnse mean miserablе stupid

a) b) с) d) e)

husbапd сouple сhildrеn twin alikе

singlе friеndship еldеr еngagеd housеwife

0 c) h) D i)

2 a) relаtioпs/relаtives b) aсquaintanсе с) grееting d) еngagеment е) сelеbration f; marriagе g) rеsеmblanсe h) dеath 3a) аdults b) dеad с) wеdding d) daughtеr 4a)

е) i)

6 1 3

5a) 5 e) 8

е) f) g) h)

old young rеlativеs birthday

b)9 f) 7

с)10 s)s

d) I h) L

b) 4 f)6

с)7 фz

d) 1 h) J

6a)iп b) away с) on and off d) on

е) f) g) h)

aftеr out against ovеr nеphеw niесе only сhild foreignеr stranger

Voсabulary11 ashamеd еxhaustеd iealous fasсinating

sa)

fanсy fed up with arе fond of lеt mе down

е) f) g) h)

hеart сonsсienсе temper hand death

7 a ) grаndpаreпts f) b) unсlе g) с) aunt h) d) stеpson i) е) sistеr-in-law i)

4a) disаppoiпted е) b) annoyеd f) с) tеrrifiеd g) d) glad h) loпging for b) sivе up с) put me off d) get on my nеIvеs

f) g) h) i) j)

Voсabulary10

4a) аt home b) stairs с) wash-basin d) сеiling е) сook, сooker bedroom armсhair wash-basin dustbin flowerbеd

mood Thanks troublе voiсe tеals

7 Positivе Kiпd сhеетful сlеvет gеnеIous тelaxеd haтd-working

d) 1 h) 7

I a) аngry 0 borеd b) еmbarтassеdg) сhеетful с) politе h) bad-tеmщred d) |azу i) upsеt e) sеnsible i) neгvous

by сhеquе rесеipt сhangе owe

6 a) b) с) d) е)

сultains сarpеt drawеr sofa

Voсabulary 9

4 a)6 b)5 с)7 d) 2e )a|1 g)8 h)3

5 a) b) с) d)

a) b) с) d)

2a)4 е )3

fl upbringing g) outdoors h) outskirts i) Undетground i) downpour

I a) b) с) d) е) f,1 g) h)

PRA с т ! с E

I

a) b) с) d)

2

1)С 5)D e)A 1З)A

wоist wrist thumb nails

z )B 6)с 10)B L4)D

е) f) g) h)

shouldеr ankle toes foтehеad

3)B 7)D 11)D 15)с

4)А 8)B 12) С


ANsWE Rs

voсABULARY

3 a] frt bt dтеssup с) wеat d) look

е) fl g) h)

3 a) b) с) d)

suit disguisе put on go with

с)10

d) 8

d) сap е) shoтts f) skirt

g) blousе h) soсk

4a) 7 е) 1 i)6

5 a) b) с) d)

tonguе hair faсe foot

е) f) g) h)

i)

hand

]l

ЁуЕ

6 a) b) с) d) е) fl g)

сhееk сhin neсk bust waist thigh knее

5 a) b) с) d) е)

апсieпt sеasiсk popular rеlaxing loсal

f) g) h) i) i)

suntannеd reasonablе еxhaustеd warm opеn

6 a) b) с) d) е)

resort brеakfast walk holiday tiсkеt

f) g) h) i) i)

station stop villagе hostеl сards

1. a) b) с) d)

arms heart hеad lеg h) i) |) k) l) m) n)

shouldеr еlbow wrist hip bottom anklе foot

crаshed injurеd сollapsеd еxplodеd

е) f) g) h)

floodеd bloсkеd sank trapped

е) f) g) h)

ward surgeon blood ambulanсе

3 a) b) с) d)

bаnilаge hospital patient opеration

4 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i) 1.)

trаffiс iаm aiт pollution powеr failurе parking tiсkеt train strikе сar paтk bus stop rush hour watеr shorta8е сity сеntrе

5a)6 е)3 i)9

b )10 05 Dц

с )2 8)7

d )8 h )l

6a)3 e) 4

b )6 0 8

с )5 g) t

d )2 h )7

т a)з

b )9

с )2

d )6

il

2 a) down b) off с) up

2)D 6)B 10)D 14) D

3)A 7)А 11)с 1s) A

going drеw spеnds еnioy missеd

2 a) b) с) d) е)

speсtаtors athlеtеs fans tеam mеmbеrs

0 g) h) i) j)

gloup audiеnсе viеwеrs сast сompеtitors

З a) b) с) d) е)

pize mеdal queue tylе whistlе

0 g) h) i) j)

tiсkеt еxhibition rod linе sсrееn

4)D 8)с 1'2)B

g) after d) in е) for f) out

|)B s)D 9)A 13)B

d) livе е) go f) makе

g) stand h) drop

1)B 5)с 9)B 13) С

rurаI nеighbouring isolatеd сapital

е) f; g) h)

intеrnational loсаl сrowdеd urban

5 a) b) с) d)

plауground сrossroads roundabout сaт park

е) f) 8) h)

footpath roadside outskilts footbтidgе

6 a) b) с) d) е) f) 8) h)

саstlе сaтavan sеmi-detaсhеdhousе bungalow bгidgе tегraсеdhоusе сottagе torvеr

7 a) b) с) d) е)

roll сoursе mеal сans frozеn

Гl 8) h) i)

lесipе tast,v сook spoon

2 a) b) с) d) е)

roаst mix сhop bakе add

fl g) h) i) i)

Pееl ft)' Gratе Squееzе Boil

З a) b) с) d)

sаIt foтk baсon buttеr

е) Г1 8) h)

сhips гinеgaт sauсеr bisсuits

4 a) b) с) d)

sliсе baт jar сup

е) loaf f) glass

grаpе onion lеttuсе lamb

b) 5 03

с)7 g4

d) 2 h) 1

5 a) b) с) d)

2)С 6)D 10)с 14) ^

3)B 7)^ 11)D 1s)D

4)^ B)B Т2)С

6 a) пrctlu b) bill с) dеssегt

3) с 7)А 11)D 15) A

4)A 8)B 72)А

Voсabulary15 1

4 a) b) с) d)

VoсabuIary16

f) g) h) i) |)

6

7

1)C 5)B 9)A 13) B

h)z

beаt applauded еntеr for holding pеrfoтmеd

5a)8 е) 6

Voсabulary13 1

s) e

I a) b) с) d) е)

4 a) knoсk b) turn с) ioin

де)50]c)sh)4

Ш Шr

f) 4 i)s

Voсabulary14

2 a) prеsсription е) pаin b) tеmpеraturе f) сhеmist,s с) gеt ovет 8) flu h) sorе throat d) heal

ifl

b) З

теsеrvatlon сanсеllation airport takеoff

1 a) sleеvе b) dress с) suit

Voсabulary12

'X

inforrnatioп e) runway f) g) dеparturе h) landing

z) D 6)D 10)С 14)D

2 a) b) с) d)

е) squоre сountrysidеf) g) bеaсh ground h)

3 a) b) с) d) е)

stаtioп junсtion hall bloсk сrossing

f) g) h) i) i)

footpath viеw Parking сountry part plaсe traffiс zonе сеntlе

ot t/

ninс h r__'*'-

е) fl 8) h;

piе plum сhееsе сhop

h) сarton/8lass

d) takеaway е) book f) tip

7a)а b) somе с)a d) е) a 0a 8)a h) 1 )-

i) 8 a) b) с) d) е) f) g)

somе lеttuсе broссoli сauliflowет pеppеr lееk onion mushтoom

h) i) i) k) l) m) n)

asparagus сoulgеtte сеlеry сabbagе bеan сarrot auberginе

295


l Nт ЕRtt, l E D I A т E

L A NGU A GE

PRA с тl с Е

Voсabulary17 I

a) b) с) d) е)

pаss iob tеaсh studying maтks

е) f) g) h)

wееds, сrops Йllage, town fеnсе, hеdgе faгm, сottagе

f) g) h) i,1 j)

wagеs aloud appliсation еains offiсе

Voсabulary19

2 a) heаrt b) phonе с) pтaсtiсe d) work

е) fl 8) h)

rulеs date time businеss

1' a) b) с) d)

сell phoпе pеtrol еlесtriс tyre

З a) b) с) d)

Iook takе gеt keеp

е) f) g) h)

piсk writе hand stand

4 a) b) с,) d) е)

eduсаtio|1 unemPloyеd сalе]еssiy suссessful qualifiсations

2 a) b) с) d) е) f) g)

аnsweriпgmасhine mobilе phone sеwing maсhinе vaсuum сlеaner сamетa dishwasher photoсopier

3 a) b) с) d)

ring blow wеar brеak

4 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h) i)

hard disk mеmory iсon сursor pтint out button websitе modem highlight

5a)7 е) 6 i)

6

8

1)D 5)с e)A 1З) С

b)10 0 з i)

4

2)B 6)D l 0)B 14) B

D g) h) i) j)

еmploYеr timеtaЬlе rnсоmе knowlеdgе еmployеёs

с)1 8) 5

d)9 h)2

з )B 7)B 11)D 15)A

4)А s)B 12)D

Voсabu|ary18 I a) b) с) d) e)

weаthет lightning fog showеr sеason

f) g) h) i) i)

hеatwave storm сool soakеd snow

2 a) b) с) d) е)

swаn goat сгab buttеrfly lizaтd

fl g) h) i) i)

3 a) b) с) d)

brаnсh bеrгy гoot lеaf

e) f) g) h)

еnginе light naits plumbеr

е) plug f) сut g) turn

h) 8o i) warm i) run

hook tablесloth plant dustbin

е) f) g) h)

сurtains broom doormat firеplaсе

4 a) b) с) d) e)

comb gown mirror table slippеrs

f) g) h) i) j)

toothpastе alarm towеl pillow hangеr

5 a) b) с) d) е) f) g) h)

pedestriап сrossing lamp post pavement hеdge gate kеrb strеet sign subway

Vocabulary 21 T a) emploуer b) ownеr с) meсhaniс d) managет e) tеaсhеr

D g) h) i) j)

offiсеr paintеr сashiеr waiter postman

2 a) b) с) d) е)

gаrdeпer guidе plumbеr photogгapher dentist

D g) h) i) j)

сalpеntеI eleitтiсian optiсian vеt hairdrеssеr

5 a\ саr b) еleсtriс toothbrush с) laddеr d) oven

е) f) g) h)

frying pan saw gun сеllo

З a) b) с) d) e)

membo partnеr flatmatе guest host

f) g) h) i)

еmployее supporter tеam-matе assistant

mosquito rabbil giraffе spidет puppy

6 a) b) с) d)

hаndle battery soсket switсh

е) f) 8) h)

kеy loсk plug wirе

4 a) b) с) d) е)

сowаrd misеr optimist сеlebтity favouritе

f) g) h) i) i)

еxpеrt fool genius pessimist liar

thorn bark blossom trunk

7 a) b) с) d) е)

pump tin-opеner lawnmowеr nzot hairdriеr

f) g) h) i) j)

5 a) b) с) d) е)

сrew soсiety staff quеuе сrowd

f) g) h) i) i)

trio group audiеnсе team сast

6 a) b) с) d) e)

inhаbitаnts politiсian сitizеn guitarist survivor

f) g) h) i) j)

sсientist стiminal musiсian laи1zет opponеnt

4 a )B е)1

b )4

08

c)s

h)3

57)а 5)a 9) d 13)b

2)с 6)b 10)b 14) d

3)d 7), b 11)a 15)с

4)с 8)с r2)d

с )7

sсissors theтmomеtеr binoсulars сompass iron

d )2

6 a) b) с) d) е)

proteсt, destroy prеvеnt, lеt сlеan up, pollutе plant, сut down reсyсlе, throw (thеm) away

7 a) b) с) d)

сitу, сouпtry hills, mountains dvel, stlеam paths, traсks

296

е) fl g) h)

3 a) b) с) d)

Voсabulary20 1 a) b) с) d) е)

needle gluе pеnknifе rubbеr band papег сlip

2 a) пotice b) notеpad с) сorrесtion fluid d) diary e) еnvеlopе

f) g) h) i) i)

f) c) h) i) i)

string sсissors buttons shoelaсe ribbon

filе rulеr sharpеnеr stamp diсtionary


a

levеlgrammarсlear|yеxplainedand praсtised. ]ntеrmediate

О

Consolidationand еxtensionof voсabu|aryin сommon topiс arеas. and diсtionaг y V o с a bu|a ry s k il|sinс , |udingwor d- bui|ding work, devеIopedand praсtisеd.

О

PЕTеxam-formatеxегсisеsinсluded.

a

G г a m m a гindеxa nd wo rdIist.

O

ldеa|for self-studyor с|assгoomuse. Elementary LanguagеPraсtiсе

Intеrmediate LanguagеPгaсtiсe

FirstСегtifiсate Advanсed LanguagePraсtiсe Language Prасtiсe

With Key

978 1 4050 0764'l

978 1 4050 0768 9

978 1 4050 0766 5

978 1 4050 0762 7

Without Kеy

978 1 4050 076з 4

978 1 4050 0767 2

9781 445007658

978 1 4450 0761 0

Cambridge ЕSoL exams

KEТ

PЕТ

FсE

сAЕ/сPЕ

B'I

B2

С1lс2

CounсiIof Euгoре Lеve|

^2

[vince michael emmerson paul] intermediate language practice w  
[vince michael emmerson paul] intermediate language practice w  
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