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;'af]w/fh Kofs'/]n 1fg, a'l4 / ljj]såf/f k|efljt 5. l;4fGt avfg]/ dfq s'g} cfzfhgs kl/0ffd lbg ;Sb}g . ;Ddfgk"js { afFRg] / pGglt ug{ lbg] of]hgf rflxPsf] 5. To;dfly ´G8} @) k|ltzt gful/snfO{ cK7\of/f] kl/l:yltdf sfd ug{ j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf k7fpg] /fi6«sf /fhgLlt1x¿n] a'‰g} kg]{ x'G5 ls ljb]zdf kl;gf aufpg afWo ePsfx¿sf] cfqmf]z casf] lbgdf cfˆgf] x}sdsf] /Ôf ug{ g]kfnLsf] eljio laufg]{x¿n] ef]Ug' kg]{5. ;+;f/el/sf g]kfnLx¿ Ps csf{;Fu lg/Gt/ ;Djfbdf 5g\ / ´G8} PsltxfO{ hgtf OG6/g]6sf] ;~hfn;Fu uf“l;g tDtof/ 5g\. cfwfeGbf a9L hg;ª\Vof b"/;~rf/sf ;fwgx¿dfkm{t Ps csf{;Fu uf“l;Psf 5g\. /, of] ;ª\Vof lg/Gt/ a9\bf] 5. zlQm, lx+;f / xltof/sf] e/df s'g} klg zf;s l6Sg ;Sb}g eGg] s'/fsf] b[i6fGt vf]Hg cGt st} rxfg'{ kb}{g. xfdLn] s]xL jif{cl3 dfq xfd|} cfFvf;fd' o:tf zf;s kfvf nfu]sf] b]v]sf 5f}F. dfgjclwsf/pk/ wfjf af]Ng], hgtfpk/ cTofrf/ ug]{x¿nfO{ bf]iffg'el" t u/fpg] p2]Zosf ;fy ljlwsf] zf;gcg'¿k Jojxf/ u/fpg xfdL ;a}sf] ;fd"lxs k|of; x'g' cTofjZos 5 . o;af6 dfq cfdhgtfsf] clwsf/ ;'/lIft x'g ;Sb5 . k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 5


cfj/0f

;To lg¿k0f cfof]usf]hfFra'em k|lqmof / sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf dfkb08x¿

6]sgf/fo0f s'“j/*

;fdfGotof ;To cfof]usf] clwsf/ If]qcGtu{t /fHo / ljb|f]xL ;d"xn] rnfPsf] bdgrqm jf ;z:q åGåsf] ljutsf] cjlwe/ ePsf dfgjLo sfg'g / dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] 36gfsf] 5fglag ug]{clwsf/ k|bfg ul/Psf]x'G5. o:tf]k|sf/sf]P]ltxfl;s Pjd\;fdflhs, P]ltxfl;s hfFra'em cfof]unfO{ Pp6f l;ª\uf] k':tfsf] ;dofjlw e/ ePsf 36gfx¿;d]t hfFra'em ug{ clwsf/ k|bfg ug{;lsG5.

ljifo k|j]z dfGotof ;To cfof]usf] clwsf/ If]q cGtu{t /fHo / ljb|fx] L ;d"xn] rnfPsf] bdgrqm jf ;z:q åGåsf] ljutsf] cjlwe/ ePsf dfgjLo sfg'g / dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] 36gfsf] 5fglag ug]{ clwsf/ k|bfg ul/Psf] x'G5. o:tf] k|sf/sf] P]ltxfl;s Pjd\ ;fdflhs, P]ltxfl;s hfFra'em cfof]unfO{ Pp6f l;ª\uf] k':tfsf] ;dofjlw e/ ePsf 36gfx¿ ;d]t hfFra'em ug{ clwsf/ k|bfg ug{ ;lsG5. ;f] sfo{df sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] ax't} dxTj x'G5. ljZjJofkL ¿kdf Goflos hfFra'emsf] sfo{df sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] ;fj{ef}d lgod x'G5 tfklg ;f] l;4fGt 7Ls oxL g} ¿kdf nfu' x'g'k5{ eGg] 5}g. :jR5tfnfO{ sfo{ljlw kfngfsf] l;nl;nfdf ljleGg sf]0faf6 d"Nofª\sg ug'k{ 5{. s'g} klg ljifoj:t'sf] hfFra'em k|lqmofsf] cfwf/df / To; 36gfsf] uDeL/tfsf] cfwf/df o;nfO{ Jofks b[li6sf]0faf6 x]l/g' kb{5. lgZro klg ;To cfof]usf] sfd sf/afxLsf] ;Gbe{df :jR5tfsf] l;4fGtnfO{ s;/L nfu' ug]{ eGg] k|Zg dxTjk"0f{ 5. t/ of]

;f

ljifo s'g} Ps d'n'sdf s] slt clwsf/If]q;lxt s] s:tf 36gfsf] 5fglag ug{ ;To cfof]u u7g ul/Psf] 5 To;df g} lge{/ ub{5. To;}n] Goflos :jR5tfsf] cGt/f{li6«o l;4fGtnfO{ cTofjZos x'Fbfx'Fb} klg Pp6f s7f]/ dfkb08sf] ¿kdf ckgfpg ;lsFbg} . t/ o;sf] dd{nfO{ /rgfTds k|of]usf] lglDt pTk|l] /t ub}{ ljleGg cEof;x¿af6 Pp6f ;Gt'lnt / ;xL b[li6sf]0f ckgfpg eg] cjZo ;lsG5. aofg lng], Dofb hf/L ug]{, kqmfp ug]{, vfgtnf;L lng], ;fj{hlgs ;'gj' fO{ ug]{ / JolQmut pQ/bfloTj axg ug'{kg]{ h:tf dxTjk"0f{ lhDd]jf/L;lxt u7g x'g] o; cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg lglZrt ¿kdf b"/ufdL dxTjsf] x'G5. k|foM ;a} dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL ;lGwx¿n] dfgjclwsf/sf] pNnª\3g– ;DaGwL 36gfx¿sf] Goflos hfFra'em;DaGwL sfo{nfO{ k|fyldstf lbPsf] kfOG5. pbfx/0fsf] lglDt oftgf lj?4sf] dxf;lGw (CAT Convention, 1984) sf] wf/f !@ n] æk|To]s kIf/fi6«n] cfˆgf] If]qflwsf/ cGtu{tsf] s'g} klg Onfsfdf oftgfsf] sfo{ ul/Psf] ljZjf; ug]{ d'gfl;a cfwf/ ePsf] cj:yfdf

cfˆgf] clwsf/ k|fKt clwsf/Lx¿n] l56f] tyf lgikIf cg';Gwfg cufl8 a9fpg] s'/f ;'lglZrt ug]{5Æ eGg] Joj:yf u/]sf] kfOG5. To;}u/L Inter American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture 1985

n]

"if there is an

accusation or well grounded reason to believe that an act of torture has been committed within their jurisdiction, the states parties shall guarantee that their respective authorities will proceed properly and immediately to conduct an investigation into the case and initiate, whenever appropriate, the 1

correspnding crimnal process."

eGg] k|fjwfg /fv]sf] kfOG5. oBlk ;To cfof]usf] ljz]if e"ldsf;Fu ;DalGwt s'g} klg ljlzi6 k|s[ltsf] dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw xfn;Dd 5}g. ;To cfof]u Pp6f hfFra'em cfof]u g} ePsf] x'gfn] To;n] ug]{ hfFra'emsf] k|lqmofdf sfo{ljlwut :jR5tf (Procedural Fairness) t x'g} k5{. To; k|lqmof;Fu ;DalGwt ljz]if cGt/f{li6«o ;lGwx¿ geP tfklg k|ToIftM dfgjclwsf/;Fu c;DalGwt h:tf] b]lvg] t/ dxTjk"0f{

* lhNnf GofofwLz, dsjfgk'/, lhNnf cbfnt 1

See also draft International Convention for the Protection of ALL Persons from Enforced Disappearance, UN doc. E/CN.4/2005/WG.22/WP.1/REV.4 (23 September 2005), articles 3, 12, and 24(3). Article 12 provides: "Each State party shall ensure that any individual who alleges that a person has been subjected to enforced disappearance has the right to report the facts to the competent authorities, which shall examine the allegation promptly and impartially..." Article 12(2) requires the investigation of a credible claim of forced disappearance even in the absence of a formal complaint.

6 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s


dfgjclwsf/ >f]tsf] ¿kdf /x]sf s]xL dxTjk"0f{ ;lGwx¿ eg] gePsf xf]Ogg\. tL dxTjk"0f{ lnvtx¿ lgDg adf]lhd 5g\M hf“ra'emsf] k|lqmofdf sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf dfkb08x¿ (The 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes):

s'g} klg 36gfsf] tYo kQf nufpg] sfo{ljlw lgwf{/0f ug]{ k|yd cGt/f{li6«o ;+lxtf d'VotM b'O{ j6f 5g\. tL dWo] klxnf], The Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of Disputes 1899

/ bf]>f],

the Hague Convention

for the Pacific Settlement of Disputes 1907 x'g\. oL ;lGwx¿n] /fHo kIfnfO{ /fi6«x¿aLrsf bfjL;DaGwL ljjfbdf cGt/f{li6«o hfFra'em cfof]u (International Commission of Inquiry)

u7g ug{ ;Ifdtf k|bfg u/]sf 5g\. oL b'j} ;lGwdf hfFra'em;DaGwL sfo{ljlwsf] af/]df ;fdfGo lgodx¿ n]va4 ul/Psf] kfOG5. tL lgodcGtu{t sfg'g Joj;foLsf] e"ldsf,2 :jR5 ;'g'jfOsf] clwsf/,3hfFr'a'em ubf{ skf]{/]6sf] st{Jo,4;fIfLnfO{ ;dfx\jfg hf/L ug]{ / ;fIfLsf] k/LIf0f ug]{,5 k/LIf0fsf tf}/ tl/sfx¿6tyf hfFra'em cfof]un] k|:t't ug]{ ;'emfjsf] ¿k/]vf7 ;DaGwL sfo{ljlwut :ki6tfx¿ lnlka4 ul/Psf] kfOG5.

oBlk hfFra'em cfof]ux¿n] pko'{Qm cle;lGwdf k|ltkfbg ul/Psf lgodx¿nfO{ lj/n} dfq k|of]u ug]{ ub{5g\. tfklg slDtdf klg dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL bfjLx¿sf] hfFra'em sfo{df oL lgodx¿ ;fGble{s /x]sf] kfOG5.8 To:tf hfFra'emx¿df oL lgodx¿sf] kfngf ePdf dfq sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] ljZj;gLotfdf k|Zg p7fpg ;lsFb}g. u}/Goflos tYo kQf nufpg] hfFra'em cfof]ux¿sf] sfo{df oL lgodx¿ dxTjk"0f{ / cfwf/e"t lbzflgb]{zssf] ¿kdf cfTd;ft ug]{ ul/Psf] klg kfOG5. tL lgodx¿sf] :ki6 k|efj cGt/f{li6«o >d ;ª\u7g (ILO) åf/f ul7t hfFra'em;DaGwL sfo{k|0ffnLdf b]Vg ;lsG5.9 To;}u/L cGt/f{li6«o dfgjLo tYo kQf nufpg] cfof]usf] sfo{ljlwdf klg x]u lgodx¿sf] :ki6 k|ltljDa b]Vg ;lsG5.10 ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3åf/f u7g ul/Psf tYo kQf nufpg] cfof]ux¿ hf] cGt/f{li6«o zflGt ;'/Iff sfod /fVg k|lta4 /x]sf lgsfox¿;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\, ltgdf klg x]u lgodx¿sf] :ki6 k|efj k/]sf] kfOG5.11xfn cfP/ x]u ;lGwsf lgodx¿nfO{ dWo:ytf;DaGwL :yfoL cbfntsf] tYo kQf nufpg] sfo{df ul7t cfof]usf P]lR5s lgodx¿åf/f cg's/0f u/]/ o;sf] dxTjnfO{ cem} a9L k'gk'{li6 ul/Psf] kfOG5.12

2. The UN principle on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra

Legal,

Arbitrary

Summary Executions (1989)

13

and

of] Pp6f P]lR5s tyf caGwgsf/L l;4fGtsf] ;Fufnf] eP tfklg o;n] dfgjclwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt hfFra'em tyf cg';Gwfg sfo{df s]xL ckl/xfo{ Pjd\ dxTjk"0f{ sfo{ljlwut :jR5tf;DaGwL kxn'x¿nfO{ ;d]6\b5. oL l;4fGtx¿ k|ToIf ¿kdf u}/Goflos, ha/h:tL tyf c;fdfGo xTof (Extralegal, Arbitrary & Summary Executions)

;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\. oL k|fjwfgx¿ oBlk k|foM c¿ k|sf/sf uDeL/ dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf 36gfdf klg Tolts} k|of]u ul/G5g\. pko'Q { m l;4fGtsf] gjf}F l;4fGtn] cg';Gwfg;DaGwL sfo{ ;3g, tTsfn / :jR5 (Through, Prompt & Impartial) x'g' kb{5 egL 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5. ;fy} ;/sf/n] cg';Gwfg;DaGwL sfof{no / sfo{ljlw pknAw u/fpg' kb{5 h;n] ubf{ s'g} d[To'sf] sf/0f, tl/sf, ;do, To;sf] lhDd]jf/ JolQm / To:tf] d[To'sf] cj:yfdf k'¥ofpg] s'g} k|rlnt tl/sf / k|rng eP ;f];d]t phfu/ ug{ cg';Gwfgstf{nfO{ dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u x'g hfG5. cg';Gwfg ug]{ lgsfo jf To;sf kbflwsf/LnfO{ hfFra'emsf] qmddf ;a} k|sf/sf cfjZos ;"rgf ;ª\sng ug{ kfpg] clwsf/ lbOg' kb{5. tL clwsf/Lx¿nfO{ cf/f]lkt bf]ifLnfO{

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

E.g. atricles 14, 21, 25, and 26 of the 1907 Conventin. E.g. article 19 of the 1907 Convention. E.g. article 23 of the 1907 convention. E.g. articles 25 and 26 of the 1907 Convention. E.g. articles 27 and 28 of the 1907 Convention. E.g. articles 33, 34, and 35 of the 1907 Convention. Atricle 9 of both conventions specifies that the commission of inquiry mechanism covers only "disputes of an international nature involving neither honour nor vital interests." Allegations of human righs violations surely involve honor and possibly vital interests too. 9 See Chapter 1, Section 3. 10 See Chapter 1, Section 3. 11 GA res.A/RES/46/59 (1991). Section 2 of the Declaration defines fact-finding to mean "any activity designed to obtain detailed knowledge of the relevant facts of any ispute or situation which the competent United Nations 'organs need in order to exercise effectively their functions in relation to the maintenance of international peace and security." 12 See http://pca-cpa.org/ENGLISH/BD/inquiryenglish.htm. 13 UN doc. E/1989/89(1989)

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 7


cfof]u;dIf pkl:yt u/fpg], k|df0f k|:t't ug]{ ;d]tsf sfdsf] nflu ;dfx\jfg hf/L ug]{ clwsf/ klg lbOg'k5{.14 hfFra'em cfof]unfO{ cfjZos ah]6 / k|fljlws ;fwg Pjd\ ;|f]t pknAw geP;Dd k|efjsf/L cg';Gwfg sfo{ x'g g;Sg] ePsf]n] To;tkm{ klg ljz]if Wofg lbOg'kb{5.15 /fHosf :yfoL cg';Gwfg lgsfox¿ rfx] k'ln; clwsf/Lx¿ x'g\ jf dlhi6«]6 h:tf cg';Gwfg clwsf/L x'g\ jf cGo If]qsf clwsf/Lx¿ lsg gx'g\, pgLx¿n] klg slxn]sfxLF :jR5 cg';Gwfgsf] l;4fGt kfngf ug{ / cfˆgf] e/k"/ Ifdtf k|of]u ug{ ;Qm}gg\. o:tf] cj:yfdf ;/sf/n] :jtGq hfFra'em cfof]u u7g u/]/ :jR5 cg';Gwfg lgsfo :yfkgf ug]{ sf]l;; ub{5. To;k|sf/sf] cfof]u u7g ubf{ lgo'Qm x'g] JolQmsf] lgikIftf, bIftf / :jtGqtfnfO{ klg a9L Wofg lbOg'k5{.16 sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] k|Tofe"lt ub}{ o; l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ph'/Lstf{, ;fIfLx¿, cg';Gwfgsf] bfo/fdf /x]sf JolQmx¿ / ltgsf kl/jfhgx¿nfO{ cfpg ;Sg] eo, qf;, wDsL / lx+;fTds ultljlwx¿af6 cfjZos ;'/Iff k|bfg ul/g'k5{. To:tf] hfFra'emsf] bfo/f leq k/]sf / ltgLx¿;Fu ;DalGwt JolQmx¿ s'g} kbLo x}l;otdf /x]sf 5g\ eg] klg pgLx¿n] kbsf] b'¿kof]u u/]/ cg';Gwfg sfo{df k|efj kfg{ ;Sg] x'gfn] pgLx¿nfO{ kbaf6 lgnDag ug]{ jf kb aflx/ /flvg' kb{5. kLl8tsf kl/jf/ / ltgLx¿sf sfg'gL k|ltlglwnfO{ ;';"lrt x'g] clwsf/ /xg] ePsf]n] ;'gj' fOnufot 14 15 16

17 18 19 20 21 22

cg';Gwfg;Fu ;DalGwt ;"rgfx¿sf] hfgsf/L lbOg' kb{5. ;fy;fy} s'g} k|df0f k|:t't ug'{kg]{ eP pgLx¿nfO{ ;f]sf] ;"rgf klg lbOg'k5{.17 s'g} klg cg';Gwfgsf] lgisif{df k'Ubf ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf k|ltj]bg k|:t't ug'{kg]{ x'G5. To; k|ltj]bgdf cg';Gwfgsf] If]q (Scope) sfo{ljlw (Procedures) / tl/sf (Methods) h'g tl/sfaf6 k|df0fx¿sf] d"Nofª\sg ul/Psf] x'G5, To;sf] af/]df / tYo kQf nufpgsf] lglDt k|of]u ul/Psf ljlw / k|of]u x'g] sfg'gsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f;lxt lgisif{ / ;'emfjx¿;d]t pNn]v x'gk' 5{.18 k|ltj]bgdf s'g} ljz]if k|sl[ tsf] 36gf ePsf] /x]5 eg] To; 36gfsf] tYo kQf nufpg k|of]u ul/Psf] ljlw / k|fKt k|df0f tyf k/LIf0f u/]sf] ;fIfLx¿sf] gfd / h;sf] ;+/If0fsf] lglDt gfd uf]Ko /flvPsf] x'G5, To;af6 kg{ ;Sg] k|efj;DaGwL ck]Iffx¿;d]t ;dfj]z ul/g' kb{5.19 3. The UN manual on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-Legal,

Arbitraty

and

Summary Excucations (1991)

o; lgb]{lzsf p2]Zo20eg]sf] dfly pNn]lvt

k|d'v The UN

Principle on the Effective prevantion and Invertigation of Extra-Legal, Arbitrary and summary Executions (1989)

sf] l;4fGtx¿nfO{ kl/k"/ssf] ¿kdf sfd ug'{ xf]. o; lgb]{lzsfsf] ljz]iftf g} ;To cfof]u h:tf u}/Goflos hfFra'em cfof]un] k|of]u ug]{ sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] l;nl;nfdf p7\g]

k|Zgx¿nfO{ k|ToIf ¿kdf ;Daf]wg ug'{ xf]. o; gd'gf lgb]{lzsf k|f]6f]snnfO{ "Minnoesota Protocol" klg eGg] ul/G5. o; k|f]6f]snn] cfof]usf] clwsf/;DaGwL zt{x¿(Terms Of Reference -TOR)) tof/ kfbf{ st} klg em'sfj g/xg] u/L ;Gt'lnt ¿kdf lglZrt ul/g' kb{5 eGg] dfGotf /fv]sf] kfOG5. h;n] ubf{ k"jf{u|fxL lsl;dsf] / k"j{lgwf{l/t kl/0ffd cfpg] u/L ;'emfjx¿ tof/ x'gaf6 /f]Sg ;lsg] x'G5. ;To cfof]usf] lgikIftfsf] nflu of] cToGt dxTjk"0f{ s'/f xf]. ;fy} cfof]un] cfˆgf] clGtd k|ltj]bgdf cg';Gwg ug}{kg]{ 36gf / ljjfbx¿sf] qmda4 / ;ª\lIfKt ljj/0f ;xL 9ª\uaf6 pNn]v ug{ ;Sg' kb{5.21 o; k|f6] f]snsf] wf/f !! cg';f/ gful/sx¿nfO{ cfof]u u7g ePsf] hfgsf/L Jofks k|rf/k|;f/ cleofgdfkm{t u/fpg' kb{5 / hfFra'emsf] lglDt cfjZos kg]{ ;Da4 ;"rgfx¿ cfof]udf bh{ u/fpgsf] lglDt pgLx¿nfO{ cfx\jfg ug'{k5{. k|f]6f]snsf] o;} wf/fdf cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfo{If]q (TOR) ;+zf]wg ug]{ :jljj]sLo clwsf/ lbOg'kg]{ s'/fdf klg hf]8 lbPsf] kfOG5. of] clwsf/ cfof]unfO{ lbOg'sf] tfTko{ s] xf] eg] cg';Gwfgsf] l;nl;nfdf cfof]usf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ubf{ Hofbf cj/f]wx¿ jf Hofbf v'Nnfkgsf] k|of]u gxf];\ eGg] rfxgf /flvPsf] x'G5. h;n] cfof]us} sfddf afwf pTkGg ug{ ;Qm5 eGg] g} xf]. olb lbOPsf] clwsf/ (TOR) df s'g} ;+zf]wg ul/of] eg] gful/sx¿nfO{ To;sf] ;"rgf k|jfx tTsfn} ug'{k5{.22

Principle 10 Ibid. Principle 11. Principle 11 also provides: "In particular, they shall be independent of any institution, agency or person that may be the subject of the inquiry. The commission shall have the authority to obtain all information necessary to the inquiry and shall conduct the inquir as provided for under these principels." Principle 16. Principle 17. Ibid. Available at http:// www.mnadvocates.org/4jun20046.html. Article 12 In paractice, truth commissions - and commissions of inquiry in general - rarely have the power to amend their terms of reference.

8 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s


k|f]6f]snn] cGo cltl/Qm clwsf/ klg cfof]unfO{ lbg'kg]{ l;4fGtx¿ to u/]sf] x'bF f tL l;4fGtx¿ ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3Lo l;4fGtx¿;Fu klg cGt/ ;DalGwt /x]sf 5g\. h;df ;fj{hlgs k|ltj]bg k|sfzg ug]{ clwsf/, ck/fw ePsf] 7fpF -36gf:yn_ df k'Ug] / ;To–tYo a'‰g] clwsf/ tyf ljb]zaf6 ;d]t cfjZostfg';f/ k|df0f ;ª\sng / k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] clwsf/ cfof]unfO{ /xg' kb{5 eGg] dfGotf /x]sf] kfOG5.23 of] k|f]6f]snn] cfof]usf sfplG;nx¿sf] k|of]u ug]{ (Use of Commission Council) k|rngnfO{ klg cª\uLsf/ ub{5. h'g k|foh;f] sdgj]Ny hfFra'em cfof]ux¿df k|of]u ug]{ ul/G5. To:tf] sfplG;n lgikIf ljz]if1sf] ¿kdf /xG5g\. o; k|f]6f]snn] cfof]usf] ;'gj' fO k|lqmof / k|df0fsf] d"Nofª\sg ug]{ ;Gbe{df dxTjk"0f{ lbzf lgb]{z u/]sf] kfOG5. ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf l;4fGtx¿n] h:t} of] k|f6] f]snn] klg s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ k/LIf0fdf clgjfo{ ¿kdf pkl:yt x'gsf] lglDt cfof]un] afWo ug{ ;Sg] u/L ;'emfj k|:t't u/]sf] 5. o;n] cfof]unfO{ olb s'g} Dofbleq s'g} JolQm pkl:yt gePdf lghnfO{ hl/jfgf jf s}b;d]t ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5.24 To;}u/L cfof]un] s'g} klg OR5's kIfx¿nfO{ ;'gj' fO ug{ df}sf lbg] / ;fIfLx¿n] cfˆgf] sfg'g Joj;foLsf] ;fydf cfof]u;dIf pkl:yt x'g kfpg] clwsf/ klg k|bfg ul/Psf] 5. kmf}Hfbf/L 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

jf b]jfgL b'j} bfloTjsf] ;Gbe{df of] k|fjwfg cfslif{t x'G5.25 ;fIfL pkl:yt x'g' cl3 g} cfof]un] o; ;DaGwdf k|Zg ug{ ;Sb5.26 k|df0fsf] d"Nofª\sgsf] qmddf cfof]un] To:tf k|df0fsf] ;Da4tf, ljljwtf, ljZj;gLotf / ;Totfsf] ;DaGwdf ljrf/ ub{5.27 cfof]un] ;a} k|df0fx¿sf] cGt/;Da4tf klg k/LIf0f ub{5. vf;u/L ;'gL hfGg] k|df0f, aGb Ohnf;df k|df0f k/LIf0f / lh/x (Cross Examination) ug{ gkg]{, ;fIfL k/LIf0f tyf Go"g k|fdfl0fs d"No ePsf] k|df0f ;DaGwdf cfof]un] ;Gt'lnt 9ª\uaf6 ljrf/ k'¥ofpg' kb{5.28 4. The UN set of principles for the protection and promotion of Human Rights through Action to Combact Impunity (1996)

29

oL l;4fGtx¿nfO{ ;+o'Qm l;4fGt klg elgG5. lsgeg] oL l;4fGtx¿ k|m]Gr sfg'gljb\ Jonet hf] b08xLgtfsf] k|Zg ;dfwfgsf] lglDt UN åf/f lgo'Qm ;dflwIfs (Rapporteur) klg lyP. pgn] cg';Gwfg u/L k|:t't u/]sf] / dfgjclwsf/ /Ifsx¿n] clwsf+ztM pNn]v ug]{ l;4fGtx¿ ePsf]n] pgs} gfdaf6 oL l;4fGtx¿sf] gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] kfOG5. ;g\ @))% df tL l;4fGtx¿nfO{ c¿ kl/dflh{t / cBfjlws ul/Psf] lyof].30 z'?sf l;4fGtx¿nfO{ h:t} ;fdlos ¿kdf cBfjlws ul/Psf l;4fGtx¿ (updated principles) nfO{ klg ;+o'Qm /fi6;ª\3Lo dfgjclwsf/ cfof]u (UN Human

Rights Commission) n] cf}krfl/s ¿kdf cª\uLsf/ u/]sf] lyof].31 Jonet Principles n] "Extrajudicial

Commissions

of

Inquiry" sf]

kl/efiff eg] u/]sf] kfO{Fb}g. t/, To:tf cfof]ux¿sf] :jtGqtf / lgikIftfsf] ;DaGwdf eg] o;sf] 5}7f}F l;4fGtn] To:tf] cfof]u sfg'gåf/f :yflkt x'g' kb{5 eg]sf] 5. slxn]sfxLF ;Da4 kIfx¿aLr ePsf] ;Demf}tfsf] cfwf/df klg cfof]u :yfkgf x'g;Sg] dfGotfnfO{ o;n] OGsf/ u/]sf] 5}g. cfof]usf ;b:ox¿ lgikIf x'g'kb{5 / cfˆgf] :jtGqtfnfO{ clej[l4 ug]{ ;Ifdtf pgLx¿df x'g'kb{5. ;fy} lgo'lQm ePkl5 pgLx¿nfO{ cfˆgf] tf]lsPsf] sfof{jlw;Dd s;}n] klg lgisf;g ug{ g;Sg] u/L ;]jfsf] ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt lbOg' kb{5. kf/bzL{ cfly{s k|aGw / kof{Kt ef}lts ;fdu|L Pjd\ dfgjLo ;+zfwgsf] pknAwtf cfof]unfO{ x'gk' b{5. oL clwsf/x¿n] ubf{ cfof]usf] :jtGqtf / lgikIftfsf] Uof/]G6L x'g hfG5.32 dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf kLl8tx¿sf] clwsf/;DaGwL dfkb08 (Standards Concerning Victims of Human Rights Violations)

cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ sfg'gn] kLl8tx¿sf lj:t[t clwsf/nfO{ dfGotf lbPsf] ;Gbe{ o; cl3 g} JofVof ul/;lsPsf] 5. tL clwsf/x¿cGtu{t Gofo kfpg] clwsf/ (The Right to Justice), ;To hfGg kfpg] clwsf/ (The Right to Truth), xfgLk"/0fsf] clwsf/

Article 3 Article 13 Ibid. Article 14 Ibid. UN doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/18 (1996). D.Orentlicher, "Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Impunity," UN doc. E/CN.4/2004/88 (2004). D. Orentlicher, "Updated Set of Principles for Promotion and Protection of Human Rights Through Action to Combat Impunity," UN doc.E/CN.4/2005/102/Add.1 (2005). By Resolution 2005/66 ("Right to the Truth"), the Commission on Human Rights merely noted its "appreciation" of the updated set of Priciples. Principle 10

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 9


(The Right to Reparation),

k'gM 36gf gbf]xf]l/g] k|Tofe"ltsf ;fy clwsf/ (The

Right to Guarantees of Nonrepetition)

h:tf clwsf/x¿ kb{5g\. k|:t't zLif{s cGtu{t kLl8tsf] ;DaGwdf ;fdfGo clwsf/x¿ n]va4 ul/Psf b'O{cf]6f dxTjk"0f{ cGt/f{li6«o lnvtx¿sf] af/]df hfgsf/L u/fO{g' pko'Qm b]lvPsf] 5. oBlk oL clwsf/x¿ ;lGwhlgt cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gdf pNn]lvt Joj:yf geP tfklg ;To cfof]usf] ;du| sfo{ljlwut :jR5tf;DaGwL p2]Zo k"/f ug{ cfjZos kg]{ cjwf/0ffsf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5. tL b'O{ dxTjk"0f{ lnvtx¿ lgDgadf]lhd 5g\ M 1. The UN Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice of Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power 1985.

33

kLl8tx¿sf] clwsf/ /Iffsf] nflu of] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3Lo b:tfj]h xf]. o; 3f]if0ffkqsf] l;4fGt g+= $ df "Victims should be treated with compassion and respect for their dignity, They are entitled to access to the mechanisms of justice and to prompt redress, as provided by national legislation for the harm that they have suffered."

eGg] Joj:yf u/]sf] kfOG5. To;}u/L l;4fGt g+= ^ n] kLl8tx¿sf] clwsf/ / cfjZostfnfO{ s;/L Gofo k|zf;g;DaGwL sf/afxL k|lqmofdf ;Daf]wg ug'{kb{5 eGg] ;DaGwdf lj:t[t JofVof u/]sf] kfOG5. h;df klxnf], kLl8tsf] e"ldsf / If]q, d'2fsf] 6'ª\uf] nfUg] k|lqmof / ;do tyf pgLx¿n] ljz]if rf;f] /fv]sf uDeL/ ck/fwx¿sf] ;Gbe{df ;xL ;"rgf k|jfx ul/g' kb{5 eGg] l;4fGt dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf] 5. To:t} bf];|f], kLl8tx¿nfO{ pgLx¿sf b[li6sf]0f Pjd\ ;/f]sf/x¿ lagf s'g} k"jf{u|x cfof]u;dIf /fVgsf] nflu / kmf}Hfbf/L Gofok|0ffnLdf ;3fp k'¥ofpgsf nflu cg';Gwfgsf ljleGg r/0fdf cg'dlt 33

GA res. 40/34 (1985).

10 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

lbOg' kb{5. t];|f], kLl8tsf] uf]kgLotf Pjd\ ;'/Iff nufotsf ;jfndf / pgLx¿sf kl/jf/ tyf ;fIfLx¿nfO{ 8/, qf;, wDsLaf6 ;'/Iff ug{ jf To:tf c;xh cj:yfaf6 ;'/Iff k|bfg ug{ ;+ej ;a} pkfox¿ cjnDag ug'{kb{5. 2. Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remady and Reparation for Victims of Violations of Inttruational Human Rights and Humanitarian law 2005

of] Pp6f dfgjclwsf/ tyf dfgjLo sfg'gsf] pNnª\3gaf6 kLl8t JolQmx¿sf] lglDt clwsf/ k|bfg ug]{ Hofb} dxTjk"0f{ / lj:t[t l;4fGt ;d]l6Psf] cGt/f{li6«o lnvt xf]. o;sf] l;4fGt g+= * n] kLl8tsf] kl/efiff o; k|sf/ u/]sf] 5– æo; b:tfj]hsf] p2]Zosf nflu kLl8t eGgfn] cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ sfg'gsf] Jofks pNnª\3g tyf cGt/f{li6«o dfgjLo sfg'gsf] uDeL/ pNnª\3gsf] sf]l6df kg]{ s'g} sfo{ cyjf q'l6åf/f ;[lht zf/Ll/s cyjf dfgl;s Iflt, efjgfTds kL8f, cfly{s Iflt jf df}lns clwsf/sf] tflTjs lauf/;lxt j}olQms cyjf ;fd"lxs tj/n] Iflt a]xf]/]sf s'g} JolQmnfO{ hgfpFb5. o; 3f]if0ffkqsf] l;4fGt g+= ( n] h'g;'s} cj:yfsf] eP klg dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] 36gfdf ;+nUg JolQmsf] klxrfg u/L d'2f rnfOPsf] jf ;hfo ul/Psf] l:yltdf lghaf6 kLl8t x'g] JolQmnfO{ kLl8tsf] klxrfg leq kfl/g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5. To:t} l;4fGt g+= !) df kLl8tnfO{ dfgjLo Pjd\ ;Ddfghgs Jojxf/ ug'{kg]{, kLl8tsf] ;'/Iff, uf]kgLotf ;+/If0fsf] lglDt cfjZos pkfo cjnDag ul/g'kg]{, of] s'/f kLl8tsf ;fIfL / kl/jf/df klg nfu' x'g], kLl8tnfO{ :jf:Yo, dgf]lj1fg, k|zf;lgsnufot ;a} k|sf/sf pkrf/x¿ pknAw x'g] k|Tofe"lt lbOPsf] 5. l;4fGt g+= @$ df ;a}k|sf/sf

pkrf/fTds ;'ljwfx¿df kLl8tsf] ;xh kx'FrnfO{ ;'lglZrt ul/Psf] 5. To:t} l;4fGt g+= @% n] kLl8tsf nflu clje]bsf] clwsf/ (Right to ;'lglZrt Nondiscrimination) ul/lbPsf] 5. o; k|sf/dfly pNn]lvt b'j} l;4fGtx¿n] ;To cfof]u (TRC) sf] sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfdf dxTjk"0f{ cGt/f{li6«o ;fwg (Tools) sf] ¿kdf ;3fp k'¥ofpg ;Sb5g\ eGg] ljZjf; lng ;lsG5. ;To cfof]usf] nflu sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] cjwf/0ff (Toward a Conception of Procedural Fairness for Truth Commissions)

sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ b'O{ df]8ndf cWoog ul/G5. h'g lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ M != :jR5tfsf 3/]n' df]8nx¿ (Selected Domestic Models of Fairness)

ljZjsf sl/j ! ;o (^ ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg /fi6«x¿sf] cl:tTj /x]sf] 5, / tL /fi6«x¿sf cf–cfˆg} /fhgLlts Pjd\ sfg'gL k/Dk/f ePsf]n] Gofo ;Dkfbgsf] qmddf Goflos :jR5tfsf] sfo{ljlw / k|lqmof klg km/skm/s ¿kdf k|of]u x'g' c:jefljs xf]Og. t/ o; ljljwtfsf] sf/0faf6 Gofo ug{ Tolt ;xh 5}g eGg] a'lemG5. o; cy{df ;fj{ef}d ¿kdf dfGo Goflos :jR5tfsf :yflkt dfGotfx¿sf] ;DaGwdf dfq 5nkmn ug{ ;lsG5. lgZro klg o:tf dfkb08x¿ cf};t ¿kdf x]bf{ Goflos :jR5tfsf ljZjJofkL dfkb08sf ¿kdf :yflkt ePsf] kfOG5. ltgLx¿ lgDgadf]lhd 5g\ M !=! sfg'gsf] plrt k|lqmof (Due Process)

s'g} klg æsdg n k|0ffnLÆ ckgfpg] d'n'ssf sfg'gljb\x¿n] sfg'gsf] plrt k|lqmof (Due Process of


Law)

nfO{ ljz]if dxTj lbPsf x'G5g\. sfg'gsf] plrt k|lqmofsf] l;4fGt d'VotM cleof]u nfu]sf JolQmsf] ;'g'jfOsf] ;DaGwdf cfslif{t x'G5. ;fy} o; k|lqmof leq sfo{ljlwut lgodx¿sf] x'ax' kfngfdf a9L hf]8 lbOG5. sfo{ljlwsf] plrt kfngf ePg eg] sfg'gsf] zf;g sfod /xg ;Sb}g eGg] cfwf/df cleo'Qmn] pDsg] df}sf kfpFb5. o;n] Jofks dfqfdf To:tf sfo{ljlwut lgodx¿nfO{ ;d]6\b5. Goflos lgsfo -cbfnt_ sf] nflu o;sf] kl/kfngf clgjfo{ h:t} x'G5. t/, ;To cfof]usf] ;Gbe{df sfg'gsf] plrt k|of]usf] l;4fGtnfO{ h:tfsf] t:t} cjnDag ug]{ s'/f cln ufx|f] ljifo xf]. cbfntL sfo{ljlwdf h:t} ;To cfof]un] k"0f{¿kdf of] l;4fGt kfngf ug'k{ 5{ eGg] dfGotf /fVbf /fVb} klg ;To cfof]usf] ;To kQf nufpg] p2]Zo / ckgfpg' kg]{ afWofTds sfo{ljlwsf] lx;fan] o:tf] dfGotf slxn]sfxLF ctfls{s / cJojxfl/s h:tf] klg nfUg ;Sb5. lsgeg] ;To cfof]u eg]sf] cbfnt h:tf] Goflos ;+:yf xf]Og / cfof]un] cbfntn] h:tf] bf]ifL 7x/fO{ b]jfgL cyjf kmf}hbf/L k|s[ltsf ;hfo 3f]if0ff ug{ ;Sb}g. To;sf/0f ;To cfof]un] k|of]u ug]{ sfo{ljlw Goflos lgsfon] ckgfpg] 34 35

36

37 38 39 40

41

42

h:tf] sfg'gsf] plrt k|lqmof k'¥ofpg' kg]{ k/Dk/fut ;}4flGts cjwf/0ff / efjgf;Fu slxn]sfxLF b'?:t gx'g / ;f] dfGotf;Fu aflemg k'Ub5. t/, ;s];Dd ;To cfof]ux¿n] sfg'gsf] plrt k|lqmof;DaGwL l;4fGtnfO{ cGb]vf ug{ eg] kfpFbg} . hfFr cfof]un] klg cfwf/e"t ¿kdf o;sf] kl/kfngf ug}{ kb{5. sfg'gsf] plrt k|of]usf] l;4fGt ljleGg sfg'gL >f]tx¿af6 lglZrt ul/Psf] x'G5. h:t} b]zsf] ;+ljwfg tyf sfg'gx¿, cbfntsf JofVofx¿ / cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gsf] dfWodaf6. ;a}eGbf klxn] o; l;4fGtsf] cjwf/0ff a]nfotdf ;g\ !@!% sf] dxfg clwsf/ kq (Magna 34 Carta) af6 pTklQ ePsf] xf]. To;kl5 ;g\ !^@& sf] 35 Pitition of Right / Bill of Right 36 1689 df klg pko'{Qm sfg'gsf] plrt k|lqmof;DaGwL l;4fGtnfO{ plrt :yfg lbOPsf] 5. To:t} u/]/ of] l;4fGtnfO{ French Declaration of the Rights of 37

Man and of the Citizen 1789

df;d]t ;dfj]z ul/Psf] kfOG5. xfn cfP/ o; l;4fGtnfO{ cd]l/sL sfg'g k|0ffnLdf Hofb} dxTjsf ;fy cjnDag ul/Psf] 5. cd]l/sL

;+ljwfgsf] kfFrf}F ;+zf]wgn]38 sfg'gsf] plrt k|lqmof k'¥ofpg' kg]{ l;4fGtnfO{ ;+ljwfgdf k|j]z u/fO{ ;+ljwfgsf] !$ cf}F ;+zf]wgdf39 ;ª\3Lo ;/sf/, To;sf ljefux¿ / Goflos lgsfon] o;nfO{ kl/kfngf ug'{ kg]{ u/L cem a9L hf]8 lbOPsf] kfOG5 eg] 5}6f}F 40 ;+zf]wgdf kmf}hbf/L sf/afxLdf of] l;4fGtsf] k|of]unfO{ dxTj lbFb} ;ftf}F ;+zf]wgdf41 gful/s clwsf/x¿sf] ;+/If0fsf] ;jfndf of] l;4fGtsf] cjnDagnfO{ cfTd;fy ub}{ cf7f}F ;+zf]wgdf42 kmf}hbf/L b08 lgwf{/0f ubf{ ;d]t o;nfO{ Wofg lbg' kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lbO{Psf] kfOG5. !=@ k|fs[lts Gofo (Natural Justice) k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGt eg]sf] sfg'gsf] plrt kfngf ug'{ kb{5 eGg] l;4fGtsf] lj:t[t ¿k g} xf]. Goflos hfFra'emsf] k|lqmofcGtu{t sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] lglDt of] cfwf/e"t l;4fGt xf]. d'VotM k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGt Nofl6g ;"q "nemo debt esse judex in propia causa" (one should not be judge in one's own cause)

/

"audi alteram

partem" (both sides should be heard)

df cfwfl/t 5. klxnf] l;4fGt cg';f/ hf] lgikIf x'g ;Qm}g pm GofofwLz x'g

Mark Freeman, Truth Commissions and Procedural Fairness, CambridgeUniversity Press, New York, 2006, p. 110. 3 Car, I c.1. The Petition was sent by Parliament to king Charles I Complaining of a series of breaches of law. The Petiton sought recognition of various principles, including the principle that there should be no imprisonment without cause. King Charles accepted the petition. 1 Wm. & Mary, 2d Sess. (1689) c.2. The Bill's full title was "An Act Declaring the Rights and Libertied of the Subject and Settling the Sucession of the Crown." It declared, inter alia, that "excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusal punishments inflicted." The Declaration is appended to the French Constitution of 1791. Article 7 of the Declaration provides in part: "No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law." See Mark Freeman, p. 111 Ibid "In all criminal Procecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a apeedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense." "In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law." "Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted."

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 11


;Qm}g eg] bf];|f] l;4fGt cg';f/ ;'gj' fOsf] df}sf k|bfg gu/L s;}nfO{ klg bf]ifL 7x/ ug{ x'Fb}g.43 l;4fGttM k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGt klg cbfntL sf/afxLdf g} nfu' x'g] ljifo xf] tfklg k|zf;sLo sfg'gdf / k|zf;sLo lg0f{o ug]{ GofofwLs/0fx¿n] klg o;nfO{ nfu" t/ ;f/e"t ¿kdf ug'{kb{5.44 k|zf;sLo lgsfosf sfo{ljlwx¿ a9L eGbf a9L cgf}krfl/s, sd vlr{nf] / cbfntsf] sfo{ljlweGbf a9L g} l56f] 5l/tf] k|sf/sf] x'G5. To;df ;fdfGotof k|df0f;DaGwL lgodx¿ klg a9L nrsbf/ x'G5g\.45 t/ hxfF sfo{ljlwsf] kfngfdf k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGt cg'z/0f ul/Psf] x'Fb}g, slDtdf klg lgDglnlvt clwsf/x¿ pNnª\3g ug{ x'Fb}g eGg] s'/f ;'lglZrt x'g'k5{ / tL cj:yfx¿ yfxf kfpg' k5{. h:tf] M– != ;fdfGo lgodsf] ¿kdf hxfF ;DklQ;DaGwL clwsf/ cyjf gful/ssf ;+ljwfg / sfg'gn] k|:6 ¿kdf tf]ss ] f clwsf/x¿ k|efljt /xg] l:ylt /x]sf] 5 eg] ToxfF k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGt kl/kfngf ePs} x'g'kb{5.46 43

44

45 46 47

48 49 50 51 52

@= ;a} Goflos / cw{Goflos lgsfon] Goflos sfo{ (Adjudicative Function) ug]{ x'gfn] o;sf] kfngf ug'{ cfjZos x'G5.47 #= o;sf cltl/Qm olb gful/ssf lgDg pNn]lvt clwsf/x¿ vt/fdf /x]sf 5g\ eg] ToxfF k|yd b[li6df g} k|fs[lts Gofosf l;4fGt kfngf ePsf] 5 5}g eg]/ x]l/g' kb{5 M -!_ :jtGqtfsf] xs (Right to Liberty) -@_ ;DklQsf] xs (Right to Property, Especially Reality)

-#_ /f]huf/ tyf hLjg lgjf{xsf] clwsf/ (Rihgts of Employment & 48

Livelihood)

-$_ dof{bfsf] clwsf/ 49

(Reputation

Right)

-%_ cfly{s ljz]ifflwsf/ 50

(Economic

Privilegdes)

-^_ s'g} g s'g} ;+:yfx¿ / sfg'gL lgsfox¿df ;xeflutf x'g kfpg] clwsf/ (Participation in Clubs and

Other Associations 51

and

Legitimate Expectations)

t/, o:tf clwsf/x¿sf] k|Zg p7]sf]df klg æs'g xb;Dd " k|fs[lts

Gofosf] cfjZostf k5{ eGg] s'/fnfO{ lg0f{ostf{n] x]g}{ kb{5. sfg'gsf] plrt k|lqmofsf] kfngf h:t} k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGt klg Pp6f lj:t[t cjwf/0ff ePsf] x'gfn] o;nfO{ pl7/x]sf] ljjfbsf] ljifo / To;df ;lGglxt tTjx¿cg';f/ k[ys k[ys lsl;daf6 x]gk{' g]{ x'G5. ctM k|fs[lts Gofosf] d'Vo tTj eg]sf] k"jf{ux| sf] u'~hfo; gx'g,' pko'Qm ;"rgf lbg', lh/xsf] df}sf k|bfg ug'{, sfg'gL k|ltlglwTj x'g' Pjd\ sf/0f / ts{;lxtsf] lg0f{o lbg' xf]. k|fs[lts Gofosf l;4fGtsf rf/ vDaf l;4fGtx¿ lgDgadf]lhd 5g\M != k"jf{u|xsf] z"Gotf (Absence of Bias) cª\u|]hL tyf sdg n k|0ffnLdf k"jf{u|xsf] z"GotfnfO{ k|fs[lts Gofosf] klxnf] vDaf g} elgG5. k"jf{u|xsf] d'Vo¿k Toltv]/ b[li6uf]r/ x'G5, ha lg0f{ostf{ ;dIf cfPsf] ljjfbdf cfly{s rfxgfn] rnv]n ug{ yfN5. To:t} klxn]b]lv g} JolQmut ;DaGw /xg' jf ljBdfg ;DaGwaf6 klg klxn] g} lg0f{o k|efljt x'g / k"jf{u|x hlGdg ;Sb5.52 k"jf{u|x/lxttfsf] l;4fGt klg cGo l;4fGt h:t} lg/k]If eg] x'Fb}g. of] klg

The Principle may one day become constitutionally entrenched in European law. See, e.g., EU Charter of Rights art.101(2), wherein the "right to good administration" includes "the right of every person to be heard, before any individual measure which would affect him or her adversely is taken." Presumably such a right would not, however, preclude ex parte civil proveedings. In English law, the decision of the House of Lords in Ridge v. Baldwin [1963] 2 All ER 66, marked the devisive turning poing. In rejecting an approach focused on classifying a proceeding as either judicial (in which case natural justice applied) or nonjudicial (in which case it did not), the House of Lords held that the principles of natural justice encompassed any body making decisions that affected individual rights. In common law jurisdictions, for example, administrative tribunals are generally not required to follow the best evidence rule, the rules of hearsay, or rules concerning opinion evidence. Flick, Natuarl Justice, at 26-7. D. Basu, Comparative Administrative Law (Calcutta: Sarkar and Sons, 1969), at 179; Mullan, Administrative Law, at 158. In some jurisdictions, such as Canada, the judicial/quasi-judicial distinction is no longer applied by courts. It has been replaced by a "functionalist" approach that eschews such categories and instead focuses on the character and context of the proceeding and the interests at stake. Flick, Natural Justice, at 29. Ibid. at 30-1. See also B. Jones and K. Thompson, "Administrative Law in the United Kingdom," in R. Seerden and F.Stroink, eds., Administrative Law of the European Union, Its Member States and the United States (Antwerp:Intersentia/Metro, 2002),at 247. See, e.g., Re Webb and Ontario Housing Corporation (1978), 93 DLR (3d) 187 (Ontario Court of Appeal), in which persons benefiting from social assistance were entitled to a measure of natural justice when their continued eligibility for such assistance was in jeopardy. Flick, Natural Justice, at 33-6; Mullan, Administrative Law, at 177-87 and 321-49. Prejudgment can take at least two forms: preconceived opinions, or the commingling of investigative and adjudicative functions in one person or body. Flick, Natural Justice, at 177.See also Basu, Comparative Administrative Law, at 179.

12 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s


If]qflwsf/ / d'2fsf] k|s[ltdf e/ k5{. o;} cfwf/df jf:tljs k"jf{u|x 5 5}g, k"jf{u|x jf:tljs ¿kdf b]lvG5 b]lvGg, To;af6 slt vt/f 5 / k"jf{u|xsf] dfq cfjZostf eGbf a9L 5 5}g53 eGg] s'/f ;'lglZrt ul/G5. ;fdfGotof dflg;x¿n] sfo{ljlw nfu' ug]{ qmddf g} cfˆgf] JolQmut wf/0ff JoQm ub{5g\. t/ ;fdfGotof jf:tljs k"jf{u|x Actual Bias) :yflkt ug'{ ufx|f] ljifo xf]. t;y{ cbfntx¿n] k"jf{u|xsf] pkl:ylt (Appearance) 5, 5}g eg]/ x]g]{ ub{5g\.54 olb k"jf{u|xsf] pkl:ylt /x]5 eg] ;f] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] ljifo aGb5. @= ;'g'jfOsf] df}sf k|bfg ug'{ (Audi alteram partem)

k|fs[lts Gofosf l;4fGtsf] bf];f| ] vDaf eg]sf] ;'g'jfOsf] df}sf k|bfg ug'{ cyf{t\ "audi alteram partem"xf].55 o; l;4fGt cg';f/ s'g} klg JolQmpk/ nfu]sf] cf/f]ksf] ;'g'jfO cf/f]klt JolQmnfO{ ;"rgf lbO{ lghsf] s'/f ;'g]/ dfq ul/g' kb{5. To:tf] ;"rgf p;n] kfpg ;Sg] tfls{s cfwf/ k|dfl0ft ePsf] x'g'kb{5 cyf{t ;f] cfwf/ klg ts{;ª\ut (Reasonable) x'gk' b{5. To:tf] ts{;ª\uttf (Reasonableness) eGgfn] ;fdfGotof To;/L lbOg] ;"rgfdf cf/f]lkt JolQm pkl:yt x'g'kg]{ ldlt,

;do, 7fpF, ;'g'jfOsf] tl/sf, sfg'gL / tYout cfwf/ Pjd\ p;sf] lj?4df nufOPsf] cf/f]k ;d]t v'Ng] u/L ;"rgf hf/L x'g'kb{5 eGg] xf].56 To:tf] ljj/0f gv'n]sf] ;"rgf klg of] l;4fGt ljk/Lt x'G5.57 t/ lnlvt hjfkm lbg] ;Gbe{df dfq ;''g'jfOsf o:tf cf}krfl/stf nfu' x'G5g\. df}lvs hjfkm lbg'kg]{df ;fdfGotof nfu' x'Fb}gg\. #= sfg'gL k/fdz{ lng kfpg] clwsf/ (Right to Counsel)

k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGt;Fu ;DalGwt t];|f] vDaf cyf{t\ dxTjk"0f{ tTjx¿df sfg'gL k/fdz{ lng kfpg] clwsf/ ('Right to Counsel') klg Ps xf]. t/ cw{Goflos / u}/–Goflos sfo{ljlwdf o;sf] kl/kfngf ePsf] kfOFb}g. $= lg0f{odf sf/0f / cfwf/ v'nfpg'kg]{ (Reasoned decision)

k|fs[lts Gofosf] csf]{ clGtd / dxTjk"0f{ kIf eg]sf] Goflos lg0f{odf dfq xf]Og, k|zf;sLo jf hfFra'em lgsfosf lg0f{ox¿df klg sf/0f / cfwf/x¿ v'nfOPsf] x'gk' 5{ eGg] xf]. t/ k|zf;sLo lgsfox¿n] ug]{ lg0f{o x]bf{ Jojxf/df of] Pp6f l;4fGtdf dfq ;Lldt eP h:tf] b]lvG5. tL lgsfox¿sf] sfo{ljlwdf kf/blz{tf / pQ/bfloTjsf] nflu klg cfwf/ Pjd\

sf/0f ;lxtsf lg0f{o lbOg'kg]{ xf]. sf/0f / cfwf/ lagfsf] lg0f{o zª\sfsf] 3]/fdf /xG5.58 hxfF JolQmsf cfwf/e"t clwsf/x¿ vt/fdf 5g\ eGg] dx;"; k|fs[lts Gofosf l;4fGtsf] bf];|f] vDaf eg]sf] ;'g'jfOsf] df}sf k|bfg ug'{ cyf{t\ "audi alteram partem" xf] .59 o; l;4fGt cg';f/ s'g} klg JolQmpk/ nfu]sf] cf/f]ksf] ;'g'jfO cf/f]klt JolQmnfO{ ;"rgf lbO{ lghsf] s'/f ;'g]/ dfq ul/g' kb{5 . To:tf] ;"rgf p;n] kfpg ;Sg] tfls{s cfwf/ k|dfl0ft ePsf] x'g'kb{5 cyf{t ;f] cfwf/ klg ts{;ª\ut (Reasonable) x'g'kb{5 . To:tf] ts{;ª\uttf (Reasonableness) eGgfn] ;fdfGotof To;/L lbO{g] ;"rgfdf cf/f]lkt JolQm pkl:yt x'g'kg]{ ldlt, ;do, 7fp“, ;'g'jfOsf] tl/sf, sfg'gL / tYout cfwf/ Pjd\ p;sf] lj?4df nufOPsf] cf/f]k ;d]t v'Ng] u/L ;"rgf hf/L x'g'kb{5 eGg] xf] . To:tf] ljj/0f gv'n]sf] ;"rgf klg of] l;4fGt ljk/Lt x'G5 s . ul/G5 To:tf] ljifosf] lg0f{odf sf/0f vf]Ng} kb{5.59 ctM k|fs[lts Gofosf] l;4fGtnfO{ ;To cfof]u h:tf hfFra'em cfof]ux¿n] klg dxTjsf ;fy kfngf ug'{ cfjZos x'G5.

53

Flick, Natural Justive, at 148

54

The standard test in the UK remains what a "reasonable person" (i.e., the judge) would think. Mullan, Administratative Law, at 3278.

55 The right to a hearing was considered as a general principle of European Community law in Transocean Marine Paint Association v. Commission [1974] E.C.R. 1063 ("a person whose interstes are perceptibly affected by the decision taken by a public authority must be given the opportunity to make his point of view known"). 56

It is not necessary to put tentative conclusions to the person in order to give him or her chance to refute them. It may be sufficient to describe what has been said against him or her by other persons or in documents. Maxwell v. Department of Trade and Industry [1974] 1 queen's Bench 523 (Court of Appeal).

57

Flick, Natural Justice, at 67. Mullan states, "[T] he requirements of notice will be more rigorous the nearer the nature of the decisionmaking process in question comes to approximation the paradigmatic kind of case arising in ordinary criminal or civil litigation." Administrative Law, at 233.

58 Ibid, at 248-9; Flick, Natural Justice, at 117. A duty to give reasons was affirmed in the case of Baker v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration). In continental Europe, the duty to give resons is seen as a "guarantee against arbitrary justice." Thaman, Comparative Criminal procedure, at 207. 59 See Mullan, Administrative Law, at 309-10, where he reviews recent English case law on this point.

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 13


!=# ;fNdgsf] l;4fGt (Lord Justice Salmon's cardinal principles)

sdgj]Ny hfFra'em cfof]u k/Dk/fdf To:tf] cfof]unfO{ ;fIfL pkl:yt u/fpg] / k|df0f k|:t'tLs/0fsf] nflu cbfntdf h:t} ;'ljwf jf pGd'lQm sdgj]Ny hf“ra'em cfof]u k/Dk/fdf To:tf] cfof]unfO{ ;fIfL pkl:yt u/fpg] / k|df0f k|:t'tLs/0fsf] nflu cbfntdf h:t} ;'ljwf jf pGd'lQm k|fKt x'G5 . t/ o; sdgj]Ny k/Dk/fdf hf“r cfof]un] kmf}hbf/L bfloTjsf] ;DaGwdf cbfnt jf l6«j'gnsf] h:tf] lg0f{o eg] lbg ;Qm}gg\ . ;To cfof]u / sdgj]Ny hf“r cfof]u aLr w]/} leGgtfx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . ;To cfof]un] kLl8ts]lGb|t eP/ hf“ra'em ub{5 . t/ sdgj]Ny hf“r cfof]un] sfg'gJoj;foL pGd'v k|lqmof (lawyer driven approach) nfO{ a9L hf]8 lbG5 . To;f] ePsf]n] o; df]8ndf kLl8t tkm{ / tYo ;ª\sngdf cln sd} Wofg lbO{G5 . k|fKt x'G5. t/ o; sdgj]Ny k/Dk/fdf hfFr cfof]un] kmf}hbf/L bfloTjsf] ;DaGwdf cbfnt jf l6«j'gnsf] h:tf] lg0f{o eg] lbg ;Qm}gg\. ;To cfof]u / sdgj]Ny hfFr cfof]u aLr w]/} leGgtfx¿ /x]sf 5g\. ;To cfof]un] kLl8ts]lGb|t eP/ hfFra'em ub{5. t/

sdgj]Ny hfFr cfof]un] sfg'gJoj;foL pGd'v k|lqmof (Lawyer Driven Approach) nfO{ a9L hf]8 lbG5. To;f] ePsf]n] o; df]8ndf kLl8t tkm{ / tYo ;ª\sngdf cln sd} Wofg lbO{G5.60 ;To cfof]usf] a9L sfo{af]em /xG5. k|foM ;To cfof]un] k/Dk/fut sfo{x¿ g} ub{5g\. ;f] afx]s cfw'lgs / zlQmzfnL If]qflwsf/ k|bQ ul/Psf ;To cfof]usf sfo{x¿ cem} lj:t[t vfnsf x'G5g\. pbfx/0fsf nflu blIf0f clk|msf, l6df]/ ln:6 / df]/Ssf]sf ;To cfof]ux¿n] dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3g– sf/Lx¿nfO{ dfkmL lbg] clwsf/, cleo'Qm / ;dfhaLr cflwsfl/s s/f/ ug]{ zlQm / kLl8tx¿nfO{ Ifltk"lt{ lbg] zlQm klg /fHoaf6 k|fKt u/]sf lyP. To:t} Sierra Leone / The DRC sf ;To cfof]ux¿ k|foM :yfgLo ljjfbsf] lg/fs/0fdf klg tTk/ /x]sf] kfOG5.61 pko'{Qm Royal Commission åf/f lgsflnPsf] k|ltj]bgcg';f/ oL l;4fGtx¿sf] ;+o'Qm /fHo a]nfotdf df ;f]wk'5sf] qmddf ckgfOg] sfo{ljlwdf k|ToIf k|efj k/]sf] 5.62 pbfx/0fsf] nflu 'Salmon Letter' nfO{ lng ;lsG5. h'g Letter n] cf/f]lkt JolQmn] eljiodf ;fdgf ug'{kg]{ ;f]wk'5sf qmddf k"j{;"rgf k|bfg u5{. clGtd k|ltj]bgdf pNn]lvt ;'emfj cg';f/ ckgfOPdf o:tf] cEof;n] ;+oQ ' m /fHosf] hfFra'em cEof; (Inquiry Practice) df ljz]if :yfg xfl;n u/]sf] 5. o:tf dxTjk"0f{

(Cardinal) l;4fGtn] sdgj]Ny /fHox¿sf sfg'g / cEof;sf] sfo{If]qdf ljz]if k|efj kf/]sf] b]lvG5.63

lgisif{ o;k|sf/ ;To cfof]usf] sfo{ljlwut :jR5tfsf] lglDt 3/]n' tyf cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08x¿sf] dxTjk"0f{ :yfg /x]sf] x'G5. dfly pNn]lvt oL ljljw ;}4flGts dfkb08x¿nfO{ Jojxf/df gptf/];Dd ;To cfof]un] ;Dkfbg u/]sf s'g} klg sfo{x¿ :jR5, lgikIf / ;Ifd ¿kaf6 ;DkGg ePsf 5g\ eg]/ cg'dfg ug{ ldNb}g. oBlk :jR5tf;DaGwL h] hlt dfu{bz{s l;4fGtx¿ 5g\, ltgLx¿sf] aLrdf klg åGå / c;dfGh:otf g/xg] xf]Og. To:tf lj/f]wfefifx¿nfO{ Jojxfl/s ;Totf / ulx/fOdf k'u]/ ;dfg'kflts ;Gt'ngsf] l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df nfu' ug{ ;s]df To:tf ;}4flGts åGåx¿ Go"gLs/0f ug{ cjZo klg ;lsG5. cfof]usf cfo'Qmx¿n] k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df b}lgs sfd ubf{ kl/ cfpg] d'2f lkR5] (Day to Day & Case by Case Basis) df ;Gt'ng u/L sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug{ ;s]df cfof]u ;kmn x'g ;Qm5.64 sfo{ljlwut :jR5tf kL8s / kLl8t b'j}n] cg'ej ug{ kfpg' kb{5. ta dfq cfof]usf] sfo{ :jR5, lgikIf / :jtGq /x]5 eGg] ;Gb]z hg;dIf k'Ug ;Sb5.

60 A major innovation of truth commissions, especially in the context of public hearings, is to make the role of lawyers much more peripheral while still preserving the solemnity and legality of the proceedings.

61 The Truth and Reconciliationn Act 2000 (Sierra Leone), art. 7(2); Law 04/018(2004) Concerning the Organization, Powers and Functions of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (DRC), art. 5.

62 R. Scott, "Procedures at Inquiries: The Duty to be Fair" (1995) 11 LQR 596, at 601. See also the Consultation Report to the Inquiries Act, 2005 (UK), at para. 83.

63 See, e.g., Z. Rev. 941, at 944-5; Canada Law Reform Commission, Administrative Law; Du Preez and Another v. Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South African Appellate Court), 1997(3) SA 204, at 218.

64 See, e.g., Franck and Fairley, "Procedural Due Process in Human Rights Fact-Finding," at 310, describing early UN fact-finding bodies.

14 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s


l6Kk0fL

ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] cjwf/0ff / k|of]u ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ lgGbgLo k|s[ltsf / ;Dk"0f{dfgjhfltsf lj?4 dflgPsf ck/fwdf cfslif{t x'G5. h'g;'s}:yfg / /fi6«df 36gf eP tfklg of]If]qflwsf/ cGtu{t ;DalGwt b]zsf]sfg'gn]pQm b]zsf]cbfntnfO{d'2f x]g{]If]qflwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf]x'G5. o:tf]If]qflwsf/ ;a}ck/fwdf cfslif{t xF'bg} . ;fd'lGb|s 8s}tL, bf;Tj, dfgjtf lj?4sf] ck/fw, o'4ck/fw, oftgf, hfltxTof, u}/Goflos xTof / ha/h:tL a]kQfdf dfq o:tf]If]qflwsf/ cfslif{t x'G5. != kl/ro ; ;ª\lIfKt n]vdf ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] cy{, o;sf] pTklQsf] sf/0f, o; If]qflwsf/sf] cfnf]rgf / o;sf] k|of]u ePsf s]xL d'2fx¿sf] af/]df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5. o; n]vsf] p2]Zo ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] af/]df ;fdfGo hfgsf/L u/fpg' xf].

o

@= ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] cy{ / k|of]u ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ lgGbgLo k|s[ltsf / ;Dk"0f{ dfgjhfltsf lj?4 dflgPsf ck/fwdf cfslif{t x'G5. h'g;'s} :yfg / /fi6«df 36gf eP tfklg of] If]qflwsf/ cGtu{t ;DalGwt b]zsf] sfg'gn] pQm b]zsf] cbfntnfO{ d'2f x]g{] If]qflwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf] x'G5. o:tf] If]qflwsf/ ;a} ck/fwdf cfslif{t xF'b}g. ;fd'lGb|s 8s}tL (Piracy), bf;Tj (Slavery), dfgjtf lj?4sf] ck/fw (Crime against Humanity), o'4 ck/fw (War Crime), oftgf (Torture), hfltxTof (Genocide), u}/Goflos xTof (Extra-Judicial Killing) / ha/h:tL a]kQf (Enforced Disappearance) df dfq o:tf] If]qflwsf/ cfslif{t x'G5. o; dfGotfn] k/Dk/fut ¿kdf dflgFb} cfPsf] sf/afxL ug]{ b]z / ck/fwsf] ;DaGwnfO{ qmdeª\u ub{5. ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] s'g} cf}krfl/s cGt/f{li6«o sfg'g geP tfklg k|yfhlgt cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gcGtu{t ljleGg ;lGwx¿n] k|bfg

u/]sf] dfGotfcg';f/ /fli6«o sfg'g agfP/ o:tf] If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]u ul/G5. ;fd'lGb|s 8s}tLdf ;+nUg hxfh jf bf; Jofkf/df ;+nUg JolQmnfO{ h'g;'s} b]zsf] JolQm eP klg / hxfF ck/fw ePsf] eP klg s'g} b]zn] lu/km\tf/ u/L sf/afxL ug{ ;S5 eGg] k|yfhlgt sfg'gsf] dfGotfaf6 ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] z'?jft ePsf] kfOG5. ;lGwhlgt bfloTjtkm{ x]bf{ cGt/f{li6«o dfgjLo sfg'g / cGt/f{li6«o kmf}hbf/L sfg'gsf ;lGwx¿ cfslif{t x'G5g\. h:t}M Genocide Convention sf] wf/f ! n] hflt xTofnfO{ "to Prevent and Punish" sf] bfloTj /fHox¿nfO{ tf]s]sf] 5. To:t} Geneva Convention sf] ;femf wf/f ! n] ;a} kIf/fi6«x¿nfO{ æto ensure respect for the present convention in all circumstancesÆ eGg] bfloTj tfs]sf]

5. h]g]ef dxf;lGw rf/sf] wf/f !$^ / !$& n] o:tf] bfloTjnfO{ cem :ki6¿kdf pNn]v u/]sf] 5. pQm ;lGwsf] wf/f !$^ df æjt{dfg ;lGw cg';f/, uDeL/ dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3g ug]{nfO{ cfjZos sfg'gL sf/afxL ug{ :jLs[lt lbg] eGg] pNn]v u/]sf] 5. ;f]xL wf/fdf k|To]s kIf /fi6«nfO{ æ o:tf uDeL/ dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gstf{sf vf]hL ug]{ bfloTj / h'g;'s} /fli6«otfsf eP klg cbfntdf k]z ug'{kg]{Æ eGg] bfloTj tf]s]sf] 5. oftgf;DaGwL dxf;lGw, !(*$ sf] wf/f @-@_ n] oftgfnfO{ s'g} klg ljlzi6 kl/l:yltsf] sf/0faf6 pGd'lQm

xl/ km'of“n clwjQmf

lbg ;lsFb}g eGg] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 eg] ;DalGwt kIf/fi6«n] sfg'g agfO{ oftgfnfO{ ck/fw¿kdf kl/eflift ug'k{ g]{ bfloTj tf]s]sf] 5. To:t}, ;f]xL dxf;lGwsf] wf/f %-@_ df æk|To]s kIf/fi6«x¿n] Goflos If]qflwsf/ sfod ug{sf nflu cfjZos dfkg sfod ug'{k5{ hxfF To:tf ck/fwLx¿ Goflos If]qflwsf/ ePsf e"–efudf 5g\Æ eGg] pNn]v 5. To:t} pQm dxf;lGwsf] wf/f &-!_ / @ n] kIf /fi6«nfO{ wf/f %-@_+ adf]lhdsf] JolQmnfO{ of t ;DalGwt b]zdf ;'k'b{uL ug]{ jf cfˆgf] b]zdf sf/afxL ug]{ bfloTj lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5. pQm dxf;lGwsf] k|fjwfgcg';f/ ;'k'b{uL sf/afxLsf] k|Tofe"t ePsf] cj:yfdf dfq ;Dej 5. sltko cj:yfdf o:tf uDeL/ ck/fw ePsf b]zx¿ To:tf ck/fwx¿nfO{ sf/afxL ug{ clgR5's jf cIfd x'G5g\ jf Ps jf csf]{ sf/0faf6 sf/afxL ug{ ;Sb}gg\. h:t,} ;z:q o'4kIf sltko b]zx¿df To:tf ck/fwnfO{ sf/afxL ug]{ sfg'gL tyf ;+:yfut Joj:yf gx'g ;S5 jf To:tf ck/fwdf ;+nUg JolQmx¿ /fHosf] /fhgLlts jf k|zf;lgs Ifdtfdf sfd ul//x]sf] x'g ;Sb5g\ / sf/afxLaf6 ;'/lIft dx;'; ul//x]sf] x'G5g\. /fhgLlts OR5fsf] cfwf/df ck/fwsf] cg';Gwfg tyf sf/afxLnfO{ /f]sL b08xLgtf sfod /lx/x]sf] cj:yfdf s'g} csf]{ b]zn] kLl8tnfO{ Gofo lbg / b08xLgtfsf] qmdnfO{ tf]8\g o:tf] If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]u ub{5. o:tf] k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 15


If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]u ug'{ ;DalGwt b]zsf] uDeL/ ck/fwnfO{ ;x\o (Tolerate) gug]{ ;femf ;/f]sf/ jf k|yfhlgt sfg'gaf6 k|bQ bfloTjnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ sbdsf] ¿kdf lnOG5. sltko b]zx¿n] uDeL/ ck/fwdf ;+nUg JolQmx¿nfO{ ;'/lIft :yfg k|bfg u/]sf] eGg] cGt/f{li6«o cfnf]rgfaf6 aRg klg o:tf] If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]u ub{5g\. ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf s]xL rlr{t d'2fx¿df lrnLsf k"j{ zf;s cu:tf] lkgf];] (Augusto Pinochet) nfO{ :k]gdf d'2f k/L a]nfotdf lu/km\tf/ kbf{ ;'kb' u{ Lsf ;DaGwdf a]nfotdf k/]sf d'2f -!((*_, ?jf08fdf o'4 ck/fwsf] cleof]u nfu]sf dfl/of ls;f]tf] / l;:6/ u/6«o'8nfO{ a]lNhodn] u/]sf] sf/afxL / ;hfo -@))!_, hd{g cbfntn] lgsf]nf hh{ / gf]le:n]e HofhnfO{ af]l:gof xh{uf]legfdf hfltxTof u/]sf] cleof]usf] sf/afxL / ;hfo -!((&_ tyf rfbsf k"j{ /fi6«klt x;]g xfa|]nfO{ dfgjtf lj?4sf] ck/fw, oftgf tyf o'4 ck/fw u/]sf]df a]lNhodn] u/]sf] cg';Gwfg tyf sf/afxL -@))%_ nfO{ lng ;lsG5. Oh/fondf ePsf uDeL/ ck/fwx¿df a]lNhod, a]nfot, :k]g / gj]s { f] cnfjf 6sL{df klg d'2f rnfOPsf pbfx/0fx¿ 5g\. a]nfotn] ckmuflg:tfgsf k"j{ o'4 ;/bf/nfO{ oftgf u/]sf] cleof]udf sf/afxL u/L @) jif{ s}b u/]sf] 5 eg] Oh/fonsf k"j{ k//fi6«dGqLnfO{ klg a]nfotdf o:tf] d'2f k/]sf] lyof]. t/, lu/km\tf/ kg]{ ;Defjgfn] ofqf gu/]sf k"j{dGqLsf] d'2f s'6gLlts kxnaf6 xn ul/Psf] lyof]. cd]l/sfsf k"j{ /Iff ;lrj 8f]gfN8 /dlkmN8 / CIA sf k"j{ k|d'v George Tenet nfO{ O/fssf] Abu Ghaib tyf Guantanama Bay sf h]nx¿df aGbLx¿nfO{ o'4 ck/fw u/]sf] cleof]udf hd{gLdf d'2f k/]sf]df cleof]hgstf{x¿n] cGodf d'2f grnfpg] lg0f{o u/]sf lyP. cd]l/sfdf ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/nfO{ dfGotf lbOPsf] 5}g t/ 'Alien Tort Clain Act' n] dfgjclwsf/ pNn+3gsf d'2fx¿df b]jfgL bfloTj cGtu{t sf/afxL rnfpg] If]qflwsf/ k|bfg ub{5. cd]l/sf cfˆgf gful/sx¿ o:tf

16 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

ck/fwdf cGo b]zdf lu/km\tf/ gk?g eg]/ ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/nfO{ k|fT] ;flxt ub}{g. ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] z'?jftL d'2fdf bf];f| ] ljZjo'4sf HofbtLdf ;+nUg lx6n/sf pRr kb:y ;xfos P8Nkm PNsDofg efu]/ ch]l{ G6gfdf n's/] a;]sf lyP. t/, ;g\ !(^) df Oh/fonn] pgnfO{ kQf nufO{ lu/km\tf/ u/L Oh/fon NofO{ hfltxTof (Genocide) df sf/afxL u¥of]. o; d'2fdf, 36gf hd{gLdf ePsf], lgh Eichmann sf] lu/ˆtf/L ch]{lG6gfdf ePsf] lyof] eg] sf/afxL Oh/fondf ePsf] lyof]. /f]dljwfgcGtu{t :yflkt cGt/f{li6«o kmf}hbf/L cbfntn] ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]unfO{ k|efj kfg]{ eP tfklg /fli6«o sfg'gx¿ oyfjt /xg ;S5g\ / cGt/f{li6«o Gofosf] k|of]hgsf] nflu ltgLx¿sf] lg/Gt/tf sfod /xG5. t/, cGt/f{li6«o kmf}hbf/L cbfntn] ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]unfO{ aGb]h jf lg:t]h eg] ub}{g. tTsfnLg Oh/fonsf /IffdGqL Pl/Pn :of/f]gnfO{ z/0ffyL{ SofDkx¿df cfqmd0f u/L dfgjtf lj?4sf] ck/fw / hfltxTofsf] ck/fwdf ;g\ @))! df a]lNhoddf ph'/L k/]sf] lyof]. pQm ph'/L 5fglag eO{ cg';GwfgkZrft cbfntdf k]z ePsf]df :of/f]gsf sfg'gJoj;foLx¿n] cbfntdf /fHo k|d'v -kl5 k|wfgdGqL ePsf lyP_ ePsfn] d'2f rnfpg kfOFbg} , Oh/fondf pQm d'2fnfO{ Goflos 5fgljg cfof]u u7g u/L x]l/;lsPsfn] bf]xf]/f] vt/fsf] (Double Jeopardy) sf] l;4fGt cfslif{t x'G5, al]Nhodsf] sfg'g ;g\ !((# ag]sf] t/, 36gf Tof] eGbf klxnf 36]sf]n] kZrfTobzL{ (Retrospective) c;/ kb{5 / of] 36gfsf] a]NhLod;Fu s'g} ;DaGw 5}g egL k|:t't u/]sf] ts{x¿nfO{ ToxfFsf] cbfntn] :jLsf/ u/]g. kl5 ;g\ !((( df a]lNhodsf] sfg'gdf kl/jt{g ePsfn] pQm d'2f :ylut u/L cGo d'2fx¿df sf/afxLsf] ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/nfO{ :ki6 ¿kdf :yflkt u/L cGo d'2fx¿df sf/afxLsf] af6f] vf]Nof]. t/, lkgf];]nfO{ eg] lrnL cfkmF}n] sf/afxL ug]{ k|ToIf sfg'gL cfwf/x¿ b]vfPkl5 :k]gdf ;'kb' u{ L gu/L a]nfotn] pgs} b]zdf lkmtf{ u¥of].

cGt/f{li6«o Gofosf] p2]Zo s'g} JolQmnfO{ nlIft u/L cd"s b]zdf sf/afxL ug'{ dfq xf]Og, a? ;DalGwt b]zn] To:tf ck/fwx¿sf] pQ/bfloTj :yflkt u/L ;hfo u/f];\ eGg] xf]. To:t} Oh/fonsf 8f]/f]g cndf]unfO{ Kofn]:6fOgdf o'4ck/fw, xTof h:tf 36gfdf ;+nUg /x]sf] egL ;g\ @))( df a]nfotdf ph'/L k¥of]. pgnfO{ h]g]ef dxf;lGw rf/sf] wf/f !$^ adf]lhd æuDeL/ pNnª\3gÆsf] cleof]u nfUof]. a]nfotn] æuDeL/ pNnª\3gÆnfO{ Geneva Convention Act, 1957 cGtu{t ck/fwLs/0f u/L ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ u|x0f u/]sfn] cbfntn] lu/km\tf/ k"lh{ hf/L u¥of] t/ a]nfot cfpg hxfh rl9;s]sf cndf]u ;"rgf r'lxPsf sf/0f lu/km\tf/Laf6 ar]. o; 36gfaf6 s] :ki6 x'G5 eg] olb s'g} b]zn] o'4 ck/fw, dfgjtf lj?4sf] ck/fw jf uDeL/ pNnª\3gnfO{ ck/fwLs/0f ul/;s]sf] cj:yfdf jf a]kQf, u}/Goflos xTof / anfTsf/ h:tf 36gfnfO{ ck/flws/0f ul/;s]sf] 5 eg] dfgjclwsf/sf] pRrfo'Qmsf] sfof{no -cf]Prl;Prcf/_sf] k|ltj]bg cg';f/ g]kfndf To:tf 36gf 36]sf] :yflkt eO;s]sfn] oftgf afx]ssf cGo ck/fwdf cGo sf]xL JolQm km]l/ lu/km\tf/ kg{ ;Sg] cj:yfnfO{ gsfg{ ;lsFb}g. bf];f| ] ljZjo'4kl5 em08} !% j6f b]zx¿n] ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]u ul/;s]sf 5g\. t/, o:tf] If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]udf k|foM ul/a / clk|msg b]zx¿dfq k/]sf] / Oh/fon tyf cGo klZrdf b]zsf bf]ifLx¿nfO{ ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ k|of]u ug]{ b]zx¿n] bf]xf]/f] dfkb08 (Double Standard) k|of]u u/L sf/afxL gug]{ u/]sf] / o:tf] If]qflwsf/ /fhgLlts/0fsf] lzsf/ ePsf] eGg] cf/f]k klg nfUg] u/]sf] 5. ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf d'2fx¿ ;Dk"0f{ dfgjhfltsf lj?4 ul/Psf uDeL/ ck/fw dflgG5g\. h;nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gsf] efifdf 'erga omnes' norms of international law jf To:tf cGt/f{li6«o bfloTj 'jus cognes' h:nfO{ ;lGwhlgt sfg'gaf6

;+zf]wg ug{ ;lsFbg} eGg] dflgG5g\. s]xL


ck/fwx¿ cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfosf lj?4sf] r'gf}tL dflgG5. To;}n] k|To]s /fi6«x¿ tfls{s jf g}lts¿kdf To:tf bf]ifLx¿nfO{ sf/afxL ug{ afWo 5g\ eGg] dfGotfaf6 ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] ljsf; ePsf] xf]. xg]/L lsl;ª\u/, hf] ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/cGtu{t bf]ifL egL d'2f k/]sf cd]l/sfsf k"j{ ljb]z ;lrj x'g\, o:tf] If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]un] ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf] j8fkqn] ;a} b]z ;dfg 5g\ eGg] dfGotfsf] ljk/Lt ePsf] dfGb5g\. pgsf] ljrf/df o:tf] If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]un] ljZjJofkL ¿kdf GofofwLzsf] lg/ª\sz ' tf rNg] dfGb5g\. To:t} pgsf] ljrf/df olb ;a} /fi6«n] o:tf] sfg'g agfpg] xf] eg] abnf :j¿k b]vfpg] k|s[ltsf d'2fx¿n] Goflos c/fhstf ;[hgf ub{5 eGg] dfGb5g\ t/ ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] k|ltkfbs PDg]:6L OG6/g]zgnsf cg';f/ cfˆg} gful/s jf cGo JolQmx¿sf lj?4 uDeL/ ck/fw u/]/ kb tyf zf;gsf] b'¿kof]u u/L pQ/bfloTj axg ug{ grfxg] tyf cfkm"nfO{ sfg'geGbf dfly ePsf] dfGg] JolQmx¿nfO{ sfg'gsf] dftxtdf NofO{ dfgjhflts} lj?4df ul/g] ck/fwsf] pkrf/ /fli6«o ¿kdf c;Dej ePsf] cj:yfdf cGt/f{li6«o Gofo vf]Hg ;lsG5 eGg] dflgG5. o:tf d'2fx¿sf] p2]Zo ;a} d'2fdf sf/afxL rnfpg] eGbf klg ;DalGwt b]zd} d'2f rnfpm jf cGo b]zsf] sfg'g cfslif{t x'G5 eGg] xf]. To:t} o:tf d'2f ;Lldt tyf :yflkt cGt/f{li6«o ck/fw eGbf afx]s cGo ck/fwdf rnfpg ;lsFb}g. o:tf] dfGotfnfO{ ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3 ;'/Iffkl/ifb\sf] k|:tfj g+= !^&$ (2006) af6 /fi6«x¿nfO{ uDeL/ ck/fwaf6 dflg;x¿nfO{ ;+/If0f ug]{ bfloTj tf]sL To:tf ck/fwdf ;+nUg JolQmnfO{ sf/afxL ug]{ bfloTj tf]s]sf] kfOG5. To:t} kl5Nnf] ;dodf uDeL/ k|s[ltsf ck/fwdf ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]u ug]{ dfGotf Jofks¿kdf ljsfz xF'b} uPsf]n] o:tf] dfGotfnfO{ ;fj{ef}ldstfsf] l;4fGtsf]] ckjfbsf] ¿kdf x]g]{ ul/G5. /fi6«x¿ ;fj{ef}d t 5g\, t/ sltko ;fj{ef}ldstfsf kIfx¿

;lGwdf kIf/fi6« eP/ cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfonfO{ ;'lDkPsf] kfOG5. h:t} ICCPR cGtu{t :yflkt dfgjclwsf/ ;ldltn] /fli6«o ¿kdf Gofo k|fKt ug{ g;s]df ph'/L u|x0f ug]{ If]qflwsf/ /fVb5. k/Dk/fut ¿kdf o:tf] k|fjwfgn] ;fj{ef}ldstfsf] l;4fGtsf] pNnª\3g dfGg ;lsG5. To:t} /f]dljwfg cGtu{t u7g ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o kmf}hbf/L cbfntdf olb kIf/fi6« æclgR5's jf cIfdÆsf] cj:yf cfPdf x]udf d'2f rNg ;Sb5. t;y{ ;fj{ef}ldstfsf] l;4fGtdf cfPsf kl/jt{gx¿n] ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]unfO{ :jLs[t sfg'gL cfwf/ ePsf] dfGotfdf kl/0ft ul/;s]sf] dflgG5. sltko ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf cfnf]rsx¿n] /fi6«sf sd{rf/L jf /fi6«k|d'vn] pGd'lQm (Immunity) kfpFb5g\ t;y{ o:tf] sf/afxL u}/sfg'gL xf] eGg] ub{5g\ t/ cGt/f{li6«o cbfnt of Justice n] Arrest Warrant Case 2002 df /fHosf clwsf/Lx¿ "may be subject to criminal proceedings before certain international criminal courts, where they have jurisdiction. Examples include the international Criminal Tribunal for The Former Yugoslavia and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda… and the future International Criminal Court" eGg]

pNn]v u/L uDeL/ ck/fwdf pGd'lQ x'Fb}g eGg] :yflkt ul/;s]sf] 5. o:t} dfGotf lkgf];]sf] d'2fdf "Torture Convention have given universal jurisdiction to all courts wherever the torture occurs" eGg] dfGotf

l:yflkt u/]sf] 5. Charles Taylor sf] d'2fdf (2004) "The sovereign equality of states does not prevent a Head of State from being prosecuted before an international criminal tribunal or court" eGg] dfGotfsf] :yflkt

ul/;s]sf] 5. t;y{ /fHosf sd{rf/L jf /fHo k|d'vn] o:tf] pGd'lQm kfpF5g\ eGg] dfGotfsf] sfg'gL cfwf/ ;dfKt

eO;s]sf] 5. To:t} ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3df sfo{/t JolQm s'6gLlts pGd'lQmaf6 ;+/lIft x'G5 t/, ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf dxf;lrj uDeL/ ck/fwdf ;+nUg JolQmx¿nfO{ sf/afxL km's'jf u/L pGd'lQm jf ;+/If0f km'sfpg] st{Joaf6 afFlwPsf] dflgG5. To;}n] o:tf ck/fwdf lu/km\tf/ k/]sf JolQmnfO{ dxf;lrjn] t'?Gt s'6gLlts pGd'lQmaf6 km's'jf ug]{ ub{5g\. g]kfn h:t} cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfosf b]zx¿ k|yfhlgt cGt/f{li6«o sfg'g tyf h]ge] f dxf;lGw rf/, To;sf b'O{ yk Protocals tyf oftgf lj?4sf] dxf;lGwsf] bfloTjcg';f/ /fli6«o ¿kdf sfg'g agfO{ ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ u|x0f ug{ jf To:tf] uDeL/ ck/fwdf ;+nUg JolQmx¿ g]kfndf e]l6Pdf sf/afxL ug{ OR5's jf ;Ifd b]zdf ;'kb' u{ L ug{ afWo 5g\. t;y{ g]kfnn] o:tf] sfg'gL k|fjwfg agfpg' g]kfnsf] bfloTj tyf st{Jo cGtu{t kb{5. o:tf] sfg'gdf To:tf uDeL/ ck/fwdf ;+nUg JolQmx¿nfO{ s'g} kbLo x}l;ot ePsf sf/0faf6 5'6 lbOg] 5}g eGg] :ki6 ¿kdf pNn]v ul/g' kb{5. #= lgisif{ b08xLgtf lj?4 Gofosf cj;/x¿sf] vf]lhdf cGt/f{li6«o Gofosf] Ps ¿kdf ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] ljsf; ePsf] kfOG5. uDeL/ k|s[ltsf ck/fwdf o:tf] If]qsf] k|of]un] s]xL t/ª\u gNofPsf] xf]Og t/ o:tf] If]qsf] k|of]u kLl8tsf] cfFvfaf6 Ps k|efjsf/L cf}hf/sf] ¿kdf x]l/Psf] 5. g]kfndf ePsf] ;z:q åGåsf] cjlwdf ePsf] oftgf ;DaGwdf o:tf] If]qflwsf/ k|of]u eO;s]sf] 5. a]kQf, u}/Goflos xTof, anfTsf/ tyf o'4ck/fw / dfgjtf lj?4sf ck/fwdf o:tf] If]qflwsf/ k|of]u ug]{ b]zn] g]kfnsf] sf]xL gful/snfO{ sf/afxL ub}{gg\ eGg ;lsFb}g. o:tf If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]un] ;a} kLl8tn] Gofo kfpFb}gg\, a? g]kfnd} To:tf 36gfsf] cg';Gwfg / sf/afxLnfO{ k|]/0ff k|bfg ub{5g\.

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 17


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g]kfnsf]lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn]ljlwjt ¿kdf bzj;]{nfdf];z:q åGåsf]cGTo u/L cfdg]kfnL hgtf, g]kfnsf ;'/IffsdL{ / tTsfnLg g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf n8fs'x¿nfO{ /fxt / zflGtsf] cg'e"lt u/fof]. Pdfcf]jfbLsf n8fs'sf] ;dfof]hg h:tf] clt hl6n / r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{nfO{ ;d]t o;n] lgisif{df k'¥ofpg] uf]/]6f] klxNofof]. en} o;sf] nflu ;of}F cf/f]k / sl7g ofqf lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf cGt{ut ag]sf]ljz]if ;ldlt / ;Demf}tfsf kIfx¿n]ug{'k¥of]. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf g]kfnsf]zflGt / dfgjclwsf/sf nflu k|:yfg ljGb'/x].

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k[i7e"ld g]kfnsf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] ljlwjt ¿kdf bzj;]{ nfdf] ;z:q åGåsf] cGTo u/L cfdg]kfnL hgtf, g]kfnsf ;'/IffsdL{ / tTsfnLg g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf n8fs'x¿nfO{ /fxt / zflGtsf] cg'e"lt u/fof]. Pdfcf]jfbLsf n8fs'sf] ;dfof]hg h:tf] clt hl6n / r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{nfO{ ;d]t o;n] lgisif{df k'¥ofpg] uf]/]6f] klxNofof]. en} o;sf] nflu ;of}F cf/f]k / sl7g ofqf lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf cGt{ut ag]sf] ljz]if ;ldlt / ;Demf}tfsf kIfx¿n] ug{' k¥of]. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf g]kfnsf] zflGt

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/ dfgjclwsf/sf nflu pTs[i6 b:tfj]h xf]. zflGt ;Demf}tfsf sf/0f ;f/f g]kfn / g]kfnLn] / g]kfnk|lt ;lxi0f'tf /fVg] hf] sf]xLn] klg zflGt, ;d[l4 / /fxtsf] dx;'; u/]. ;a}n] ljZjf; lnP, ca xfd|f] b]zsf] cfly{s ljsfz / ;fdflhs ;d[l4 x'G5 / /fHoaf6 tL tdfd ;'ljwf / ;+/If0f kfpg], h'g ;'ljwf / ;+/If0faf6 xfdL ;w}F jl~rt lyof}.F cfdg]kfnL oyfy{ zflGt eGbf klg zflGt eGg] zAb;Fu g} w]/} /dfP. slxn] g]tfsf] efif0fdf, slxn] kqklqsfsf] cIf/df clg slxn] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] zflGt;Fu ;DalGwt k|fjwfgx¿df. t/, cfdg]kfnL hgtf ;fdflhs zflGt dfq xf]Og /fhgLlts zflGt / ;d[l4 klg rfxGy]. nf]stflGqs Joj:yfnfO{ cfTd;ft\\ ul/P tfklg zflGt ;Demf}tfkl5sf ;/sf/x¿ slxn] klg nf]stflGqs x'g ;s]gg\, s]jn g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# / ;Da4 k|rlnt g]kfnL sfg'gx¿ dfq nf]stflGqs /x]sf] b]lvof]. h;sf] kmn:j¿k b08xLgtf / dfgjclwsf/ xgg\sf] sfo{ ;z:q åGåsf] t'ngfdf sd eP klg o;n] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf kl5sf lbgdf klg lg/Gt/tf g} kfO/x\of]. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofo / dfgjclwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt k|fjwfgx¿sf] kfngf gx'Fbf åGåaf6

k|tfl8t g]kfnL gful/sx¿ lbgfg'lbg yk kLl8t eO/x]sf] cj:yf 5. /fhgLlts k|ltkmn / kmfObf lng] sfo{sf] nflu lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] sfof{Gjog x'g'kb{5 eGg] s'/fdf ;8sb]lv Joj:yflksf ;+;b\;Dd / ;+ljwfg;efsf] a}7sb]lv dlGqkl/ifb\sf] a}7s;Dd s'/f gp7]sf xf]Ogg\. t/, lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v ePsf] ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofo / dfgjclwsf/ ;DaGwL k|fjwfgx¿sf] sfof{Gjog tyf ;Ddfg / ;+/If0f ug{ o; ;Demf}tfsf 36gfx¿nfO{ kIfx¿ r's]sf] dfgjclwsf/sf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;ª\3;+:yfx¿n] k|To]s jif{ clen]v ul//x]sf 5g\. t/, g]kfnsf kLl8tx¿sf] b'ef{Uo dfGg'k5{, lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] pNnª\3g jf kfngf gePsf] sf/0fn] s;}n] Gofo kfPsf] 5}g jf s;}sf] dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3g ePsf] 5 eg] o:tf 36gfx¿ ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]udf k'Ug] 5}gg\. ToxfF t åGåsf] bf}/fg ePsf pNnª\3gsf 36gfx¿ dfq k'Ub5g\. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# dfcf]jfbL ljb|f]xL / ;/sf/;Fu ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg zlQmsf] afF8kmfF8 ePsf] ;Demf}tf lyof] h;n] bzj;]{ nfdf] u[xo'4sf] cGTo u¥of].1 of] ;Demf}tfsf] kfngf / ;Ddfgdf ePsf]

n]vs /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]u, nlntk'/;Fu ;Da4 x'g'x'G5. “Nepal’s Maoist rebels reached a transitional power-sharing agreement with the civilian government to end the country’s ten-yearlong civil war.” Anna K. Jarstad and Timothy D. Sisk, From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding. Cambridge University Press 2008. P.125

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s~h':ofOF cflb sf/0fn] of] ;Demf}tfsf] dd{ / efjgfnfO{ Ps kIfnfO{ dfq zlQmzfnL agfpg] eGg] p2]Zo lnPs} lyPg / zlQmdf /x]sfnfO{ b08xLgtfsf] ;+:s[lt cEof; ug]{ / /fhgLlts ;+/If0fdf -Political Patronize) df /xL sfo{ ug]{ tyf sfg'gsf] zf;gnfO{ lt/isf/ ug]{ clwsf/ lbPs} 5}g. cj:yf g]kfnsf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf efif0f lbgsf] nflu, cbfntdf d'2fsf] ax;sf] l;nl;nfdf p4/0f ug{sf nflu, /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o d~rdf cfˆgf] ts{nfO{ alnof];uF k|:t't ug{sf nflu jf pRrlzIff xfl;n ul//x]sf ljBfyL{x¿sf] nflu zf]wkqdf o;sf k|fjwfgx¿ pNn]v ug{] k|of]hgsf nflu jf o:tf vfnsf n]vx¿df dfq k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5. cGo k|of]hgx¿ klg x'g ;S5g\. zflGt ;Demf}tf o:tf] ;Demf}tf xf],h'g ;Demf}tf zflGt ;Demf}tf dfq geO{ dfgjclwsf/ ;Demf}tf klg xf]. To;}n] t of] ;Demf}tf zflGt / dfgjclwsf/sf] ;lDd>0f ePsfn] o;n] lj:t[t gfd kfPsf] x'g ;S5. t/ la8Dagf, of] o:tf] ;Demf}tf eof], h;sf] of] a'Fbfsf] rflxF cIf/zM kfngf jf sfof{Gjog eof] eg]/ eGg ;lsg] cj:yf 5}g. tTsfnLg g]kfn ;/sf/ / ljb|f]xL g]skf dfcf]jfbLaLr @)^# dª\l;/ % ut] /flt xfnsf] ;+ljwfg;ef /x]sf] ejgdf ha lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf b'j} kIfaLr x:tfIf/ eof], k|;] lj1lKt lgsfn]/ :jfut ug]{x¿sf] nx/ rNof]. cGt/f{li6«o If]qx¿af6, ;+o'Qm 2 3 4 5 6 7

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lj:t[t hfgsf/Lsf] nflu Mhttp://www.nepalireporter.com/cpa-cannot-be-basis-for-nepal-future-political-course-ghimire/ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'bf+ g+=#=# lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'bf g= %=!=$ b'j} kIf o'4sf] ;dodf k|of]u ul/Psf w/fk tyf af?bL ;'?ªx¿sf] /]vfs+g, e08f/0f #) lbg leq Ps csf{nfO{ hfgsf/L lbg / ^) lbgleq lgis[o / lgd'{n ug{ Ps csf{nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{5g\. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'bf g= %=!=* ;z:q åGåsf] s|ddf sAhf ul/Psf, tfnf nufO{Psf jf k|of]u ug{ glbOPsf ;/sf/L, ;fj{hlgs, lghL ejg, hldg tyf cGo ;DkQLx¿ Nut v8f u/L tTsfn lkmtf{ ug{ b'j} kIf ;xdtL AoQm ub{5g\. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'bf g= %=@=@ cfkm\gf sAhfdf /x]sf dflg;x¿sf] af/]df hfgsf/L ;fj{hlgs u/L !% lbg leq ;a}nfO{ d'Qm ug{ b'j} kIf dGh'/ ub{5g\. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'Fbf g= %=@=# b'j} kIf4f/f a]kQf kl/Psf AolQmx¿sf] tyf o'4sf] ;dodf dfl/Psfx¿sf] jf:tljs gfd, y/ / 3/sf] 7]ufgf ;Demf}tf ePsf] ldltn] ^) lbgleq ;'rgfx¿ ;fj{hlgs u/L kl/jf/hgnfO{ ;d]t hfgsf/L pknAw u/fpg dGh'/ ub{5g.

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kqsf/ k|sfz 7s'/Lsf] xTof h:tf uDeL/ k|s[ltsf 36gfx¿ of] aLrdf ;fj{hlgs eP eg] csf]{tkm{ :jtGq Gofonoaf6 lg0f{o eO{ bf]ifL ePsf JolQmx¿ xfn;Dd sfg'gsf] bfo/fleq gcfpg' tyf ;fj{hlgs cf]xbfdf a;]sf kL8sx¿sf] kbsf] :t/pGglt x'g'n] o;sf kIfx¿ OdfGbf/ lyPgg\ / 5}gg\ eGg ufx«f] x'Fb}g. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] bf}/fg tyf lgjf{rg cl3 / kl5 cfdg]kfnLsf] dtbfg;Fu ;DalGwt JolQmut :jtGqtf xgg\ ePsf] eGg] ljifodf y'k|} /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o k|ltj]bg k|sflzt eP. lgjf{Rfgsf] bf}/fg lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] Jofks pNnª\3g x'g k'Uof]. lgw{Ss / lagf 8/qf; dtbfg ug]{ clwsf/af6 cfdg]kfnL hgftf jl~rt ePsf] cj:yf lyof]. t/ of] ljifonfO{ s;}n] klg uDeL/tfsf ;fy lnPgg\. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] cfkm"nfO{ ;+ljwfg tyf sfg'gsf] g} xf/fxf/Ldf /fv]sf] 5. To;}n] t cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] g} cª\usf] ¿kdf of] ;Demf}tf /x\g uof]. o; ;Demf}tfsf] Pp6f k|fjwfgn] of] ;Demf}tf s'g} klg ;dodf ;+zf]wg ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5.8o;sf] kfngf ug{ o;sf kIfx¿nfO{ s'g} ufx«f], ;fx«f], cK7of/f] k/]sf] eP ;+zf]wg ug{ ;lsg] k|fjwfgnfO{ klg k|of]u ul/Psf] 5}g. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf sltko k|fjwfgx¿sf] sfof{Gjog lglZrt ;do leq ul/;Sg'kg]{ eP tfklg pQm tf]lsPsf] ;dofjlw leq sfof{Gjog gePsf] cj:yfdf pQm k|fjwfgx¿nfO{ ;+zf]wg u/L ;dofjlw a9fpg'kg]{ lyof]. t/, ;Demf}tfsf kIfx¿n] o; ljifodf rf;f] g} lbPgg\. hasL log} ;Demf}tfsf kIfx¿n] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# df k6sk6s ;+zf]wg u/] tyf ;+ljwfg;efsf] Dofb klg a9fP.

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lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'Fbf g+= !)=# b'j}kIfsf] ;xdltaf6 k|:t't ;Demf}tfdf s'g} klg ;dodf ;+zf]wg ug{ ;lsg] 5. ;+zf]wg ug{ rfx]df ;f]sf] lnlvt ;"rgf csf]{ kIfnfO{ k|bfg ug{ b'j}kIf ;xdt 5g\. To;/L ;"rgf k|fKt ePkl5 b'j} kIfsf] ;xdltaf6 ;+zf]wg ug{ ;lsg]5.

20 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s


dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] ;DaGwdf ;DalGwt kIf lj?4 g]kfn ;/sf/n] hfx]/L klg lnPsf] 5}g. dfgjclwsf/sf] uDeL/ pNnª\3gsf] lj?4 k|efjsf/L sfg'gL pkrf/ k|fKt ug]{ kLl8tsf] clwsf/ cx/0fLo x'G5. of] clwsf/ ;z:q o'4 jf ;ª\s6sfnsf] bf}/fgdf klg x/0f ug{ kfO{Fb}g. ef]ln lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] andf ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofo lbg] cfof]u u7g eP klg /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]usf] l;kmfl/;x¿ sfof{Gjog geO{ /x]sf] cj:yfdf ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]usf] l;kmfl/;x¿ sfof{Gjog x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf zª\sf ug]{ k|z:t 7fpFx¿ 5g\. ;/sf/ kl/jt{g eP klg ;/sf/df hfg] JolQm xfn ljBdfg /x]sf /fhgLlts bnsf g]tfx¿ g} x'g]5g\. cfzf dfq ug{ ;lsG5, ljZjf; dfq lng ;lsG5. t/, zfob cfh ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u u7g ePsf] eP g]kfnL ;]gfsf s0f]{n s'df/ nfdf;z:q åGåsf] a]nf u/]sf HofbtL / dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] d'2fdf a]nfot (United Kingdom) sf] lx/f;tdf x'Fb}g lyP xf]nfg\. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] lnPsf] p2]Zo cg'¿k ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofosf] 9f]sfx¿ vf]Ng] dfWod Vetting Process9klg xf]. t/ r/d b08xLgtfsf] ;+:s[ltdf /dfPsf ;/sf/ / /fhgLlts bnx¿n] xfn;Dd Vetting Process nfO{ ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofosf] cleGg s'/fsf] ¿kdf g t a'em] g t dfgjclwsf/ / ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofosf] If]qdf sfo{ ug]{x¿n] g} a'emfpg ;s]. To;}u/L b}n]vsf kqsf/ 8]s]Gb|

yfkfsf xTofsf cleo'Qmx¿sf] cleof]hg sfo{nfO{ /f]Sg g]kfnsf dxfGoflwjQmfn] b}n]vsf k|x/L / ;/sf/L jlsnsf] sfof{nonfO{ kq klg n]Vg' kb}{g lyof] xf]nf. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] lnPsf] ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofosf] Joj:yfkg ug{ g;Sbf slxn] ;/sf/nfO{ t slxn] /fhgLlts bnnfO{ o; k|sf/sf] r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug{' g} kg]{ x'G5. /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yf tyf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3 lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]unfO{ zflGt dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL ;Demf}tfsf]] k|fjwfgx¿sf] cg'udg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L klg lbPsf] 5.10 cfof]un] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] lbPsf] clwsf/If]q cGt{ut /x]/ k|To]s jif{ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf bf}/fg ePsf] dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] 36gfx¿sf] k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs ub}{ g]kfn ;/sf/;dIf l;kmfl/; klg ub}{ cfO/x]sf] lyof]. t/ of] qmd ljutdf b]lvP tfklg xfn /f]lsPsf] 5. cfof]un] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf ePkl5 k|To]s jif{ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] lbPsf] clwsf/If]q cGt{ut dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] cg'udg u/L k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs ub}{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ sfo{ u¥of]. t/ of] sfo{n] rf/ jif{;Dd dfq lg/Gt/tf kfof]. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] rf}yf] jif{ k|dv ' k|lta4tf / sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yf @)^& gfds k|ltj]bg cfof]un] @)^& ;fndf k|sfzg u/]kl5 @)^* / @)^( ;fndf cfof]un] o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] ;DaGwdf s'g} k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] kfOFbg} .\ 11

/fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]un] klg lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfnfO{ lbO{ cfPsf] dxTjnfO{ lj:tf/} sd ub}{ uPsf] xf] sL eGg] b]lvG5 eg] csf]{tkm{ ;Demf}tfsf] dxTjk"0f{ kIf cfkm} ;/sf/df ePsfn] klg cfof]usf] nflu o;sf] cg'udg ;DaGwL sfo{ yk r'gf}tLk"0f{ aGg uPsf] x'g ;S5. t/ cfof]un] lj:t[t zflGt lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]unfO{ zflGt ;Demf}tfsf]] dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL k|fjwfgx¿sf] cg'udg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L klg lbPsf] 5 . cfof]un] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] lbPsf] clwsf/If]q cGt{ut /x]/ k|To]s jif{ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf bf}/fg ePsf] dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] 36gfx¿sf] k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs ub}{ g]kfn ;/sf/;dIf l;kmfl/; klg ub}{ cfO/x]sf] lyof]. t/ of] qmd ljutdf b]lvP tfklg xfn /f]lsPsf] 5 . cfof]un] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf eP kl5 k|To]s jif{ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] lbPsf] clwsf/If]q cGt{ut dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] cg'udg u/L k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs ub}{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ sfo{ u¥of] . ;Demf}tfkl5sf lbgx¿df dfgjclwsf/ sf] cj:yfdf h'g ;'wf/sf] ck]Iff u/]sf] lyof], xfn;Dd To;f] x'g g;s]sf] s'/fnfO{ eg] cfof]un] :jLsf/]sf] 5.12 zflGt ;Demf}tfdf OHCHR Nepal sfof{nonfO{ klg dfgjclwsf/ k|fjwfgx¿sf] cg'udg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] lyof].13 OHCHR Nepal n]

9

“Vetting is a bridge between transitional justice and institutional reform. The vetting process focuses on the formal qualification of staff and on whether they have a criminal record or are guilty of past human rights abuses”.la:t[t hfgsf/Lsf] nflu M Annuika S. Hansen and Sharon Wiharta etal,The Transitioin to a Just Order-Establishing Local Owernship after Conflict. Folke Bernadotte Academy Publication, Sweden p.47

10

lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'bFf g+= (=$ /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]un] sfg'g adf]lhd lgjf{x ug{'kg]{ bfloTjsf ;fy} o; ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v ul/Psf dfgjclwsf/ cg'udg;DaGwL sfo{x¿ klg ;Dkfbg ug]{5. x]g{'xf];\ Mwww.nhrcnepal.org /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]usf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg @)^&÷^* k[i7 !!–!@ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'Fbf g+=(=! b'j} kIf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3Lo dfgjclwsf/ pRrcfo'Qmsf] g]kfnl:yt sfof{noaf6 o; ;Demf}tfdf pNn]lvt dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL k|fjwfgx¿sf] cg'udgsf] sfdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ;xdt 5g\.

11 12 13

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 21


klg lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] lbPsf] clwsf/ If]q cGt{ut /x]/ dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf] 36gfx¿ k|To]s jif{ ;fj{hlgs ub}{ cfP tfklg o;n] tLg jif{ ;Dd dfq lg/Gt/tf kfof]. To; kl5sf jif{x¿df o;n] klg s'g} k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs u/]g. xfn} OHCHR lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf]] csf]{ pNn]vgLo s'/f eg]sf] oxL ;Demf}tfsf] cf8df ;Demf}tfsf] kIfx¿sf] ;xdltdf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3Lo ld;g United Nations Mission to Nepal (UNMIN) n] k|j]z kfof] . o;sf] d'Vo sfo{ xltof/ / n8fs'sf] Joj:yfkg lyof]. o;sf] nflu tTsfnLg g]skf dfcf]jfbL / g]kfn ;/sf/aLr Agreement on Monitoring of the Management of Arms and Armies

eof]. h;df ;fIfLsf] ¿kdf UN Secretary-General sf k|ltlglw Ian Martin n] klg x:tfIf/ u/]sf lyP . z'?sf lbgdf UNMIN n] lzlj/df /x]sf dfcf]jfbL n8fs'sf] k|df0fLs/0f tyf xltof/sf] ;'/Iffsf] sfo{ u/]sf] lyof] . n8fs'sf] k|df0fLs/0f ug]{ s'/fdf UNMIN n] Jofks q'l6 u/]sf] s'/f ;Demf}tfcGt{ut /x]sf] ljz]if ;ldltn] n8fs' ;dfof]hgsf] nflu kl/rokq ljt/0f ug]{ sfo{ ubf{ 5n{ª\u eof] . UNMIN n] u/]sf] k|df0fLs/0f eGbf sd ;ª\Vofdf n8fs' lyP . Geneva

n] @)!@ sf] cS6f]a/df k|sfzg u/]sf] UN OHCHR Nepal Conflict Report 2012 df lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf ePsf] ljifo tyf zflGt ;Demf}tfn] ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofosf] nflu 14 15 16

17

lnPsf] p2]Zo / ;To lg¿k0f d]nldnfk cfof]u / j]kQf cfof]usf] af/]df y'k|} rrf{ ul/P tfklg lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] sfof{Gjog ug{k' g]{ tyf o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] ;DaGwdf s'g} klg dxTjk"0f{ rrf{ Pj+ l;kmfl/; eg] ul/Psf]] 5}g.14 lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf]] csf]{ pNn]vgLo s'/f eg]sf] oxL ;Demf}tfsf] cf8df ;Demf}tfsf] kIfx¿sf] ;xdltdf ;+oQ ' m /fi6«;ª\3Lo ld;g (UNMIN) n] k|j]z kfof]. o;sf] d'Vo sfo{ xltof/ / n8fs'sf] Joj:yfkg lyof]. o;sf] nflu tTsfnLg g]skf dfcf]jfbL / g]kfn Agreement on ;/sf/aLr Monitoring of the Management of 15 Arms and Armies eof]. h;df

;fIfLsf] ¿kdf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf k|ltlglw Ian Martin n] klg x:tfIf/ u/]sf lyP. z'?sf lbgdf cgldgn] lzlj/df /x]sf dfcf]jfbL n8fs'sf] k|df0fLs/0f tyf xltof/sf] ;'/Iffsf] sfo{ u/]sf] lyof]. n8fs'sf] k|df0fLs/0f ug]{ s'/fdf cgldgn] Jofks q'l6 u/]sf] s'/f ;Demf}tfcGt{ut /x]sf] ljz]if ;ldltn] n8fs' ;dfof]hgsf] nflu kl/rokq ljt/0f ug]{ sfo{ ubf{ 5n{ª\u eof]. cgldgn] u/]sf] k|df0fLs/0f eGbf sd ;ª\Vofdf n8fs' lyP. h'g s'/fn] cgldtsf] ;j{q cfnf]rgf eof]. rf}tkmL{ lj/f]wsf afah'b\ cgldtsf] cflwsfl/s wf/0ff ;fj{hlgs ePg\. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf g} o:tf] b:tfj]h lyof] h;n] cgldgnfO{ dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf n8fs' tyf o;sf c:yfoL lzlj/x¿df k|df0fLs/0f tyf cg'udgsf] lhDd]jf/L lbPsf] lyof].16 t/, ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3 h:tf] lgsfosf] ldzg cgldgn] ;Demf}tfn] lbPsf] lhDd]jf/Lsf] lgikIfk"j{s kfngf u/]g. ;fy} cgldgsf] /f]xa/df /x]sf]

dfcf]jfbLsf] xltof/ h;df cgldgn] cfkm\gf] :6Ls/ / gDa/ 6fF;L k|dfl0ft u/]sf] lyof]. To:tf] xltof/af6 ck/fw x'g', To:tf xltof/ af]s]/ lzlj/ aflx/ n8fs'x¿ lg:sg' tyf To:tf] xltof/x¿ k|x/Laf6 a/fdb x'gn' ] klg lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] cgldgnfO{ lbPsf] lhDd]jf/Lk|lt pbfl;g /x]sf] b]lvof]. cGt/f{li6«o ;]/f]km]/f] lzto'4sf] ;dfKtL;Fu} ePsf ;of}F ;lGwx¿ zflGt;Fu ;DalGwt lyP. o:tf zflGt ;lGwn] cGt{b]zLo / cfGtl/s o'4sf] ljlwjt cGTo u/]sf] lyof]. o;}u/L lzto'4sf] ;dfKtLkl5 ljZje/df nueu $) cf]6f zflGt ;Demf}tfx¿ ljleGg /fi6«x¿df ;z:q ljb|f]xdf /x]sf n8fs' / ;DalGwt ;/sf/x¿;Fu eP.17 oL dWo]sf s]xL zflGt ;Demf}tfx¿ tf]l8Psf klg 5g\ eg] s]xLsf kfngf eP/ ;kmntf klg ldn]sf] / s]xL zflGt ;Demf}tfx¿ sfof{Gjogs} r/0fdf 5g\. zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] dfWodaf6 zflGt :yfkgf ePsf] /fi6«sf] ¿kdf blIf0f clk|msfnfO{ ;kmn pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf ;a}eGbf a9L lng] ul/G5. ljutdf ;+;f/df ePsf k|ToIf tyf ck|ToIf cfGtl/s åGåsf] sf/0faf6 zflGt :yfkgfy{ ePsf zflGt ;Demf}tfx¿ dWo] dxTjk"0f{ ¿kdf Guatemala, Kosovo, East Timor, Cambodia, Croatia, El Salvador, Macedonia, Mozambique, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Colombia, Georgia, Tajikistan, Cote d’ Ivoire, Liberia, Philippines, Burundi, Sierra Lone, Congo, Angola / Nepal sf zflGt ;Demf}tf pNn]vgLo

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lj:t[t hfgsf/Lsf] nflu Mhttp://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/NP/OHCHR_Nepal_Conflict_Report2012.pdf x]g{'xf];\ Mhttp://www.carnegieendowment.org/newsletters/SAP/pdf/nepal_modalities_agreement_nov_28_final.pdf lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf @)^# sf] a'bf+ g+= $=!, @)^# ;fn ;fpg @$ ut] g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf] tkm{af6 ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3nfO{ k7fOPsf] kqdf AoQm k|lta4tf cg';f/ dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf n8fs'x¿ Combatants lgDglnlvt :yfgx¿df c:yfoL lzlj/x¿ Cantonments df ;Lldt /xg] ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3åf/f pgLx¿sf] k|df0fLs/0f / cg'udg ug]{. lj:t[t hfgsf/Lsf] nflu M http://kroc.nd.edu/research/peace-processes-accords

22 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s


;Demf}tfx¿sf] ;dfg dxTj 5. ljljw gfdsf o:tf zflGt ;Demf}tfx¿ JolQmut dWo:ystf{sf] ;xof]udf, s'g} /fi6«sf] ;xof]udf jf g]kfn h:tf] ;Demf}tfsf] b'j} kIfsf] ;xdltdf ePsf] 5. g]kfnsf] zflGt ;Demf}tf cGo /fi6«sf] eGbf k[ys / leGg 5. lsgeg] of] zflGt ;Demf}tfdf sf]xL klg dWo:ystf{ egL ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ u/]sf] kfO{Fb}g\. cGo /fi6«sf] ;Demf}tfdf dWo:ystf{sf] gfd klg kfOG5. Ujf6]dfnfdf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf] cu'jfO{df ePsf] ToxfFsf] ljb|f]xL Unidad Revolucionaria / Nacional Guatemala Government of the Republic of Guatemala aLr !(($ sf] dfr{df ePsf] Comprehensive Agreement Human Rights df ;Demf}tfsf] kIfafx]s dWo:ystf{sf] ¿kdf Jean ARNAULT eGg] Pshgf JolQmn] / ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf] tkm{af6 Marrack Goulding UN Under-Secretary18 General n] x:tfIf/ u/]sf 5g\.

g]kfnsf] h:tf] cfkm\gf] df}lns ljz]iftf af]s]sf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] pb\ud, o;sf] agfj6 k|lqmof / x:tfIf/ sfo{qmd cToGt df}lns / g]kfnsf] cfkm\gf] dfq k|oTgn] ;kmn eP klg o;sf] lkmtnf] sfof{Gjog / ;/sf/sf] u}/lhDd]jf/Lsf] sf/0faf6 o;sf] kfngf ug{df o;sf b'j} kIf sdhf]/ b]lvPsf 5g\. cfGtl/s u[xo'4 jf ;z:q åGåsf] sf/0faf6 ljleGg b]zx¿df ljleGg gfdn] zflGt ;Demf}tf jf dfgjclwsf/ ;Demf}tfx¿ ePsf 5g\. o:tf ;Demf}tfx¿sf] pNnª\3g klg ;Demf}tfsf kIfx¿af6 ePsf x'G5g\. g]kfn ;/sf/ cfkm}F ljZjsf bh{g eGbf

18

a9L /fi6«df cfkm\gf] ;'/Iffcª\usf ;'/IffsdL{sf] ;fydf zflGt :yfkgf sfo{df sfo{/t 5. sfo{/t /x]sf] d'n'sx¿dWo] n]agg, sª\uf]+, nfO{a]l/of, ;'8fg, x}6L, k'jL{ l6df]/ cflb b]zdf cGt{b]zLo jf cfGtl/s zflGt ;Demf}tfx¿ ePsf 5g\. o:tf /fi6«df zflGt :yfkgfy{ ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3Lo zflGt ld;g cGt{ut /x]/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] ToxfFsf] zflGt :yfkgfy{ sfo{ ul//xFbf cfkm\g} b]zsf] zflGt :yfkgf tyf dfgjclwsf/sf] k"0f{ axfnLsf] lgldQ dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf] zflGt ;Demf}tfsf]] sfof{Gjogdf g]kfn ;/sf/ r's]sf] 5. cGTodf lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] cj:yf d[t jf hLljt h] h:tf] eP tfklg oxL ;Demf}tf xf] h;n] g]kfnsf] Ps bzs nfdf] ;z:q åGåsf] cGTo u/L åGåsf] qmddf ePsf d[ts tyf a]kQfsf] ;ª\VofnfO{ nueu !# xhf/ / ! xhf/df g} ;Lldt ul/lbof]. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] :yfoL zflGt, dfgjclwsf/ sf] k"0f{ ;+/If0f, ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofo, ;+ljwfg cflbsf] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] eP klg o; ;DaGwdf pNn]vgLo sfo{ ;Gtf]ifk|b ¿kdf xfn;Dd x'g ;s]sf] 5}g\. casf afFsL lbgdf g]kfnn] ;+j}wflgs tyf /fhgLlts hl6ntf km'sfpg'kg]{ tyf gofF lgjf{rgdf hfg'kg]{ afWotf t 5Fb5 } . t/, oL s'/fx¿ ;Fu;Fu} lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf dfgjclwsf/ / ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofo;Fu;DalGwt k|fjwfgx¿nfO{ klg ;+j]bgzLn eO{ kfngf ub}{ hfg'kg]{ cfjZostf klg plQs} 5. ;Demf}tfsf kIfx¿, /fhgLlts bn tyf dfgjclwsf/sf] If]qdf sfo{/t /fli6«o ;+:yf, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf /

s'6gLlts lgof]u Pjd\ cGt/f{li6«o ¿kdf dfgjclwsf/sf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;+:yfx¿n] åGåsf] ljlwjt cGTo x'g'kg]{ lyof]. o;sf] k"0f{ kfngf ub}{ ;/sf/ / /fhgLlts bnn] dfgjclwsf/ / ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofosf] ;+/If0f / kfngf ug{ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfnfO{ cGtl/d lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] :yfoL zflGt, dfgjclwsf/sf] k"0f{ ;+/If0f, ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofo, ;+ljwfg cflbsf] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] eP klg o; ;DaGwdf pNn]vgLo sfo{ ;Gtf]ifk|b ¿kdf xfn;Dd x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . casf lbgdf g]kfnn] ;+j}wflgs tyf /fhgLlts hl6ntf km'sfpg'kg]{ tyf gof“ lgjf{rgdf hfg'kg]{ afWotf t 5“b}5 . t/, oL s'/fx¿ ;“u;“u} lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf dfgjclwsf/ / ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofo;“u;DalGwt k|fjwfgx¿nfO{ klg ;+j]bgzLn eO{ kfngf ub}{ hfg'kg]{ cfjZostf klg plQs} 5 . ;Demf}tfsf kIfx¿, /fhgLlts bn tyf dfgjclwsf/sf] If]qdf sfo{/t /fli6«o ;+:yf, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf / s'6gLlts lgof]u Pjd\ cGt{/fli6«o¿kdf dfgjclwsf/sf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;+:yfx¿n] åGåsf] ljlwjt cGTo x'g'kg]{ lyof] . ;+ljwfg @)^# af6 cnu / zflGt k|s[ofaf6 cf]em]ndf /fVg ldNb}g\. g]kfnsf] lbuf] zflGt, dfgjclwsf/sf] k"0f{ k|rng, ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Joj:yf / kLl8tx¿sf] Gofosf] nflu lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfnfO{ la;{g ;lsFb}g.

lj:t[t hfgsf/Lsf] nflu Mhttp://www.usip.org/files/file/resources/collections/peace_agreements/guat_hr_940329.pdf

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% 24 k|frL ;+r]tgf 책}dfl;s


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zflGt ;Demf}tfsf 5 jif{ @)%@ kmfu'g ! ut]b]lv tTsfnLg g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ n] z'? u/]sf] ;z:q åGå @)^# dª\l;/ % ut] g]kfn ;/sf/ / tTsfnLg g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ n] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ u/]kl5 cGTo eof]. o; cjlwdf !# xhf/ @ ;o &^ hgfn] Hofg u'dfP eg] ( ;o #$ hgf a]kQf kfl/P . bz jif{sf] cjlwdf 3fOt] tyf ckfª\u ePsf dflg;x¿sf] olsg tYofª\s pknAw 5}g . zflGt ;Demf}tf x'g' cl3 b]zdf JofKt b}glGbgsf] xTof lx+;faf6 cfqmfGTf g]kfnLn] zflGtsf] sfdgf ub}{ ljljw ultljlwx¿ u/]. OG;]sn] ;f] cjlwdf zflGtsf nflu ljleGg sfo{qmdx¿ ;DkGg u¥of] . OG;]sn] ljleGg k':tsx¿ k|sfzg u/L zflGtsf] cfjZostf af/]df hgr]tgf hufpg'sf ;fy} åGåsf qmddf ePsf] Ifltsf] Jojl:yt clen]vLs/0f u¥of] . zflGt ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 jif{ k"/f eO;s]sf] 5 . t/ åGåsf cjz]ifx¿ ;dfhdf ljBdfg 5g\. åGåkLl8tnfO{ /fxt tyf k'g{:yfkgfsf tdfd sfd af“sL g} 5g\ .

zAb tyf kmf]6f] ljdnrGb|zdf{

kmf]6f]SofK;g

*

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)!= lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf ePnuQ} ;f] ;Demf}tfsf] :jfutdf dfOtL3/ d08nfdf d}gaQL k|Hjng ub}{ Ps kl/jf/. )@= g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] @)^) r}t & ut] DofUbL ;b/d'sfd a]gLdf cfqmd0f ubf{ Wj:t ePsf ;/sf/L sfof{nosf ejgx¿. )#= lrtjgsf] afFb/d'8]df @)^@ h]7 @# ut] g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_n] yfk]sf] ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/L Ifltu|:t ofq'afxs a;. ;f] 36gfdf #( hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof]. )$= / )% g]skf dfcf]jfbL / ;'/Iffkmf}haLr @)^) c;f]h @^ ut] 8f]6LlhNnfsf] d'8e/fl:yt zf/bf pRr dfljdf ePsf] bf]xf]/f] le8Gtdf 3fOt] ePsf ljBfyL{x¿. ;f] 36gfdf rf/ hgf ljBfyL{ / 5 hgf dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{sf] d[To' ePsf] lyof]. )^= DofUbLsf] ;b/d'sfd a]gLdf @)^) r}t & ut] ePsf] le8Gtsf] s]xL lbg kl5 ;f]xL lhNnfsf] cy'{ª\u] uflj;df km]nf k/]sf] dfgj cl:yk~h/. )&= ;z:qsf] åGåsf] ;dodf ;g\ @))$ df g]kfnsf] dfgjclwsf/ cj:yfsf] cg'udg tyf zflGtsf] jftfj/0f ljsf; ug{ cfPsf] cGt/f{li6«o ko{j]If0f 6f]nL. )* / )(= zflGt;Fu ;DalGwt OG;]ssf k|sfzgx¿.

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 25


zflGt ;Demf}tfsf pknlAw / ;d:of

k|sfz e§/fO{*

zflGt ;Demf}tfleq w]/}ljifox¿ pNn]v ul/Psf 5g\. o;sf]d"n nIo æcu|ufdL /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs kl/jt{g ;'lglZrt ug]{Æ /x]sf]5. h'g cfkm}Fdf Psbd}c:ki6 5. o;}u/L, o;sf cGo Joj:yfx¿df ;+ljwfg;efsf]lgjf{rg ug]{, /fhfdf lglxt ;Dk"0f{/fhgLlts, cfly{s clwsf/sf]s6f}tL u/L hgtfnfO{;fj{ef}d ;DkGg agfpg]/ o'4sf];dflKt ug]{/x]sf]5. To:t}, ljZjJofkL ¿kdf :jLs[t dfgjclwsf/ tyf ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds nf]stflGqs k|0ffnLnfO{ cjnDag ug]{ tyf ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ ljifo klg zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v 5.

zflGt ;Demf}tfn] zflGt :yfkgfdf of]ubfg ug{ ;s]sf] 5 < olb ug{ ;s]sf] 5 eg] s'g xb;Dd ug{ ;s]sf] 5 / s'g xb;Dd ug{;Sg] ;Defjgf 5 < of] cfn]vdf ;/sf/ / dfcf]jfbLaLr @)^# dª\l;/ % ut] x:tfIf/ ul/Psf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf pknlAwx¿ tyf sdLsdhf]/Lx¿nfO{ lr/kmf/ ub}{, g]kfnsf] zflGt lgdf{0f k|lqmofdf o;n] kf/]sf / kfg{ ;Sg] tTsfnLg tyf b"/ufdL k|efjx¿sf] af/]df ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5. of] cfn]v tLg efudf ljeflht 5. o;sf] ;'?jftdf lsg / s;/L ;'? eof] zflGtk|lqmof eGg] af/]df rrf{ ul/Psf] 5. zflGtk|lqmofsf dxŒjk"0f{ Joj:yfx¿ tyf sfof{Gjog ePsf / x'g g;s]sf kIfx¿sf] af/]df To;kl5sf] efudf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 eg] clGtd efudf zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] eljio s] eGg] af/]df rrf{ ul/Psf] 5. lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf d'nt kfFrj6f kIfx¿nfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ul/Psf] lyof]. oBlk o;nfO{ ljleGg 9ª\un] JofVof ug]{ ul/Psf] 5. zflGt ;Demf}tf tTsfnLg ;ft bnLo u7aGwg / dfcf]jfbLaLr gofF lbNnLdf ul/Psf] lr/kl/lrt !@ a'Fb] ;dembf/Lsf] lj:tfl/t ¿kfGt/0f lyof]. h;sf

s]

*

sf/0fn] ljZjJofkL rngrlNtsf] eGbf lgs} g} 5f]6f] ;dodf åGå/t kIfx¿ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ ug{ /fhL ePsf lyP. bf];|f], zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] bf];|f] kIf eg]sf] /fhgLlts bnx¿ / ;z:q ;ª\3if{df /x]sf] dfcf]jfbL, /fhtGqsf] cGTokZrft\ Pp6f gjLg /fHo ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ug]{ s'/fdf ;}4flGts ¿kdf ;xdt ePsf lyP. ;f] jftfj/0f l;h{gf x'g dlxgf}Fb]lv pgLx¿sf] aLrdf x'g] u/]sf k|ToIf– ck|ToIf e]63f6x¿n] ljZjf;sf] jftfj/0f agfpg] sfd u/]sf] lyof]. t];f| ,] oL b'j} zlQmx¿ g]kfnsf] kl/jlt{t /fhgLlts kl/j]zdf cfkm"nfO{ :yflkt tyf k'g:yf{lkt ug]{ k|lqmofdf lyP. o;af6 pgLx¿ g]kfnL hgtf tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfonfO{ ;sf/fTds ;Gb]z lbg rfxGy]. To;sf nflu zflGt ;Demf}tfdfkm{t\ lx+;fsf] cGTo u/]sf] -dfcf]jfbLnfO{_ tyf gofF /fHo ;+/rgf :yfkgf ug{ -;ft /fhgLlts bn_ ;xdlt sfod ug]{ k|of; u/]sf lyP. rf}yf], zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ kIf eg]sf] tTsfnLg dfcf]jfbL / /fhgLlts bnx¿aLr zlQmsf] afF8kmfF8 ug]{ rfxgf -dfcf]jfbLn] p7fO/x]sf k|d'v dfux¿nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ u/L tyf hgcfGbf]ng @)^@–)^# n] dfu{lgb]{lzt ul/Psf s'/fx¿nfO{

n]vs, Go"lhNof08sf] cf]6fuf] ljZjljBfnodf åGå / zflGt ljifodf ljBfjfl/lw ub}{ x'g'x'G5.

26 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

;Daf]wg ug]{ u/L_ nfO{ j}wflgs ¿k lbg] ;afndf ;xdlt ul/Psf] b:tfj]h xf]. / kfFrf}F, zflGt ;Demf}tfn] l5d]sL /fi6«x¿ tyf cGo cGt/f{li6«o zlQmx¿sf rf;f]x¿ hf] g]kfndf dfgjclwsf/, nf]stGq tyf ;dfj]zL /fHo Joj:yf :yfkgf ePsf] b]Vg rfxGy], ;fy} ;'/Iff, ;fdl/s tyf pgLx¿sf d"No dfGotfx¿sf] a9fjf -k|efj_ b]Vg rfxGy]. -/fHo ;+/rgfdf lgdf{0fdf cfly{s df]8]n cjnDag ug]{ ;jfndf, ;'/Iff If]q ;'wf/ tyf ¿kfGt/0f ug]{ ;afndf_ nfO{ klg ;Daf]wg ug]{ k|of; u/]sf] 5. ;du|df eGg'kbf{ cfdhgtfsf, /fhgLlts bn, tTsfnLg dfcf]jfbL, l5d]sL /fi6«x¿ tyf cGo g]kfn s]lGb|t cGt/f{li6«o zlQmx¿sf] rf;f]sf ljifox¿nfO{ ;d]t ;Daf]wg ug]{ u/L lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] vfsfdf ;xdlt ul/Psf] lyof]. o; cy{df zflGt ;Demf}tfnfO{ g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts tyf ;fdflhs 36gf qmd;Fu rf;f] /fVg] ;a}sf] ;femf b:tfj]hsf] ¿kdf JofVof ug{ ;lsG5. oBlk, zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] vfsfnfO{ ‘lj:t[t’ elgP tfklg of] Pp6f cfwf/e"t vfsfsf] ¿kdf cfPsf] 5, h;leq ;a} kIfx¿nfO{ cf–cfˆgf] 9ª\un] JofVof ug]{ k|z:t 7fpF 5fl8Psf] 5.


lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf dxŒjk"0f{ Joj:yfx¿ zflGt ;Demf}tfleq w]/} s'/fx¿ pNn]v ul/Psf 5g\. o;sf] d"n nIo æcu|ufdL /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs kl/jt{g ;'lglZrt ug]{Æ /x]sf] 5. h'g cfkm}dF f Psbd} c:ki6 5. o;}u/L, o;sf cGo Joj:yfx¿df ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg ug]{, /fhfdf lglxt ;Dk"0f{ /fhgLlts, cfly{s clwsf/sf] s6f}tL u/L hgtfnfO{ ;fj{ef}d ;DkGg agfpg] / o'4sf] ;dflKt ug]{ /x]sf] 5. To:t}, ljZjJofkL ¿kdf :jLs[t dfgjclwsf/ tyf ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds nf]stflGqs k|0ffnLnfO{ cjnDag ug]{ tyf ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ ljifo klg zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5. o;afx]s ;]gf tyf xltof/sf] Joj:yfkg ug],{ o'4lj/fd tyf l:ylt ;fdfGoLs/0fsf k|lqmofx¿ cjnDag ug],{ /fi6«;ª\3Lo dfgjclwsf/ pRrfo'Qmsf] sfof{no tyf /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]uaf6 dfgjclwsf/ cg'udgsf] sfd ug]{ tyf l;lh{t lhDd]jf/lx¿ ;lxt /fi6«;ª\3Lo /fhgLlts ld;gsf] :yfkgf ug]{ s'/f klg zflGt ;Demf}tfsf cGo dxŒjk"0f{ kIfx¿ x'g\. dte]b lg¿k0f tyf sfof{Gjog ;+oGq lgdf{0f klg lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ kf6f] /x]sf] 5, h;cGtu{t d'Vou/L /fli6«o zflGt tyf k'g:yf{kgf cfof]u, ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u tyf /fHosf] k'g;+/rgf ;DaGwL pRr:t/Lo ;'emfj cfof]u agfpg] s'/f pNn]v u/]sf] 5. oL ;a} Joj:yfx¿sf] cnfjf åGå/t kIfx¿ jt{dfg\ / eljiodf x'g] ;a} lsl;dsf kf/:kl/s dte]b jf ;d:ofnfO{ cfk;L ;Djfb, ;dembf/L, ;xdlt tyf jftf{sf] dfWodaf6 ;dfwfg ug{ k|lta4 5g\Æ eGg] s'/f klg zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5. ;du|df x]bf{, lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfn] t'?Gt} ;Daf]wg ug'{kg]{ ljifotyf cNksfnLg tyf bL3{sfnLg ¿kdf ;Daf]wg ug'{kg]{ ;jfnnfO{ /fd|f];Fu ;d]6]sf] 5. oBlk o;sf] sfof{Gjog kIfnfO{ x]bf{ ljut 5 jif{sf]

cjlwdf s]xL ckjfbnfO{ 5f8]/ g t t'?Gt} ;Daf]wg ug'k{ g]{ ljifonfO{ /fd|f;] uF sfof{Gjog ul/Psf] 5, g cNksfnLg tyf bL3{sfnLg kIfx¿nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ s'g} 7f]; sbd rfn]sf] b]lvPsf] 5. sfof{Gjog ePsf ljifox¿ s]xL k|fljlws s'/fx¿ h'g åGå/t kIfx¿n] zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] nuQ} ug'{kg]{ cfjZostf jf afWotf lyof], tL s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ePsf 5g\. h:t}M ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg, /fi6«;ª\3Lo /fhgLlts ld;gsf] :yfkgf, o'4sf] ;dflKt, o'4lj/fd tyf l:ylt ;fdfGoLs/0f ug]{ s'/f, zflGt ;Demf}tf k5fl8 x'g ;Sg] dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf 36gfx¿nfO{ cg'udg ug{ ;+oGqsf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ ljifo. To;}u/L zflGt ;Demf}tf kZrft\ ljsl;t /fhgLlts 36gfqmd tyf cfGtl/s tyf afx\o bafasf sf/0f sfof{Gjog ug}{kg]{ b]lvPsf kIfx¿ klg sfof{Gjog ePsf 5g\. h:t}M ;]gf tyf xltof/ Joj:yfkgsf] s'/f l9n} eP klg sfof{Gjog ul/Psf] 5, oBlk alx{uldt n8fs'sf ;jfnx¿, k"j{ n8fs'x¿sf] k'g:yf{kgf tyf ;fdfhLs/0f Pjd\ ;dfof]lht n8fs'x¿nfO{ g]kfnL ;]gfsf] ;+/rgfleq :yfkgf u/fpg' r'gf}tLs} ¿kdf /x]sf] 5. To:t}, /fhfdf /x]sf clwsf/x¿sf] s6f}tL tyf /fhtGqsf] k"0f{ ;dflKt;Fu ;DalGwt ljifo klg k"0f{ ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ePsf] 5. zflGt ;Demf}tf leq ;a}eGbf a9L dxŒj kfPsf ljifoj:t'x¿, h:t} ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg, /fHosf] k'g;+/rgf;DaGwL pRr:t/Lo ;'emfj cfof]u u7g ug]{ ljifox¿ sfof{Gjog eP. oBlk oL b'j} ljifox¿ ;a}eGbf a9L c;kmn / ;a}eGbf a9L ljjfb l;h{gf u/]sf 5g\. /fli6«o cGt/f{li6«o bafa tyf rf;f] rrf{sf sf/0fn] klg zflGt ;Demf}tfsf s]xL kIfx¿ ljz]iftM dfgjclwsf/ cg'udg;Fu ;DalGwt ;jfnx¿ sfof{Gjog ePsf 5g\. oBlk of] kIf klg ljjfbd'Qm /xg ;s]g.

o;sf cnfjf, åGå/t kIfx¿ ljz]ifu/L dfcf]jfbLn] cfˆgf] /0fgLlts kmfObfsf nflu rfn]sf sbdx¿sf] sf/0fn] klg zflGt ;Demf}tfsf s]xL kIfx¿ sfof{Gjog ug]{ ;jfndf k|ult xfl;n ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5. h:tf] ls ;Defljt kf6L{ ljefhgsf] l:ylt tyf nfdf] ;dodf lzlj/df a:b} cfPsf n8fs'x¿df cfpFb} u/]sf] ljrng / dfgl;s kL8f h:tf kIfx¿nfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ cfˆgf] /0fgLlts kmfObfsf nflu ;]gf ;dfof]hg k|lqmofdf xb};Ddsf] nrstf dfcf]jfbLn] b]vfPsf] lyof]. o;sf] cy{ of] xf] ls ljsl;t 36gfqmdn] ;Demf}tf/t kIfx¿nfO{ zflGt ;Demf}tf leq ;a}eGbf a9L dxŒj kfPsf ljifoj:t'x¿, h:t} ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg, /fHosf] k'g;+/rgf ;DaGwL pRr:t/Lo ;'emfj cfof]u u7g ug]{ ljifox¿ sfof{Gjog eP . oBlk oL b'j} ljifox¿ ;a}eGbf a9L c;kmn / ;a}eGbf a9L ljjfb l;h{gf u/]sf 5g\ . /fli6«o cGt/f{li6«o bafa tyf rf;f] rrf{sf sf/0fn] klg zflGt ;Demf}tfsf s]xL kIfx¿ ljz]iftM dfgjclwsf/ cg'udg;“u ;DalGwt ;jfnx¿ sfof{Gjog ePsf 5g\ . oBlk of] kIf klg ljjfbd'Qm /xg ;s]g . kTo"tkfbs x'g] l:ylt cfOk/]sf] v08df zflGt ;Demf}tf sfof{Gjogdf an k'Ug] /x]5. ;du|df eGg'kbf{ lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf ljleGg kIfx¿ sfof{Gjogsf] k|lqmofdf hfg] ;jfndf 5 cf]6f tŒjx¿n] a9L e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] 5.  ;Demf}tf/t kIfsf cfjZostf / afWotfx¿.  ljsl;t /fhgLlts 36gfqmd;Fu} cfpg] cfGtl/s tyf afx\o bafa.  ;jf{lws dxŒj / rf;f]sf ljifox¿  /fli6«o cGt/f{li6«o rf;f], rrf{ / bafa. k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 27


 zflGt ;Demf}tfkZrft\ t'?Gt z'? ul/Psf k|lqmofx¿.  ;Demf}tf/t kIfsf /0fgLlts kmfObfsf kIfx¿. s] s'/f sfof{Gjog x'g ;s]sf 5}gg / lsg < zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v ul/Psf t/ sfof{Gjogsf] k|lqmofdf guPsf cyjf uP/ klg sfof{Gjog x'g g;s]sf ljifoj:t'nfO{ d'ne"t ¿kdf tLg efudf afF8/] x]g{ ;lsG5. klxnf], åGå/t kIfx¿ j}rfl/s ¿kdf km/s b]lvPsf ljifoj:t'x¿, h:t} zf;sLo :j¿k ;jfndf, gofF /fHo ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ug]{ ljz]if ;ª\3Lotfsf] ;jfndf, sfof{Gjogsf] k|lqmofdf uP/ klg 7f]; lg0f{o ePgg\. To:t} zflGt ;Demf}tf kZrft\ sfof{Gjog ug{ l9nfO{ ul/Psf ljifoj:t'nfO{ bf];f| ] efudf /fVg ;lsG5. zflGt tyf k'g:yf{kgf cfof]usf] u7g ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u / a]kQf cfof]usf] u7gh:tf ljifoj:t'x¿nfO{ of] ju{df /fVg ;lsG5. o;n] s] klg k|:6 kf5{ eg] zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]lvt s'/fx¿ sfof{Gjog ug{ hlt l9nf ul/G5, To;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] hl6ntf klg plQs} ylkFb} hfG5. t];|f], To;}u/L zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]lvt ePsf /fi6«sf nflu b"/ufdL dxŒj /fVg] ljifoj:t'x¿ klg sfof{Gjog x'g ;s]sf 5}gg\. h:t}M cu|ufdL /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs / cfly{s kl/jt{g ;'lgZrt ug]{ ;jfnx¿, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ s'/fx¿ tyf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf d'ne"t cGt/j:t'x¿. cflv/ lsg sfof{Gjog x'g ;s]gg\ t dfly pNn]lvt zflGt ;Demf}tfdf ePsf ;jfnx¿ < klxnf] sf/0f, zflGt k|lqmofsf] ljsf;qmd tyf kl/kSjtf;Fu} ;Demf}tf/t kIfx¿sf] cfk;L ;DaGwdf kl/kSjtf cfpg'sf] ;§f klxnf cflh{t u/]sf ljZjf;x¿df ;d]t ;ª\s6 ePsf] sf/0fnfO{ k|d'v ¿kdf lng ;lsG5. bf];|f], zflGt ;Defm}tf kZrft\ t'?Gt} sfof{Gjogsf]

28 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

k|lqmofdf uPsf ljifoj:t'x¿ h:t} ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof, ;]gf tyf xltof/ Joj:yfkg tyf dfgjclwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt ;jfnx¿nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ ;jfnnfO{ lnP/ ;Demf}tf/t kIfx¿ aLr b]vf k/]sf uDeL/ dte]bx¿sf sf/0fnfO{ lng ;lsG5. h;n] ljZjf;sf] ;ª\s6nfO{ cem a9fOlbPsf] b]lvG5. t];|f], ;/sf/ u7g tyf lj36gsf nflu ;Demf}tf/t kIfx¿n] zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] cfwf/df geO{ cGo cfwf/df ul/Psf ljleGg k"/s ;Demf}tfx¿nfO{ csf]{ sf/0fsf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5. o:tf k"/s ;Demf}tfx¿n] ubf{ zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]lvt Joj:yfx¿sf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ eGbf klg cGo tLg a'Fb], rf/ a'Fb], ;ft a'Fb] k|sf/sf ;Demf}tfx¿sf] k|wfgtf a9\g uof] eg] zflGt ;Demf}tf sfof{Gjog k|lqmof cf]em]ndf kg{ uof]. rf}yf] / csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ sf/0f zflGt k|lqmofsf d'2fx¿nfO{ k|fyldsLs/0f ug]{ ;jfndf åGå/t kIfx¿n] b]vfPsf] sdhf]/LnfO{ lng ;lsG5. pbfx/0fsf nflu ;Tolg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u, a]kQf cfof]u, zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] nuQ} ug'k{ g]d{ f ;Demf}tf/t kIfx¿sf] x]nr]qmfOF tyf cGo /fli6«o lxt;d"x -Interest Group) sf] sf/0fn] ubf{ k6s–k6s nDAofpg] sfd ul/of], h;sf] sf/0fn] oL kIfx¿ eljiodf ;Daf]wg xf]nfg\ eGg] sNkgf ug{ ;lsFb}g.

cflv/ s] 5 t zflGt ;Demf}tfsf] eljio. d'ntM tLgcf]6f sf/0fx¿n] zflGt ;Demf}tf sfof{Gjogsf] eljio clglZrt b]lvG5. klxnf], sfof{Gjog Joj:yfsf nflu ;'?jft ul/P em}F ljifoj:t'x¿ 6'ª\uf]df gk'lusg, sfof{Gjog ug{ afFsL ljifoj:t'x¿ ;Daf]wg x'g ;S5g\ eGg] s'g} lglZrttf b]lvFb}g. bf];|f], ;fdflhs, cfly{s kl/jt{gsf ;afnx¿nfO{ clxn];Dd klg sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|lqmofdf gnluPsf] sf/0fn], of] zflGt ;Demf}tfn] cfdhgtfsf] b}glGbg hLjgz}nLdf s'g} ;sf/fTds k|efj kfg]{ b]lvFb}g. t];|f], åGåkLl8t tyf k|efljtx¿n], ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L txaf6 s]xL /fxt k|fKt u/]sf] eP tfklg, Gofo k|flKtsf] ;afndf zflGt ;Demf}tfn] s'g} klg vfnsf] of]ubfg k'¥ofpnf eGg] s'/fdf cfzfjfbL x'g] 7fpF 5}g. t;y{, zflGt ;Demf}tf sfof{Gjogsf] clxn]sf] ;du| kl/l:yltnfO{ x]bf{ of] Pp6f cf+lzs ¿kdf ;kmn zflGt ;Demf}tf x'g] b]lvG5. of] ;Demf}tfkZrft\ slDtdf klg ;ª\ul7t /fhgLlts lx+;fsf] ;dflKt ePsf] 5, ;]gf tyf xltof/ Joj:yfkg pNn]Vo k|ult ePsf] 5. of] b'O{j6f ljifonfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ;Gtf]if lng ;lsG5.

dfgjclwsf/ / ;fdflhs Gofo;“u ;DalGwt ljljw ljifoj:t'x¿ ;d]6]/ tof/ ug]{ ul/Psf]

dfgjclwsf/ lzIff sfo{qmd • • • • • • • • • • • • of]

/]l8of] g]kfnaf6 k|To]s zlgaf/ ljxfg *M@% ah]b]lv *M$) ah];Dd tyf b]ze/ !@ j6f :yfgLo PkmPdx¿ d]/f] PkmPd (#=% d]ufxh{ sf7df8f}+ /]l8of] ;/ud **=* d]ufxh{ ´fkf /]l8of] k"jf{~rn !)$=$ d]ufxh{ df]/ª df]/ª, Onfd PkmPd (# d]ufxh{ Onfd xh'/sf] /]l8of] !)@=! d]ufxh{ /fd]5fk /]l8of] lrtjg ($=^ d]ufxh{ lrtjg /]l8of] :sfO{ **=$ d]ufxh{ u'NdL /]l8of] tgx' (&=@ d]ufxh{ tgx'F s[i0f;f/ PkmPd ($ d]ufxh{ afFs] /]l8of] u'?afaf !)^=$ d]ufxh{ alb{of lqj]0fL PkmPd ($=$ d]ufxh{ 8f]6L dxfsfnL PkmPd (^=@ d]ufxh{ s~rgk'/ sfo{qmd cfk"mn] rfx]sf avt www.insec.org.np / www.nepalmediaonline.com nu cg u/L ;+;f/sf h'g;'s} :yfgdf klg ;'Gg ;Sg'x'G5.

x/]s cfOtaf/ ljxfg &M#) ah]b]lv * ah];Dd Ps} ;dodf k|zf/0f eO/x]sf] 5. ;'Gg ge'Ng' xf]nf.


g]kfndf ;'zf;g;DaGwL sfg'gL Joj:yf ;'zf;gn]]of]hgf agfpg], sfof{Gjog ug]{Pjd\sfg'g / k|lqmofnfO{hgtfsf]OR5f / cfjZostf cg'¿k ;'wf/ ub}{n}hfg]k|lqmof ;d]tnfO{a'emfpF5. hgtfnfO{;]jf lbg]-;]jf k|bfos_ ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx¿n] ;]jf lng cfpg] gful/s cyf{t ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ ;]jf lbFbf s;}nfO{ klg e]befj gu/L, ;dfg 9ª\un]lagf :jfy{sfg'gn]tf]s]sf]k|lqmof adf]lhd ;/n / ;xh tl/sfn];]jf lbg]sfd u/]df ;'zf;g sfod ePsf]dflgG5. ;'zf;gn];/sf/L sfof{nosf]sfddf cfpg]l9nf;':tLnfO{ x6fO ;/sf/L sfof{nox¿nfO{;]jfd'vL;d]t agfpF5. != ;'zf;g s] xf] < :t ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] Joj:yfkg,pQ/bfloTj, lgMz'Ns ;"rgf k|jfx / ljsf; ;DalGw cjwf/0ff g} ;'zf;g xf].1 egL ljZj a}ª\sn] ;'zf;gsf] kl/efiff u/]sf] 5. g]kfnsf sfg'gx¿df ;'zf;gsf] :ki6 kl/efiff kfO{Fb}g t/ g]kfndf ;'zf;g sfod ug]{ ;DaGwdf ePsf sfg'gx¿ s]nfpFbf ;]jfu|fxLsf] lxt / rfxgf cg';f/sf] ;]jf lbg] u/L ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx¿sf] ;~rfngnfO{ g} ;'zf;g cyf{t c;n zf;g eGg ;lsG5. ;'zf;gn]] of]hgf agfpg], sfof{Gjog ug]{ Pjd\ sfg'g / k|lqmofnfO{ hgtfsf] OR5f / cfjZostf cg'¿k ;'wf/ ub}{ n}hfg] k|lqmof ;d]tnfO{ a'emfpF5. hgtfnfO{ ;]jf lbg] -;]jf k|bfos_ ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx¿n] ;]jf lng cfpg] gful/s cyf{t ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ ;]jf lbFbf s;}nfO{ klg e]befj gu/L, ;dfg 9ª\un] lagf :jfy{ sfg'gn] tf]s]sf] k|lqmof adf]lhd ;/n / ;xh tl/sfn] ;]jf lbg] sfd u/]df ;'zf;g sfod ePsf] dflgG5. ;'zf;gn] ;/sf/L sfof{nosf] sfddf cfpg] l9nf ;'l:tnfO{ x6fO{ ;/sf/L sfof{nox¿nfO{ ;]jfd'vL ;d]t agfpF5. ;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ffn] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g, ;d'bfo, u}/;/sf/L

r'

1 2

;fdflhs ;ª\3 ;+:yf, lghLIf]qnufot ;a} If]qaf6 k|jflxt ;Dk"0f{ ;]jfnfO{ ;d]6b\ 5. pko'Q { m If]qx¿ dWo] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;a} eGbf Jofks / ;/sf/sf] Hofb} dxTjk"0f{ cª\u ePsf]n] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ ;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff cg'¿k ;~rfng ug{ ;s]df cGo If]qx¿df To;sf] k|efj ;xh} kb{5. ;'zf;gsf] nflu ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx¿sf] hjfkmb]lxtf, pQ/bfloTj, ;xeflutf, kf/blz{tf clt dxTjk"0f{ x'G5. ;+If]kdf lgDg s'/fx¿ ePdf ;'zf;g ePsf] dflgG5 M  hgtfsf] lxt, tyf sNof0fnfO{ a9fpg] u/L ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] sfd u/]df ;'zf;g ePsf] dflgG5.  hgtfnfO{ k|efj kfg]{ ljifosf] lg0f{o k|lqmofdf :jod\ pgLx¿nfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg] s'/f klg ;'zf;g;Fu ;DalGwt 5.  :yfgLo ljsf;sf] lg0f{o k|lqmofdf hgtfsf] ;xeflutf, ;'lglZrt u/fpg] s'/f klg ;'zf;g;Fu ;DalGwt 5. @= pQ/bfloTj s] xf] < pQ/bfloTj eg]sf] st{Jo cyf{t hjfkmb]lxtf jf lhDd]jf/L ;d]t xf]. b]zdf ePsf k|rlnt P]g sfg'gx¿sf] ;Ddfg tyf kfng ug'{ x/]s gful/ssf]

6LsfWjh v8\sf clwjQmf

st{Jo xf] eg] ;'zf;gsf] cfWff/e"t dfkb08 adf]lhd ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ ;]jf lbg' ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf JolQmx¿sf] st{Jo cyf{t pQ/bfloTj xf]. pQ/bfloTjnfO{ csf]{ zAbdf hgtf k|ltsf] hjfkmb]lxtf jf lhDd]jf/L ;d]t elgG5. ;/sf/L ;+:yf Pjd\\ lgsfox¿n] b]zsf] ;+ljwfg Pjd\ sfg'gdf tf]s] adf]lhd OdfGbfl/tfk"js { st{Jolgi6 eO{ sfd / lhDd]jf/L lgjf{x ug{'kb{5 / To;/L ul/Psf] sfdsf] / sfd ug{ g;s]df g;Sg'sf] sf/0f;d]t hgtfnfO{ lbg'kb{5.2 #= kf/blz{tf eg]sf] s] xf] < kf/blz{tf eGgfn] ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf] ljifodf ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L If]qsf] sfd sf/afxLsf] ;"rgfdf ;j{;wf/0fn] kx'Fr /fVg kfpg' xf]. h;n] ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx¿sf] sfdsf/afxLnfO{ :ki6 / 5n{ª\u kfb{5. ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfox¿sf] sfd sf/afxLnfO{ kf/bzL{ agfpgsf] nflu g]kfndf ;"rgfsf] xs;DaGwL P]g g} alg;s]sf] 5. pQm P]gdf æ/fHosf] sfd sf/afxL nf]stflGqs k4ltcg'¿k v'nf / kf/bzL{ agfO{ gful/sk|lt hjfkmb]xL / lhDd]jf/ agfpg]Æ / æ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs

;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3,cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs kl/ifb\sf] @))^ df Go"of]s{df ;DkGg kf“rf}F ;qdf ul/Psf] zf;g / ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g sf] cfwf/e"t kl/efiffdf cfwfl/t ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;+rfng_ P]g @)^$, bkmf !$

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 29


dxTjsf] ;"rgfdf cfdgful/ssf] kx'FrnfO{ ;/n / ;xh agfpg]Æ pNn]v ul/Psf] 5.3 $= ;'zf;gsf] dxTj nf]stflGqs zf;g k|0ffnLdf ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L If]qn] cfkm\gf sfdsf/afxL ;~rfng ubf{ hgtfsf] ;jf]Q { d lxt / sNof0fnfO{ Wofgdf /fVg' k5{. To;}n] klg ;'zf;g, ;]jf k|bfos, ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfn] hgtfsf] rfxgf adf]lhd ;]jf k|bfg ug{ ckgfpg] dfkb08 klg ePsf]n] o:tf dfkb08sf] ljZjJofkL ¿kdf :jLs[t cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/, ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds nf]stflGqs k|0ffnL, hgtfdf lgxLt ;fj{ef}d ;Qf / hgtfsf] ;jf]{Rrtf, ;+j}wflgs ;Gt'ng / lgoGq0f, sfg'gsf] zf;g, ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfgtf, :jtGq Gofokflnsf, cfjlws lgjf{rg, gful/s ;dfhsf] cg'udg, k"0f{ k|]; :jtGqtf, hgtfsf] ;"rgfsf] clwsf/, /fhgLlts bnx¿sf lqmofsnfkx¿df kf/blz{tf / hjfkmb]xLtf, hg;xeflutf, lgikIf, ;Ifd tyf :jR5 k|zf;gtGqsf cjwf/0ffx¿sf] k"0f{ kl/kfngf ug]{, /fhgLlts k|0ffnL cjnDag u/L e|i6frf/ / b08xLgtfsf] cGTo u/L ;'zf;g sfod ug]{ . hlt a9L kfngf ug{ ;Sof] Tolt g} dfqfdf hgtfn] ;'zf;g k|fKt ub{5g\. hgtfn] ;'zf;g k|fKt u/]sf] cg'e"lt u/]df dfq /fi6«, k|hftGq / dfgjclwsf/sf] hu klg alnof] x'G5. k|hftGq / ctM ;'zf;g dfgjclwsf/sf cfwf/e"t dfkb08 ePsf]n] ;dfhdf ;'zf;gsf] dxTj w]/} g} 5. 3 4 5 6 7 8

%= ;'zf;gsf ;DaGwdf g]kfnsf sfg'gL Joj:yfx¿ s= g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# df k|To]s gful/snfO{ cfkm\gf] jf ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf] s'g} klg ljifosf] ;"rgf dfUg] / kfpg] xs x'g]5.4 elgPsf] 5. ljZjJofkL ¿kdf :jLs[t cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/, ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds nf]stflGqs k|0ffnL, hgtfdf lgxLt ;fj{ef}d ;Qf / hgtfsf] ;jf]R{ rtf, ;+jw} flgs ;Gt'ng / lgoGq0f, sfg'gsf] zf;g, ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfgtf, :jtGq Gofokflnsf, cfjlws lgjf{rg, gful/s ;dfhsf] cg'udg, k"0f{ k|]; :jtGqtf, hgtfsf] ;"rgfsf] clwsf/, /fhgLlts bnx¿sf lqmofsnfkx¿df kf/blz{tf / hjfkmb]xLtf, hg;xeflutf, lgikIf, ;Ifd tyf :jR5 k|zf;gtGqsf cjwf/0ffx¿sf] k"0f{ kl/kfngf ug]{, /fhgLlts k|0ffnL cjnDag u/L e|i6frf/ / b08xLgtfsf] cGTo u/L ;'zf;g sfod ug]{.5 v= ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g @)^$ d'n'ssf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ hgd'vL, hjfkmb]xL, kf/bzL{, ;dfj]zL tyf hg;xeflutfd'ns agfO{ To;sf] k|ltkmn ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ pknAw u/fpg], sfg'gsf] zf;g, e|i6frf/d'Qm / r':t k|zf;g, ljs]lGb|s/0f, cfly{s cg'zf;g tyf ;fj{hlgs sfo{ / ;|f]tsf] s'zn Joj:yfkg h:tf c;n zf;gsf cfwf/e"t dfGotfnfO{ cfT;ft u/L ;j{;fwf/0fn] kfpg'kg]{ ;]jf l56f], 5l/tf] tyf sd vlr{nf] 9ª\uaf6 kfpg] Joj:yf l;h{gf ug]{. tyf ;'zf;g kfpg] gful/ssf] clwsf/nfO{ Jojxf/df ptf/L

;"rgfsf] xs;DaGwL P]g, @)^$, k|:tfjgf pxL,$ wf/f @& pxL, $ ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;+rfng_ P]g, @)^$, k|:tfjgf pxL, bkmf, ^ pxL, bkmf, &

30 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg / k|zf;g ;+oGqnfO{ ;]jf k|bfos ;+oGq tyf ;xhstf{sf] ¿kdf ¿kfGt/0f ug]{ s'/f P]gdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5.6 pQm P]gdf ePsf ;'zf;g;Fu ;DalGwt d'Vo Joj:yfx¿ lgDg cg';f/ 5g\ M ;'zf;gsf nflu k|zf;lgs sfo{ ;~rfngsf cfwf/ d'n'sdf ;'zf;g sfod ug{ ;/sf/L lgsfosf kbflwsf/L tyf sd{rf/Lx¿n] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ubf{ hgtfsf] a[xQ/ lxt ;d Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f, sfg'gsf] zf;g dfgjclwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt, kf/blz{tf, j:t'lgi7tf, hjfkmb]lxtf tyf OdfGbl/tf, cfly{s cg'zf;g, e|i6frf/d'Qm, r':t / hgd'vL k|zf;g, k|zf;g ;+oGqsf] t6:ytf tyf lgikIftfnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL ug'{kb{5.7 ;'zf;gsf] nflu g]kfn ;/sfn] clVtof/ ug]{ gLltx¿ g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|zf;lgs sfo{ ;~rfng ubf{ cfly{s pbfl/s/0f, u/LaL lgjf/0f, ;fdflhs Gofo, k|fs[lts tyf cGo ;fj{hgls ;|f]tsf] lbuf] tyf s'zn Joj:yfkg, dlxnf ;zlQms/0f tyf n}ª\lus Gofosf] ljsf;, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f, hghflt, blnt tyf cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs ¿kdf lk5l8Psf ju{sf] pTyfgnufotsf gLltx¿ clVtof/ ug'{k5{. 8 ;'zf;g sfod ug{sf] nflu ;fj{hgls kbwf/0f u/]sf JolQmsf] lhDd]jf/L ;fj{hlgs kbwf/0f u/]sf] JolQmsf] lhDd]jf/L cGt/ut ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf k|d'v tyf sd{rf/Lx¿n] cfkm" axfn /x]sf] sfof{noaf6 hg;fwf/0fnfO{


k|bfg ul/g] ;]jfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg'kg]{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5.9

ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] lgodfjnLn] u/]sf] 5M. 12

Joj:yf

;dosf] :ki6 hfgsf/L ;]jfu|flxnfO{ lbg' kg]{ Joa:yf u/]sf] 5.15

;'zf;gsf] nflu k|zf;lgs sfo{ ;Dkfbg ubf{ cgkgfpg' kg]{ sfo{ljlw ;'zf;g sfod u/L ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ k|efjsf/L, ;/n / ;xh 9ª\uaf6 ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfsf k|dv ' tyf sd{rf/Lx¿n] s'g} lg0f{o ug'{ kbf{ sfg'gdf tf]s] adf]lhdsf] ;do leq lg0f{o ug'{kg]{, s'g} sf/0fj; ;do leq lg0f{o ug{ g;s] ;f] sf] sf/0f v'nfO{ lg0f{o ug'{kg]{ kf/bzL{ 9ª\un] lg0f{o ug'{kg]{, tyf cfkm\gf] :jfy{ aflemPsf] jf cfkm\gf] :jfy{;Fu ;DalGwt lg0f{o ug'{ gx'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5.10

3= ;"rgfsf] xs ;DaGwL P]g, @)^$ /fHosf] sfd sf/afxL nf]stflGqs k4lt cg'¿k v'nf / kf/bzL{ agfO{ gful/sk|lt hjfkmb]xL / lhDd]jf/ agfpg, ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs dxTjsf] ;"rgfdf cfdgful/ssf] kx'FrnfO{ ;/n / ;xh agfpg / gful/ssf] ;';"lrt x'g] xsnfO{ ;+/If0f tyf k|rng u/fpg] d'Vo p2]Zo ;"rgfsf] xs ;DaGwL P]gdf 5.13 æ;"rgfsf] xsÆ eGgfn] ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs dxTjsf] ;"rgf dfUg] / kfpg] clwsf/ ;Demg'kb{5 / ;f] zAbn] ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf /x]sf] s'g} lnvt ;fdu|L jf ;f] lgsfosf] sfd sf/afxLsf] cWoog jf cjnf]sg ug]{ ;fj{hlgs dxTjsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ eO/x]sf] :ynsf] e|d0f / cjnf]sg ug]{, s'g} ;fdu|Lsf] k|dfl0fs gd'gf lng] jf s'g} klg lsl;dsf] oGqdf /flvPsf] ;"rgf To:tf] oGq dfkm{t k|fKt ug]{ clwsf/nfO{ hgfp“5 egL pNn]v ul/Psf] 5.14

r= :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%%  ljs]lGb|s/0fsf] dfWodaf6 ;fj{ef}d hgtfnfO{ zf;g k|lqmofdf a9L eGbf a9L ;xefuL x'g] cjz/ h'6fO{ k|hftGqsf] nfe pkef]u ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf ug]{, ljsf; k|lqmofdf ;du| hgtfsf] ;xeflutf clej[l4 tyf hjfkmb]xL :yfgLo lgsfosf] ljsf; ug]{ s'/f P]gdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5.16

ª= lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] cfr/0f cGt/ut P]gdf lghfdtL sd{rfl/n] bfg,pkxf/,rGbf tyf ;]jfu|flxaf6 ;fk6L lng gx'g], cfkmgf] sfof{nodf sfd ubf{ ;a} ;Fu lzi6 Joaxf/ ug'{ kg]{. dof{bfk"as { , lgikIf, :jR5 / l56f] 5l/tf] ¿kdf sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug'{ kg]{. ;]jfu|flx ;Fu dof{lbt Joaxf/ ug'{ kg]{ / ;]jfu|flxsf] sfd ubf{ sfd ;Fu ;DalGwt ljifo,k|s[of / sfd ;Dkfbg ug{ nfUg]



gful/s a8fkq /fVg'kg]{ ;j{wf/0fnfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ jf hg;Dks{ sfod ug]{ ;a} ;/sf/L sfof{non] ;a}n] b]Vg] 7fpFdf sfof{non] lbg] ;]jf / To;sf] k|sl[ Q,;]jfu|fxLn] ;]jf k|fKt ug{ k"/f ug'{kg]{ k|lqmof -sfo{ljlw_, ;]jf k|bfg ug{ nfUg] ;do;Ldf,;]jf k|bfg ug]{ kbflwsf/L / lghsf] sfo{sIfsf] ljj/0f,;]jf k|fKt ug{ s'g} b:t'/ tyf cGo /sd nfUg] eP ;f] sf] ljj/0f ;d]t v'nfP/ gful/s j8fkq /fVg'kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5. 11 kl/of]hgf / cfof]hgfdf hgtfsf] ;xeflutf / :jfldTj kl/of]hgf jf cfof]hgfdf hgtfsf] k|ToIf ;xeflutf / :jfldTj;DaGwL Joj:yf sfod ug{{ ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] kl/of]hgf jf cfof]hgfsf] 5gf}6 ubf{ hgtfsf] dfu / cfjZostfsf] cfwf/df ug]{, kl/of]hgf jf cfof]hgfsf] sfof{Gjog, cg'udg tyf d"Nofª\sgdf hg;xeflutf ;'lglZrt 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

æ;"rgfsf] xsÆ eGgfn] ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs dxTjsf] ;"rgf dfUg] / kfpg] clwsf/ ;Demg'kb{5 / ;f] zAbn] ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf /x]sf] s'g} lnvt ;fdu|L jf ;f] lgsfosf] sfd sf/afxLsf] cWoog jf cjnf]sg ug]{ ;fj{hlgs dxTjsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ eO/x]sf] :ynsf] e|d0f / cjnf]sg ug]{, s'g} ;fdu|Lsf] k|dfl0fs gd'gf lng] jf s'g} klg lsl;dsf] oGqdf /flvPsf] ;"rgf To:tf] oGq dfkm{t k|fKt ug]{ clwsf/nfO{ hgfp“5 egL pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;gsf l;4fGt tyf gLltcGtu{t :yfgLo lgsfodf :yfgLo hgtfsf] nflu ;f]Rg] / hjfkmb]xL axg ug{ ;Sg] ;+:yfut ;+oGq / sfo{ut ;+/rgfsf] lgdf{0f ug],{ :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ clwsf/ lbFbf k|hftflGqs k|s[of, kf/bzL{ Jojxf/, hgpQ/bfloTj / hgtfsf] ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t gful/s ;dfhsf] :yfkgf ug]{ s'/f pNn]v ul/Psf] 5.17

pxL, bkmf, !# k"j{jt, @ bkmf, @% lgod, !& ;"rgfsf] xs ;DaGwL P]g, @)^$, k|:tfjgf pxL, bkmf, @ -ª_ lghfdlt ;]jf P]g, @)$(, bkmf, $$, $& / %$ :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%%, k|:tfjgf pxL, bkmf, #

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 31


^= g]kfndf ;'zf;gsf] cj:yf cfly{s jif{ @)^*–)^( df g]kfnsf ;ª\v'jf;efdf !^, ;f]n'v'Da'df !@=@*, df]/ªdf %^,afun'ªdf !*=&%, a}t8Ldf gf}, aemfªdf ;ft, kj{tdf (=#&, sf:sLdf @*=!@, /f]Nkfdf 5, c3f{vfFrLdf #=##, lrtjgdf #!, d'u'df @(, DofUbLdf !(, slknj:t'df #^, h'Dnfdf !$ / alb{ofdf $=$$ k|ltzt ;]jfu|fxLn] sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf cltl/Qm /sd -3';_ lbg' k/]sf] atfPsf 5g\.18 /fHosf d'Vo cª\usf] ¿kdf Joj:yflksf, sfo{kflnsf / Gofokflnsf /x]sf] x'G5 . Joj:yflksfsf] sfd sfg'g agfpg], sfof{kflnsfsf] sfd Joj:yflksfn] agfPsf] sfg'gsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ tyf b}lgs k|zf;g ;~rfng ug]{, Gofokflnsfsf] sfd Joj:yflksfn] agfPsf] sfg'gsf] pNnª\3g ePdf To;af6 dsf{ kg]{ kIfaf6 ph'/L lng] / Gofo k|bfg ug]{ tyf Joj:yflksfn] agfPsf] sfg'gsf] JofVof ug]{ x'G5 . ctM;'zf;g sfod ug]{ ;Gbe{df ;d]t ;/sf/ -/fHosf tLg j6} cª\u_ sf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ x'g] s'/f lgikIf, ;Ifd tyf :jR5 k|zf;gtGqsf cjwf/0ffx¿sf] k"0f{ kl/kfngf ug]{, /fhgLlts k|0ffnL cjnDag u/L e|i6frf/ / b08xLgtfsf] cGTo u/L ;'zf;g sfod ug]{ . o;/L v'n]cfd¿kdf 3'; lng] ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfdf l9nf ;'l:t,ckf/bzL{tf tyf ;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"lt gePsf] u'gf;f] ;]jfu|fxLn] ug]{ u/]sf 5g\. jt{dfg /fli6«o cj:yfnfO{ lgofNbf Joj:yflksf–;+;b\sf] ¿kdf ;d]t sfd ug]{ u/L u7g ePsf] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lj36g ePkl5 e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf nflu u7g ePsf /fHosf ;+oGqx¿, clVtof/ b'¿kof]u cg';Gwfg 18

cfof]u, ;fj{hlgs n]vf ;ldlt g]t[Tj ljxLg cj:yfdf k'u]sf 5g eg] ljz]if u/L ;jf]{Rr cbfnt klg GofofwLz ljlxgtfsf] cj:yf lgs6 5. ;/sf/L lx;falstfa s]nfpg] dxfn]vf k/LIfs ljefu @)^# k'; !& b]lv g]t[Tj ljxLg 5. oL sf/0fx¿n] ubf{ e|i6frf/ emg df}nfPsf] s'/f 6«fG;k/]G;L OG6/g];gnsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg @)!@ df ljZjdf g]kfn e|i6frf/df !#( cf}F :yfgdf /x]sf] s'/fn] klg k'li6 ub{5. oL dfly pNn]lvt cj:yfsf] cfwf/df sfof{nosf k|d'v tyf sd{rf/Lx¿n] ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ ;]jf lbg' cfkm\gf] st{Jo xf] / ;]jfu|fxLsf] ;]jf kfpg] clwsf/ xf]. / cfkm"x¿ ;]jfu|fxLsf] ;]js xf] eGg] ;'zf;gsf] dd{nfO{ cem} cfTd;ft ug{;s]sf kfO{Fb}g h;n] ubf{ hgtfsf] ;/sf/ tyf ;/sf/sf lgsfo -;/sf/L sfof{no_ x¿ k|lt cf:yf 36]sf] 5. &= ;'zf;gsf nflu ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf /fHosf d'Vo cª\usf] ¿kdf Joj:yflksf, sfo{kflnsf / Gofokflnsf /x]sf] x'G5. Joj:yflksfsf] sfd sfg'g agfpg], sfof{kflnsfsf] sfd Joj:yflksfn] agfPsf] sfg'gsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ tyf b}lgs k|zf;g ;~rfng ug]{, Gofokflnsfsf] sfd Joj:yflksfn] agfPsf] sfg'gsf] pNnª\3g ePdf To;af6 dsf{ kg]{ kIfaf6 ph'/L lng] / Gofo k|bfg ug]{ tyf Joj:yflksfn] agfPsf] sfg'gsf] JofVof ug]{ x'G5. ctM;'zf;g sfod ug]{ ;Gbe{df ;d]t ;/sf/ -/fHosf tLg j6} cª\u_ sf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ x'g] s'/f lgikIf, ;Ifd tyf :jR5 k|zf;gtGqsf cjwf/0ffx¿sf] k"0f{ kl/kfngf ug]{, /fhgLlts k|0ffnL cjnDag u/L e|i6frf/ / b08xLgtfsf] cGTo u/L ;'zf;g sfod ug]{. eGg] cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf ePsf] Joj:yfaf6 klg k|i6 x'G5.

/fliıo ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] bz jif{, g]kfn ;/sf/, /fliıo ;ts{tf s]Gb, k[i7, &#

32 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

*= ;'zf;gsf] nflu u}/;/sf/L If]qsf] e"ldsf u}/;/sf/L If]q eg]sf] ;/sf/ / gful/s b'j}nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] / hgtfnfO{ ;'–;"lrt ug]{ dxTjk"0f{ If]q xf]. o;n] :yfgLo txsf hgtf;Fu k|ToIf ;Dks{ / ;DaGw sfod u/]sf] x'G5 / hgtfsf] lxtnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug{ k|oTgzLn x'G5. hgtfnfO{ ;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"lt lbnfpg] ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] sfdsf] d"Nofª\g cfkm}Fn] ubf{ jf cfkm" lj?4sf] u'gf;f]sf] ;Daf]wg ubf{ p;sf] lgikIftfk|lt k|Zg klg p7\g ;Sg] x'Fbf ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] sfd sf/afxL pk/ u}/;/sf/L If]qn] lgu/fgL ;d"xsf] ¿kdf sfd ug'{ a9L ;fGble{s x'G5. e|i6frf/, ;'zf;g,kf/blz{tf h:tf] Jofks / ;+j]bgzLn If]qsf] sfd k|efjsf/L 9ª\un] ;~rfng ug{ s]jn /fHosf] k|oTgn] dfq ;Dej x'g sl7g x'g] x'Fbf klg u}/;/sf/L If]qsf] e"ldsf ckl/xfo{ 5. ;Gbe{ ;fdu|L – lghfdtL ;]jf P]g,@)$( – lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL, @)%) – lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] cfr/0f ;DaGwL lgodfjnL–@)^% – g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# – :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g,@)%% – ;fj{hlgs vl/b P]g, @)^# – ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g @)^$ – ;'zf;g Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng lgodfjnL @)^% – cf=j=@)^^–)^& sf] ah]6 jQmJo, g]kfn ;/sf/, cy{ dGqfno – c;n zf;g jif{k':ts @)^%,k|f] klAns – ljz]if a'n]l6g kf/bzL{, 6«f;k/]G;L OG6/g];gn g]kfn, @)^& df3 – /fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] bz jif{, g]kfn ;/sf/, /fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb – ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3, cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs kl/ifb\sf] @))^ df Go"of]s{df ;DkGg kfFrf}F ;]zgsf] k|ltj]bg


;dfrf/ ljZn]if0f

dlxnfdfly x'g]lx+;f / b08xLgtf @)^# d+l;/ % ut]sf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u / a]kQf;DaGwL cfof]u u7g ug]{ k|lta4tf hgfOPsf] lyof]. t/ o;sf] sfof{Gjog ePg. pN6} @)^& k'; !( ut];jf]{Rr cbfntn]xTof cleof]udf ;j{:j;lxt hGds}bsf]km};nf ;'gfOPsf Pdfcf]jfbLsf ;ef;b afns[i0f 9'ª\u]nsf] d'2f lkmtf{sf] nflu k|wfgdGqL afa'/fd e§/fO{sf] ;/sf/n]lg0f{o u¥of]. ;jf]{Rraf6 bf]ifL 7x/ eP klg pgL asfobf ;+;bdf efu lnO g}/x]. e§/fO{sf]kfnfdf ;a}eGbf a9L /fhgLlts d'2f lkmtf{ePsf 5g\. )^( k'; & ut] laxfg sfd ljz]ifn] sf7df8f}Faf6 g]kfnu~hsf] nflu ofqf ub}{ lyPF. ;f]xL lbgsf] uf]/vfkqsf] k'; @ sf] bf]>f] k[i7df k|sflzt Ps zLif{sdf d]/f cfFvf k/]. sn}ofsf] 8]6 nfOgdf ‘ckxl/tsf] vf]hLdf pbf;Lgtf b]vfOPsf] eGb} /fhdfu{ cj?4’ zLif{ssf] ;f] ;dfrf/sf] k]6af]nLdf @ dlxgf klxnf ckxl/t cfkmGtsf] vf]hLdf a]jf:tf ul/Psf]n] lghu9df /fhdfu{ cj?4 ul/Psf] ;dfrf/ lyof]. dgdg} sfdgf ub}{ lyPF ;s'zn ofqf ug{ kfOof];\. t/ wflbªsf] dn]v'eGbf #÷$ lsdL j/} cs:dft /fhdfu{ aGb eof]. aLr ;8sdf a]~r /fv]/ dfOlsª eO/x]sf] lyof]. ‘wflbªsL r]nL ;/:jtL ;'j]bLsf] cgfdgu/l:yt s[i0f k|;fO{sf] 3/df sfd ug{ a;]]sf]df xTof u/]/ cfTdxTof elgPsf] 5, o;sf] lgikIf 5fgjLg xf];\. bf]ifLnfO{ sf/afxL geP;Dd clglZrtsfnLg ;8s hfd hf/L /xg]5.’ cflv/ /fhdfu{ aGb gxf];\ eGg] h'g 8/n] u'lhF|b} ofqf ub}{ lyPF, Tof] eO{ 5f8\of]. /fhdfu{ sl/a Ps 306fdf v'Nof]. otf /fhwfgL kmls{Pkl5 k'; !( ut]sf] gful/s b}lgssf] klxnf] k[i7sf] k|yd tl:j/df 5flkPsf] b]lvof]– d[ts ;/:jtL ;'jb] Lsf] t:jL/o'Qm Jofg/ af]s/ bf]ifLnfO{ lu/ˆtf/ ug{ pgsf jof]j[4 lktfn] k|wfgdGqL lgjf; afn'jf6f/ cufl8 xft prfn]sf lyP.

@

dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 cfGbf]ng rls{Psf] 5}7f}F lbgdf ‘k'?if cGofodf k/]sf] eGb} dlxnf cfGbf]ng’ zLif{ssf] cgf}7f] ;dfrf/ k|sflzt eof] -gful/s b}lgs !( k';, k[=#_. tgx'Fsf lbj; 9sfn;Fu} ;'t]sL >LdtL d[t cj:yfdf e]l6Pkl5 dfOtL kIfsf] hfx]/Ldf pgnfO{ lu/ˆtf/ ul/Psf] /x]5. k|x/Ln] ha/h:tL Ps lgbf{]if k'?ifnfO{ km;fpg yfn]sf]n] dlxnf cfGbf]lnt ePsf], ;f]xL qmddf k[YjL /fhdfu{;Dd cj/f]w u/]sf /x]5g\. ;+;f/df dlxnf / k'?if u/L s]jn @ hflt 5g\. s] lx+;fsf] :j¿k klg dlxnf / k'?if e]befjo'St 5'§f5'§} x'G5 / < k';sf] bf]>f] ;ftfaf6 yflnPsf] dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] cfGbf]ngn] afn'jf6f/ 3]/fp ul//x]s} ;dojlwdf emg w]/} dlxnf k|tfl8t ePs]f ;dfrf/ ;'Gg k9\g kfOof]. dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f cl3 kl5 klg gePsf xf]Ogg\ t/ ldl8ofn] o;nfO{ ;f] ;dodf a9L phfu/ u/]sf] dfq} xf]. kL8ssf] 8/n] kLl8tn] 36gf n'sfP/ a;]sf], ldnfkq u/]/ ;fd;'d kf/]sf] 36gf t slt x'G5g\ slt. OG;]ssf] cg';f/ o;kfnL dlxnf lx+;fla?4 !^ lbg] cleofgsf] cjlwdf hDdf !* j6f 36gf /]s8{ eP. ;/:jtL ;'j]bL, ;Ltf /fO{, 5f]/Ld}Fof dxh{g, lzjf xf;dL h:tf s]xL 36gfn] /fli6«o Wofg lvr] klg cGo 36gf cf]em]ndf 5g\. dfgjtf lj?4sf] o:tf] ck/fwnfO{

s[i0f/fh ;j{xf/L

;fdfGo ‘dlxnf lx+;f’ eg]/ ;fFu/' f] 3]/fdf ;Lldt ul/g' sbflk pko'Qm 5}g. k/Dk/fut Gofo k'; !( ut]sf] gful/s b}lgssf] t]>f] k[i7df klg tLg km/s km/s zLif{sdf lx+;fs} ljifoj:t'sf] ;dfrf/n] :yfg cf]u6]sf] 5. nxfg 8]6nfOgdf ‘cleo'Qmsf] kl/jf/af6} km/f/’ zLif{ssf] ;dfrf/df wgu9L–!* sL !* jifL{of ;fd"lxs anfTsf/ kLl8t dlxnfsf] k|x/L;dIf dfld{s lanf}gf 5– d]/f] OHht n'6g\ s ] f] xftdf xts8L x]g{ rfxG5' xh'/. ldnfkq u/]/ d]/f] n'l6Psf] OHht kms{Fb}g. s]xL jif{ klxn] klg tL kLl8tpk/ anfTsf/ ePsf] t/ @% xhf/ ldnfkq u/]/ 5fl8Psf] /x]5. To;}n] pgL o;kfnL ldnfkqsf] s'/} ;'Gg rfxFlbgg\. s] anfTsf/h:tf] kz'jt Jojxf/ klg ldnfkq u/]/ ldnfOg] ljifo xf] / < Pslbg cl3sf] gful/s b}lgssf] klxnf] k[i7sf] tl:j/df kLl8tsL xh'/ cfdfsf] Gofosf] nflu xft hf]8]sf] sf?l0fs tl:j/n] hf] sf]xLsf] dg 5'G5. % jif{ klxn] d bfªb]pv/Lsf] r}nfxL–^ cfˆgf] ufpF 5'6sL 3'Dg uPsf] lyPF. ToxfF anfTsf/ kLl8t / kL8saLr ldnfkq eof] kfFr ;o ?lkofFdf. d}n] cfˆgf wf/0ff /fVbf cu'jfn] eg]sf lyP– ‘tkfO{ slxn]sfxLF dfq} ufpF cfpg] kfx'gfh:tf] dfG5]n] ufpFsf] Jojxfl/s s'/f a'‰g'x'Gg. kLl8t / kL8s b'j} k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 33


;Gt'i6 eP t e}xfNof] lg.’ dnfO{ cu'jfsf] s''/f ;'g]/ pb]s nfUf]sf] lyof]. b'Jo{jxf/ ePsf] w]/} lbg ePsf]n] k'ln; l/kf]6{ klg e/kbf]{ cfwf/ lyPg. t/ anfTsf/h:tf] h3Go ck/fwsf] km};nf ?lkofFdf ufpFsf cu'jfx¿n] hDdf % ;odf ldnfPsf] b]Vbf eg] tfHh'a nfu]sf] lyof]. yf? ufpFsf] a/3/ k|0ffnL l;rfO Joj:yfkg nufotsf] ;jfndf cAan 5 t/ cGo w]/} sfg'gL k|s[ofaf/] a/3/x¿ cgle1 5g\ / ldnfkqdf hf]8 ugf{n] kL8sn] yk s'ljrf/sf] k[i7 kf]if0f kfpF5. dw]zsf cGo ;d'bfodf xltof/s} andf o:tf 36gf ha/h:tL ldnfkqaf6 6'ª\UofOFbf yk uDeL/ b'3{6gf lglDtPsf 5g\. ljdfg:yndf k|x/L k|zf;gs} sd{rf/Laf6} @ nfv ?lkof“ n'6kf6 tyf anfTs[t ePsL ;Ltf /fO{nfO{ 8]9 nfv Ifltk"lt{ lbP/ 6fg{ vf]lhPsf] 5 . pgsf ldt bfh'n] 9f8; glbPsf] eP zfob 36gfn] ;fj{hlgs ¿k lng] lyPg . ef/tdf hGd] x's]{sL tyf cd]l/sfdf a:b} cfPsL n]lvsf ;f]x]nf cAb'ncnLnfO{ !& jif{sf] pd]/df s]6f;fyL;“u 3'Dg uPsf] a]nf $ hgfn] ;fd'lxs anfTsf/ ubf{sf] 36gf ;Dem“b} n]lV5g\– ‘anfTsf/n] dnfO{ cfxt t'Nofof] t/ d]/f] ;DdfgnfO{ xf]Og . o:tf] 36gfdf sfg'gL pkrf/ dfq} kof{Kt 5}g, kfl/jfl/s ;fyn] dfq} dlxnfnfO{ af“Rg ;3fp“5 .’ v} cfof]u < @)^# dª\l;/ % ut]sf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u / a]kQf;DaGwL cfof]u u7g ug]{ k|lta4tf hgfOPsf] lyof]. t/ o;sf] sfof{Gjog ePg. pN6} @)^& k'; !( ut] ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] xTof cleof]udf ;j{:j;lxt hGds}bsf] km};nf ;'gfOPsf Pdfcf]jfbLsf ;ef;b afns[i0f 9'ª\u]nsf] d'2f lkmtf{sf] nflu k|wfgdGqL afa'/fd e§/fO{sf] ;/sf/n] lg0f{o u¥of].

34 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

;jf]{Rraf6 bf]ifL 7x/ eP klg pgL asfobf ;+;bdf efu lnO g} /x]. e§/fO{sf] kfnfdf ;a}eGbf a9L /fhgLlts d'2f lkmtf{ ePsf 5g\. ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] gfddf h:tf];'s} ck/fwLn] klg pGd'lQm kfpg] cj:yfsf] ;[hgf u/]/ b08xLgtfn] zflGt k|so[ fnfO{ tTsfn kmfObf k'Ug] t b]lvPnf t/ sfnfGt/df o;n] l;+uf] d'n'snfO{ eofjfx cj:yfdf ws]Ng ;S5 eGg] vt/fk|lt bnx¿ r]tgzLn x'g ;s]sf 5}gg\ -Kofs'/n] , @)^*M %_. dlxnf lx+;f a9\b} hfg'sf] d'Vo sf/0f tTjdWo] b08xLgtf k|d'v xf] eGbf km/s k/f]Og. dlxnf lx+;f;DaGwL 36gfsf] hfx]/L btf{d} k|x/L k|zf;gn] cfˆgf] cfwf/e"t lhDd]jf/L lgefpg ;s]sf] 5}g. df3 $ ut] phfuf/ ePsf] l;/fxfsf] Ps O6f sf/vfgfdf ^$ hgfnfO{ aGws agfO sf/vfgf dflns tyf ltgsf sd{rf/Laf6 of}g tyf >dzf]if0f ul/Psf ef/tLo dhb'/dfly ePsf] cTofrf/ pk/ k|x/Lsf] klg ;+UnUgtf /x]sf] cf/f]k 5. ljdfg:yndf k|x/L k|zf;gs} sd{rf/Laf6} @ nfv ?lkofF n'6kf6 tyf anfTs[t ePsL ;Ltf /fO{nfO{ 8]9 nfv Ifltk"lt{ lbP/ 6fg{ vf]lhPsf] 5. pgsf ldt bfh'n] 9f8; glbPsf] eP zfob 36gfn] ;fj{hlgs ¿k lng] lyPg. ef/tdf hGd] x'ss {] L tyf cd]l/sfdf a:b} cfPsL n]lvsf ;f]xn ] f cAb'ncnLnfO{ !& jif{sf] pd]/df s]6f;fyL;Fu 3'Dg uPsf] a]nf $ hgfn] ;fd"lxs anfTsf/ ubf{sf] 36gf ;DemFb} n]lV5g\– ‘anfTsf/n] dnfO{ cfxt t'Nofof] t/ d]/f] ;DdfgnfO{ xf]Og. o:tf] 36gfdf sfg'gL pkrf/ dfq} kof{Kt 5}g, kfl/jfl/s ;fyn] dfq} dlxnfnfO{ afFRg ;3fpF5.’ g]kfndf eg] ufpF;dfh ldn]/ anfTsf/LnfO{ 5f]/L

r]nL lhDdf nufpFb} 5g\ -zdf{, @)^(M !!_. /, cGtdf d}n] Ps lxGbL rnlrq x]/]sf] lyPF -gfd ofb ePg_. To;df vngfosn] Ps dlxnf kfqnfO{ eG5– d}g] t'Dxf/f anfTsf/ lx tf] lsof x}, z'qm dgfcf], Hofg tf] gxLF df/f x}. dfgf}F anfTsf/ u/]/ p;n] s'g} ck/fw g} u/]sf] lyPg. g]kfndf klg pxL vngfosn] cf]sn]sf] ;Djfbem}F Jojxf/df b]lvg yfn]sf] 5. dlxnf clwsf/sdL{x¿n] anfTsf/h:tf] cleof]udf yf]/} ;hfo ePsf]n] ck/fwLsf] dgf]an a9\g uPsf] x'Fbf ;hfo cem s7f]/ x'g'kg]{ wf/0ff /fVb} cfPsf 5g\. xfn} ef/tdf ;fj{hlgs a;sf] ofqfdf lbNnLsL bfldgL ;fd"lxs anfTsf/sf] lzsf/ eP/ d[Toj/0f u/]kl5 kl5 ToxfF o; ljifodf sfg'gdf km]/abn ug]{ cEof; z'? ePsf] 5. t/ oxfF To:t} k|sf/sf 36gf x'bF f ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ s]xL 5f]Psf] em}F nfUb}g. To;f] t ePs} sfg'gnfO{ klg sfof{Gjog ug{ ;s] ;hfo kof{Kt x'g] b]lvG5. clxn] :yfgLo lgsfo alnof] 5}g. To;}n], bf]ifLnfO{ ;hfo lbnfpg k|wfgdGqL lgjf; afn'jf6f/ 3]g{ cfpg'kg]{, /fhdfu{df cj/f]w l;h{gf ug]{ cj:yf cfOkg]{ afWotf 5. b08xLgtfn] k|>o kfpFbf;Dd o:tf 36gfdf sdL x'g] b]lvGg. ;Gbe{ ;fdu|L – Kofs'/]n, ;'af]w/fh. @)^*. b08xLgtfM uDeL/ r'gf}tL. k|frL, k"0ff{s &^. k[= %. – zdf{, s]bf/. @)^(. o'u o'udf rL/x/0f. lxdfn. !–!%, df3, k[= !!.

k9\g gla;f}}{“ dfgjclwsf/sf ljljw ljifo ;d]6]/ x/]s b'O{ dlxgfdf k|sfzg x'g]k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s


ljZn]if0f

hf]lvd / 7uLsf]df/df k|jf;L sfdbf/x¿ g]kfnL k|jf;L sfdbf/x¿;Fu j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfFbf jf kms{Fbf ePsf km/skm/s k|s[ltsf b'Jo{jxf/ / 7uLsf ljleGg ;~rf/dfWoddfkm{t ;fj{hlgs ePsf 5g\. y8{PnfOG; gfds Ps dfgjclwsf/ ;+:yfn] u/]sf] cWoogcg';f/ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] k|jf;L g]kfnL sfdbf/ ljleGg ;f]x|:yfgdf 7uLdf kb{5. :yfgLo bnfn, d]gkfj/, xf]6n, oftfoft, j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefu ;lxtsf tL ;f]x|:yfgx¿df Po/kf]6{tyf cWofudg klg kb{5. lnlkG;df j}b]lzs /f]huf/df UfPsf– x¿nfO{ pgLx¿ ælkmlnlkgf] cf]e/l;h js{/Æ eG5g\. lkmlnlkgf] cf]e/l;h js{/n] b]zsf] cy{tGq alnof] agfPsf] eGb} g]zgn lx/f]hsf] ;ª\1f;lxt b]z kms[Fbf Po/kf]6{df /ftf] sfk]{6;lxt :jfut ul/G5. pgLx¿sf nflu ljdfg:yndf 5'§} cWofudg 8]:ssf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'G5. /fi6«lgdf{0fdf of]ubfg k'¥ofO/x]sf lkmlnlkgf] cf]e/l;h js{/x¿ j}bl] zs /f]huf/Ldf hfFbf / b]z kms{Fbf ;s];Dd ;/n, ;xh / ;Ddflgt jftfj/0fsf] cfef; xf];\ eGg] clek|fo ToxfFsf] ;/sf/sf] /x]sf] b]lvG5. g]kfnsf] cj:yf eg] lansn} pN6f] 5. g]kfn ;/sf/sf /fi6«;]js sd{rf/L, ;'/Ifflgsfo / cf;]kf;] eg] s'g ;f]emf] sfdbf/ cfpnf / n'6\g kfOPnf eg]/ dfemLn] hfn yfk]h:tf] s'/]/ a;]sf x'G5g\. ef]hk'/sL ;Ltf /fO{ -gfd kl/jt{g_ af6 j}bl] zs /f]huf/af6 kmls{g] qmddf lqe'jg cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:ynsf] cWofudgsf sd{rf/L / k|x/Lsf] ldn]dtf]df b'v u/]/ sdfP/ NofPsf] sl/a b'O{ nfv ?lkofF n'l6of]. pgnfO{ anfTsf/sf] lzsf/ agfOof]. h;sf sf/0f pgL ue{jtL;d]t eOg\. of] k|ltlglwd"ns 36gf dfq xf]. o; 36gfn] g]kfnsf] sd{rf/LtGq slt;Dd lgr Jojxf/ ug{ ;S5 / g]kfnsf] cWofudgdf o:tf unt sfd ug{ slt ;xh 5 eGg] pbfx/0f b]vfPsf] 5. cfkm\gf gful/ssf] ;'/Iff ug'k{ g]{ /fHo g}

lkm

/Ifssf] ;§f eIfs ePsf k|z:t ;dfrf/ cfO/xG5g\. gful/sx¿n] ;Ltf /fO{nufot dlxnf lx+;f;Fu ;DalGwt ljleGg 36gfx¿nfO{ lnP/ >[ª\vnfa4 lj/f]w u/]kl5 ;/sf/n] kLl8t;FUf dfkmL dfUof]. yk cWoog u/L jf:tljstf aflx/ Nofpgsf nflu sfo{bn tof/ u¥of]. kLl8tnfO{ cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ arga4tf hfx]/ u¥of]. g]kfnL k|jf;L sfdbf/x¿;Fu j}bl] zs /f]huf/df hfFbf jf kms{bF f ePsf km/skm/s k|s[ltsf b'Jo{jxf/ / 7uLsf ljleGg ;~rf/dfWoddfkm{t ;fj{hlgs ePsf 5g\. y8{ PnfOG; gfds Ps dfgjclwsf/ ;+:yfn] u/]sf] cWoogcg';f/ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] k|jf;L g]kfnL sfdbf/ ljleGg ;f]x| :yfgdf 7uLdf kb{5. :yfgLo bnfn, d]gkfj/, xf]6n, oftfoft, j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefu ;lxtsf tL ;f]x| :yfgx¿df Po/kf]6{ tyf cWofudg klg kb{5. sltko 36gfdf cfjZos sfuhft / k|lqmof k'¥ofP/ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] o'jfx¿sf nflu j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefu x}/fgL / ckdfg ;xg] 7fFp klg alg/x]sf] 5. k};f geO sfd gx'g], ;lhnf] u/L sfd gu/L ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ x}/fgL ug]{ g]kfnL sd{rf/LtGqsf] pRrtd\ ¿k j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefudf b]lvG5. ljefudf j}b]lzs /f]huf/sf nflu :jLs[lt lng hfg] o'jfx¿nfO{ x}/fgL kfg]{ d'Vo sf/0f e|i6frf/ g} xf]. cgfjZos emd]nf lbP/

lji0f'axfb'/ vqL clwjQmf

e|i6frf/ ug'{ ljefusf] ;+:s[lt alg;s]sf] 5. lbSbf/ agfP/ sfd gu/L Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªsf gfddf Po/kf]6{af6 cfpg] efua08fsf nflu Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªsf nflu jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ pTk|]l/t ug]{ sd{rf/L o;sf csf]{ sf/s tTj x'g\. Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ª s;/L x'G5 t < w]/}nfO{ yfxf 5}g. klxnf] Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªdf hfg]x¿ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfgsf nflu sfuhft gx'g]x¿ x'g\. bnfn / d]gkfj/x¿af6 sd{rf/LtGqsf] ldn]dtf]df lagf sfuhft ofqfsf nflu ;]l6ª ldnfOG5. bf];f| ] sfuhft eP/ klg ljleGg sf/0fn] j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefusf] >d :jLs[lt glnPsfx¿ x'g\. sd{rf/LtGqn] e|i6frf/sf nflu ljleGg cgfjZos emd]nf lbP/ Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªsf nflu afWo kf/]sf x'G5g\. t];|f] k|sf/sf Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªdf k7fOg]df 3/]n' sfdbf/sf ¿kdf ljb]z hfg] dlxnf sfdbf/x¿ x'g.\ 3/]n' sfdbf/sf ¿kdf j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] dlxnfx¿sf] ;'/Iffsf nflu /fHon] s]xL gLlt lgod agfPsf] 5. tL gLlt lgod / k|lqmof k"/f gu/L bnfn tyf d]gkfj/x¿ Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ª u/L lagf s'g} cfwf/ 3/]n' sfdsf nflu ljleGg b]zx¿ k7fpF5g\. csf]{ k|sf/sf] Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªdf hfg]x¿ e|d0f le;fdf ljb]z uP/ efu]/ sfd ug{ nfnflotx¿ x'g\. sltko JolQmut ¿kd} o; k|sf/sf] le;fdf hfg nfnflot x'G5g\ t sltkonfO{ bnfn / d]gkfj/x¿sf] k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 35


ldn]dtf]df e|d0f le;fdf k7fOG5. e|d0f le;fdf hfFbf j}bl] zs /f]huf/ ljefuaf6 :jLs[lt lng' cfjZos x'Fb}g. e|d0f le;fsf nflu cfjZos sfuhft b]vfPkl5 hfg ;lsG5 t/, e|d0f le;fsf nflu b]vfpg' kg]{ ljb]zL d'b|f log} ;/sf/L sd{rf/L, ;'/Iff sd{rf/L / bnfns} ;xof]udf sldzg vfP/ lng]lbg] sfd ul/G5. Po/kf]6{ cWofudgdf b]vfpg lbOG5 hxfh r9\g' cufl8 sldzg lnP/ lkmtf{ ul/G5. e|d0f le;fdf uP/ sfd ug{ kfOFb}g. g]kfnL o'jfx¿nfO{ Pp6f s] unt kf7 eG;f/, Po/kf]6{ / oftfoft klxnf] /f]hfOdf kg]{ ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx¿sf nflu clxn] j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefu klxnf] /f]hfO ag]sf] 5 . pRrkb:y JolQm / kf6L{ g]tfsf b}nf]df ;?jfsf nflu rfxfg]{ sd{rf/Lx¿n] j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefudf ;?jf ug{ cg'go ljgo ul//x]sf 5g\ . cfk"lt{, pBf]u, :yfgLo ljsf; h:tf dGqfno dfUg] /fhgLlts bnx¿ / pgsf g]tfx¿>d dGqfno dfUg yfn]sf 5g\ . g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df clgoldttfsf] cfzª\sfdf avf{:t x'g] klxnf] dGqL klg oxL dGqfnosf eP . Ps jif{sf aLrdf b'O{hgf dGqLnfO{ k|wfgdGqLn] lkmtf{ k7fpg' kg]{ afWotf oxL dGqfnodf cfof] . oL pNn]lvt 36gfqmdaf6 klg j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf If]qdf s] s:tf clgoldttf 5g\ / s'g txdf 5 eGg] k|:6 x'G5 . l;sfOPsf] 5 eg] hxfhaf6 p8]kl5 / ljb]zL e"lddf 6]s]kl5 ;a} /fd|f] x'G5. Tof] unt xf]. cfkm\gf] 3/, ufFp / b]zdf ;lhnf] gx'g] s'/f csf{sf] b]zdf uP/ ;lhnf] x'g} ;Sb}g. le;f eg]sf] ;f] b]zdf ofqf ug{sf nflu cg'dlt xf]. cg'dlt h] sfdsf nflu xf] ;f]xL sfdsf nflu x'G5. sfdsf nflu lnPsf] cg'dlt cyf{t le;f eP dfq sfd ug{ kfOG5. e|d0f le;fdf uP/ n's]/ sfd ug'{ unt xf] / ;f] b]zsf] lgodcg';f/ hlxn];'s} sf/afxL x'g;S5. o:tf ljifodf sfdbf/ sd hfgsf/ 5g\ jf unt hfgsf/L

36 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

u/fOPsf] cj:yf 5. bnfn / unt d]gkfj/sf] kmGbfdf k/]sf o'jfx¿ j}b]lzs /f]huf/sf] gfddf dfgjt:s/Ldf kfl/Psf 5g\. ljleGg k[i7e"ld ePsf o'jfx¿nfO{ ljdfg:ynsf] cWofudg kf/ u/fpg bnfn, d]gkfj/, ;/sf/L sd{rf/L, ;'/IffsdL{nufotsf] cfk;L ldn]dtf]df lglZrt k};fdf lagf sfuhft ljdfg:yn cWofudg sfof{no kf/ u/fOG5. j}b]lzs /f]huf/ Joj;fodf Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ª cToGt k|rlnt 5. pgLx¿ ;fj{hlgs sfo{qmd d} cfP/ uj{sf ;fy Joj;foLd}qL ;/sf/L gLlt gePsf]n] Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªdf dfG5] k7fO/x]sf] 3f]if0ff u5{g\. ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf 3f]lift o:tf sfd dfgjt:s/Ls} Ps¿k ePkl5 /fHo eg] o:tf unt cEof; /f]Sg k|efjsf/L sbd rfNg r'ls/x]sf] 5. ;a} sfuhft r':tb'?:t /fv]sf ofqLn] cg]s k|Zgsf] ;fdgf ug'{kg]{ ljdfg:yn / ljdfg:yn cWofudg o;/L Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªdf cfpg]x¿sf nflu 5 n]gsf] v'Nnf ;8s h:t} alg/x]sf] 5. kf;kf]6{df cWofudgsf] l:6s/ nufpg]b]lv ;'/IffhfFr olt ;xh x'G5 sL Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ªdf ofqf ug]{nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn ;fgf] zx/sf] ofq' a;kfs{ eGbf klg lkmSsf nfU5. j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf x'g] clgoldttf, 7uL / unt cEof;df /fHosf lgsfox¿;d]tsf] ;xeflutf, a]jf:tf jf x]nr]qm\ofFO k|d'v sf/0f xf]. ;/sf/L lgsfosf e|i6 JolQmx¿sf] sf/0fn] bnfn / d]gkfj/ Ph]G;Lx¿sf nflu ;/sf/L lgsfo :jod\ unt sfd ug{ l;sfpg] tflnd s]Gb| alg/x]sf] 5. eG;f/, Po/kf]6{ / oftfoft klxnf] /f]hfOdf kg]{ ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx¿sf nflu clxn] j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefu klxnf] /f]hfO ag]sf] 5. pRrkb:y JolQm / kf6L{ g]tfsf b}nf]df ;?jfsf nflu rfxfg]{ sd{rf/Lx¿n] j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefudf ;?jf ug{ cg'go ljgo ul//x]sf 5g\. cfk"lt{, pBf]u, :yfgLo ljsf; h:tf dGqfno dfUg] /fhgLlts bnx¿ / pgsf g]tfx¿

>d dGqfno dfUg yfn]sf 5g\. g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df clgoldttfsf] cfzª\sfdf avf{:t x'g] klxnf] dGqL klg oxL dGqfnosf eP. Ps jif{sf aLrdf b'O{hgf dGqLnfO{ k|wfgdGqLn] lkmtf{ k7fpg' kg]{ afWotf oxL dGqfnodf cfof]. oL pNn]lvt 36gfqmdaf6 klg j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf If]qdf s] s:tf clgoldttf 5g\ / s'g txdf 5 eGg] k|:6 x'G5. ufFpufFpdf :yfgLo bnfnx¿ ;lqmo 5g\. h;nfO{ j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf cfwf/e"t 1fg g} 5}g. To:tf JolQm ljleGg d]gkfj/sf :yfgLo Ph]G6sf¿kdf sfd u5{g\. pgLx¿ Pp6f dfq d]gkfj/;Fu ;DalGwt klg x'Fb}gg\. pgLx¿sf] Pp6} dfq dg;fo k};f sdfpg' xf]. s] unt / s] ;xL pgLx¿sf] ;jfn xf]Og. d]gkfj/x¿ klg log} u}/sfg'gL Ph]G6x¿;Fu sfd ug{ ;xh dfGb5g\ lsgsL o;k|sf/sf bnfnx¿;Fu sfd ubf{ s'g} ;d:of cfOk/]df d]gkfj/n] cfkm" ;+nUg gePsf] gfddf pDsg] axfgf agfpg ;S5. s'g} klg JolQm :yfgLo Ph]G6sf ¿kdf sfd ug{ j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefudf btf{ x'gk' 5{ / Pp6f Ph]06 Pp6f d]gkfj/;Fu dfq sfd ug{ ;Sb5. ;DalGwt JolQmsf] :jLs[lt a]u/ g]kfnleq / j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefusf] :jLs[lt lagf c¿sf] /fxbfgL ljb]z n}hfg kfOFb}g. t/, ;f]emf g]kfnL o'jfsf] /fxbfgL s;n] sxfF n}hfG5 / slta]nf b'¿kof]u x'G5 kQ} x'bF g} . d]gkfj/ Ph]G;Lx¿af6 sfdbf/sf] bf]xf]/f] /f]huf/ ;Demf}tf agfpg], unt sfuhft tof/ ug]{, lagf cled'vLs/0f k7fpg] h:tf sfd ;fdfGo eO;s]sf 5g\. /f]huf/bftf;Fusf] ;Demf}tf Pp6f x'G5. h;df g]kfnsf] ljBdfg gLlt lgoddf pNn]v ePcg';' f/sf k"/f ug'k{ g]{ cfwf/e"t zt{x¿ k"/f ePsf] x'Fb}g. d]gkfj/x¿ j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefudf a'emfpg / cWofudg kf/ ug{ sLt]{ ;Demf}tf d]gkfj/sf] sfof{nodf tof/ ub{5g\. ljb]zdf /x]sf] /f]huf/bftf / sfdbf/aLr x'g] o:tf ;Demf}tf g} unt agfPkl5 ;/sf/L tYofª\sdf klg unt tYo /xG5. j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfg]


sfdbf/x¿dfem Pp6f ;Demf}tf df]hfdf csf]{ ;Demf}tf uf]hfdf eGg] egfO k|rlnt 5. uf]hfsf] sLt]{ ;Demf}tfsf cfwf/df >d :jLs[lt lnP/ ljdfg:yn kf/ u/fOG5 eg] df]hfsf] cyf{t n'sfPsf] ;Demf}tf ljdfgdf r9]kZrft lgsfn]/ ;DalGwt uGtJo b]zdf b]vfpg nufOG5. d]gkfj/ / bnfnx¿ lst]{ sfuhdfq tof/ ub}{gg\ c¿sf] kf;kf]6{df km/s JolQmsf] kmf]6f] 6fF;]/ -h;nfO{ lk;L ug]{ elgG5_ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df k7fOG5. o:tf] uxg k|s[ltsf] ck/fwdf;d]t /fHo ;+oGq d]gkfj/x¿sf] zlQm, k};f / bjfjdf lg/Lx ag]/ al;/x]sf] cj:yf 5. g]kfnsf] ljBdfg j}b]lzs /f]huf/ P]g @)^$ dfq xf]Og sLt]{ sfuh;DaGwL sfg'gn] ;d]t o;k|sf/sf] sLt]{ sfuh agfpg' uxg k|s[ltsf] kmf}hbf/L ck/fw xf]. t/, cfh;Dd o;k|sf/sf] unt sfuh tof/ ug]{ d]gkfj/ / bnfnx¿nfO{ lst]{ sfuh tof/ u/]sf] ck/fwjfkt cbfntdf pEofOPsf] 5}g. g]kfnsf] dfgja]rljvg tyf cf];f/k;f/;DaGwL sfg'g cg';f/ dflg;x¿nfO{ sxfF lsg nlug] xf] eGg] hfgsf/L glbO, 9fF6]/, 5nsk6 u/L, unt sfuhft agfP/ lnP/ hfg' ck/fw xf]. t/ bnfn / d]gkfj/ Ph]G;L ToxL sfd ul//x]sf 5g\. /fHo ;+oGq o;nfO{ j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf sdhf]/Lsf gfddf 9fs5f]k / dnhn ul//x]sf] 5. bnfnx¿n] sltko g]kfnL o'jf o'jtLnfO{ ef/tLo af6f]sf] k|of]u u/L k"j:{ jLs[lt, aLdf / cfwf/e"t sfg'gL tyf Jojxfl/s tof/L lagf unt af6f]sf] k|of]u u/L ef/t x'Fb} j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf k7fpF5g\. sltkosf] ;Dk"0f{ 6«fe]n 8s'd]G6 g} gSsnL agfP/ k7fPsf sf/0f ljleGg ;d:ofdf k/]sf pbfx/0fx¿ 5g\. o;/L Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ª jf ef/tLo af6f]sf] k|of]u u/L u}/sfg'gL af6f]sf] k|of]u u/]/ hfg] sfdbf/x¿sf] g]kfn ;/sf/;Fu s'g} tYofª\s x'Fb}g. o:tf sfdbf/x¿ g]kfndf clen]vLs/0f gx'g] dfq xf]Og ;DalGwt b]zdf ;d]t cn]va4 eO{ ljleGg ;d:of ef]Ug'kg]{ x'G5. o:tf sfdbf/x¿nfO{ s'g} ;xof]u

ug'{ k/]df j}bl] zs /f]huf/ k|jw{g af]8s { f] sNof0fsf/L sf]ifn] d2t ug{ ;Sb}g. j}bl] zs /f]huf/ ljefuaf6 k|lqmof k'¥ofO{ :jLs[lt lnP/ hfg] sfdbf/n] sNof0fsf/L sf]ifdf Ps xhf/ hDdf u/]sf] x'G5. To;jfkt>d :jLs[lt lnP/ hfg] sfdbf/sf nflu dfq sNof0fsf/L sf]ifn] d2t ug{ ;Sb5. >d :jLs[lt glnO{ jf unt af6f]sf] k|of]u u/L hfg] sfdbf/sf] aLdf gul/g] x'gfn] ljb]zdf /xFbf d[To' jf b'3{6gf k/]df j}b]lzs /f]huf/ af]8{ tyf aLdf sDkgLaf6 kfpg] /fxt /sd ;d]t kfpg ;lsFb}g. g]kfnL sfdbf/df Pp6f 7"nf] ;d:of cn]va4 x'g' xf]. ljb]zdf /x]sf sl/a k}FtL; nfv g]kfnL sfdbf/dWo] krf; k|ltzt cn]va4 ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5. lagf sfuhft cfjZos k|lqmof gk'¥ofO hfg], cfkm" v'zL :jLs[lt lagf sfd kl/jt{g ug]{, /f]huf/bftfsf] 3/ jf sDkgLaf6 efUg], ko{6s le;fdf uO{ n's/] sfd ug]h{ :tf sf/0fn] sfdbf/ cn]va4 x'G5. o;/L cn]va4 ePsf sf/bf/x¿nfO{ h'g;'s} a]nf :yfgLo cWofudg sfg'gcg';f/ b08 ;hfo, h]n, sdfPsf] ;]jf ;'ljwf gkfpg], g]kfn kms{g gkfpg] h:tf ;d:of cfpg ;S5. slt sfdbf/ t cn]va4 eO{ sfd u/]sf sf/0f jiff}{F;Dd k|x/L;Fu n's]/ sfd ul//x]sf 5g\. 3/ kms{g rfx]/ klg cfjZos sfuhft gePsf sf/0f cfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\. sdfPsf] k};f;d]t k7fpFbf c¿sf] gfdaf6 3/ k7fpg'kg]{ afWotf 5. 7"nf] ;ª\Vofdf g]kfnL sfdbf/ ljb]zL h]ndf klg 5g\. ;fpbLdf uPsf] /dbfgsf] ;dodf sl/a kfFr xhf/ g]kfnL h]ndf lyP. stf/df rf/ xhf/ eGbf a9L g]kfnL h]ndf /x]sf] tYofª\s aflx/ cfPsf] 5. dn]l;ofdf sl/a k}tF L; ;o g]kfnL sfdbf/x¿ h]ndf 5g\. o;/L ljleGg b]zsf h]nx¿df sl/a kGw| xhf/ hlt g]kfnL sfdbf/ /x]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5. s]xL ljleGg ck/fwsf sf/0f h]ndf k/]sf] eP tfklg 7"nf] ;ª\Vofsf g]kfnL k|jf;L sfdbf/ n]va4 gePsf], cfkm\gf 6«fen 8s'd]G6 /f]huf/bftf jf :yfgLo Ph]G6;Fu

ePsfn] k|x/Ln] dfu]sf] a]nf sfuhft b]vfpg g;s]sf], sfo{If]q 5f]8]/ efu]sf] h:tf ck/fwdf h]n ;hfo ef]lu/x]sf 5g\. 6«fen 8s'd]G6 gePsf sf/0f dlxgf}F / jiff}{F h]n ;hfo ef]Ug afWo ePsf g]kfnL klg 5g\. g]kfnL b"tfjf;n] pgLx¿sf] 6«fen 8s'dG] 6 agfOlbFbf dfq klg h]ndf /x]sf w]/} g]kfnL sfdbf/3/ cfpg ;S5g\. sltko sfdbf/x¿ lagf bnfnx¿n] sltko g]kfnL o'jf o'jtLnfO{ ef/tLo af6f]sf] k|of]u u/L k"j{:jLs[lt, aLdf / cfwf/e"t sfg'gL tyf Jojxfl/s tof/L lagf unt af6f]sf] k|of]u u/L ef/t x'“b} j}b]lzs/f]huf/df k7fp“5g\ . sltkosf] ;Dk"0f{ 6«fe]n 8s'd]G6 g} gSsnL agfP/ k7fPsf sf/0f ljleGg ;d:ofdf k/]sf pbfx/0fx¿ 5g\ . o;/L Po/kf]6{ ;]l6ª jf ef/tLo af6f]sf] k|of]u u/L u}/sfg'gL af6f]sf] k|of]u u/]/ hfg] sfdbf/x¿sf] g]kfn ;/sf/;“u s'g] tYofª\s x'“b}g . o:tf sfdbf/x¿ g]kfndf clen]vLs/0f gx'g] dfq xf]Og ;DalGwt b]zdf ;d]t cn]va4 eO{ ljleGg ;d:of ef]Ug' kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf sfdbf/x¿nfO{ s'g} ;xof]u ug'{ k/]df j}b]lzs /f]huf/ k|jw{g af]8{sf] sNof0fsf/L sf]ifn] d2t ug{ ;Sb}g . j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefuaf6 k|lqmof k'¥ofO{ :jLs[lt lnP/ hfg] sfdbf/n] sNof0fsf/L sf]ifdf Ps xhf/ hDdf u/]sf] x'G5 . To;jfkt>d :jLs[lt lnP/ hfg] sfdbf/sf nflu dfq sNof0fsf/L sf]ifn] d2t ug{ ;Sb5 . ck/fw kl/aGbdf k/]/ h]n ;hfo ef]lu/x]sf 5g\. bfr'{nfsf cd/axfb'/ adnfO{ o'PO{df ck/fwLx¿n] 8«fOe/sf ¿kdf k|of]u u/]. 8«fOe/ ePs} sf/0f pgL h]n k/]. xfn pgL d[To'b08sf] ;hfo s'b5 {} g\. g'jfsf]6sf xl/axfb'/ 3n] ;fyLn] lbPsf] kf;{n g]kfn k'¥ofpg lnP/ cfpFbf kf;{ndf e]l6Psf] nfu"cf}ifwsf sf/0f h]n k/]. pgL dn]l;of h]ndf d[To'b08sf] ;hfo k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 37


s'b}{5g\. sltko sfdbf/x¿ cfkm"n] s'g} uNtL gu/]sf] eP tfklg :yfgLo k|x/L k|zf;g / cbfntsf] efiff a'em\g g;Sbf lagf ck/fw ;hfo ef]Ug afWo kfl/Psf pbfx/0f klg k|z:t 5g\. 8f]Ndf z]kf{ h;nfO{ s'j]tdf lkmlnlkgf] ;xkf7Lsf] xTof cf/f]kdf h]n xflnof] / d[To'b08 ;'gfOof]. pgL lgbf]{if lyOg\ t/, g]kfnL;d]t /fd|f];Fu af]Ng g;Sg] pgLn] :yfgLo efiffdf cfkm\gf] lgbf]l{ iftf atfpg ;lsgg\. d'l:nd sfg'g cg';f/sf] pgsf] An8 dgL dfl/Psf kl/jf/n] :jLsf/ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] ;f]r agfpg' cufj} j}b]lzs /f]huf/L / To;af6 ;[hgf x'g] cj:yfsf ;DaGwdf j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg rfxg]sf nflu lj:t[t hfgsf/L x'g' cfjZos 5 . ufp“ufp“df Ph]06x¿ o;/L unt ¿kdf o'jfx¿nfO{ pTk|]l/t ul//x]sf 5g\ sL ljb]zdf sfd g} ug'{kb}{g hxf“ sfd g} gu/L le;f nfu] jfkt 8n/ kfOG5 . Pshgf bnfnn] emfkfsL Ps dlxnfnfO{ s]xL ug'{b}{g 3/sf dflg;x¿sf] ;]jf ug]{ xf] 3/d} a:of] sfd u¥of] a; eOxfNof] eg]/ kmsfP/ n]agfg k7fPsf /x]5g\ . t/, pgn] rf}aL; hgfsf] kl/jf/sf] ;]jf ug'{kg]{ / b}lgsh;f] pGgfO; 306f;Dd sfd ug'{kg]{ /x]5 . slxn]sfxL“ glhssf cfkmGtsf] 3/df;d]t sfd ug{ nlu“bf] /x]5 . s'g} rf8kj{, ef]het]/ ePsf] ;dodf w]/}lbg;Dd ;'Tg g} gkfOg] /x]5 . ;dodf sfd ug{ g;s] /f]huf/bftfsf] s'6fO vfg' kg]{/x]5 . u/]kZrft pgsf] d[To'b08 t /f]lsof] t/ afFsL h]n hLjg k"/f u/L :jb]z kms{g cem} s]xL jif{ s'g'{kg]{ ePsf] 5. j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfg] clwsf+z g]kfnL sfdbf/ lgdf{0f / cgf}krfl/s If]qdf sfd ub{5g\. clwsf+z dlxnfx¿ c;'/lIft 3/]n' sfdbf/sf] ¿kdf sfd ub{5g\. g]kfnLsf] k|d'v uGtJox¿ ljz]ifu/L dWok"j{sf b]zx¿df lgdf{0f If]q, 3/]n' sfd / cgf}krfl/s If]qnfO{ ToxfFsf] >d P]gn]

38 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

;d]6s ] f] 5}g. g]kfnL sfdbf/x¿ xtf/df hfg] / km';{bdf k5'tfpg] ub{5g\. cfjZos ;Lk / efiffsf] cefjdf pxL sfdsf nflu g]kfnL k|jf;L sfdbf/n] cGo b]zsf sfdbf/x¿n] eGbf sd ;]jf ;'ljwf kfpF5g\. efiff / ;Lksf] cefjdf sltko sfdbf/x¿ b'3{6gfdf k/L ckfª\u ePsf 5g\. cTolws sfd, >dzf]if0f, b'Jo{jxf/, dfgl;s, zf/Ll/s tyf of}gzf]if0fdf k/]sf sf/0f sltko g]kfnL sfdbf/x¿ dfgl;s ;Gt'ng u'dfP/ kmls{Psf klg 5g\. j}b]lzs /f]huf/df dfgl;s ;Gt'ng u'dfPsL Ps hgf dlxnf sf7df8fF} cfPkl5 pgsf kl/jf/ sf7df8f}F e]6\g t cfP t/ pgLx¿n] tL dlxnfnfO{ TolQs} sf7df8f}Fdf 5f]8]/ yfxf g} glbO ufFp kmls{P. r/d u/LaLdf /x]sf] ;f] kl/jf/nfO{ cfkm\g} hLljsf]kfh{gsf] ;d:ofsf 5. b}lgs Hofnfbf/L ug'{kg]{ kl/jf/n] dfgl;s ;Gt'ng u'dfPsL cfkm\gL kl/jf/sf ;b:onfO{ cfkm";uF } 3/ lnP/ hfg ;s]gg\. /f]huf/bftfsf] of}gzf]if0fdf k/L ue{jtL eP/ / /f]huf/bftfsf] aRrf hGdfP/ kmls{g] dlxnf k|jf;L sfdbf/sf] ;ª\Vof klg a9\bf] 5. sltko dlxnfx¿n] b'Jo{jxf/, of}gzf]if0f / ue{jtL ePs} sf/0f cfTdxTof u/]sf 36gfx¿ cfO/x]sf 5g\. j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] ;f]r agfpg' cufj} j}b]lzs /f]huf/L / To;af6 ;[hgf x'g] cj:yfsf ;DaGwdf j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg rfxg]sf nflu lj:t[t hfgsf/L x'g' cfjZos 5. ufFpufFpdf Ph]06x¿ o;/L unt ¿kdf o'jfx¿nfO{ pTk|]l/t ul//x]sf 5g\ sL ljb]zdf sfd g} ug'{kb}{g hxfF sfd g} gu/L le;f nfu] jfkt 8n/ kfOG5. Pshgf bnfnn] emfkfsL Ps dlxnfnfO{ s]xL ug'b{ g{} 3/sf dflg;x¿sf] ;]jf ug]{ xf] 3/d} a:of] sfd u¥of] a; eOxfNof] eg]/ kmsfP/ n]agfg k7fPsf /x]5g\. t/, pgn] rf}aL; hgfsf] kl/jf/sf] ;]jf ug'{kg]{ / b}lgsh;f] pGgfO; 306f;Dd sfd ug'{kg]{ /x]5. slxn]sfxLF glhssf cfkmGtsf] 3/df;d]t sfd ug{ nluFbf] /x]5. s'g} rf8kj{, ef]het]/ ePsf]

;dodf w]/}lbg;Dd ;'Tg g} gkfOg] /x]5.;dodf sfd ug{ g;s] /f]huf/bftfsf] s'6fO vfg' kg]{/x]5. dfgl;s kL8f t slt slt To;df zf/Ll/s kL8f lgoldt h:tf] aGb} uPkl5 sfd u/]jfkt gf} dlxgf;Dd slQ klg tna gkfPsL tL dlxnf /f]huf/bftfsf] 3/ 5f]8]/ sfdbf/nfO{ d2t ug]{ :yfgLo ;fdflhs ;+:yfdf k'u]sL /lx5g\. /;'jfsL Ps aflnsfnfO{ !@ jif{sf] pd]/df bnfnn] pd]/ a9fP/ n]agfg k7fP5g\. lhNnf k|zf;gaf6 gful/stf / kf;kf]6{ lgsfNg pg} bnfnn] pgsf afa'nfO{ ;3fPsf /x]5g\. 3/]n' sfdbf/sf ¿kdfsfo{/t pgn] @& dlxgf;Dd s'g} tna ;]jf ;'ljwf g} kfOgg\. sfd ;lhnf] lyof] b'O{ hgf >Ldfg >LdtLsf nflu vfgf ksfpg] v'jfpg] t/ pgsf] sfdsf] s'g} d"No lyPg. ;QfO; dlxgf sfd u/]/ s'g} tna gkfPkl5 3/af6 efu]/ glhssf] k|x/L sfof{nodf uPsL pgnfO{ k|x/Ln] g} :yfgLo ;fdflhs ;+:yfsf] sfof{nodf k'¥ofPsf] /x]5. ;fdflhs ;+:yfn] :yfgLo /f]huf/bftfnfO{ e]6k] Zrft g]kfn k7fpg] eg] tfklg gf} dlxgf eO;Sbf;Dd pgsf] /f]huf/bftf e]l6Psf] 5}g. :yfgLo sfg'gcg';f/ /f]huf/bftf ge]6L pgnfO{ g]kfn k7fpg sfg'gL ¿kdf gldNg] :yflgo ;fdflhs ;+:yfsf] egfO 5. dWok"j{sf b]zx¿df /f]huf/bftfsf] 3/ jf sDkgLaf6 efUg] sfdbf/x¿sf] /f]huf/bftf ge]6\bf;Dd ;'/Iff / cWofudgn] :jb]z kms{g] :jLs[lt lbFb}g. pgLx¿sf] sfg'g / Jojxf/df sfdbf/sf] clwsf/ eGbf /f]huf/bftf k|d'v x'g\. sfdbf/sf] ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf ljifox¿ pgLx¿sf sfg'gdf ;dfj]z 5}g. ef]hk'/sL vqL y/sL c7rfnL; jifL{o Ps dlxnf tLgjif{;Dd sfd ubf{;Dd tna kfOgg\. otf >Ldfgsf] d[To' eof]. cfkm\gf b'O{ gfafns ;Gtfgsf] /]vb]v ug]{ sf]xL ePg. pgL 7"nf] dfgl;s lrGtfdf kl/g\. 3/ kms{g k6sk6s cfkm\gf] /f]huf/bftfnfO{ cg'/f]w ubf{ klg cg'dlt / cfkm\gf 6«fen 8s'd]G6 gkfPkl5 Ps ;fFem sfd ug]{


3/ 5f]8]/ eflug\. /f]huf/bftfsf] 3/ 5f]8L efu]sf] ck/fwdf pN6} k|x/Ln] ;dfTof]. /f]huf/bftfsf] 3/ 5f]8]/ efUg'nfO{ dWok"j{sf b]zx¿df /gj] elgG5. h'g ck/fw dflgG5. /f]huf/bftf zf]ifs, ck/fwL, anfTsf/L, lx+;|s x'g;S5 t/ 3/ 5f]8\g kfOFb}g eGg] pgLx¿sf] sfg'g 5. /fd]5fksL >]i7 y/sL @* jifL{o Ps dlxnf sfd ug}{ g;Sg] cj:yf ePkZrft 3/ 5f]8]/ efu]sf]df /f]huf/bftfn] pN6} rf]/Lsf] cf/f]k nufPsfn] pgL h]n kl/g\. clxn] stf/sf /f]huf/bftfn] sfdbf/ 7Ug] gofF tl/sf /f]h]5g\. jiff}{F sfd u/]sf, sfg'gL ¿kdf /x]sf sfdbf/x¿sf] klg kl/rokqsf] Dofb ;lsPkl5 jf 3/af6 kmls{P/ uPkl5 kl/ro kqsf] Dofb gyKg] ubf{ /x]5g\. gofF kl/ro kq agfpg cg'go ug]{ sfdbf/nfO{ x'G5 x'G5 eGb} cfgfsfgL ubf{ /x]5g\. t/,s]xL dlxgfkl5 cfkm}F k'ln; nufP/ kl/rokq lagf sfd u/]sf] cf/f]kdf kqmfpg], h]n xfNg] / d'2f dfldnfsf] em~em6df km;fpg] ubf{ /x]5g\. g]kfnL u/Lasf 5f]/f5f]/L cGofodf k/]sf] yfxf 5 t/ pm stf/df a;]/ /f]huf/bftf;Fu jlsnsf] kmL lt/]/ d'2f n8\g ;Sb}g. /f]Os/fO u/]/ sDkgLnfO{ s'g} klg dfu bfjL gug]{ sfuh u/]kl5 g]kfn cfpg 5'6 lbOg] /x]5. cfkm}F cGofodf k/]sf] 5 cfkm}F /f]huf/bftf;Fu /f]Os/fO ug'{kg]{ cj:yfdf stf/df b]lvPsf] 5. af]g;, u|fh'6L / ;]jf;'ljwf glbg sDkgLx¿ o:tf hfnem]n ubf{ /x]5g\. stf/sf g]kfnL sfdbf/ nufpg] y'k}| sDkgLx¿n] clxn] oxL vfnsf] abdf;L u/]sf sf/0f ;of}F g]kfnL sfdbf/ 3/ cfpFbf l/Qf] xft kmls{g' k/]sf] 5. g]kfnL b"tfjf;x¿sf] s'6gLlts kxn / b"tfjf;sf sd{rf/Ldf ;f] b]zsf] sfg'gsf ;DaGwdf ;d]t cfjZos ;fdfGo 1fg gx'Fbf pgLx¿sf nflu b"tfjf;sf] hflu/ ljb]zdf 3'dlkm/ ug]{ dfWod dfq alg/x]5. g]kfnL k|jf;L sfdbf/x¿ lqmofzLn b]zx¿df n]a/ l8Knf]d];Lsf ;DaGwdf lj1tf xfl;n ug'{kg]{ /fhb"t / b"tfjf;sf

sd{rf/Lx¿cfkm\g} sfd st{Jo / clwsf/sf af/]df cgle1 b]lvPsf 5g\. ptf sfdbf/x¿ klg ;DalGwt b]zdf uPkZrft b"tfjf;sf] ;Dks{df cfpg'kg]{ hfgsf/L / cEof; g]kfnL sfdbf/df k6Ss} b]lvFb}g. ;d:of k/]dfq b"tfjf; hfg] xf] eGg] l;sfO g]kfnL sfdbf/df 5. sltko ;d:of k/]sf g]kfnLx¿ b"tfjf; eGbf g]kfnL ;dfh jf k|jf;L sfdbf/x¿n] :yfkgf u/]sf ;+:yfx¿df hfg ;xh dfGb5g\ / ;xof]u klg kfPsf k|z:t pbfx/0f 5g\. g]kfnL sfdbf/x¿ ePsf b]zx¿df oxfF h:t} g]kfnL bnfnx¿ ptf klg s[ofzLn ePsf 5g\. sfdbf/nfO{ d2t ug]{ gfddf g]kfnLn] g]kfnLnfO{ 7u]sf] / 7Ug gkfpFbf :yfgLo k|x/L nufP/ kqmfpg] h:tf unt sfd ug]{ g]kfnL bnfnx¿ ljleGg b]zx¿df lqmofzLn 5g\. g]kfnsf] ljBdfg j}bl] zs /f]huf/;DaGwL sfg'g cg';f/ j}b]lzs /f]huf/L;Fu ;DalGwt ljb]zdf ul/g] ck/fwnfO{ klg cfkm\gf] If]qflwsf/ dfgL sfg'gL sf/afxL x'g] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5. t/, o:tf 36gfx¿sfg'gsf] bfo/f;Dd cfpg ;s]sf] b]lvFb}g. ;'/lIft, Jojl:yt / dof{lbt j}bl] zs /f]huf/Lsf nflu /fHo lhDd]jf/ x'g}k5{. /fHosf] k|ltj4tf / ljBdfg sfg'g sfof{Gjog ePsf] 5 sL 5}g egL k|efjsf/L cg'udg k|0ffnL ljsf; ul/g' kb{5. ;/sf/L lgsfoaf6} eO/x]sf clgoldtf, e|i6frf/ / unt cEof;sf ;DaGwdf /fHo s8f ¿kdf k|:t't x'g ;Sg'k5{. j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf gfddf ePsf ck/fwsf sltko ;jfnx¿df /fHo;Fu k|z:t ;"rgf hfgsf/L 5, b}lgs¿kdf ;dfrf/ dfWoddf cfO/x]sf 5g\ t/, /fHo lgsDdf k|f0fLh:tf] eP/ d'sbz{s eP/ a:g ldNb}g. j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf gfddf eO/x]sf dfgj a]rlavg, cf];f/k;f/ tyf t:s/L / lst]{ sfuh;DaGwL ck/fwx¿nfO{ ;f]xL P]gcg';f/ klg ;DalGwt ck/fw ug]{x¿nfO{ s73/fdf pEofpg' kb{5. j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefu / o;;Fu ;DalGwt cGo lgsfox¿j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] sfdbf/d}qL agfpg'k5{. slDtdf lhNnftx;Dd j}b]lzs

/f]huf/sf ljifodf sfd ug]{ cflwsfl/s ;/sf/L lgsfox¿sf] Joj:yf x'g' kb{5. j}b]lzs /f]huf/ l;nl;nfdf ;d:ofdf k/]sf sfdbf/ / pgsf kl/jf/sf ;d:of, u'gf;f] / btf{ x'g] lgj]bgx¿sf] ;'g'jfOsf nflu >d / k//fi6« b'j} dGqfnodf ljz]if OsfOsf] lgdf{0f ul/g'k5{. b}jLk|sf]k, o'2, cfly{s dGbL jf cGo ljleGg sf/0fn] tTsfn g]kfn kmsf{pg' kg]{ sfdbf/x¿sf] nflu ;/sf/n] Odh]{G;L sf]ifsf] lgdf{0f ug'{kb{5. g]kfn cGt/f{li6«o:t/d} j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf gfddf eO/x]sf dfgj a]rlavg, cf];f/k;f/ tyf t:s/L / lst]{ sfuh;DaGwL ck/fwx¿nfO{ ;f]xL P]gcg';f/ klg ;DalGwt ck/fw ug]{x¿nfO{ s73/fdf pEofpg' kb{5 . j}b]lzs /f]huf/ ljefu / o;;“u ;DalGwt cGo lgsfox¿j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] sfdbf/d}qL agfpg'k5{ . slDtdf lhNnftx;Dd j}b]lzs /f]huf/sf ljifodf sfd ug]{ cflwsfl/s ;/sf/L lgsfox¿sf] Joj:yf x'g' kb{5 . j}b]lzs /f]huf/ l;nl;nfdf ;d:ofdf k/]sf sfdbf/ / pgsf kl/jf/sf ;d:of, u'gf;f] / btf{ x'g] lgj]bgx¿sf] ;'g'jfOsf nflu >d / k//fi6« b'j} dGqfnodf ljz]if OsfOsf] lgdf{0f ul/g'k5{ . b}jLk|sf]k, o'2, cfly{s dGbL jf cGo ljleGg sf/0fn] tTsfn g]kfn kmsf{pg' kg]{ sfdbf/x¿sf] nflu ;/sf/n] Odh]{G;L sf]ifsf] lgdf{0f ug'{kb{5 . cfk|jf;L sfdbf/sf] clwsf/sf kIfdf ;+j]bgzLn 5 eGg] b]vfpg / ;f]cg';f/ sfd ug{sf nflu cfk|jf;L sfdbf/ / pgLx¿sf kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿sf] clwsf/ ;+/If0f ug]{ dxf;lGw -!(()_ / 3/]n' sfdbf/sf] clwsf/;DaGwL cfO{Pncf] dxf;lGw -g+=!*(_ / cGo ;DalGwt b:tfj]hx¿tTsfn cg'df]bg u/L ;f]xLcg';f/ /fli6«o sfg'gx¿sf] ;+zf]wgsf nflu klg tof/L z'? ug'k{ 5{. k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 39


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;dfg kl/>d c;dfg Hofnf

k'?if ;/x ;dfg sfd ub}{ dlxnf dhb'/x¿

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la

40 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

kbds'df/L klxnf] 8sdL{ algg\. t/, pgsf] bIftf lnª\ue]bsf sf/0f bf]od x'g k'u]sf] 5. vfFbaf/L–! lgjf;L kbds'df/L bDkltn] !# jif{b]lv g} 8sdL{ k]zf cFufNb} cfPsf 5g\. klt rGb|axfb'/ / kbds'df/L 7]sb] f/n] lnPsf] lgdf{0f sfd Hofnfdf sfd u5{g\. laxfgb]lv ;fFem k?~h]n;Dd ;Fu} x'G5g\ oL bDktL / c¿ ;xof]uL ld:qLx¿ klg. t/, la8Dagf ;fFem k/]kl5 kfl/>flds lng] qmddf klt rGb|axfb'/n] % ;o ¿k}ofF / kbds'df/Ln] # ;o ¿k}ofF / cGo ;xof]uL ld:qLx¿n] $ ;o ?lkofF kfpF5g\. ;dfg kl/>d eP klg Hofnf km/s x'Fbf lrQ a'em\b}g oL bDktLnfO{. kbds'df/L k|d'v ld:qL x'g\ , t/ dlxnf ePs} sf/0f pgnfO{ sd Hofnf lbOG5. kbds'df/L h:tf ;of}F dlxnf sfdbf/sf] cj:yf o:t} g} 5. of] ;ª\v'jf;ef vfFbaf/L–! lgjf;L Ps bDktLsf] oyfy{ xf]. t/, lhNnfsf clws+fz dhb'/x¿df o:t} rng 5. n}ª\lus c;dfgtfsf sf/0f kl/>d pTs[i6 eP klg Hofnfdf eg] km/s

kfOG5. lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] ;d]t lnª\usf cfwf/df Hofnf tf]s]sf sf/0f 7]s]bf/nfO{ ;xh ePsf] kbds'df/L atfpFl5g\. k'?if;/x sfd ubf{;d]t Hofnf ;dfg gkfpFbf dlxnf dhb'/x¿df sfd ug]{ hfFu/ g} d/]/ cfpg] u5{, vfFbaf/Lsf csL{ dhb'/ bfnsL z]kf{ atfpFl5g\. lbge/ k'?if dhb'/;/x g} vl6/xg' k5{, sfddf eg] n}ªlus leGgtf tf]lsPsf] 5}g t/ bfddf leGgtf 5. kl/>dsf] sb/ gePsf] atfpF5g\ dhb'/ g]tf /fh]Gb| lnDa". vfFbaf/L, dfg]e~Hofª, gofFahf/ / t'lDnª6f/df aGg] 3/ clws+fz kbds'df/L bDklQ / pgLx¿sf ;fyLx¿n] g} lgdf{0f ug]{ u/]sf 5g\. u'0f:t/df s~Ho':ofFO gug{] / lglZrt ;dodf sfd k"/f ug{] ljz]iftfsf sf/0f 3/ agfpg] lhDdf kbds'df/L bDkltnfO{ lbg] u/]sf] vfFbaf/Lsf 7]s]bf/ rGb| tfdfª atfp5g\. t/ Hofnfsf ;dfgtf gePsf]df eg] pgL rlncfPsf] kl/kf6L eGb} kG5g] u5{g\. vfFbaf/Lsf dhb'/x¿ ;ftfdf kfFr lbg sfd ubf{ klg dfl;s !@ xhf/ ?lkofF art ug{ ;s]sf] atfpF5g\. kbds'df/L bDklQn] ;ftfdf kfFr lbg sfd ubf{ @% xhf/ ?lkofF sdfpg g;s]sf] atfpF5g\. vfFbaf/Ldf @$ jif{b]lv dhb'/ sfd ub}{ cfPsf e'jfg ;fsL{ 5f]/f5f]/L ljBfno k7fpg / vfg ;d]t of] Hofnfn] gk'Ug] u/]sf] eGb} dhb'/sf] Hofnf a9fOlbg ;DalGwt kIf;Fu dfu u5{g\. lhkm06sf cWoIf nLnf n'Dn'df eG5g\, dxFuL cfsflzP klg dhb'/sf] Hofnf eg] !@ jif{b]lv ;dfg /x]sf] 5 o;df klg kl/j{tg ug'{ sGh':ofFO{ ug'{ x'bF g} ;DalGwt kIfn], clg sfo{Gjog ug'{k5{ k|zf;gn]. k'?if;/x sfd ubf{ klg dlxnfn] sd Hofnf kfPsf] pxfFnfO{ lrQ a'em]sf] 5}g. k'?if a/fa/ sfd ubf{ klg Psb]lv @ ;o ?lkofF sd kfl/>lds lbg] rng


vf“baf/L–! df klt rGbaxfb'/sf] ;fydf 8sdL{ dsfd ub}{ kbds'df/L c5fdL

x6fpg kbds'df/L ;a}nfO{ cfu|x ul5{g\. t/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] lhNnfsf] efp÷b/÷/]6 clxn];Dd kl/j{tg ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g. ptf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf :yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/L;d]t dlxnf g} /x]sf] cj:yf /x] klg o:tf] kl/kf6LnfO{ kl/j{tg ug{ rf;f] b]vfPsf] 5}g. :yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/L nLnf clwsf/L ;dfg Hofnfsf] ljifodf tTsfn lhlj;n] lg0f{o ug]{ atfpFl5g\. o;/L ;dfgtf / ;dfg clwsf/sf] bfloTj lgjf{x ug'{ kg]{ ;dfh / k|zf;gn] o;/L kl/>d u/]sf] Hofnf d} e]befj ub}{ hfg] xf] eg] s;/L cGTo x'g ;Snf n}}ªlus lje]bsf]. 5]6' z]kf{, ;ª\v'jf;ef

åGå kLl8t eG5g\M xfdLn]Gofo kfpg]slxn]< /f] a'af j]kQf x'g' ePsf] !) jif{ ljTof]. dfcf]jfbL kf6L{sf sfo{stf{n] lgoGq0fdf lnP/ nu]sf] eg]/ ;a} :yfgLox¿ eG5g\. d]/f] a'jfsf] cj:yf v} t clxn];Dd ;fj{hlgs u/]sf]. df/]sf] eP klg of] 7fpFdf nu/] df¥of} eGg' k¥of]. lhljt eP sxfF x'g'x'G5 < xfdLn] xfd|f] ;+:sf/ cg';f/ pxFfsf] sfhs[of ug{ kfpg] clwsf/ xfd|f] ;fF:s[lts clwsf/ leq k5{ ls kb{}g <Æ – /fd]5fksf] k|Llt uflj;af6 @)%( k'; !# ut] j]kQf kfl/Psf pk]Gb| u'/fufOFsf 5f]/f df]xg u'/fufO{Fn] lhNnf ;b/d'sfd dGynLdf cfof]lht Ps sfo{qmddf dfcf]jfbLsf lhNnf g]tf k'ik/fh kf}8]nnfO{ /fv]sf] lh1f;f xf] of]. xnf] hf]lt/x]sf] d]/f] 5f]/fnfO{ ;]gfn] af/Laf6} lgoGq0fdf lnP/ uf]nL xfgL ljeT; xTof u¥of]. kl5 ad /fVb} ubf{ dfl/Psf] eg]/ /]l8of] dfkm{t e'm6f] k|rf/ ul/of]. d]/f] cfFvf cul8af6 af/L hf]lt/x]sf] 5f]/f]nfO{ ;dft]/ df/L eGg] cf/f]k nufOPsf] 5. oyfy{ aflx/ NofO{ kL8snfO{ ;hfo xf];\. d]/f] 5f]/fnfO{ nufPsf] cf/f]k s;}n] k'li6 ug{ ;S5 <Æ– ;]gfåf/f xTof ul/Psf

æd]

en'jfhf]/ uflj;–% sf /fh' kf}8]nsL cfdf zf/bf kf}8]nsf] egfO o:tf] 5. æd /fHo kIfaf6 oftgf kfPsf] kLl8t x'F. d v]tdf uP/ 3/ cfpFb} u/]sf] dflg;nfO{ ;]gfn] lbpF;} lgoGq0fdf lnP/ s'6lk6 u¥of]. Tolt dfq x}g xft afFw/] cfFvfdf ;d]t kl§ afFwL ;/bd'sfd NofP/ lx/f;tdf /flvof]. d}n] /fHoaf6 /fxt kfPsf] 5}g. dnfO{ s'6\g] ;]gfx¿ clxn] klg ;]gfdf g} 5g\. d Pp6f ;]gfsf] lgj[Q ;}lgsdfly ToxL ;]gfn] s'6lk6 u¥of]. c¿nfO{ s] u/] xf]nfg\. o:tf dflg;x¿NffO{ sf/afxL x'g' k5{ sL kb{}g <Æ– /fd]5fks} e6f}nL uflj;sf oftgf kLl8t /fhg >]i7sf] /fhgLlts bnsf k|ltlglw / dfgjclwsf/– sdL{;Fusf] lh1fzf xf] of]. æd]/f] uNtL lj/fd s]lx klg lyPg. åGåsf] a]nfdf dfcf]jfbLx¿n] dnfO{ /fltsf] ;dodf 3/af6 aflx/ lgsfnL xltof/ vf]Hbf ge]6]kl5 d]/} 3/sf] b}nfsf] 7]nf]df d]/f] v'§f/fvL l;nf}6fn] lsr]sf lyP. d]/f b'j} uf]8f efFlrP. dnfO{ /fHoaf6 s'g} klg k|sf/sf ;xof]u ePsf] 5}g. dnfO{ lsg To;f] ul/of] < hfgsf/L ;d]t 5}g. xfd|f] af/]df s;}sf] klg rf;f] b]lvFbg} . s] xfdL

dflg; xf]Ogf}F <Æ– ltNk'ª uflj;sf jlb| k|;fb pkfWofosf] u'gf;f] o:tf] 5. kLl8tx¿sf] kL8f ;'lg;s]kl5 dfcf]jfbLsf lhNnf g]tf k'ik/fh kf}8n ] n] eg]– æd kL8s klg xf] / kLl8t klg xf]. d ljutsf] åGådf lxF8]sf] kf6L{sf] g]tf ePsf]n] kf6L{af6 ePsf sDfhf]/Lsf] d}n] klg lhDdf lng'k5{. d cfkm} kLl8t klg x'.F åGådf d]/L kTgL / efO /fHoaf6 dfl/Psfn] d kLl8t klg xf]. ljutsf] åGådf :yfgLo:t/sf sltko sfo{stf{x¿n] JolQmut l/;OjLsf sf/0f klg 36gf u/fPsf 5g\. /fHoaf6 klg o:tf 36gfx¿ ePsf 5g\ t/ o;nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{] / jf:tljstf 5fgljg ug{ ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u aGg' kg{] xf]. Tof] aGg g;s]sf] sf/0f kLl8tn] Gofo kfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\.Æ /fd]5fk lhNnfdf åGåsf] a]nfdf @ ;o @) hgf eGbf a9L dflg;x¿sf] xTof ePsf] 5. To;}u/L @% hgf eGbf a9L dflg;x¿ a]kQf ePsf 5g\. ;f] cjlwdf ^ ;o #* hgf s'6lk6 / oftgfsf] l;sf/ ePsf 5g\. @ ;o eGbf a9L dflg;x¿ ckx/0f / gh/aGbdf k/]. 36gfdf kLl8t ePsf dflg;x¿sf] clxn];Dd Plsg tYofª\s ;d]t ;/sf/L lgsfon] tof/ kf/]sf] 5}g. cem kLl8tx¿n] Gofo kfpg] s'/f t Psbd} ufx|f] 5. k|x/Ln] kLl8tx¿sf] d'2f g} lng gdfGg] / cbfntsf] cfb]zaf6 k|x/Ldf d'2f btf{ x'bF f;d]t To;dflysf] cg';Gwfg cl3 ga9\g] P8\ef]s;] L kmf]/d /fd]5fksf sfg'g clws[t kf08j k|;fO{Fsf] cg'ej 5. æxfdLn] k'g/fj]bg cbfntaf6 cfb]z u/fP/ k|x/Ldf btf{ u/fPsf] Hofg d'2fsf kmfOn ;d]t cl3 a9]sf] 5}g. o:tf] cj:yfdf kLl8tn] s;/L Gofo kfpF5g\Æ– pgn] eg]. lhNnfdf åGå kLl8tx¿n] /fxt eGbf klg a9L Gofosf] vf]hL u/L /x]sf 5g\. t/ Goflos kf6f] clxn] klg cf]em]ndf k/]sf] 5. kLl8tnfO{ Gofo lbg] s'/fdf ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo uDeL/ b]lvPsf 5}gg\. ;a} kLl8tx¿sf] Pp6} k|Zg 5– xfdLn] Gofo slxn] kfpg] < gj/fh klys, /fd]5fk k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 41


k':ts ;dLIff

bnLo Oltxf; vf]tNg]k':ts æåGå / :jfy{sf] kmGbfdf ;+;b\ / ;+ljwfg;efÆ zLif{s lbOPsf] of] k':tssf] t];|f] kl/R5]bn] g]kfndf ;+;b\ lj36g / k|hftGqdflysf] x:tIf]knfO{cf}FNofpg]k|of; u/]sf]5. o; kl/R5]bdf g]kfnL /fhgLlt d"ntM :jfy{s]lGb|t x'Fb}uPsf]/ o;sf]kmfObf tTsfnLg /fhfn] p7fP/ k|ltlglw ;ef eª\u;d]t u/]sf]Oltxf;sf]tLtf]oyfy{nfO{phfu/ ug]{k|of; ul/Psf]5. ev{/} ahf/df cfPsf] sflGtk'/sf ;dfrf/ ;Dkfbs xl/axfb'/ yfkfsf] æbnLo åGå /fhgLlts rnv]nsf a]nLlj:tf/Æ gfds k':ts bnx¿aLrsf cGt/;DaGw / ;}4flGts ljljwtf af/] n]lvPsf] Pp6f ultnf] P]ltxfl;s b:tfj]h xf]. d"ntM sfª\u;]| / sDo'lgi6aLrsf] ;xsfo{ / åGåsf] ljZn]if0fTds cWoogaf6 ;'¿ ul/Psf] of] k':tsnfO{ x]bf{ /fhgLlts cGt/;DaGwsf] kl/0ffd / k|lqmofut j}dg:otfdf g]kfnL /fhgLlt ¿dlnPsf] b]lvG5. /fhgLlts Pstfsf] k|of;, bnLo :jfy{n] hGdfPsf] cGof}ntf, tfgfzfxsf] alxu{dg, g]kfnL /fhgLlts bnx¿sf ;xdltaf6 hlGdPsf P]ltxfl;s b:tfj]hx¿sf] 7"nf7"nf pTklQnufotsf ljifodf ul/Psf] ljZn]if0ffTds JofVofn] of] k':tsnfO{ P]ltxfl;stf lbg] k|of; u/]sf 5g\. rf/ kl/R5]bdf ljeflht of] k':tssf] æsfª\u|]; sDo'lgi6 yf]/} ;xsfo{ w]/} åGåÆ zLif{ssf] klxnf] kl/R5]b g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] Pstf / åGåsf r/0fx¿sf af/]df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5. of] kl/R5]bnfO{ cWoog ubf{ g]kfnL cfGbf]ngsf b'O{ x:tL dflgPsf sfª\u|]; / sDo'lgi6sf ;}4flGts ljleGgtf / s]xL /fhgLlts k|lqmofdf Pstf ePsf] b]lvG5. s]xL lglZrt ;dodf ePsf] ;xsfo{af6 hlGdPsf] kl/0ffd g} jf:tjdf P]ltxfl;s aG5 / k|lqmofut s'/fdf ePsf] cndnaf6 hlGdPsf] c;xdltn] P]ltxf; lgdf{0fsf] dxfg cj;/ u'dfpF5 eGg] ;Gb]z lbPsf] of] kl/R5]bdf yfkfn] nf]stGqdf s;/L cg}ltstfsf] k|jz ] x'G5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ g]kfndf nf]stGqsf] k|fb'{efj kl5 s]xL cfnf]rgfTds 5jL agfPsf JolQmn] cff]u6]sf zlQmzfnL kbsf] pbfx/0f cl3 ;f/]/ k|i6\ofpg vf]h]sf 5g\. g]kfnL /fhgLlts bnx¿aLrsf] ;}4flGtut dtleGgtf bnsf] pTklQ;Fu} ;'¿ ePsf] s'/fnfO{ phfu/ ub}{ b/af/n] bnnfO{ s;/L

42 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

n]vsM xl/axfb'/ yfkf k|sfzsM ;fª\u|Lnf k':ts, k|f=ln= afuahf/ k[i7M #*( d"NoM #&% ;+:s/0fM klxnf], @)^(

k|of]u u¥of] / Ifl0fs :jfy{df /fhgLlts bnx¿ s;/L km:g k'u] eGg] af/]df klxnf] kl/R5]bdf k|i6 kfg{ vf]lhPsf] b]lvG5. dfcf]jfbL g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] d'nwf/df cfpg'sf] sf/0f, /fhfn] zlQm xftdf lnFbfsf] kl/0ffd, bn¿aLrsf] Ifl0fs Pstf / nfdf] ;do;Dd b]lvPsf] cGt/åGå nufotsf] ljZn]if0f x]bf{ of] kl/R5]bn] g]kfnL /fhgLlts Oltxf; / zf;g kl/jt{gsf] cGt/j:t'nfO{ vf]tNg] k|of; u/]sf] 5. cfkm\gf] ;}4flGts cfwf/nfO{ la;{Fbf s;/L c¿n] k|of]u u5{g\ / c¿sf] k|of]unfO{ cfkm"n] ga'em\bf l;4fGtsf] Jojxfl/s k|of]u c;Dej 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ of] cWofon] yk k|i6 kfg{ vf]h]sf] b]lvG5. æbnx¿df 6'6, km'6, u'6 / n'6Æ zLif{s lbOPsf] of] k':tssf] bf];|f] kl/R5]bn] g]kfnL /fhgLlts bnx¿ leq g} b]lvPsf] cGt/;ª\3if{ / ljefhgsf] sf/0fnfO{ phfu/ ug]{ k|of; u/]sf] 5. g]kfnsf] k'/fgf] /fhgLlts bn dflgPsf] g]kfnL sfª\u|];af6}

;'¿ ePsf] u'6 / pku'6sf] /fhgLlts s';F:sf/ clxn]sf] gjkf6L{ dfcf]jfbL;Dd cfOk'\Ubf ;d]t sfod g} /x]sf] / cfGtl/s ljjfb ;dfwfg ubf{ g} g]kfnsf /fhgLlts bnx¿n] dxTjk"0f{ pknAwLx¿ u'dfpg' k/]sf] tLtf] oyf{ynfO{ of] kl/R5]bn] k|i6 kfg{ vf]h]sf] b]lvG5. /fhgLltdf 7"nf 7"nf 5jL agfpg nfos sfd u/]sf sltko 7"nf g]tfx¿;d]t kfl/jf/Ls /fhgLltdf ¿dlnPsf], cfkm\g} kf6L{sf] g]t[Tjdf ;/sf/ x'Fbf;d]t csf]{ g]tfn] To;sf] lj/f]w u/L cK7]/f]df kf/]sf] / ;/sf/ 9fNg ;d]tkl5 gk/]sf] h:tf ljifonfO{ yfkfn] o; kl/R5]bdf pNn]v u/]sf 5g\. kf6L{ u'6 / pku'6sf] v/fa ;+:sf/af6 kf6L{ ljefhg ;d]t x'g k'u]sf] / ToxL ljefhg g} /fhgLlts bnsf] knfogsf] dfu{ ePsf] oyf{ytfnfO{ n]vsn] ldlxg 9ª\un] phfu/ u/]sf 5g\. sltko /fhgLlts bnx¿sf] ljefhg kl5 ePsf] Pstf klg jf:tjdf g} cflTds gePsf] b]lvPsfn] Pp6} kf6L{ klg ;dfgfGt/ csf]{ zlQm h:tf] b]lvPsf] oyf{ynfO{ phfu/ ug'{ yfkfsf] csf]{ n]vsLo ljz]iftf xf]. Pp6f kf6L{sf] ljefhgaf6 /fli6«o /fhgLltsf] s'g s'g tx;Dd k|efj kf5{ / sfnfGt/df o;n] b]zsf] ;du| /fhgLltnfO{ s;/L w'ldn agfpF5 eGg] af/]sf] ;'Id cWoogn] of] k':tsnfO{ yk P]ltxfl;stf lbg] k|oTg u/]sf] 5. æåGå / :jfy{sf] kmGbfdf ;+;b\ / ;+ljwfg;efÆ zLif{s lbOPsf] of] k':tssf] t];|f] kl/R5]bn] g]kfndf ;+;b\ lj36g / k|hftGqdflysf] x:tIf]knfO{ cf}FNofpg] k|of; u/]sf] 5. o; kl/R5]bdf g]kfnL /fhgLlt d"ntM :jfy{ s]lGb|t x'Fb} uPsf] / o;sf] kmfObf tTsfnLg /fhfn] p7fP/ k|ltlglw ;ef eª\u;d]t u/]sf] Oltxf;sf] tLtf] oyfy{nfO{ phfu/ ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5. ;+ljwfg;efsf] u7g, o;sf] j}wflgstf;DaGwL k|f/Deb]lv g} p7]sf


syf k|Zgx¿, o;sf] :j¿k, Dofb yksf] >[ªv \ nf / ;+ljwfg;efsf] cj;fg;Ddsf] g]kfnL /fhgLlts ofqfnfO{ of] kl/R5]bn] ;/;tL{ s]nfpg] k|of; u/]sf] b]lvG5. b/af/n] cfkm"nfO{ k|of]u u/]sf] ga'em]sf sltko /fhgLlts bnx¿ cfkm\gf] ;}4flGts w/ftn u'dfO{ knfogsf] lbzftkm{ pGd'v ePsf] b]vfOPsf] 5 eg] u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf;Fu} b]zn] xft kf/]sf] ;kmntfdf hgtfsf] dfunfO{ ;Daf]wg ug'{sf] ;§f /fhgLlts bnx¿ b08xLgtf / ljlwsf] zf;gsf] pNnª\3gtkm{ nfu]sf] oyf{ynfO{ of] kl/R5]bdf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5.. ;du| kl/R5]bsf] lgisif{sf] :j¿k lbOPsf] ænf]stGqsf] ljsNk nf]stGq leq}Æ eGg] zLif{ssf] rf}yf] kl/R5]bn] g]kfnL /fhgLlts bnx¿nfO{ Oltxf;tkm{ kms{gsf nflu k|]l/t u/]sf] 5. /fhgLlts bnx¿leq} klg nf]stflGqs kl/kf6Lsf] ;+:sf/ z'? ug{ vf]lhPsf] t/ o;n] Jojxfl/s¿kdf Pp6} bnleq klg ;dfgfGt/ zlQmsf] aLhf/f]k0f u/]sf] oyfy{tfnfO{ n]vsn] ;'Id¿kn] phfu/ ug]{ k|of; u/]sf 5g\. g]kfnL /fhgLltdf gful/s ;dfhsf] e"ldsf, bnx¿nfO{ cfkm\gf] l;4fGtdf kms{g k6s k6s ePsf va/bf/Lnufotsf ljifoa:t'nfO{ ;dfj]z gul/Psfn] g]kfnL /fhgLltdf /fhgLlts bnx¿ afx]ssf zlQmsf] of]ubfg klg dxTjk"0f{ lyof] / 5 eGg] oyfy{nfO{ of] k':tsn] cf]em]ndf kf/]sf] h:tf] b]lvG5. k|foM ;Dk"0f{ n]vg cjlwe/ n]vs cfkm\gf] cvaf/L n]vgz}nL eGbfdfly p7\g g;Sg' n]vssf] csf]{ sdhf]/L xf]. s]xL ;fwf/0f sdhf]/LnfO{ 5f]8/] x]g{] xf] eg] of] k':tsn] Psk6s g]kfnsf /fhgLlts bnx¿nfO{ Oltxf;af6 kf7 l;sL To:tf uNtL gbf]xf]¥ofpg ;'emfj lbPsf] 5. ljleGg ;dodf /fhgLlts bnx¿aLrdf ePsf ;xdltsf b:tfj]hnfO{ h:tfsf] t:t} cg';r " Ldf /flvlbP/ n]vsn] of] k':tsdfkm{t g]kfnL /fhgLlts bnx¿nfO{ Psk6s ljutnfO{ lgofNg ;'emfj lbPsf] h:tf] b]lvG5. cGTodf of] k':ts g]kfnL /fhgLltsf ljljw¿kx¿sf] Pp6f ultnf] b:tfj]h xf] / o;n] efjL lkF9LnfO{ g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] ptf/r9fj af/] n]lvPsf cGo ;fdu|L;d]t yk cWoog ug{ k|]l/t ug]{5 eGg] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g. k|:t'ltM ljgf]b uf}td

lgwf]{ – PGtf]g r]vj cfh d e'/fx¿nfO{ k9fpg] lzlIfsf o"Nof jl;No]Agfsf] lx;fa r'Stf ug{ rfxGy]F. a; o"Nof,æd}n] p;nfO{ eg]Fæltd|f] lx;fa ul/lb'g' k¥of]. cF t, ltdLnfO{ dlxgfsf] tL; ?an lbg] s'/f kSsf ePsf] lyof], x}g <Æ æxf]Og, rfnL; ?lkofF Æ æxf]Og xf]Og, tL; ?lkofF lbg] s'/f kf] ePsf] lyof] t. ltdL xfdLsxfF b'O{ dlxgf t a:of} lg.Æ xh'/, b'O{ dlxgf kfFr lbg.Æ x}g, hDdf b'O{ dlxgf. oL b'O{ dlxgfdf gf} lbg cfOtaf/ k/]sf] lyof], To;nfO{ uGg] s'/} ePg. cfOtaf/sf] lbg t ltdL sf]NofnfO{ lnP/ 3'Dg hfGYof}.cF ;fFlRr, ltdLn] tLg lbg labf klg t lnPsL lyof} lg. gf} / tLg hf]8bf eof]– afx|. afx| ?an sd x'g] ef]. sf]Nof rf/ lbg la/fdL k/]sf] lyof], Toltv]/ t ltdLn] p;nfO{ k9fpg} k/]g. jfGofnfO{ dfq k9fof}.tLg lbg ltd|f] bfFt b'v]sf] lyof], d]/L >LdtLn] ltdLnfO{ 5'6\6L lbPsL lyOg\. afx| / ;ft hf]8bf eof] pGgfO;. ;f7Ldf pGgfO; 36fpFbf slt eof] t < cF PsrfnL;, l7s ef] x}g < o"Nofsf] cfFvf /;fof]. clg gofF jif{sf] lbg ltdLn] Pp6f sk klg t km'6fn]sL lyof}. b'O{ ?an To;sf] 36fpm.ltd|f] nfk/afxLn] ubf{ sf]Nofn] ?v r9bf sf]6 Roft]sf] lyof]. bz ?an To;sf] eof]. ltdLn] ubf{ gf]s/gLn] jfGofsf] a'6 rf]/]/ efuL. To;sf] kfr ?an sd eof]. bz hgj/Ldf bz ?an ;fk6 lnPsL lyof}. PsrfnL;df ;QfO; 36fpFbf afFsL eof] –rf}w. o"Nofsf] cfFvfel/ cf;"F 6nknfof] æd}n] Ps k6s tkfOFsL >LdtL;Fu tLg ?an lnPsL lyPF.Æ P. of] t d}n] l6k]s} lyOgF. rf}wdf tLg uof], afFsL a:of] P3f/. n nfp ltd|f] tna, P3f/ ?an. p;n] lj:tf/} egL æwGojfbÆ ælsg wGojfb eg]sf] <Æ æk};fsf] nflu.Æ Æwt\. d}n] ltdLnfO{ wf]vf lbPF , yfxf 5}g < d}n] ltd|f] k};f vfOlbFbf klg ltdL wGojfb lbG5\of}F. d}n] ltdLnfO{ hfFlr x]/]sf] kf] t. d ltdLnfO{ c;L ?an g} lbG5'. oL nfpm, k"/} k};f.æ pm wGofb lbFb} uO{. d}n] p;nfO{ x]b}{ ;f]r]F – ;+;f/df alnof] x'g slt ;lhnf] 5. cg'jfbM ;'wL/ ofbj k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 43


cGtjf{tf{

s'df/ nfdf lu/km\tf/ k|s/0fn]Gofosf]cGt/f{li6«o cEof; x'G5 eGg]s'/f :yflkt u/]sf]5 xl/ km'of“n clwjQmf tyf OG;]s sfo{;ldltsf ;b:o x'g'x'G5. pxfF dfgjclwsf/ sfg'gsf 1ftf x'g'x'G5. g]kfnL ;]gfsf dxf;]gfgL a]nfotdf lu/km\tf/ ePkl5 dfgjclwsf/sf] ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf af/]df b]zdf Jofks rrf{ kl/rrf{ x'g yfn]sf] 5. k|frLsf] of] cª\ssf nflu /d]z ltldlN;gfn]km'ofFn;Fu ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ / o;sf]dxTj nufotsf ljifodf s]lGb|t /x]/ ug'{ePsf]s'/fsfgL k|:t't u/]sf 5f}F.

) ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ eg]sf] s] xf] < of] s:tf] s:tf] ck/fwdf cfslif{t x'G5 < ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ eGgfn] uDeL/ k|s[ltsf dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3g, ljz]if u/]/ kmf}hbf/L k|sl[ tsf dfgjclwsf/sf] pNnª\3g, c´} To;df cGt/f{li6«o ¿kdf kl/lrt dfgjtf lj?4sf] ck/fw, o'4 ck/fw, hftLo xTof, oftgf, ha/h:tL a]kQf, anfTsf/h:tf uDeL/ k|s[ltsf ck/fwx¿df ;+nUg bf]ifLx¿nfO{ sf/afxL ug{ ;DalGwt /fHo ;Ifd 5}g jf Ifdtf /fVb}g h;sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k pGd'lQm k|fKt x'g] eof] eg] Tof] cj:yfdf To:tf JolQmx¿nfO{ c¿ b]zdf ePklg sf/afxL xf];\ eGg] dfGotf cg'¿k of] ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] clwsf/sf] k|of]u z'? ePsf] xf]. uDeL/ k|s[ltsf dfgjclwsf/ ck/fwx¿ rflxF dfgjhfltsf lj?4 dflgG5g\. To:tf ck/fwx¿ h'g 7fpFdf eof] To; 7fpFdf bdg ul/Pg eg] ;+;f/e/ km}ng] df}sf kfpF5g\ / cGt/f{li6«o ;'/Iffsf nflu ltgLx¿ r'gf}lt x'G5g\ eGg] dfGotfsf cfwf/df ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] k|so[ f z'? ePsf] xf]. jf:tjdf of] If]qflwsf/sf] k|lqmof rfFlx cGt/f{li6«o ;lGwhlgt eGbf

44

k|frL ;+r]tgf

å}dfl;s

klg k|yfhlgt sfg'gcGtu{t cfPsf] xf]. sltko ;lGwhlgt sfg'gx¿ h:tf] oftgf;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGwsf] wf/f % / & df oftgfh:tf] uDeL/ ck/fw ug]{ dfG5]nfO{ h;n] hxfF e]6\of] ToxLF sf/afxL ug'{k5{. olb sf/afxL gug]{ xf] eg] sf/afxL ug]{ b]zdf lkmtf{ ug'k{ 5{. b]zdf lkmtf{ ug]{ cj:yf 5}g eg] ToxL b]zdf sf/afxL ug'{k5{ eg]/ ;f] dxf;lGwdf x:tfIf/ ug]{ b]znfO{ bfloTj tf]s]sf] 5. sltko o:tf uDeL/ ck/fwx¿ 5g\ hf] ;DalGwt ck/fw ePsf b]zdf pGd'lQm k|fKt u/]klg cGt hfFbf pGd'lQm kfpg' x'bF g} eGg] dfGotfsf cfwf/df ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/sf] ljsf; ePsf] xf]. ) axfnjfnf s0f]{n s'df/ nfdfnfO{ a]nfot ;/sf/n] lu/km\tf/ ubf{ s;/L ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ cfslif{t eof] < pgnfO{ b'Oj6f ck/fw u/]sf] cf/f]k 5. slknj:t'sf] uf]?l;ª\u] 5]p5fp a:bfv]l/. t/, a]nfot ;/sf/n] b'O{hgf dfG5]x¿nfO{ oftgf lbPsf] eGg] cf/f]k nufPsf] 5. Pshgf hgs /fptnfO{ oftgf lbPsf] eGg] s'/f g]kfndf :yflkt 5. of] cf/f]kdfq xf]Og. hgs /fjtn] oftgfaf6 5'6]kl5 lhNnf

cbfntdf uP/ oftgf Ifltk"lt{ kfpF eg]/ d'2f xfNg' eof]. slknj:t' lhNnf cbfntn] oftgf ePsf] 7x/ u/L lghnfO{ Ifltk"lt{ lbg' / oftgf lbg] s0f]{n s'df/ nfdfnfO{ ljefuLo sf/afxL ug'{ eg]/ n]v/] k7fof]. To;df ;/sf/n] k'g/fj]bg u/]g. eg]kl5 oftgf lbPsf] t k|dfl0ft eof]. ;/sf/n] g kLl8tn] Ifltk'lt{ lbof] g t s0f]{n nfdfnfO{ s'g} ljefuLo sf/afxL g} u¥of]. To;df s0f]{n nfdfnfO{ b]jfgL k|s[ltsf] ;hfo eof]. oftgf lbPjfktsf] ;hfo t lbOPsf] lyPg. To; sf/0f nfdfn] lgGbgLo ck/fw u/]sf] x'gfn] a]nfotdf oftgf lj?4sf] sfg'gsf] cfwf/df lu/km\tf/ u/]sf] xf]. lqmldgn hli6; PS6 !((* sf] bkmf !#$ cg';f/ a]nfot ;/sf/n] sf/afxL k|lqmof cufl8 a9fPsf] xf]. Tof] bkmfdf cGo h'g;'s} b]zdf oftgf lbPsf] dfG5] ePklg a]nfotdf g} lbP ;/x dfgL sf/afxL ul/g]5 eGg] k|fjwfg /x]sf] 5. of] oftgf lj?4sf] dxf;lGwsf] clwgdf /x]/ agfOPsf] sfg'g xf]. a]nfotdf nfdfsf] ljifodf w]/} klxn] ph'/L k/]sf] /x]5. pgLx¿n] cg';Gwfg / 5fglag ul//x]sf /x]5g\. nfdf a]nfot uPsf] a]nfdf pgLx¿n] lu/km\tf/ u/].


) o;/L lu/km\tf/ ug'{ /fli6«otf / ;fj{ef}d ;Qfdfly c;/ k5{ eGg] k|ltlqmof klg cfPsf] 5 lg < o;f] x]bf{ xf] ls eg] h:tf] klg 5. t/, ;fj{ef}d;Qf eGg] cjwf/0ff ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf] a8fkqn] :yfkgf u/]sf] xf]. a8fkqn] ;a} b]z ;dfg 5g\ eG5. of] l;4fGtsf s]xL ckjfbx¿ klg 5g\. Tof] ckjfb s] xf] eg]b]lv cfˆgf] b]z ;fa{ef}d 5 eg]/ cfˆgf] b]zsf hgtfnfO{ h] kfof] ToxL ug{ kfOFb}g. To;sf ;Ldfx¿ 5g\. ToxfF a:g] dfG5]x¿sf lglZrt clwsf/x¿ x'G5g\. clg To:tf dfG5]x¿nfO{ h:tf] kfof] To:tf] ck/fw u/]/ aflx/ ;'/lIft 5' eGg] cj:yf 5}g. Tof] s] xf] eg] ;fj{ef}d ;Qfsf] l;4fGtdf ePsf ckjfb xf]. jf:tjdf g]kfn ;fj{ef}d g} xf] / 5 klg. /f]dljwfg x]bf{ s'g} b]zsf] ;fj{ef}d ;Qf ljk/Lt h:tf] nfUb}g < g]kfndf xf];\ jf s]Gofdf ck/fw u/]sf] dfG5]nfO{ x]un] ;dft]/ sf/afxL ug{ ;S5. ca x]udf nu]/ sf/afxL ug]{ ;fj{ef}d;Qf ljk/Lt eof] eg]/ ePg gL Û t/, sltko ck/fwx¿df olb tL b]zx¿n] sf/afxL ug{ ;Sb}g eg] x]udf klg nu]/ sf/afxL ug{ ;S5. To;nfO{ ;fj{ef}d ;Qfsf] ljk/Lt eof] eGg kfOFb}g. t/, To;sf sltko ckjfbx¿ ljsf; ePsf 5g\. Tof] ckjfbdf klg oftgf h:tf] uDeL/ ck/fwdf h'g;'s} b]zn] klg sfg'g agfP/ sf/afxL ug{ ;S5 eGg] dfGotf ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ xf]. of] If]qflwsf/sf] k|of]u clxn] o'/f]ksf #)– #% b]zx¿n] u/]sf 5g\. pQ/ cd]l/sf / blIf0f cd]l/sfsf k|fo b]zx¿n] o:tf] If]qflwsf/ /fv]sf 5g\. Plzofdf dn]lzofn] /fv]sf] 5. Go"lhNof08df 5. ci6«]lnofdf 5. ) a]nfotn] h;/L s'df/ nfdfnfO{ lu/km\tf/ u/]/ sf/afxL k|lqmof yfn]sf] 5 . To;} u/]/ g]kfnn] klg c¿ b]zsf gful/snfO{ sf/afxL ug{ ;S5 ls ;Sb}g < oftgf lj?4sf] ;lGwsf] wf/f

%=@ n] s] eG5 eg] oftgf lbPsf] h'g;'s} b]zsf] JolQm g]kfndf 5 eGg] kQf nfUof] eg] g]kfnn] sf/afxL ug{ ;S5. t/, g]kfnn] sf/afxL ug{sf nflu sfg'g t agfpg' k¥of] lg t Û xfdLn] oftgfnfO{ kmf}hbf/Ls/0f g} u/]sf 5}gf}F. oftgf kl/eflift g} 5}g. ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f @^ df oftgf ck/fw xf] eg]sf] 5. ;}lgs P]gdf oftgfdf sf/afxL x'G5 eg]sf] 5. t/, v} oftgf eg]sf] s] xf] < oftgf u/]sf] dfG5]nfO{ sxfF ph'/L nfU5 < s'g cbfntdf d'2f rN5 < slt jif{ ;hfo x'G5 < slt Ifltk"lt{ lbG5 < sFxL klg pNn]v 5}g. To;sf/0f ;a}eGbf klxnf oftgfnfO{ ck/fw xf] eGg] kl/eflift u/L sf/afxL ug]{ P]g sfg'g agfpg' k¥of]. Tof] P]gdf xfdLn] s] k|fjwfg /fVg' k¥of] eg]bl] v cGo h'g;'s} b]zdf oftgf u/L g]kfndf lu/km\tf/ k/]sf] dfG5]nfO{ g]kfnd} oftgf u/]sf] dfgL of g]kfn sfg'g ;/x sf/afxL ul/g] 5 eg]/ xfdLn] sfg'gdf k|fjwfg /fVg' k¥of]. Tof] k|fjwfg cg';f/ g]kfndf sf/afxL rnfpg ;lsG5. of] t g]kfnsf] bfloTj xf]. ) s'df/ nfdfsf] lu/km\tf/Ln] g]kfnsf] zflGt k|lqmofnfO{ cj/f]w k'¥ofp“5 elgG5 lg < jf:tjdf of] zflGt k|lqmofnfO{ s;/L x]g]{ eGg] b[li6sf]0f xf]. zflGt k|lqmofsf] cfwf/zLnf eg]sf] lj:t[t zflGt ;D´f}tf xf]. lj:t[t zflGt ;D´f}tfn] ;+ljwfgsf] s'/f u5{. ;fdflhs cfly{s ¿kfGt/0fsf] s'/f u5{. åGå kLl8tx¿nfO{ Gofo lbg] s'/f u5{. kl/k"/0f ug]{ s'/f u5{. dfgjtf lj/f]wL ck/fw ePsf 5g\ eg] 5fgjLg ug]{ s'/f u5{. To;sf/0f lj:t[t zflGt ;D´f}tf a[xt b:tfj]h xf]. To;}sf] k|fjwfgcg';f/ åGåsf kLl8tx¿nfO{ Gofo lbg' / kl/k"/0f lbg' g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ afWotf 5. ca Tof] cGtu{tsf] j]kQf;Fu ;DalGwt P]g÷ljw]os gagfpg], ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldngfk;Fu ;DalGwt P]g÷ljw]os gagfpg]. clg eGg] rfFlx

xfdL To:tf] sfg'g agfP/ sf/afxL u5f}{F. To:tf cf/f]kdf d'2f nfu]sf dfG5]x¿sf] d'2f wdfwd lkmtf{ lng]. sf/afxL ug]{ cfwf/ tof/ gug]{. cbfntn] km};nf u/L ;hfo tf]s]sf dfG5]x¿nfO{ k|wfgdGqLh:tf] kbLo lhDd]jf/L ePsf] dfG5]n] ;Fu;Fu} lxF8fpg]. cg';Gwfg cufl8 al9/x]sf] k|lqmofdf /f]lslbg]. Tolt u/]kl5 oxfF x'bg} eGg] b]lvFbfb]lvFb} klg xfdL sfg'g agfP/ sf/afxL u5f}}F eGg g5f]8\g]. To;n] g]kfndf lj:t[t zflGt ;D´f}tfsf] k|fjwfg sfof{Gjog x'g] h:tf] b]lvPg. To;sf/0f s] xf] eg] lj:t[t zflGt ;D´f}tfn] ;+ljwfgsf] s'/f u5{ . ;fdflhs cfly{s ¿kfGt/0fsf] s'/f u5{ . åGå kLl8tx¿nfO{ Gofo lbg] s'/f u5{ . kl/k"/0f ug]{ s'/f u5{ . dfgjtf lj/f]wL ck/fw ePsf 5g\ eg] 5fgljg ug]{ s'/f u5{ . To;sf/0f lj:t[t zflGt ;D´f}tf a[xt b:tfj]h xf] . To;}sf] k|fjwfgcg';f/ åGåsf kLl8tx¿nfO{ Gofo lbg' / kl/k"/0f lbg' g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ afWotf 5 . ca Tof] cGtu{tsf] j]kQf;“u ;DalGwt P]g÷ljw]os gagfpg], ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldngfk;“u ;DalGwt P]g÷ljw]os gagfpg] . clg eGg] rf“lx xfdL To:tf] sfg'g agfP/ sf/afxL u5f}{“ . To:tf cf/f]kdf d'2f nfu]sf dfG5]x¿sf] d'2f wdfwd lkmtf{ lng] . ptf s'df/ nfdf lu/km\tf/ k/]/ wSsf k/]kl5 / 8]s]Gb| yfsf] d'2fdf cleo'Qmx¿ lu/km\tf/ kl/;s]kl5 cfPsf] afWotfsf] af]nL xf]. zflGt k|lqmofsf] cleGg kIf kLl8tx¿ x'g\. pgLx¿nfO{ afx]s u/]/ g]kfnsf] zflGt k|lqmof k"/f x'g ;Sb}g. ;Qfdf ePsf / 7"nf dfG5]x¿nfO{ dfq zflGt k|lqmof xf] / < To;sf/0f kLl8tsf] b[li6sf]0f / g]kfnsf] zflGt k|lqmof ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Gofo k|lqmof k"/f gul/sg / bf]ifLx¿nfO{ sf/afxL gul/sg cufl8 a9\g ;Sb}g.

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 45


) eg]kl5 uDeL/ dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3g u/]sfx¿nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o s73/fdf pEofpg ;lsG5 < olb g]kfn ;/sf/n] sf/afxL u/]g eg] . ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3 pRr cfo'Qmsf] sfof{non] g]kfn åGå k|ltj]bg @)!@ ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5. To;df p;n] g]kfndf o'4 ck/fw eof] / dfgjtfla/f]wL ck/fw eof] eg]/ ls6fg u/]sf] 5. o'4 ck/fw / dfgjtflj/f]wL ck/fwdf ljZjJofkL If]qflwsf/ nfU5. ha/h:tL a]kQf kfg]{ sfo{df klg nfU5. Gofosf] cGt/f{li6«o cEof; x'G5 . cGt/f{li6«o Goflos k|lqmof klg x'G5 eGg] dfGotf cg'¿k of] k|lqmof z'¿ ePsf] xf] . t/ g]kfnL gful/ssf] x}l;otn] eGg' x'G5 eg] s'df/ nfdfnfO{ g]kfndf g} NofP/ sf/afxL ug]{ jftfj/0f agfpg' k5{ . To;sf nflu g]kfnn] oftgfnfO{, o'4 ck/fwnfO{, j]kQfnfO{, dfgjtf lj/f]wL ck/fwnfO{ / anfTsf/sf 36gfdf #% lbg gf3]kl5 klg ph"/L lng] u/L Joj:yf ub}{ oL ;a}nfO{ ck/fwsf ¿kdf kl/eflift u/]/ sfg'g agfpg' k¥of] . u}/Goflos xTofsf ljifodf sf/afxL ug]{ sfg'g agfO ;s]/ oL uDeL/ ck/fwx¿df ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u Ifdfbfg glbg] u/L agfpg'k¥of] . To:tf] cfof]u agfO;s]/ s0f]{n nfdfnfO{ xfd|f] cfof]udf b]pm, xfdL 5fglag u/]/ sf/afxL u5f}{“ eg]/ ;'lglZrttf lbnfP/ nfdfnfO{ g]kfndf Nofpg ;S5f}“ . u}/ Goflos xTof / anfTsf/df klg of] If]qflwsf/ nfU5. o:tf ck/fwdf ;+nUgx¿nfO{ g]kfndf sf/afxL ul/Pg eg] tL ck/fwLx¿ ;dfOG5g\. ;jfn s] xf] eg]b]lv s'df/ nfdf a]nfotdf lu/km\tf/ k/]/ sf/afxL ePsf]df xfdLn] v';L dfGg' kg]{ cj:yf 5}g. Gofosf] cGt/f{li6«o cEof; x'G5. cGt/f{li6«o Goflos k|lqmof klg x'G5 eGg] dfGotf cg'¿k of] k|lqmof z'¿ ePsf] xf]. t/

46

k|frL ;+r]tgf

å}dfl;s

g]kfnL gful/ssf] x}l;otn] eGg' x'G5 eg] s'df/ nfdfnfO{ g]kfndf g} NofP/ sf/afxL ug]{ jftfj/0f agfpg' k5{. To;sf nflu g]kfnn] oftgfnfO{, o'4 ck/fwnfO{, j]kQfnfO{, dfgjtf lj/f]wL ck/fwnfO{ / anfTsf/sf 36gfdf #% lbg gf3]kl5 klg ph"/L lng] u/L Joj:yf ub}{ oL ;a}nfO{ ck/fwsf ¿kdf kl/eflift u/]/ sfg'g agfpg' k¥of]. u}/Goflos xTofsf ljifodf sf/afxL ug]{ sfg'g agfO ;s]/ oL uDeL/ ck/fwx¿df ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u Ifdfbfg glbg] u/L agfpg'k¥of]. To:tf] cfof]u agfO;s]/ s0f]n{ nfdfnfO{ xfd|f] cfof]udf b]pm, xfdL 5fglag u/]/ sf/afxL u5f}F{ eg]/ ;'lglZrttf lbnfP/ nfdfnfO{ g]kfndf Nofpg ;S5f}F. ) s'df/ nfdf lu/km\tf/ k|s/0fn] g]kfnsf] b08xLgtf df}nfp“b} uPsf] cj:yf ´Nsfp“5 < of] t :yflkt eof]. g]kfndf t :yflkt} ePsf] lyof]. cGt/f{li6«o hutdf ;d]t b08xLgtf g]kfndf ´fFluP/ uPsf] 5 eGg] k|i6 eof]. hGd s}b tf]lsPsf] dfG5] v'ndv'Nnf Tof] klg k|wfgdGqLs}

jl/kl/ lxFl8/x]sf] 5, k|x/Ln] ;'/Iff lbO/x]sf] 5 t/ k|x/Ln] e]l6g eG5, k|x/Lsf] k|d'v lj?4 ph'/L k/]sf] 5, a9'jf x'G5 of] eGbf b08xLgtfsf] csf]{ ¿k s] x'g ;S5 < of] b08xLgtfn] ;dfhdf s:tf] k|]/0ff lbO/x]sf] xf]nf < dfG5] dfg'{ s]xL xf]Og eGg] k|]/0ff lbO/x]sf] 5}g < xTof lxF;fsf 36gfx¿ lsg ylkFb}5g\ eg] dfG5] df/]/ klg dfg]n { fO{ s]xL xFb' f]/x]g5 kb, kx'r F / k};f eof] eg] 5'6g\ ;lsFbf]/x]5 eGg] sfg'gsf] zf;gsf] lvnfk dfG5]x¿sf] gh/ k/]sf] 5. of] ;a} b08xLgtfs} sf/0fn] ubf{ ePsf] xf]. To;sf/0f g]kfndf /fli6«o ¿kdf b08xLgtf :yflkt 5 eGg] lyof]. ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3 pRr cfo'Qmsf] sfof{non] g]kfn åGå k|ltj]bg @)!@ ;fj{hlgs u/L;s]kl5 / s'df/ nfdf a]nfotdf lu/km\tf/ k/]]kl5 cGt/f{li6«o :t/df klg :yflkt ePsf] 5. o:tf ck/fwdf ;+nUgx¿nfO{ sf/afxL ug]{ k|lqmofdf 5f}+ eGg] ljZjfl;nf] cfwf/ cGt/f{li6«o hutnfO{ gb]vfP;Dd xfdL of] cf/f]kaf6 pDsg ;Sg] cj:yf 5}g. g]kfn b08xLgtfsf sfod /x]sf] b]zs} ¿kdf lrlgg] cj:yf 5.

g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df x]g]{ xf] eg] dfgjclwsf/sf] cfGbf]ng lj=;+= @)$^ k5fl8 kl/:s[t x'Fb} uPsf] xf]. o;} bzsdf g]kfnn];+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf]Ps lhDd]jf/ ;b:osf] x}l;otdf dfgjclwsf/sf] cg]sf}F dxTjk"0f{ dxf;lGwx¿sf]kIf/fi6«eof]/ ljZjd}w]/} /fi6«;ª\3Lo dfgjclwsf/ b:tfj]hx¿sf] cg'df]bg ug]{ b]zsf] ¿kdf cfkm"nfO{ pEofof]. t/ klg g]kfnn] cfkm"n] k|lta4tf hgfPsf] ;lGwx¿sf] cfh b'O{ bzs lalt;Sbf klg ;zQm sfof{Gjogsf] nflu pT;fhgs kxn ug{ g;s]sf] oyfy{ /x]sf] 5. g]kfnsf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx/ ljz]if u/]/ dfgjclwsf/df lqmofzLn ;+:yfx¿n] dfgjclwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / ;Da4{gdf k'¥ofPsf]e"ldsf pNn]vgLo /xFb}cfPsf]5.


hfgsf/L

sfg'gL ¿kdf ckfª\u clwsf/ uf}td l/dfn*

gj eP/ hGd]kl5 k|fKt ug]{ ;Dk"0f{ g};lu{s clwsf/ g} dfgjclwsf/ xf]. dfgj clwsf/ h'g;'s} tx / tKsf Pjd\ :t/df ;dfg ¿kdf nfu' x'G5 / x'g' k5{. hGdsf] cfwf/df s;}nfO{ klg e]befj ug'{ x'bF g} . o;} s'/fnfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ hGdFb} jf eljtJodf k/]/ sf]xL leGg Ifdtf ePsf ckfª\u JolQmx¿sf] nflu /fHon] sfg'gL ¿kdf k|bfg u/]sf ;]jf ;'ljwfsf] af/]df oxfF ;ª\IfKfdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5.

df

ckfª\utf kl/rokq ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfoaf6 ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmsf nflu k|jfx ul/g] ;]jf;'ljwf, cj;/ / clwsf/sf] Gofok"0f{ / k|efjsf/L ljt/0f xf];\ eGg] x]t'n] tyf ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmnfO{ clwsf/sf] wf/ssf ¿kdf :jLsf/ u/L g]kfn ;/sfn] ckfª\utf kl/rokqsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] xf]. s'g} klg pd]/sf ckfª\utf ePsf ;a} JolQmn] cfk\mgf] lhNnfsf] dlxnf ljsf; sfof{noaf6 kl/rokq k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5g\. kl/rokq k|fKt ug{ cfjZos sfuhkq / k"/f ug'k{ g]{ k|lqmofsf af/]df ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmsf] kl/rokq ljt/0f ;DaGwL lgb]{lzsf, @)^% df :ki6 pNn]v ul/Psf] 5. kl/rokq k|fKt ug]{ 7fp“÷lgsfo ;DalGwt lhNnfsf] dlxnf ljsf; sfof{no kl/rokqsf] k|sf/ ckfª\utfsf] kl/efiff / juL{s/0f, @)^# cg';f/ ckfª\utf kl/rokqnfO{ uDeL/tfsf cfwf/df rf/

efudf juL{s[t ul/Psf] 5. x/]s kl/rokqnfO{ 5'§f5'§} /ª\u lbOPsf] 5 / kl/rokq lng cfpg] ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmnfO{ ckfª\utfsf] uDeL/tf cg';f/ lghnfO{ pko'Qm 7x/ ul/Psf] kl/rokq k|bfg ul/G5. o:tf] kl/rokq æsÆ ju{df kg]s { f nflu gLnf] /ª\udf pknAw u/fpg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5. -s_ k"0f{ czQm ckfª\utf M JolQmsf] zf/Ll/s jf dfgl;s k|0ffnLdf ePsf] sfo{ut ljrngsf sf/0f c?sf] ;xf/f lnP/ klg b}lgs hLjg ;Dkfbg ug{ g;Sg] cj:yfsf JolQmx¿, tLj| af}l4s ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmx¿, k"0f{ ¿kdf >j0f–b[li6ljxLg JolQmx¿ tyf cfkm}F xnrn ug{ g;Sg] u/L k"0f{ ¿kdf czQm eO{ ckfª\utf ePsf] JolQmx¿nfO{ æsÆ ju{sf] ckfª\utfsf] kl/rokq ljt/0f ul/g]5. of] /ftf] /ª\udf ;'gf}nf cIf/n] :ki6 klxrfg x'g] u/L hf/L ul/g]5. -v_ clt czQm ckfª\utf M lg/Gt/ c?sf] ;xof]u lnP/ dfq b}lgs hLjg ;Dkfbg ug{, cfjfudg ug{, ;~rf/ ug{, n]vk9 ug{ ;Ifd x'g] JolQmx¿, kf]lnof] jf kIff3ft eO{ jf df+zk];L ljrng eO{ jf dl:tis kIff3ft eO{ sDd/eGbf d'lgsf] efu lqmofzLn x'g g;sL lXjnr]o/sf] k|of]u ug'{kg]{ cj:yfsf JolQmx¿, b'j} xftsf] kfv'/fd'lgsf] cª\u gePsf jf grNg], sDd/eGbf d'lgsf cª\u gePsf jf grNg] JolQmx¿, b'j} v'§f k"0f{ lqmofzLn geO{ j}zfvLsf] k|of]u ug]{ JolQmx¿, k"0f{ b[li6ljxLg JolQmx¿, alx/f JolQmx¿, b}lgs hLjg ;Dkfbg cfkm}F

ug{ ;Sg] t/ l;sfOdf ;d:of ePsf af}l4s ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmx¿, lg/Gt/ c?sf] ;xof]u lnO/xg'kg]{ ax'ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{, ævÆ ju{sf] kl/rokq pknAw u/fOg]5. of] gLnf] /ª\udf ;'gf}nf cIf/n] :ki6 klxrfg x'g] u/L hf/L ul/g]5. -u_ dWod ckfª\utf M s[lqd cª\usf] k|of]u jf ;xfos ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]uaf6 b}lgs hLjg ;Dkfbg cfkm}F ug{ ;Sg], ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfoaf6 ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmsf nflu k|jfx ul/g] ;]jf;'ljwf, cj;/ / clwsf/sf] Gofok"0f{ / k|efjsf/L ljt/0f xf];\ eGg] x]t'n] tyf ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmnfO{ clwsf/sf] wf/ssf ¿kdf :jLsf/ u/L g]kfn ;/sfn] ckfª\utf kl/rokqsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] xf] . s'g} klg pd]/sf ckfª\utf ePsf ;a} JolQmn] cfk\mgf] lhNnfsf] dlxnf ljsf; sfof{noaf6 kl/rokq k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5g\ . kl/rokq k|fKt ug{ cfjZos sfuhkq / k"/f ug'{kg]{ k|lqmofsf af/]df ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmsf] kl/rokq ljt/0f ;DaGwL lgb]{lzsf, @)^% df :ki6 pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . kf]lnof] eO 3'F8f d'lgsf] cª\udf dfq k|efj k/]sf], :jtGq ¿kdf lxF88'n ug{ ;Sg] zf/Ll/s ¿kdf ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmx¿, xTs]nf eGbf d'lgsf sDtLdf a"9LcfF}nf / rf]/cf}Fnf gePsf tyf s's'{RrfeGbf d'lgsf] efu gePsf, d]?b08df ;d:of eO 9f8 s'lk|Psf], l;sfOdf l9nf ePsf af}l4s ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmx¿, >j0foGqsf] k|of]uaf6 dfq ;'Gg ;Sg] ;':t>j0f JolQmx¿,

* ;xfos k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L, /;'jf

k|frL ;+rt] gf å}dfl;s 47


sljtf zNolqmofaf6 :j/oGq lemsL 3fF6Lsf] gnLaf6 dfq af]Ng ;Sg] JolQmx¿, tLa| eses] JolQmx¿, tLg lkm6d'lgsf k'8\sf JolQmx¿, r:df / >j0foGq b'j} k|of]u ug]{ >j0f–b[li6ljxLg JolQmx¿, n]G; jf DoflUgkmfo/sf] k|of]uaf6 dfq k9\g;Sg] Go"g b[li6o'Qm JolQmx¿, ;d"x æuÆ sf] ckfª\utf ju{df kb{5g\. o; ju{sf] kl/rokq kx]Fnf] /ª\udf gLnf] cIf/n] :ki6 klxrfg x'g] u/L hf/L ul/g]5. -3_ ;fdfGo ckfª\utf M zf/Ll/s cª\ux¿df ;fdfGo ljrng eP tfklg b}lgs hLjg ;Dkfbgdf s'g} sl7gfO gx'g], xft jf v'§f s]xL 5f]6f] ePsf, 7"nf] cIf/ k9\g;Sg], Go"g b[li6o'Qm JolQmx¿, xTs]nf d'lgsf sDtLdf a'9Lcf}nF f / rf]/cf}nF f ePsf, v'§fsf] cf}Fnfsf efux¿ gePsf, >j0foGq nufO{ jf gnufO{ 7"nf] cfjfh ;'Gg] t/ af]nL :ki6 ePsf ;':t >j0f JolQmx¿, :d/0fzlQm Hofb} sd eO{ l;sfOdf sl7gfO x'g] af}+l4s ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmx¿ æ3Æ ju{df kb{5g\. o; ju{sf] kl/rokq ;]tf] /ª\udf sfnf] cIf/n] :ki6 klxrfg x'g] u/L hf/L ul/g]5. kl/rokqsf] pkof]u s;/L ug]{ < ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmx¿nfO{ eg]/ /fHonufot cGo u}/;/sf/L lgsfoåf/f k|bfg ul/Psf ljz]if ;]jf tyf ;'ljwf, ljz]if k|fyldstf, ;x'lnot, cf/If0fnufot cGo cj;/x¿ pkf]u ug{ of] kl/rokq cfjZos k5{. ;'ljwf -ckfª\utf kl/rokq_ k|fKt ug]{ k|lqmof ckfª\utf ePsf JolQmx¿sf nflu kl/rokq ljt/0f lgb]{lzsf, @)^% n] to u/]sf] k|lqmofsf cfwf/df of] kl/rokq ljt/0f ul/G5. xfn of] kl/rokq ;DalGwt lhNnfsf] dlxnf ljsf; sfof{noaf6 pknAw u/fOg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5. ;Gbe{ ;fdu|L – ckfª\utf ;|f]tk'l:tsf @)^*

48 k|frL ;+r]tgf å}dfl;s

sfnL 3lt{gLsf]b]xfj;fg – Zofdn

st} sf]xL klg zf]sfKt 5}g sfnL 3lt{gLsf] b]xfj;fgdf cvaf/x¿df slxNo} gkl9Psf] cg'xf/ /fhelQmufgnfO{ dlxdfdl08t agfpg hgtfsf] pn{Fbf] e]n b]vfpg] 6]lnelehgsf] kbf{df slxNo} gx]l/Psf] cg'xf/ /fhwfgLdf tLg cfgf hUuf vf]Hg ef}Ftfl/Psf] h'n';df k|Voft hUuf–bnfnx¿n] klg ;gfvt ug}{ g;Sg] cg'xf/ sfgL 3lt{gLsf] cg'xf/. s;}nfO{ s]xL km/s k/]sf] 5}g Tof] cg'xf/ c:tfPdf sfnL 3lt{gLsf] cg'xf/ s'g} klg ;f+;b\;Fu ldNg] cg'xf/ dLgf, nLnf, z}nhf dfwj, /fdrGb|, lul/hf ;a};Fu b'?:t ldNg] cg'xf/ t/ tlGsPkl5 ;f+;b\sf ufnf ldNg} 5f8\of] cg'xf/ p;sf] ;f+;b\ uPsf] cg'xf/l;t ;+;b\df cg'kl:yt ;+ljwfgsf s'g} klg wf/fn] g5f]OPsf] ljlzi6 cg'xf/ g]kfnsf gbLgfnfem}F slxn] kmf6\b} / slxn] hfl8Fb} O{Zj/, eujfg\, d:6f] cflb b]ju0f sf]xL lyPgg\ p;sf]s dxfk|of0fdf. sfnL 3lt{gLsf] tLvf] cfjfhsf t/ª\ux¿ cem} ;'Gb5' d / p;sf] rfp/L k/]sf] cg'xf/ ;DemG5' d 3/L3/L h]–h] u/L p'n] lhGbuLdf 7Ls u/]/ d/L xfd|f] h:tf] rkfpFb} lha|f] afFlrg pm dg nfu]sf s'/f dhfn] u/L Pp6f eofjx ;To k|s6 eof] km]l/ sfnL 3lt{gL lxhf] d/L s;}sf] s]xL glauf/]/ d/L slj xf], cfF;' cem} afFsL 5 ltd|f cfFvfdf < ufpFnfO{ l/Qf]– l/Qf] 5f8]/ crfgs lxhf] nf]k eof] sfnL 3lt{gLsf] cg'xf/.


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