Logbook ! Knowledge Map!

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Load Path: How forces are transfer from the load to the ground. ! Masonry: Structure built of stone or brick by a mason. ! Compression: Opposite to tension, a process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together. ! Reaction Force: Equal and opposite to the applied load in order to be stable. ! Point Load: A point load refers to a point where a bearing or structural weight is intense and transferred to the foundation.! Beam: A rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. â&#x20AC;Š

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Ching: 2.08-2.11!

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Wind Loads: are forces exerted by the kinetic energy of a moving mass of air, assumed to come from any horizontal direction.! Design wind pressure is a minimum design value for the equivalent static pressure on the exterior surfaces of a structure resulting from a critical wind velocity. ! Earthquake loads: an earthquake consists of series of longitudinal and transverse vibrations induced in the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s crust by the abrupt movement of plates along fault lines. ! The natural period of a structure varies according to its height above the base and its dimension parallel to the direction of the applied forces.!

References!

! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley! !

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Description: Build a tower as high as possible, the tower needs to be able to accommodate the object provided by tutor.!

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Process: 1. Our group decided to make the foundation of the tower in square as it can easily provides enough room to fit the object. One side of the wall was left opened for the object to get in. !

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We used the larger bricks for the first three levels of the tower, as we think it can provides a more solid foundation. !

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! ! 2. We continued to higher the level of the tower. Firstly, we started with the entrance. The idea is to gradually increase the number of bricks in each level in order to form a door shape. !

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We added a rock brick on the top of each column, so that it can add pressure on the structure and make it more stable. !

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3. The columns are getting closer while we increasing the level. !

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! 4. The door of the tower is completed, and as it gets higher the less it fells. Now we are focusing on building the wall and make it as high as possible. !

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However the difficulty here is that the bricks we used as foundation is in different size, so sometimes the smaller bricks cannot match the edge of the bigger ones. !

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5. We keep making the wall of the tower higher. However we realized that the foundation we built for the tower is too wide, and it is hard to close the roof at this height. !

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! ! ! 6. The time remain was not enough for us to finish the roof, it became harder to build the wall as the height increases. !

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The plan is to try to make each level smaller so that it can close eventually. However it was not successful. I think it is because the wall is too thin and it cannot provide enough support for the roof. Additionally, as we trying to make the roof, the pattern of bricks have become irregular. !

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! Comparisons: The following pictures were taken from other groups, their patterns of bricks are similar, which is leaving a certain space between each brick. The advantage I think is that it accelerates the process of constructing and make it easier to be shaped. !

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Week 2!

! Knowledge Map!

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Structural Joints!

! Roller joints: The simplest joint with loads only transferred in one direction.! ! Pin Joint: Very common in the construction industry and are found in a truss system.! !

Fixed Joint: Complicated to calculate because bending can occur at the joint if one member experiences a heavy load.!

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Key Terms:! -

Structural Joint: connections between structural members. ! Stability: state or quality of being stable. ! Tension: A force that stretch the material making it grow in length.! Frame: A beam supported by two columns. (Ching 2.17)! Bracing: Diagonal members that stabilize a structure. ( Ching 2.22)! Column: Structural members designed to support loads applied to its ends. ( Ching 2.13)!

! ! ! ! References ! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley! ! -

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Description: By using the piece of balsa wood provided, try to build a tower that is high enough to reach the celling.!

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Process: 1. The structure we choose is using the triangular shape structure, so that it will not change its shape easily. ! ! The joint between the woods are connected by tapes, we covered the corners with multiple layers in order to strengthen the structure. !

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2. We added an extra piece of wood on each side of the structure, so that it can restrict the force from the outside and make it harder to fell. â&#x20AC;Š

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3. We continued to higher the level of the tower by repeating the same structure. !

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Without the extra wood on the side, the tower is really unstable in this case, so we decided to repeat the process on every level of the tower. !

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! 4. As the process continues, the tower gets too high that we have to lie it on the table. !

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We constantly went back to check if the structure is strong enough to stand up. !

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5. Finally, as the tower is high enough to reach the ceiling, we finished the top with a pyramid shaped structure. Then we added the rest of the materials to the top of it in order to maximized the height. !

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However the tower could be unstable at this height. For extension, I think we could wider the foundation by adding more footings as images showing below. â&#x20AC;Š

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Week 3 !

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Knowledge Map!

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Structural elements!

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Strut: a slender element design to carry load parallel to its long axis, the load produces compression ( columns) !

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Tie: a slender element to carry load parallel to its long axis, the, the load produces tension. (cables) !

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Beam: Generally a horizontal element designed to carry vertical load using it's bending resistance.!

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Slab/Plate: a wide horizontal element designed to carry vertical load in bending usually suppressed by beams !

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Panel: a deep vertical element designed to carry vertical or horizontal load.!

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Footing & Foundations! Transfer loads to the ground. ! Foundations are found at the bottom of buildings where the building meets the ground. ! The substructure of the building and their function is to safely transfer all loads acting on the building structure to the ground. !

Settlement: overtime, buildings compress the earth beneath them and the buildings tend to sin a little into the earth. ! - Footings and foundations should be designed to ensure that this settlement occurs evenly and that the bearing capacity of soil is not exceeded. ! - cracking often occurs with differential settlement (settlement that is uneven)!

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Shallow and Deep Foundations! -Shallow footings are used where soil conditions are stable and the required soil bearing capacity is adequate close to the surface of the ground. Load is transferred vertically from the foundation to the ground. ! Deep Foundations: …soil condition unstable, inadequate. !

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Types of shallow Footings ! -

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Pad footings: ( isolated footings) spread a point of load over a wider area of ground. ! Strip Footings: used when loads from a wall or a series of columns is spread in a linear manner. ! Raft Foundation: (raft slab) provides increased stability by joining the individual strips together as a single mat. !

! Deep Foundation! -End

Bearing Piles: extend the foundations down to rock of soil that will provide support for the building loads. ! -Friction Piles: rely on the resistance of the surrounding earth to support the structure. !

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Retaining and Foundation Walls: are used when site are excavated to create basement or where changed in site levels needs to be stabilized. !

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Mass Construction! -

Stone, earth, clay, concrete ! Strong in compression, weak in tension. !

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Hard, Compressive strength, good thermal Mass, Durable !

Stones + clay + concrete! -Masonry: refers to building with units of various natural or manufactured products. ! -Bond: the pattern or arrangement of the units. ! -Course: A horizontal row of masonry units.! -Joint: The way units are connected to each other. ! -Mortar: Mixture of cement or lime, sand and water used as a bonding agent.! !

Bricks !

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A standard size masonry unit made out of clay. Its proportions may vary slightly depending on types and countries but it will always be a hand sized unit. !

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Clay bricks: manufactured from clay or shale which is shaped and then hardened by a firing process. ! ! -Three types: - extruded and wire-cut. ! ! ! - machine moulded(pressed)! ! ! - handmade(convict-made)! ! -Variation in the color as is a natural material. ! ! -Uses: walls, arches, paving. ! ! -Clay Bricks - Joints: mortar joints are usually 10 mm. !

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Advantages:! - Can be joined with water based mortar! - If adequately ventilated so that any wetness can escape, they will not deteriorate. !

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Disadvantages:! - Absorb moisture and expand overtime ! - Salts and lime from the soil can be drawn up through the bricks when in contact with the ground, which may cause serious pathologies and/or aesthetic problems such as efflorescence. (粉化）!

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Blocks: ! Concrete Block:! ! -A standard size masonry unit made out of concrete. Size various in order to suit deferent purposes. ! ! -Provenance: Are manufactured from cement, sand, gravel and water. Process involves mixing, ! ! moulding and curing. ! ! -Uses: Walls - Load bearing ! ! ! - Non-load bearing ! ! ! Comparison: ! -Concrete shrinks: cement paste reduces in volume as it hydrates and dry shrinkage occurs as water is lost! -Clay bricks will expand: absorb moisture from the atmosphere!

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Stone: ! - Igneous: formed when molten rock(lava/magma)cools! - Sedimentary: formed when accumulated particles are subjected to moderate pressure. ! - Metamorphic: formed when the structure of igneous or sedimentary stone changes when subjected to pressure, high temperatures or chemical processes. !

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Uses: ! One of the oldest building materials. Walls, paving, cladding, aggregates and feature design elements. !

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Elements & Units: ! - Monolithic: Big structure ! - Ashlar: carved in to smaller elements ! - Rubble: used as they are found !

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Key Terms: ! Moment: An applied load or force that creates bending in a structural member. It is numerically expressed as the product of the force times the length of the lever arm, and given in units such as foot-pounds.! Retaining wall: a wall that is built to resist lateral pressure(especially a wall built to prevent the advance of a mass of earth)! Pad Footing: A thick slab-type foundation used to support a structure or a piece of equipment.!

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Strip footing: A concrete footing supporting a wall or two or more columns. The footing may vary in depth and width.! Slab on ground:A flat, horizontal (or nearly horizontal) molded layer of plain or reinforced concrete, usually of uniform but sometimes of variable thickness.! Substructure: The foundation of a building that supports the superstructure.!

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Reference:! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley!

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This we visit the campus and learned about different structures of the buildings in the University. ! This picture shows an example of cast concrete columns, as the columns are in perfect shapes, shows that they were made in factory and connected on site. ! Connected with fixed joints.!

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This building was built in the mid 1990s, The structure is mainly made from reinforced, pre-cast concrete columns and slabs. Aluminum windows and doors are included. !

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UC beam is used to prevent vertical horizontal and rotational movement. !

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This picture shows an example of weep hole. ! The location of the weep hole is usually where the floor level is. â&#x20AC;Š

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! This is the picture of the car park. It is a solid concrete structural system. ! The columns are supported by pad footings! Concrete is the main martial as it is strong is compression. !

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This is a picture of Art West! The main martial is steel. ! the building and the concrete structure supports the steel trusses! The wood beam is hanging from the steel trusses! The steel trusses do not touch the concrete structure ! !

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This is the picture of the stairs near the union house. ! - it is made of steel beams and wires ! - Consist I-beam and C-beam! - The wires are actually not in tension. They are for aesthetic reasons ! - the weight is held by the structure itself â&#x20AC;Š

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This picture shows an example of membrane structure! The Strong cables keep the structure stretched!

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Week 4!

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Knowledge Map!

! Span and Spacing! !

Span: Span is the distance measured between two structural supports. ! ! Span can be measured between vertical supports(for a horizontal ! member) or between horizontal !supports(for a vertical member).! ! Span is not necessarily the same as the length of a member.!

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Spacing:-Spacing is the repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements ! ! -Spacing is often associated with supporting elements (such as beams, columns , etc.) and can be measured horizontally or ! ! vertically.! ! -Spacing is generally measured centre-line to centre-line.! ! !

! Floor Systems:! ! !

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(Ching 4.21 Floor System)!

Concrete:!

Slabs of various types are used toy span between structural supports. These can be one-way or two-way spans. ! Ching:! - Cast-in-place concrete floor slabs are classified according to their span and cast form.! - Precast concrete planks may be supported by beams or load bearing walls. !

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Steel:! Steel framing systems take various forms, with some utilizing heavy gauge structural steel members and others using light gauge steel framing. ! Ching:! - Steel beams support steel decking or precast concrete planks. ! - Beams may be supported by girders, columns, or load bearing walls. !

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Beams framing is typically an integral part of a steel skeleton fame system. !

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Closely spaced light-gauge or open-web joints may be supported by beams or load bearing walls ! Steel decking or wood planks have relatively short spans. ! Joists have limited overhang potential. !

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Steel framing systems sometimes combine with concrete slab systems to where the particular benefits of steel framing and shallow depth floor slab systems are desired. ! Wood:! Traditional timber floor framing systems use a combination of bearers beams) and joists (secondary beams). !

(primary

The span of the bearers determines the spacing of the piers or stumps and the spacing of the bearers equals the span of the joists. ! Ching:! - Wood beams support structural planking or decking. ! - Beams may be supported by girders, posts, or load bearing walls.! - Concentrated loads and floor openings may required additional framing. ! - Underside of floor structure may be left exposed; an applied ceiling is

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Relatively small, closely spaced joists may be supported by beams or load bearing Subflooring, underlayment, and applied ceiling finishes have relatively short spans. ! Joist framing is flexible in shape and form. !

optional. ! walls !

Concrete: Components:! -

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When cement is mixed with water it binds the sand and gravel aggregates together to make the hard, solid material — Concrete. ! Cement: ! -Portland! -Lime!

Provenance: (来源)! Hydration: When the cement powder and water are mixed, a chemical reaction takes place and heat is released.! ! ! - During this process crystals are formed that interlock and bind the sand, crushed rock and cement /!! ! ! water paste together. ! If too much water is added to the concrete mix, the final concrete will not be strong enough. ! If too little water is added, the concrete mixture will be too stiff and it will be very difficult to work with. !

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Process: One of the great advantages of concrete is that it is fluid and shapeless before it hardens. It can be formed in to any shape we desire. ! Formwork is the term used for the temporary support or moulds used to hold the liquid concrete in place until it becomes hard. !

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During the curing process the formwork needs to be supported as the weight of the wet concrete is very heavy. This is achieved by using props and bracings of various types. !

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Concreter generally reaches 75% of its compressive strength in approximately 7 days with testing for the required strength occurring at 28 days. !

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Once the concrete is hardened and strong enough, the formwork is carefully removed. Formwork is often removed, stored and reused. !

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Reinforcement: ! Concrete is also known as ‘artificial stone’! Concrete is very strong in compression but is weak in tension. To improve its structural performance, steel reinforcement in the form of Mesh or Bars is added. ! Result — Reinforce concrete. !

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Beams! Function: to carry loads along the length of the beam and transfer these loads to the vertical supports.!

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Cantilevers:! It is created when a structural element is supported at only one end (or overhanging portions of a member are significant). ! Function: is to carry loads along the length of the member and transfer these loads to the support. !

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In Situ Concrete:! -Is any concrete element that has been poured into formwork and cured on the building site.! This Process includes the fabrication and assembly of the formwork, placing any required Reinforcement, the pouring, vibration and the curing of the concrete. !

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USES:! Widely used in footings, retaining walls and all bespoke(nonstandard) structural elements. ! Sometimes concrete is sprayed into place using a pressure hose. it is useful for landscapes, swimming pools, basement walls between piers or overhead surfaces.!

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Joints:! 1. Construction Joints — used toy divide the construction into smaller and more manageable sections of work. ! 2. Control Joints — required to absorb the expansions and contractions that thermal variations cause and the long term tendency of concrete to shrink over time. The elongation/shrinkage is proportional to the temperature differential, the material coefficient and the dimensions of the piece. ! Both Joints are potential weak points and must ensure that be detailed appropriately, especially in terms of water and moisture control. !

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Pre Cast Concrete:! It is any concrete element that has been fabricated （⽣生产）in a controlled environment and then transported to site for installation. ! This process ensures a much more standardized outcome that avoids many of the quality control issues associated with in city concrete. ! Pre-cast concrete elements also allow work on site to progress at a much faster rate. !

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Uses:! It is often associated with the structure of bolding, bridge or civil works, forming part of the primary structure or self-supporting panel type elements . ! - Rarely used in footings, it is common in retaining walls, walls and columns. !

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Joints ! 1. Construction Joints - the panel/element nature of pre-cast concrete mean that joints natural occur when one precast element meets another. ! 2. Structural Joints - the type and performance of the structural conniptions joining the precast elements to each other and to other parts of the structure are critical for the overall performance of the building. !

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Key terms ! -

Joist: Parallel beams of lumber, concrete, or steel used to support floor and ceiling systems.! Steel Decking: Light-gauge, corrugated metal sheets used in constructing roofs or floors.!

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Span: The horizontal distance between supports.! Girder:A large principal beam of steel, reinforced concrete, wood, or a combination of these, used to support other structural members at isolated points along its length.! Concrete Plank: A hollow-core or solid, flat beam used for floor or roof decking. Concrete planks are usually precast and prestressed.!

Reference:! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley!

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Week 5!

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Knowledge Map!

! Short and Long Columns! ! -

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Columns are vertical structural members designed to transfer axial compressive loads.! Short Columns are shorter and thicker ! Long Columns are taller and slimmer !

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Short Columns ! - Columns are considered short if the ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section ! dimension is less than 12:1. !

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considered a short column. )!

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(Example: a 3000 mm tall column with a 450 mm x 300 mm cross-section will have a ratio of 10:1. Therefore it would be !

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Short columns will be structurally adequate if the load applied to the column cross section does not exceed the compressive strength of the material. !

Long Columns ! - Columns are considered short if the ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section ! dimension is greater than 12:1.! - Long Columns become unstable and fail by buckling. !

Walls, Grids & Columns ! Wall Systems: ! ! Structural Frames! ! - Concrete Frames ! ! - Steel Frames ! ! - Timber Frames (post and beam)! ! ! ! Load Bearing Walls ! ! - Concrete! ! -Masonry!

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! Stud Walls ! ! - Light Gauge Steel Framing ! ! Timber Framing ! ! ! Structural Frames:! !

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- Concrete Frames typically use a grid of columns with concrete beams connecting the columns together. ! - Steel Frames typically use a GRID of steel columns connoted to steel girders and beams. ! - Timber Frame (Post and Beam) typically uses a grid of timber Posts or Poles connected to timber beams. !

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Load Bearing Walls:! ! - Concrete load bearing walls can be achieved using either in situ or precast elements. ! ! - The load bearing PANELS may also provide support for spandrel panels and link into other structural elements( such as ! ! floor slabs, roof structure )!

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- Solid Masonry load bearing walls can be created with single or multiple skins of concrete masonry units or clay bricks. ! The skins of masonry are joined together using a brick. ! - The skins of masonry are joined together using a brick or with metal WALL TIES placed within the mortar bed. ! ! ! Cavity Masonry walls are typically formed from two skins of masonry. ! Advantages : ! Better thermal performance and opportunities for insulation within the cavity! Better waterproofing and the opportunities to run services within the wall cavity. !

Stud Framing: ! - Metal and timber stud framed walls use smaller sections of framing timber or light gauge framing steel to meet the structural demands of the construction. !

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Brick bender construction :! Combinations of 1skin of non-structural masonry and 1 skin of structural frame wall are ! widely used in the construction industry. !

From Wood to Timber!

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Early wood : ! rapid growth at beginning of growing season,! thin cells - light colour! Late wood : ! slower growth, often limited by lack of water! thick small cells - darker colour ! gives the growth ring ! Growth - generally one ring per year / some climates may have more than one growth season per year / fires or disease ! may produce an extra ring !

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Grain Direction ! Strong parallel to grain & stiff parallel to grain ! Weak perpendicular to grain !

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Seasoning( Drying )! Why is timber seasoned?! - to adjust the moisture content so the timber is appropriate for the intended use! - to provide increased dimensional stability !

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What moisture is removed from the wood?! - Free moisture (voids in cells )! - Bound moisture(cll walls)!

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Who is the moisture removed?! Timber is generally seasoned in one of three ways:! - Air seasoning (drying) - Cheap but slow ~ 6 mouths to 2 years per 50 mm thickness! - Kiln seasoning (drying) - Typically 20 - 40 hours to dry to ~ 12%! - Solar kiln seasoning (drying ) - Less expensive to run!

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Softwoods! - radiata pine! - cypress pine ! - hoop pine! - douglas fir!

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Hardwoods! - victorian ash! - brown box ! - spotted gum! - jarrah! - tasmanian oak! - balsa wood!

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Timber Properties and Considerations! Timber - Properties - can greatly differ depending on type ! Hardness - Medium-Low.! Fragility - Medium-Low. ! Ductility - Low.! Flexibility / Plasticity - High flexibility and medium plasticity ! Porosity / Permeability - High ! Density - Extremely varied depending on timber type! Conductivity - poor conductor of heat and electricity.!

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Engineered Timber Products!

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LVL- Laminated veneer lumber ! made from laminating thin sheets of timber, ! most laminates with grain aligned to longitudinal direction! Uses: Mainly structural: beams, postes, portal frames)!

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Glulam - Glue laminated timber! made from gluing pieces of dressed sawn timber ! together to forma deep member!

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Uses: Same as above! CLT - Cross Laminated Timber! made by gluing and pressing thin laminates together to forma sheet, ! laminate grain laid in alternate directions ! Uses: Structural panels(horizontal and vertical) !

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Plywood - made by gluing and pressing thin laminates together to form sheet! grain in laminates in alternate directions! Uses: structural bracing / structural flooring / formworks / joinery / marine applications!

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MDF - Medium Density Fiberboard! made by breaking down hardwood or softwood ! Waste into wood fibers, combining it with wax and a resin binder by applying high temperature and pressure. ! MDF is generally more dense than plywood. ! Uses: Non- structural applications!

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Chipboard & Strandboard ! Made by layering hardwood ! or softwood residuals( chips, strands)! in specific orientations with wax and a resin binder! by applying high temperature and pressure ! Uses: As part of structural systems(flooring) / cladding finish!

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Engineered Timber - ! I beams ! timber / LVL flanes, plywood / OSB webs ! lightweight, suitable for medium spans! Uses: floor joists / rafters !

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Box Beams ! Timber / LVL flanges ! two plywood / OSB webs ! Suitable for larger spans, torsionally stiff,! can uses deceptive plywood ! Uses floor joists / rafters !

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Timber Flanged Steel Web Joists! lightweight, open webs give access for service ! webs by light tubes, solid rounds, corrugated sheets! Uses - floor joists / rafters /!

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Frames:! Ching 2.17! Abeam simply supported by two columns is not capable of resisting lateral forces unless it is braced. ! -

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Fixed Frame: a rigid frame connected to its supports with fixed joints. A fixed frame is more resistant to deflection than a hinged frame but also more sensitive to support settlements and thermal expansion and contraction. ! Hinged frame: a rigid frame connected to its supports with pin joints, The pin joints prevent high bending stresses from developing by allowing the frame to rotate as a unit when strained by support settlement, and to flex slightly when stressed by changes in temperature ! Three-hinged frame is a structural assembly of two rigid sections connected to each other and to its supports with pin joints. While more sensitive to deflection than either the fixed or hinged frame, the three-hinged frame is least affected by support settlements and thermal stresses. The three-pin joints also permit the frame to be analyzed as a stoically determinate structure. !

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Wall Systems !

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Ching 5.14!

Key terms ! Stud: A framing member, usually cut to a precise length at the mill, designed to be used in framing building walls with little or no trimming before it is set in place. Studs are most often 2" x 4", but 2" x 3", 2" x 6" and other sizes are also included in the stud category. Studs may be of wood, steel, or composite material.!

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Nogging: The process of filling the space between timber framing members with bricks.! Lintel:A horizontal supporting member, installed above an opening such as a window or a door, that serves to carry the weight of the wall above it.! Axial Load: The longitudinal force acting on a structural member.! Buckling:In a compression member or compression portion of a member, the load at which bending progresses without an increase in the load.! Seasoned Timber: Timber that is not green, having a moisture content of 19% or less, and is air-or kiln-dried.!

Reference:!

Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley!

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This week’s task is to create a scaled model, the ratio is 1:500 !

The material we used is ice-cream bar, and we used tapes to connect them !

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This is the section of our structure !

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We only had time to built a part of the model. ! These are works from other groups

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Week 6!

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Knowledge Map! ! Roof Systems!

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Flat Roofs ! Pitch 1o ~ 3o ! Pitched and Sloping Roofs! Pitch: >3o !

Concrete Roofs :! Are generally flat plates of reinforced concrete(or precast slabs with a topping of concrete).! The top surface is sloped towards drainage points and the entire roof surface finished with applied waterproof membrane. !

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Structural Stell Framed Roofs:!

- Flat structural steel roofs consist of a combination of primary and secondary roof beams for heavier roof finishes such as metal deck/concrete; or roof beams and purlins for lighter sheet metal roofing.! - Sloping structural steel roof consists of roof beams and purlins and lighter sheet metal roofing.! - Portal Frames consist of a series of braced Rigid Frames(two columns and a beam) with Purlins for the roof and girts for the walls. The walls and roof are usually finished with sheet metal).!

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Trussed Roofs:! -

Truss roofs are framed roods constructed from a series of OPEN WEB type steel or timber elements.! Trusses are manufactured from steel or timber components, fixed together to form efficient elements able to span long distances. ! The shapes are often decided by the material selected. !

Space Frames:! -

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Are 3D PLATE type structures that are long spanning in two directions. ! Linear steel sections of various cross section types are welded, bolted or threaded to gather to form matrix-like structures. !

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Light Framed Roofs:! Gable Roofs: characterized by a vertical, triangular section of wall at one or both ends of the rood. ! ! - consist COMMON Rafters, Ridge Beams and Ceiling Joists. ! Materials timber, cold-formed steel sections !

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Hip Roofs: characterized by a vertical, triangular section of wall at one or both ends of the roof. ! ! ! Materials : timber, cold-formed steel sections. !

!! Introduction to Metals ! ! ! ! Metals !

Think of metal atoms as being like ball bearings to understand why metals are malleable and ductile and not brittle. ! Types ! Ferrous - Iron is the 4th most common element in the Earth ! None-Ferrous- All other metals - more expensive. ! Alloys - Combinations of two or more metals!

! ! !

Considerations ! Metal will react with other metals by giving up / taking on another metalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ions. ! Water related Damage:! - Oxidation and corrosion !

Ferrous Metals ! - Significant and important Magnetic Properties ! - Very reactive chemically ! - Good Compressive strength ! !

Iron! Wrought Iron! Formed when Iron is heated and hammered into desired shape ! Widely used in construction for windows and doors and for decorative elements. !

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Cast Iron! Widely used in the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. ! Formed when iron is melted and the molten (liquid) metal is poured into moulds to cool ! Very used in the contemporary construction due to its weighty and brittleness ! !

Iron Alloys - Steel !

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is and allot of iron with carbon being the primary additional allot element ! Steel ! - Very strong and resistance to fracture ! - Transfer Heat and Electricity ! - Can be formed into Many Different Shapes ! - Long lasting and resistance to wear!

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Types and Uses ! 1. Structural Steel ! ! Framing:! ! - Hot Rolled Steel-Elements are shaped while metal is hot.! ! - Cold formed steel - elements are folded from sheets that have been previously produced and cooled down. ! ! ! - Used as Secondary structure ! ! - Reinforcing Bars - Due to its good tensile resistance. ! 2. Steel Sheeting ! ! - Cladding and Roofing - must be protected from weather exposure ! 3. Stainless steel alloys ! ! - Chromium is the main alloying element( minimum of 12%)!

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! ! !

!! !

- The alloy is miles into coils, sheets, plates, bars, wire and tubing. Generally used harsh environments or where specific inert finishes are required ! - Stainless steel is very, very rawly used as primary structure due to cost !

None Ferrous Metals ! Aluminium! -

! ! -

Very light compared to other metals ! None - magnetic and non-sparking ! Easily formed, machined and cast!

Pure aluminum is soft and lacks strength, but alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties. ! USES! - common of window frames! - Cast door handles and catches for windows! - rolled aluminum is used for cladding panels, heating and air-conditioning systems!

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Copper! - The first metal used by humans in around 7000BC. ! - Very malleable and ductile. ! - Good conductor of heat and electricity !

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USES ! - traditionally uses as roofing Material. Can develops a green coloured patina over time. ! - widely used for hot and cold domestic water and heating pipework ! - electrical cabling !

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Zinc! - Zinc is a bluish-white, illustrious metal ! - Brittle at ambient temperatures ! - malleable at 100 to 150 degrees ! - reasonable conductor of electricity. !

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Lead! - frequently used for roofs , cornices , tank linings and flashing strips for waterproofing ! - less commonly used to day because it is now known to be toxic to humans. !

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Tin ! - beginning at the Bronze Age around 3000BC where it added to copper to make Bronze! - very rare today. was used in building for lining lead pipes. occasionally as protective covering for iron plates and for small gas pipes / tubing !

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Titanium! - discovered in Cornwall, England! - used in strong light-weight alloys. durable cladding material ! - well known for its excellent corrosion resistance !

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Bronze (copper + tin)! - the first copper alloy(Circa 2000BC)! - Tough. used for Bearing , Clips , Electrical connectors and Springs ! - often used for external applications!

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Brass(copper + zinc)! - have been use for over 2000 years ! - used in elements where friction is required: lock ,gears, screws, valves! - low melting point and is easy to cast !

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !

Key terms! Rafter: One of a series of sloping parallel beams used to support a roof covering.! Purlin:One of several horizontal structural members that support roof loads and transfer them to roof beams.! Cantilever : A structural member supported at one end only.! Portal frame: An entrance, gate, or doorway, sometimes a major feature of a structure.! Eave: Those portions of a roof that project beyond the outside walls of a building.! Alloy:A homogeneous mixture of two or more metals developed and used because of its lower cost and/or the certain desirable properties it exhibits.! Soffit:The underside of a part or member of a structure, such as a beam, stairway, or arch.! Top Chord: The upper section of a truss.!

Reference:! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley!

!

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Week 7!

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Knowledge Map!

! Detailing for Heat and Moisture! ! Detailing For Moisture!

Conditions for water to penetrate into building:! - An opening ! - Water present at the opening ! - A force to move water through the opening !

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Strategies to prevent water penetrating into building :! - Remove openings ! - Keep water away from openings ! - Neutralize the force that move water through openings !

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Openings: ! - Windows, doors, skylights! - poor construction workmanship! - deterioration fo materials !

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Common techniques to remove openings ! - Sealants(silicone)! - Gaskets!

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Keeping water from openings! - Grading(sloping ) roofs so that the water is collected in gutters which then discharge the water to downpipes and storm water systems! - Overlapping window and door sills and rood / wall flashings ! - sloping the ground surface away from the walls at the base of buildings !

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Neutralizing the forces:! The forces include:! - Gravity! - Surface tension and capillary action! - Momentum! - Air pressure differential ! Gravity Strategies:! - use slopes and overlaps to carry water away from the building using the force of gravity!

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Neutralizing the Force—tension and capillary action strategies:! - typically use a drip or a break between surfaces to prevent water clinging to the underside of surfaces(such as window sill or parapet capping) !

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—Moment:! - Windblown rain, moisture and snow can move through simple gaps ! - To inhibit, the gaps are often constructed in more complex labyrinth shapes. ! - The complex shape slows the momentum of the moisture and helps to deflect the water away from the gap entry.!

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—Air pressure differential strategies:! - with gusts of wind, water can still be moved through a complex labyrinth if there is a difference in the air pressure between the outside and inside. ! - Rain Screen Assemblies:! ! If an Air Barrier is introduced on the internal side of the labyrinth, a ventilated and drained pressure equalization chamber is ! created and the water is no longer ‘pumper’ to the inside of the assembly. !

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Detailing For Heat!

Controlling Heat:! Heat gain and heat loss occur when:! - Heat is conducted through the building envelope! - The building envelope and building elements are subjected to Radiant Heat sources.! - Thermal Mass is used to regulate the flow of heat through the building envelope.!

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—Conduction:! ! - Thermal Insulation to reduce heat conduction.! ! - Thermal Breaks made from low conductive materials like rubbers and plastics to reduce the heat transfer from outside to ! inside when using highly conductive materials like metals. ! ! - Double Glazing or triple glazing so that the air spaces between glass panes reduces the flow of heat through the glazed ! ! elements.!! —-Radiation! ! - Reflective surfaces such as low-e glass, reflective materials to reduce building elements from becoming warm/hot.! ! - Shading Systems like verandahs, eaves, solar shelves, blinds, screens and vegetation to prevent radiation striking the ! ! building envelope. ! —-Thermal Mass:! ! Large areas of exposed thermal mass can be used to absorb and store heat over a period of time.! ! Materials traditionally used for thermal mass include:! ! ! - Masonry! ! ! - Concrete! ! ! - Water bodies! —-Controlling Air Leakage! ! Similar to watertight detailing. If a building has :! ! - An opening ! ! - Air present at the opening ! ! - A force to move air through the opening !

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Strategies to stop air leakage include:! ! - Eliminating any one of the causes! ! - wrapping the building in polyethylene or reflective foil Sacking to provide an Air Barrier! ! - Weather stripping around doors and windows and other openings !

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Rubber! Natural Rubber First used by the mayas and Aztecs in south America(13th century)! Source:! - Rubber tree! - synthesized in a laboratory generating a range of variations !

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Types and Uses:! Natural Rubber: ! - seals ! - gaskets & control joints! - flooring ! - insulation! - hosing & piping !

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Synthetic:! - EPDM - mainly used in gaskets and control joints ! - Neoprene - mainly used in control joints !

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! -

Silicone - Seals!

Consideration:! - rubber can lose their properties when exposed to weather (especially sunlight)! - avoid sun exposure!

! !

Plastic! Made from carbon, silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen and chloride combined by chemical reactions into monomers.! Types and Uses:! 1. Thermoplastics - moldable when heated and become solid again when cooled, Can be recycled.! 1. Polyethelyne(polythene)! 2. Polymathy methacrylate(perspex , acrylic)! 3. Polyvinyl Chloride(PVC, vinyl)! 4. Polycarbonate!

2. Thermosetting Plastics ! 3. Elastomers(synthetic rubbers) - Refer to separate e-Module!

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! !!

Considerations! weather related damage: properties degrade when exposed to weather!

Paints! -

! -

are liquid until they are applied on a surface! main purpose is to protect a particular element!

USES! 1. Oil Based! 1. Used prior to plastic paints ! 2. very goof high gloss finishes can be achieved! 3. not water soluble ! 2. Water Based! 1. Most common today ! 2. Durable and Flexible ! 3. Tools and brushes can be cleaned with water!

!! ! ! ! !

Key Terms! Drip:A groove in the underside of a projection, such as a windowsill, that prevents water from running back into the building wall.! Vapor barrier:Material used to prevent the passage of vapor or moisture into a structure or another material, thus preventing condensation within them. See also perm.! Gutter:A shallow channel of wood, metal, or PVC positioned just below and following along the eaves of a building for the purpose of collecting and diverting water from a roof.! Flashing: A thin, impervious sheet of material placed in construction to prevent water penetration or direct the flow of water. Flashing is used especially at roof hips and valleys, roof penetrations, joints between a roof and a vertical wall, and in masonry walls to direct the flow of water and moisture.!

! !

Insulation:Material used to reduce the effects of heat, cold, or sound.!

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Sealant:An impervious substance used to fill joints or cracks in concrete or mortar, or to exclude water and solid matter from any joints.!

Ching:! Arches, Domes & Shells 2.25! Moisture & Thermal Protection 7.18!

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Reference:! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley!

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Week 8!

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Knowledge Map! ! Doors & Windows !

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Glass! Types &Manufacture! - Flat Glass! - Shaped Glass! - Float glass(most common)!

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Float Glass! 1. Clear float glass( annealed glass):The simplest and cheapest glass product available in the market. Low risk / low cost / small size! 2. Laminated Glass: A tough plastic interlayer (PVB) is bonded together between two glass panes Improves the security and safety of the glass product!

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3. Tempered Glass: produced by heating annealed glass to approximately 650 o C. Ideal to use in highly exposed situations !

Key terms!

!! !! !! !! !! !! !! !

! ! ! !

Window Sash: The framework of a window that holds the glass.! Deflection:The bending of a structural member as a result of its own weight or an applied load.! Moment of Inertia:In a structural member, the product of each element of mass times the square of the distance from an axis.! Door Furniture:A movable member used to close the opening in a wall.! Stress:Intensity of internal force (i.e., force per unit area) exerted by either of two adjacent parts of a body on the other across an imagined plane of separation. When the forces are parallel to the plane, the stress is called shear stress; when the forces are normal to the plane, the stress is called normal stress; when the normal stress is directed toward the part on which it acts it is called compressive stress; when it is directed away from the part on which it acts it is called tensile stress.!

! !

Shear Force:A force acting on a body which tends to slide one portion of the body against the other side of the body. (Sliding action).!

Ching:! Geometry and moment of inertia: 2.14! Deformation: 2.14! Door and Windows: 8.02!

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Reference:! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley!

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!

This week’s activity is to draw a scaled sketch!

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Week 9!

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Knowledge Map!

! Construction Detailing! ! Movement Joints!

Repairable Surface & Resistance to Damage!

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Cleanable Surfaces!

Other Considerations! - Off the Shelf items! - detailing to suit construction expertise !

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!! Composite Materials ! ! Monolithic or Composite?!

Monolithic:! - a single material ! - materials combine so that components are indistinguishable !

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Composite—created when:! - two or more materials are combined in such a way that individual materials remain easily distinguishable ! What are they?! Composite:! 1. combination of materials which differ in composition or form ! 2. remain bonded together! 3. retain their identities and properties! 4. act together to provide improved specific or synergistic characteristic not obtainable by any of the original components acting alone!

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Types:! - Fibrous! - Laminar! - Particulate! - Hybrid!

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Composite Materials — Fibre Reinforced Cement ( FRC)! made from: cellulose fibres, Portland cement, sand & water! Common Forms: Sheet & board products and shaped products such as pipes , roof tiles! Common Uses: cladding for exterior or interior walls , floor panels ! Benefits: Fibre cement building materials will not burn, are resistant to permanent water and termite damage, and resistant to rotting and warping . It is a reasonably inexpensive material !

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— Fiberglass! Made from: a mixture of glass fibres and epoxy resins ! Common Forms: flat and profiled sheet products and formed / shaped products! Common Uses: Transparent or translucent roof / wall cladding and for performed shaped products such as water tanks, baths, swimming pools ! Benefits: Fibreglass materials are fire resistant, weatherproof, relatively light weight and strong. !

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—Aluminium sheet composites ! Made from : aluminum and plastic! Common Forms : plastic core of phenolic resin lined with two external skins of thin aluminum sheet! Common Uses: As a feature cladding material in interior and exterior applications!

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Benefit : reduced amounts of aluminum are required and light weight, less expensive sheets can produced, which are weather resistance, unbreakable and shock resistant. !

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Ching:! Stress and Structural Members: 2.13! 02.30 Joints & Connections: 2.14! Movement Joints : 7.48 - 7.50! Finish Work: 10.02!

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Key Terms ! Sandwich Panel:A panel formed by bonding two thin facings to a thick, and usually lightweight, core. Typical facing materials include plywood, single veneers, hardboard, plastics, laminates, and various metals, such as aluminum or stainless steel. Typical core materials include plastic foam sheets, rubber, and formed honeycombs of paper, metal, or cloth.!

! ! ! ! !

Skirting:A corner block where a base and vertical framing meet.! Composite Beam:A beam combining different materials to work as a single unit, such as structural steel and concrete or cast-in-place and precast concrete.! Cornice:An ornamental molding of wood or plaster that encircles a room just below the ceiling.!

Reference:! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley!

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The first site was an apartment building! The building has a solid structural system ! includes about 800 ore cast concrete slabs!

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The whole building is metal framing ! features sound proofing between each apartment !

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This is a picture of the basement ! Pre cast concrete walls were used !

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The columns are filled with steel, about 12 meters into the ground !

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Holds up the buildingâ&#x20AC;Š

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Second Site!

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This site is a heritage listed site. ! The walls are brick load bearing walls with blue stone footings ! The steel was pre fabricated and was brought to the site by truck and connect together. !

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UBs are used â&#x20AC;Š

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Week 10!

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Knowledge Map!

! A Tale of Corrosion! !

Statue of Liberty:Galvanic Corrosion! -

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Designed by Auguste Bartholdi! The copper skin is supported on an iron skeleton designed by Gustave Eiffel !

Copper Oxidization! When copper is exposed to the atmosphere, it reacts with oxygen. The copper starts to dull, first becoming a darker brown color and then forming a green copper oxide patina. !

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Initial Connection Detail consideration! Galvanic corrosion between the copper skin and iron frame was considered at the time of construction and a solution that allowed for the separation of the two metals was devised.!

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The First Solution:! The two materials were separated at their junctions by a layer of shellac-impregnated cloth.!

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The Problem! Over time, the shellac-impregnated cloth became porous and actually held moisture at the joint between the two different metals. This provided good conditions for galvanic corrosion and the iron began to corrode. !

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What The connection system started to fail as the build up of corrosion products expanded and pulled the rivets away from the copper skin !

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The second solution:! To over the problem, the original iron armature frame was replaced with a Teflon-coated stainless steel structure. The selection of stainless was made after extensive corrosion resistance testing and consideration of the physical properties of the stainless steel and how well it would work with the existing copper skin. !

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Key Terms! Shear wall:A wall portion of a structural frame intended to resist lateral forces, such as earthquake, wind, and blast, acting in the plane or parallel to the plane of the wall.!

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Braced Frame:A wooden structural framing system in which all vertical members, except for corner posts, extend for one floor only. The corner posts are braced to the sill and plates.!

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Lifecycle:The determination of the environmental burdens associated with a product or process, including materials used and wastes released. The assessment considers the extraction and manufacturing of the materials, transportation and distribution, use and maintenance, and final disposal or reuse.!

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Defect: tAny condition or characteristic that detracts from the appearance, strength, or durability of an object.!

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Fascia:A board used on the outside vertical face of a cornice.!

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Corrosion:The oxidation or eating away of a metal or other material by exposure to chemical or electrochemical action such as rust.!

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Reference:! Ching.F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th edition). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley!

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Workshop! Material:! - 1200 x 3.2 x 90 mm ply wood x 2! - 1200 x 42 x 18 mm pine wood x 2!

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we decided to used triangle shape for our structure! the top angle is 120 degree ! the bottom angles are 30 degrees !

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We screwed both end of the wood. !

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We additionally created two gaps on both end of the wood to increase the friction. !

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Three additional pine wood was added to increase the vertical compression, as it is stronger when vertical. !

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The result after the test !

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The bottom side is broken following the pattern of the pine wood! The pattern of the timber is an important factor, it determined which side of the timber is stronger. !

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Final Load: 350 kg! Deflected: 55mm !

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The result can be better if we have more time to improve the contact surface at the top. As the top is sharp, there would be a certain degree slope when compressing.! The supports on the sides are uneven, which is a main reason for the failure.!

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Other groups work :

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2014_s1_Logbook

Constructing Environment Logbook Submission 673831