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Abstracts Book Bilingualism Matters, UC Riverside chapter

October 5-6, 2017 University of California Riverside www.bilingualismmatters.ucr.edu http://ideasandsociety.ucr.edu/conferences/bilingualism/  


Welcome ..............................................................4 Bilingualism Matters ........................................................................................................4 University of California Riverside .................................................................................... 4

Schedule: Oct. 5 ...................................................5 Training Day .........................................................................5

Schedule: Oct. 6 ...................................................6 Multilingualism research in Southern California: A crossdisciplinary sampling of basic and applied approaches to dual language experience.....................................................6 A research conference around the launch of Bilingualism Matters at UCR. Supported by the Center for Ideas and Society and co-sponsored by the departments of Psychology, Hispanic Studies, and Comparative Literature and Languages ......................................6

Poster Sessions ......................................................................8

Abstracts ............................................................10 Antonella Sorace .................................................................10 Mark Watschauer ................................................................11 Alexandra Jaffe ...................................................................12 Elizabeth PeĂąa .....................................................................13 Megha Sundara ...................................................................14 Karen Emmorey ..................................................................15 Maria Carreira ....................................................................16 Paola Dussias.......................................................................17 Elizabeth Davis....................................................................18 Christine Chiarello ..............................................................19 Vrinda Subhalaxmi Chidambaram ...................................20 Covadonga Lamar Prieto ...................................................21


Hyejin Nah ..........................................................................22

Community Members: Abstracts ......................23 Erika Thomson ....................................................................23 Melissa Herzig ....................................................................24 Martha Martinez ................................................................25

Poster Abstracts .................................................26 The Effects of Multilingualism and Community Linguistic Diversity on Children’s Development of Language Awareness ...........................................................................26 Using ERPs to investigate the stability of individual differences in sentence processing in two languages .................................................................................................................26 Bidirectional cross-linguistic relations of first and second language skills: Spanish and Portuguese as a heritage language .................................................................................27 Exploring the relation between cognitive control and sentence processing through bilingualism ....................................................................................................................28 Conflict regulation during bilingual lexical production ................................................28 Resolution of Ambiguous Prepositional Phrases in Code-switching ............................29 Does Chocolate elicit more intrusion errors? ................................................................29 The consequences of bilingualism for new category learning .......................................29 The Importance of a Fine-grained Analysis of Heritage Language Structures: Heritage Spanish in California ......................................................................................................30 Two languages or one: Children’s use of language as a cue for talker identification ....31 Translations and code-switches when imitating sentences in the weak language ........31 Language Shifting Between Spanish and English Influences Bilinguals’ Emotional Experience and Physiological Reactivity ........................................................................32 Executive Function and Translation Equivalents in Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children ..........................................................................................................................32 Bilingual experience shapes new language learning and generalization: An electrophysiological investigation .................................................................................. 33 Self-ratings of Bilingual Language Proficiency Differ Between and Within Language Populations .....................................................................................................................33

Acknowledgements............................................34


Welcome Welcome to the University of California Riverside and to a new chapter of Bilingualism Matters.

Bilingualism Matters Bilingualism Matters is a Centre at the University of Edinburgh, founded by Prof. Antonella Sorace. They study bilingualism and language learning, and communicate what they know to enable people to make informed decisions based on scientific evidence. They have partner branches around Europe and the US run by international teams of researchers. The UC Riverside chapter is the third on the US and the first on the West coast. You can follow us on Facebook, Instagram or Twitter, or at our website www.bilingualismmatters.ucr.edu

University of California Riverside The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California. Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR currently hosts about 22,000 students, with 900 instructional faculty. The College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences is unique among its peers in that it combines the arts, humanities and social sciences into one college. This structure gives students and faculty the opportunity to explore across a broad range of disciplines and examine diverse dimensions of social and historical life and human meaning. The college is the ideal place for a conversation about culture and society, insight and expression, history and the future; about the humanities, the social sciences, and the arts. You can take a virtual tour of CHASS here

Social Media You can follow us on Instagram @BilingualismMattersUCR, on Twitter @BilingualMatUCR or Facebook @BilingualismMattersUCR


Schedule: Oct. 5 Training Day

General Schedule 8:30-9:30

Breakfast

9:30-10:00

Introduction

10:00-12:00

Session 1

a. Bilingualism over the lifespan: definitions, common misconceptions, benefits and disadvantages

b. Selecting and adapting research findings for non-academic audiences

c. Implications for different types of bilingualism and contexts of language learning

12:00-2:00

Lunch Break

2:00-4:00

Session 2

a. The Bilingualism Matters experience in Scotland, Europe and the US

b. Effective communication: adapting effective dissemination to different sectors of society

c. Informing policy, dealing with the media, the website

d. Community research projects, engaging volunteers

e. Frequently encountered challenges, questions frequently asked by the general public, open discussion

4:00-5:00

Reception and opportunity for continued discussion


Schedule: Oct. 6 Multilingualism research in Southern California: A cross-disciplinary sampling of basic and applied approaches to dual language experience A research conference around the launch of Bilingualism Matters at UCR. Supported by the Center for Ideas and Society and co-sponsored by the departments of Psychology, Hispanic Studies, and Comparative Literature and Languages

General Schedule 8:15-11:00

Morning Session I

11:00-11:30

Morning Session II: Posters and Coffee Break

11:30-12:30

Morning Session III

12:30-2:00

Afternoon Session I: Posters and Lunch Break

2:00-3:00

Keynote Address

3:00-4:00

Afternoon Session II: Community Panel

4:00-4:30

Afternoon Session III: Posters and Coffee Break

4:30-5:30

Afternoon Session IV

5:30

Conference Closure and Future Directions

Morning Session I 8:15-8:45

Coffee and Registration

8:45-9:00

Introduction to the Conference: Judith Kroll, UC Riverside

9:00-9:20

Covadonga Lamar Prieto, UC Riverside: Spanish-English Bilingualism in California from a Historical Perspective

9:20-9:40

Mark Watschauer, UC Irvine: "Mi Abuelo Fue Bracero": Bridging Languages, Cultures, Generations, and Communities through Digital Stories

9:40-10:00

Megha Sundara, UCLA: Development of word segmentation in bilingual infants


Morning Session I 10:00-10:20

Maria Carreira, Cal State Long Beach: Living Bilingualism: Language management strategies that support Spanish-language maintenance among Latino youth

10:20-10:40

Elizabeth Davis, UC Riverside: Biobehavioral Assessment of Emotion and Emotion Regulation Processes in Bilingual Speakers

10:40-11:00

Karen Emmorey, Gabriela Meade, Katherine Midgley, & Phillip Holcomb, San Diego State University: ERP evidence for implicit activation of ASL in deaf bimodal bilinguals

Morning Session III 11:30-11:50

Alexandra Jaffe, Cal State, Long Beach: Socialization to bilingual personhood through poetry: Chjam’é Respondi in a Corsican school

11:50-12:10

Vrinda Subhalaxmi Chidambaram, UC Riverside: Switching up structures: What bilinguals can tell us about the viability of syntactic theories

12:10-12:30

Paola Dussias, Penn State University: Switching palabras

Afternoon Session II: Community Panel 3:00-3:20

Erika Thompson, California School for the Deaf: ASL/English Bi-modal Bilingualism and Bi-literacy at California School for the Deaf

3:20-3:40

Melissa Herzig, Gallaudet University: Lifespan Benefits of Early Bilingualism

3:40-4:00

Marta Martinez, Director, English Learners, Teaching, Learning & Professional Development, Alvord Unified School District: Dual Immersion Programs at Alvord Unified School District

Afternoon Session IV 4:30-4:50

Christine Chiarello, UC Riverside: Cortical Indices of Bilingual Language Experiences

4:50-5:10

Elizabeth Pena, UC Irvine: Effects of Divided Input in Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

5:10-5:30

Hyejin Nah, UC Riverside: Code-Switching as Indigenous Activism

5:30

Conference closure and future directions


Poster Sessions

Poster sessions Poster 1

The Effects of Multilingualism and Community Linguistic Diversity on Children’s Development of Language Awareness Natsuki Atagi (1), Catherine M. Sandhofer (2)

(1) University of California Riverside; (2) University of California Los Angeles

P2

Using ERPs to investigate the stability of individual differences in sentence processing in two languages Kinsey Bice, Judith F. Kroll

University of California Riverside/Pennsylvania State University

P3

Bidirectional cross-linguistic relations of first and second language skills: Spanish and Portuguese as a heritage language Aline Ferreira (1), Alexandra Gottardo (2)

(1) Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese, University of California Santa Barbara; (2) Dept. of Psychology, Wilfrid Laurier University

P4

Exploring the relation between cognitive control and sentence processing through bilingualism Dalia Garcia (1), Christian A. Navarro-Torres (2), Vrinda Chidambaram (1), Judith F. Kroll (2)

(1) Department of Comparative Literature and Languages, University of California Riverside; (2) Department of Psychology, University of California Riverside

P5

Conflict regulation during bilingual lexical production Eve Higby, Judith F. Kroll, Deborah Burke

University of California Riverside

P6

Resolution of Ambiguous Prepositional Phrases in Codeswitching Silvia Kim

University of Southern California

P7

Does Chocolate elicit more intrusion errors? Chuchu Li, Tamar H. Gollan

University of California San Diego

P8

The consequences of bilingualism for new category learning Emily Mech, Jessica Montag, Judith Kroll

University of California Riverside

P9

The Importance of a Fine-grained Analysis of Heritage Language Structures: Heritage Spanish in California Viola G. Miglio and Stefan Th. Gries

University of California Santa Barbara


Poster sessions P10

Two languages or one: Children’s use of language as a cue for talker identification Reina Mizrahi, Sarah C. Creel

University of California, San Diego

P11

Translations and code-switches when imitating sentences in the weak language Maria Ortiz (1), Gabriela Simon-Cereijido2

(1) Speech-Language Pathology program, California State University, Los Angeles 2Department of Communication Disorders, California State University, Los Angeles

P12

Language Shifting Between Spanish and English Influences Bilinguals’ Emotional Experience and Physiological Reactivity Laura E. Quinones-Camacho (1), Scott Savage (2), Covadonga Lamar Prieto (3), Elizabeth L. Davis (1)

(1) Dept. of Psychology, University of California Riverside; (2) Dept. of Sociology, U. of Houston; (3) Dept. of Hispanic Studies, University of California Riverside

P13

Executive Function and Translation Equivalents in Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children Erin Smolak, Anele Villanueva, Yushuang Liu, Alyssa Campos, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger, & Margaret Friend

San Diego State University/University of California San Diego

P14

Bilingual experience shapes new language learning and generalization: An electrophysiological investigation Andrea Takahesu Tabori and Judith Kroll

University of California Riverside

P15

Self-ratings of Bilingual Language Proficiency Differ Between and Within Language Populations Brendan Tomoschuk, Victor S. Ferreira, Tamar H. Gollan

University of California San Diego


Abstracts Antonella Sorace Keynote Speaker University of Edinburgh and Bilingualism Matters

Enhancing the Scientific and Public Understanding of Bilingualism Two types of “bridges� can foster the scientific and public understanding of bilingualism. The first type links different research fields in the effort to address particular research questions and explain particular phenomena. I will discuss two examples. First, there is a surprising convergence in developmental paths among different early and late bilingual groups, such as child bilinguals, advanced adult second language speakers, and native speakers experiencing attrition due to long-term use of another language. Second, the often-reported cognitive benefits of bilingualism are not equally likely to be found in all contexts. I will argue that an explanation of these phenomena requires studying the interactions of linguistic, cognitive, and social factors, and consequently benefits from crossdisciplinary collaborations. The second type of bridge connects research to the community with the aim of enabling people from all sectors of society to make decisions informed by research rather than misconceptions. I will describe how the research and information centre Bilingualism Matters is successfully building both types of bridges worldwide.

Contact Visit her site and Bilingualism Matters Social Media: Twitter


Mark Watschauer University of California Irvine

"Mi Abuelo Fue Bracero": Bridging Languages, Cultures, Generations, and Communities through Digital Stories Bilingual education researcher Jim Cummins identified the potential of multimedia "identity texts" to promote language learning and identity among linguistically diverse students. In this talk, I revisit that concept by examining digital stories created by Latino youth in the Coachella Valley. These stories allow students to draw on their and their families' funds of knowledge and advance their multilingual skills while addressing pressing community concerns.

Contact Visit his site and the Digital Learning Lab Social Media: Twitter


Alexandra Jaffe California State University Long Beach

Socialization to bilingual personhood through poetry: Chjam'è Rispondi in a Corsican school On the French island of Corsica, bilingual schools primarily serve French-dominant children and are intended as tools of Corsican language revitalization. This presentation examines language socialization practices in two Corsican bilingual schools surrounding apprenticeship to the poetic genre of the Chjam'è rispondi (Call and Reponse). Traditionally practiced by expert, male poets, the chjam'è rispondi involves one poet improvising a 6-line poem and his opponent responding immediately with another 6-line verse. The analysis focuses on the sociolinguistic and cultural implications of the apprenticeship of novice minority language speakers to this expert genre in schools, following a 6-month long collaborative project undertaken by the author and two Corsican bilingual teachers and their classes.

Contact Visit her site Social Media


Elizabeth PeĂąa University of California Irvine

Effects of Divided Input in Bilingual Children with Language Impairment As compared to their typical peers, bilingual children with language impairment perform below that of their typically developing bilingual peers on language measures.. Level of first and second language exposure is additionally closely associated with language performance. Yet, it is unknown if language performance in children with language impairment is similarly associated with language exposure as it is for children with typical development. We tested Spanish-English bilingual children (LI = 100; TD = 500) in both Spanish and English on measures of morphosyntax and semantics to evaluate if .their language performance was differentially affected by level of English input and output and/or language ability. The similar slopes across language measures of children with and without language impairment suggests that there is no disadvantage to divided input by ability. Where there were differences in slope by ability children with language impairment who had divided input were somewhat advantaged relative to their typically developing peers, despite their lower scores at all levels of English input and output.

Contact Visit her site Social Media


Megha Sundara University of California Los Angeles

Development of word segmentation in bilingual infants In this talk I will present a series of experiments on 8-month-olds’ ability to find words in Spanish and English. Infants had three kinds of language experience (a) monolingual English (b) monolingual Spanish or (c) bilingual Spanish and English. The Head-turn Preference Procedure was used in all experiments. Bilingual infants were able to segment bisyllabic words in both Spanish and English earlier than their monolingual peers. I will discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the in(ter)dependent development of word segmentation abilities of bilingual infants.

Contact Visit her site Social Media


Karen Emmorey University of California Irvine

ERP evidence for implicit activation of ASL in deaf bimodal bilinguals Karen Emmorey, Gabriela Meade, Katherine Midgley, & Phillip Holcomb In this ERP study, deaf ASL-English bilinguals made semantic relatedness decisions to pairs of English words, and half of the semantically unrelated pairs had phonologically related ASL translations (e.g., CHEESE; MOVIE). As previously found for unimodal (e.g., ChineseEnglish) bilinguals, targets in pairs with phonologically-related translations elicited smaller negativities than targets in pairs with phonologically unrelated translations within the N400 time window. This finding suggests that the same lexico-semantic mechanism underlies implicit co-activation of a non-target language, irrespective of language modality. However, the scalp distribution of the priming effect was localized to right anterior sites, which we interpret as reflecting a unique neural generator for phonological form processing in sign language. Further, in contrast to unimodal bilingual studies that find no behavioral effects, we observed phonological interference in reaction times, indicating that bimodal bilinguals may not suppress the non-target language as robustly as unimodal bilinguals. Overall, these results indicate modality-independent language co-activation that persists longer for bimodal bilinguals.

Contact Visit her site, the Laboratory for Language and Cognitive Neuroscience and the Center for Clinical and Cognitive Neuroscience Social Media


Maria Carreira California State University Long Beach

Living Bilingualism: Language management strategies that support Spanish-language maintenance among Latino youth Immigrant languages are often lost within the span of three generations in the United States. A number of factors underlie this state of affairs, notably, factors related to the timing, amount, and type of input that immigrant children receive to their home language, as well as factors related to unfavorable societal attitudes and misconceptions about bilingualism in general, and some languages in particular. For the most part, research on immigrant languages has focused on the role that parents, educators, and policymakers play both in language shift and maintenance. The role played by children has received considerably less attention. In this presentation I will use narratives by bilingual Latinos to argue that immigrant children manage their bilingualism carefully, embracing and defending their home language at times and strategically rejecting it at other times, as warranted by the situation they find themselves in. I will discuss the implications of this research for language maintenance initiatives and for Tse (1998)’s four-stage model of ethnic identity development.

Contact Visit her site and the National Heritage Language Research Center at UCLA that she codirects Social Media


Paola Dussias Penn State University

Switching palabras A looming belief among educators and parents is that codeswitching is a sign of linguistic anomaly. Yet, research reveals that bilinguals who habitually engage in codeswitching do not haphazardly switch between languages. From a psycholinguistic perspective, codeswitching bears the hallmark of cross-language activation and represents a research tool to examine how bilinguals systematically (dis)engage two languages. In this talk, I will discuss how through Bilingualism Matters at Penn State, we have used the research on code-switching to reach out to the public to clarify the role of code-switching as a patterned-governed communicative behavior to which speakers conform, and to explain how codeswitching can be an important tool in the advancement of the scientific study of language and the brain.Â

Contact Visit her site, the Understanding the Bilingual Mind and Brain, the Center for Language Science at UPenn and the UPenn/UCR PIRE sites Social Media


Elizabeth Davis University of California Riverside

Biobehavioral Assessment of Emotion and Emotion Regulation Processes in Bilingual Speakers Elizabeth L. Davis, Laura Quinones-Camacho, Covadonga Lamar Prieto, Scott Savage Prior research has revealed differences in how people use emotion regulation strategies across cultures, but little is known about whether bilinguals (people who have two languages and potentially two cultures) regulate emotions differently based on the language they are speaking. In this study, we considered bilinguals’ use of emotion regulation strategies that facilitated engagement with or disengagement from negative emotion, to assess whether and how these strategies were associated with bilinguals’ physiological reactivity in four discrete emotion and language contexts. We elected to use measures of physiological responding because they allow measurement of aspects of emotional responding that are not detectable at the behavioral level, to offer valuable new information about bilinguals' implicit experience and regulation of emotions. We explored how self-reported emotion regulation strategies, involving either greater emotional engagement or disengagement, related to participants’ sympathetic reactivity (measured by cardiac pre-ejection period; PEP) while describing emotional experiences. 99 Spanish-English bilinguals (M = 20.8 years; SD = 2.11; 73 women) took part in this study, which employed a 2 (emotion: sadness, fear) X 2 (language frame: Spanish, English) within-person design. Participants were interviewed about times they had felt sad and afraid in both Spanish and English, and described what they had done to regulate the emotion. Answers were coded for emotion regulation strategies that indexed emotional engagement (e.g., cognitive reappraisal) or disengagement (e.g., behavioral distraction). Results generally supported hypotheses that greater emotional engagement would be associated with increasing sympathetic arousal, but this pattern differed depending on the context. These findings support growing evidence that bilinguals’ physiological reactions to emotional events are dependent on the language (and emotional) context and contribute to ongoing research into cross-cultural differences in people’s physiological reactivity by highlighting how these processes operate for the understudied bilingual population. Contact Visit her site and the Emotion Regulation Lab Social Media


Christine Chiarello University of California Riverside

Cortical Indices of Bilingual Language Experiences Human brain structure is highly malleable and sensitive to a variety of experiences. We have been exploring the association between bilingual language experience (among heritage Spanish-English bilinguals) and variations in cortical organization using structural neuroimaging. We have found differences between monolingual and bilingual adults in cortical thickness of a critical cognitive control region (anterior cingulate). In addition, speech sound learning ability is predicted by thickness of a different frontal region (left anterior insula) for bilingual, but not for monolingual, adults. Finally, the thickness of several language and cognitive control brain regions differs between bilingual children with balanced versus unbalanced language proficiency. As language experience differs across individuals so does the structure of the cerebral cortex, reflecting variations in the extent of second language use and learning ability.

Contact Visit her site and the Cognitive Neuroscience Lab Social Media


Vrinda Subhalaxmi Chidambaram University of California Riverside

Switching up structures: What bilinguals can tell us about the viability of syntactic theories The study of theoretical syntax is devoted to understanding how sentences are built. This boils down to two essential questions: (1) What are the various parts of a sentence? and (2) How do these parts fit together to produce a coherent and grammatical whole? Of course, the answers to both of these questions will vary widely depending upon a number of factors, not the least of which is the particular language being investigated. Languages differ from one another in fundamental ways, but one unifying characteristic is that they exhibit a baffling degree of complexity. Given the quagmire of structural dependencies and variability, it seems incredible that our minds have the computational power to process a single language, much less two or more. In fact, considerable evidence has shown that bilinguals simultaneously make use of both languages. Occasionally, this is even observable (as in codeswitching). In this talk, I will explore some of the syntactic differences we find between languages, how some of those differences have been analyzed as parametric variation, and how speakers of multiple languages could be the key to understanding how and when parameters can be switched.

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Covadonga Lamar Prieto University of California Riverside

Spanish-English Bilingualism in California from a Historical Sociolinguistic Perspective The presence of Spanish language in California, and thus that of bilingual populations of Spanish and English, can be traced to the XIX. However, Spanish language is considered an immigrant language in California. The equilibrium between the two languages has been unbalanced in terms of political power and social capital, and it has in turn conditioned the public presence of Spanish. However, the presence of Spanish speakers with their own dialect of Spanish has been constant thru this almost two centuries. Departing from XIX previously unpublished manuscripts and reaching testimonies of current DACAmented students, this presentation delineates a timeline of the political, social and linguistic conflicts between both languages. At the same time, this timeline allows for the dialectal description of Southern California Spanish as a young, independent variety of Spanish.

Contact Visit her site and SOCALab’s site Follow her on Social Media: Instagram, Twitter


Hyejin Nah University of California Riverside

Code-Switching as Indigenous Activism This presentation engages bilingualism from the perspective of indigenous peoples’ activist inquiries over languages. For urban Mapuche, an indigenous people living in Santiago, Chile, displaced from their traditional land, bilingualism is a heavily charged notion. As their language, Mapudungun, has been “stolen� from them by colonization, Mapuche must speak Winkadungun (the language of the thieves) or Spanish to survive. In this presentation, I examine how urban Mapuche connect bilingualism to the question of what language is, and who determines how to use languages in the context of colonization, where dominant languages have been imposed upon indigenous or minority people. To this end, I scrutinize what I call participatory or communitybased code-switching between dominant and marginalized languages as active forms of indigenous activism.

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Community Members: Abstracts Erika Thomson California School for the Deaf ASL/English Bi-modal Bilingualism and Bi-literacy at California School for the Deaf Early exposure to ASL enables deaf children to naturally acquire the conversational form of a language through the stronger of their senses (visually, rather than their weakness in hearing). This critical language foundation helps deaf children master academic learning (and a second language) as they enter school. Instruction and communication at CSDR occur through ASL and English, in the written form in whole group settings and in the spoken form as applicable to individual students and in small groups. ASL and English are used fully, either alternatively or separately in the classrooms with a teaching purpose to model each language in its correct form and to enrich students’ language abilities. Written English is a requirement, and additional modalities of English vary for each child. Lessons in ASL/ English bilingualism becomes increasingly demanding. The first step for students to master is bilingualism, which is the use of basic interpersonal communication skills in ASL and English. Newly enrolled students who have not learned sign language will benefit from an ASL immersion class at CSDR, to assist them in the bilingual learning environment. The second and ultimate step for all students is bilteracy, which is applying literacy skills in two languages with cognitive and academic language proficiency. To foster students’ increasing ability to read and write in English, ASL literacy includes ASL Viewing of literature and informative materials, Videosigning skills, translanguaging, and language analysis, all of which reinforce the bridging between the two language modes. CSDR values all language modes of signacy, literacy, and oracy, in the order of what is most accessible to deaf learners, and according to each individual’s needs.

Contact Visit the site of the California School for the Deaf Social Media: Facebook


Melissa Herzig Gallaudet University

Lifespan Benefits of Early Bilingualism Bilingual education provided through signed as well as written/spoken languages lead to strong cognitive development advantages and is a significant predictor of academic success. Research from the National Science Foundation Science of Learning Center on Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) has made some key discoveries about the type of effect the visual processes, visual language, and social experiences have on the development of cognition, language, reading, and literacy of the benefit of all humans. The research has shown that the brain processes signed and spoken language in the exact same brain tissue; Early access to sign language displays significant visual attention and processing benefits for children, including stronger vocabularies, language competence and world knowledge, and literacy and reading skills. Access to bilingual education from an early age is also instrumental in the child’s lifelong cognitive, emotional, and social development. Contrary to popular belief, bilingualism does not cause language delay or language impairment; studies have shown that switching to one language may negatively affect a child’s language acquisition.

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Martha Martinez Director English Learners, Teaching, Learning & Professional Development Alvord Unified School District Dual Immersion Programs at Alvord Unified School District The possibilities are endless as students in Alvord Unified School District progress towards their unlimited potential. It is with great pride that the Alvord Unified School District provides this educational opportunity to its students and community.           Dual language Immersion offers English and Spanish speaking students an exciting, enriching, and challenging educational opportunity. Students in DLI learn to read, write, and communicate effectively in both languages while demonstrating high levels of academic achievement. DLI education aims to ensure students become bilingual, bi-literate, and bicultural starting in the early years of school where children are best primed for language learning and readily open to cultural experiences.

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Poster Abstracts The Effects of Multilingualism and Community Linguistic Diversity on Children’s Development of Language Awareness Natsuki Atagi1, Catherine M. Sandhofer2 1University of California Riverside; 2University of California Los Angeles Growing up in a multilingual family or diverse language environment affects language awareness—the understanding of language’s functions and conventions. This study examined whether exposure to community linguistic diversity affects monolingual children’s language awareness development and whether those effects differ from the effects of multilingualism on language awareness development. We examined three aspects of language awareness: children’s ability to name their language(s); understanding of the communicative consequences of speaking different languages; and understanding of labeling conventions across languages. Participants were three- to five-year-olds (n=90) who were (1) monolingual and from a linguistically homogeneous community, (2) monolingual and from a linguistically diverse community, or (3) multilingual and from a linguistically diverse community. Results suggest that community linguistic diversity and multilingualism affect language naming abilities and understanding of labeling conventions but not other aspects of language awareness. These findings provide insight into the ways in which early language environments affect language development.

Using ERPs to investigate the stability of individual differences in sentence processing in two languages Kinsey Bice, Judith F. Kroll University of California Riverside/Pennsylvania State University Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have challenged the classic nativespeaker model by demonstrating individual differences in ERP responses during grammatical processing. Some monolingual speakers elicit an N400 component where a P600 would be expected (Tanner & van Hell, 2014). These individual differences have been replicated within individuals, and have been shown in bilinguals’ L2, but research has not yet addressed whether speakers reveal similar patterns across their languages. We tested 25 early (heritage) Spanish-English bilinguals and 28 English monolinguals on a grammatical judgment task in English and the bilinguals also in Spanish. Taking into account language fluency, and whether the bilingual speakers learned to read in their native language, our results reveal a significant correlation in the brain’s response


across languages. These data suggest that the observed differences are a stable, rather than transient, characteristic of the individual that may reflect underlying cognitive processes that support and influence language processing.

Bidirectional cross-linguistic relations of first and second language skills: Spanish and Portuguese as a heritage language Aline Ferreira1, Alexandra Gottardo2 1 Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese, University of California Santa Barbara Psychology, Wilfrid Laurier University

2

Dept. of

The role of first language (L1) skills in second language (L2) achievement is often investigated by researchers in order to assist learners in acquiring their L2. There are several factors that might influence potential cross-language relations among Spanish, Portuguese and English measures (e.g., age of acquisition of the L2, social status, among others). In this sense, this study aims at investigating cross-linguistic relations of L1 and L2 for language learners as well for heritage speakers. More specifically, we focus on reading comprehension in Spanish-English and Portuguese-English bilinguals, all of whom attend school in an English-speaking setting in a large metropolitan area in Canada. The participants were divided into four different groups: a) English-dominant bilinguals who are Spanish-heritage speakers; b) English-dominant bilinguals who are Portuguese-heritage speakers; c) Spanish-dominant bilinguals who are English learners (recent immigrants); and d) Portuguese-dominant bilinguals who are English learners (recent immigrants). The variables that we analyzed are: a) L1 and L2 word reading and reading comprehension, and b) L1 and L2 vocabulary and reading comprehension. These variables were examined in order to determine whether L1 skills or L2 skills are more highly related to reading in each language. Specifically, are English skills more strongly related to English and also Portuguese or Spanish reading in the English dominant group? In contrast are Portuguese or Spanish skills more strongly related to English reading in the groups who show language dominance in those languages? Results show that vocabulary knowledge is related to reading comprehension (p<.01), and syntactic knowledge is related to reading comprehension (p<.01). Therefore, multiple components of LC contribute to RC. At this stage, English decoding and English oral language (vocabulary and syntax) are most strongly related to English reading comprehension in Portuguese Heritage Speakers/Language Learners from middle class homes. The data collection procedures using these tasks are currently underway in Canada and we will discuss our results in terms of possible factors that influence potential cross-language relations among Spanish and Portuguese measures. Furthermore, efforts have been made to extend the study to California context, most specifically, Santa Barbara County.


Exploring the relation between cognitive control and sentence processing through bilingualism Dalia Garcia1, Christian A. Navarro-Torres2, Vrinda Chidambaram1, Judith F. Kroll2 1Department of Comparative Literature and Languages, University of California Riverside 2Department of Psychology, University of California Riverside Recent research has shown that an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to parse an ambiguous sentence is modulated by the recruitment of cognitive-control as the sentence unfolds over time. Likewise, research on bilingualism suggests that the use of multiple languages engages cognitive-control in ways that differ from monolinguals. Yet, bilinguals can differ a great deal with respect to their language experience. The present study investigates the relation between language regulation (i.e., the ability to engage cognitive-control during language processing) and bilingual experience. Our sample will consist of subgroups of Spanish-English bilinguals from the Southern California region who differ in their linguistic behavior (e.g., codeswitching) and/or interactional context. To examine language regulation, we will use an interleaved Stroop task with a sentencecomprehension task involving syntactic ambiguity while eye-movements are recorded. To determine participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; linguistic profile, we will use a map task designed to elicit spontaneous codeswitching, in addition to a series of language-proficiency/cognitive tasks.

Conflict regulation during bilingual lexical production Eve Higby, Judith F. Kroll, Deborah Burke University of California Riverside To plan speech, bilinguals must select appropriate words among competing alternatives both within the target and non-target language. These demands on lexical selection engage regulatory mechanisms, such as monitoring and inhibitory control, but the precise nature of this regulation is not well understood. The first goal of the present study was to investigate the types of regulation that are involved when bilinguals plan spoken words. Spanish-English bilinguals named colored pictures in a task-switching paradigm (naming either the object or the color of the object). Distractors (color and object words) were presented before the picture to enhance attentional conflict or to induce lexical conflict. A second goal was to ask how variation in bilingual language experience influences language regulation ability. We hypothesized that early age of second language acquisition, high proficiency in both languages, and language immersion experience may modulate the relative contribution of different mechanisms of language control.


Resolution of Ambiguous Prepositional Phrases in Code-switching Silvia Kim University of Southern California The present study examines the disambiguation of globally ambiguous prepositional phrases (PP) in code-switched sentences. Three experiments in different contexts (English-Spanish, Spanish-Korean, English-Korean) were conducted in silent reading condition. The question is whether participants prefer the simplest syntactic structure or if the prosodic contour of two different languages affects parsing. In all experiments, participants preferred the High Attachment, where the PP is attached to the first noun phrase (NP) in complex NP structures. They seem to parse by creating a novel prosody according to the boundary where the language switches. This appears to be the most natural prosodic contour associated with code-switching and what helps in the parsing of ambiguous prepositional phrases.

Does Chocolate elicit more intrusion errors? Chuchu Li, Tamar H. Gollan University of California San Diego The current study investigated the contribution of phonology to bilingual language control in connected speech. Mandarin–English bilinguals read aloud paragraphs either in Chinese or English, while 6 words were switched to the other language in each paragraph. The switch words were either cognates or noncognates, and switching difficulty was measured by production of cross-language intrusion errors on the switch words (e.g., mistakenly saying 巧克⼒ instead of chocolate). Focusing on Chinese target words (i.e., the dominant language), bilinguals produced significantly more intrusions on cognates than noncognates, but conversely were also better at detecting and self-correcting intrusions on cognates early. Phonological overlap may boost the lexical activation of the nontarget language, thus leading to language competition at the lexical level, so that bilinguals produce more intrusions on cognates. Nevertheless, the lexical competition on cognates may in turn facilitate early error detection, as predicted by the conflict monitoring account.

The consequences of bilingualism for new category learning Emily Mech, Jessica Montag, Judith Kroll University of California Riverside Language impacts categorization (e.g., Lupyan et al., 2007). The present study asks whether bilingual experience might also impact category learning. Young adults ranging in L2 experience learned to categorize aliens in a no-label condition or in a condition where arbitrary labels were heard as feedback. At test, participants


categorized previously trained aliens and generalized to new aliens. RT, accuracy, and EEGs were recorded to assess learning. Language experience was assessed with a questionnaire together with online measures of proficiency and cognitive control. Preliminary findings (N=35) indicated that labels led to faster learning trajectories and better categorization of new aliens. In ERP comparisons, an N400 to new vs. trained aliens was found at test, but an early negativity was present only in the no-label condition. Further analyses will compare the effect of language experience on category learning outcomes and strategies.

The Importance of a Fine-grained Analysis of Heritage Language Structures: Heritage Spanish in California Viola G. Miglio and Stefan Th. Gries University of California Santa Barbara Heritage language speakers have been called the ‘missing link’ between native speakers and L2 learners (Polinsky, 2008) because they exhibit 1) characteristics of both groups (Carreira, 2007, Montrul, 2010), and 2) a convergence between the heritage language and the main language spoken by their surrounding community (Sorace, 2003, Montrul, 2004, 2005, 2008, Toribio 2004, Toribio and Nye, 2006, De Prada Pérez and Pascual y Cabo, 2011). We set out to isolate an area of language use, that of gustar-like verbs of emotion that in Romance and other languages build reverse constructions, as in Spanish me gustan las arañas ‘I like spiders’. Spanish has an oblique experiencer as the semantic subject of the sentence and the verb agrees in number with the plural stimulus, whereas in the English equivalent, the semantic subject of the sentence is also its grammatical subject. Since English and Spanish construct verbs like gustar differently, this area of grammar provides a valid testing ground for heritage speakers’ competence in their heritage language and for possible convergence with English. In two separate studies, we compared heritage Spanish speakers from California, advanced L2 learners, and native speakers in judgment tests with gustar-type verbs in Spanish. We did not find a statistically significant difference between the linguistic behaviour of heritage speakers and non-native speakers across the board: only when we teased apart some of the results taking syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic features into account, did different generalizations emerge. We found evidence for a simplification of the verbal paradigm in gustar-type verbs towards the singular third person, and that both cognitive and pragmatic factors affect the performance of heritage and L2 speakers, but in different ways. Cognitive factors affect both groups in complex interactions, but frequency effects are more noticeable in heritage language speakers. Moreover a finegrained statistical analysis, such as one using mixed effects modeling, is necessary to tease apart some of the features needed to establish a heritage language such as Spanish in California as a non-standard dialect of Spanish in its own right, worth studying with sophisticated linguistic means because of what it can reveal about languages in contact, but also about cognition and language use in general.


Two languages or one: Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use of language as a cue for talker identification Reina Mizrahi, Sarah C. Creel University of California San Diego A central question in language development is how bilingual children form separate representations of the languages they speak. The current studies address this question by testing whether English monolingual (n=32), English-Spanish bilingual (n=20), and bilinguals that speak English and another language not including Spanish (n=32) between 3- to 5-years-old children differ in their ability to associate speakers with particular languages. Participants were familiarized with 2 characters and the language each spoke (English or Spanish); then after listening to a sentence in either language participants were asked to select the character they thought said the sentence, as their eye-movements were tracked. Results suggest that while all children are above chance (p<0.001), bilingual children that comprehend the languages spoken by the characters can more readily use language as a cue for talker identification, visually fixating the target character, p=0.009. Such findings have important implications for bilingual and monolingual language representations throughout development.

Translations and code-switches when imitating sentences in the weak language Maria Ortiz1, Gabriela Simon-Cereijido2 1Speech-Language Pathology program, California State University, Los Angeles 2Department of Communication Disorders, California State University, Los Angeles Sentence repetition tasks are included in English language batteries for the identification of language impairment. For dual language learners (DLLs), it is challenging to imitate sentences in the weak language. Spanish-speaking preschoolers who are learning English at school imitate fewer words, make English lexical and grammatical errors, and occasionally use Spanish words. This study examines the use of Spanish, the strong language, by Latino DLLs with and without primary language impairment in an English sentence repetition task.


Language Shifting Between Spanish and English Influences Bilinguals’ Emotional Experience and Physiological Reactivity Laura E. Quinones-Camacho1, Scott Savage2, Covadonga Lamar Prieto3, Elizabeth L. Davis1 1 Dept. of Psychology, University of California Riverside; 2Dept. of Sociology, U. of Houston; 3Dept. of Hispanic Studies, University of California Riverside For years, researchers have attempted to understand bilinguals’ physiological responses to emotional stimuli. Most studies ask participants to listen to, read, or repeat a few words at a time. Although physiological differences are often found, we do not know how physiology might change when emotional events are discussed in detail. The aim of this study was to assess whether bilinguals’ physiological reactivity during an interview about emotional films would differ depending on the language spoken and shifting from one language to the other. Spanish-English bilingual undergraduates were recruited from the UCR community to take part in this study. Participants spoke in Spanish first and then English, English first and then Spanish, or only one of the languages, about sad and fear films. Results suggest that the first language bilinguals use to describe an emotional event, and shifting languages during the discussion of an emotional event influences their physiological reactivity.

Executive Function and Translation Equivalents in Young SpanishEnglish Bilingual Children Erin Smolak, Anele Villanueva, Yushuang Liu, Alyssa Campos, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger, & Margaret Friend San Diego State University/University of California San Diego Research suggests that, in bilingual children, experience with inhibiting one language may be associated with enhanced executive function (EF; e.g., Bialystok & Craik, 2010 but cf. Duñabietia, 2014). Recently, Crivello et al. (2016) found that growth in translation equivalents (TEs or synonyms across languages) predicts bilingual EF performance. This study compares EF abilities in Spanish-English bilingual children and monolingual Spanish- and English-speaking children at 30 and 36 months of age. Of interest is whether the TE effect holds in a different linguistic and cultural setting. We expected children who know more TEs to perform better on EF. We observed no bilingual advantage at 30 months of age. However, at 36 months, bilingual children outperformed monolingual peers in a rule-switching task. Bilingual performance appeared to be associated with the number of TEs in children’s total vocabulary. We discuss the threshold and timing of the TE effect across language groups.


Bilingual experience shapes new language learning and generalization: An electrophysiological investigation Andrea Takahesu Tabori, Judith Kroll University of California Riverside Learning two languages early in life may require special tuning that is beneficial for both learning and generalization. Infants with dual language exposure display an enhancement in flexible rule learning relative to monolingual infants, in both language and domain-general tasks (Brito & Barr, 2012; 2014; 2015; KovĂĄcks & Mehler, 2009). The current study investigated the effect of L2 age of acquisition on suffix learning and generalization. Three groups of adults were compared: English monolinguals, early, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants studied novel words along with their definitions (bricknule: someone who works at a brick factory). After learning, participants completed a recognition memory task and a battery of language and cognitive measures. A week later, participants completed a sentence reading go/nogo task while EEG was recorded. The sentences were semantically congruent or incongruent with the suffix meaning. After reading the sentences, participants were asked to decide if the sentences made sense. Accuracy and reaction times for the decision and ERPs time-locked to final words were used to index generalization. Results reveal that bilinguals generally had longer reaction times during recall portion of the learning and had similar accuracy as monolinguals. Moreover, bilingualsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performance on the recognition memory task was correlated with L2 age of acquisition and proficiency. In the generalization task, bilinguals were more accurate in determining whether the sentences made sense and they displayed an N-400 component in the go trials but not in the nogo trials. The monolinguals displayed an earlier ERP component for both go and nogo trials. Results will be discussed in terms of learning strategies that may result from different language experiences.

â&#x20AC;¨ Self-ratings of Bilingual Language Proficiency Differ Between and Within Language Populations Brendan Tomoschuk, Victor S. Ferreira, Tamar H. Gollan University of California San Diego Self-ratings of language proficiency are ubiquitous in research on bilingualism, but little is known about their validity, even when the same scale is used across different types of bilinguals. Self-ratings and picture naming data from 1044 Spanish-English and 519 Chinese-English bilinguals were analyzed in five between- and within-population comparisons. Chinese-English bilinguals scored more extremely than Spanish-English bilinguals, and in opposite directions at different endpoints of the self-ratings scale. Regrouping bilinguals by dominant language, instead of language membership, reduced discrepancies but significant group differences remained. Population differences appeared even in English, though this language is shared between populations. These


results demonstrate significant problems with self-ratings especially when comparing bilinguals of different language combinations, and subgroups of bilinguals who speak the same languages but vary in acquisition history. Objective proficiency measures (e.g., picture naming or proficiency interviews) are superior to self-ratings, to maximize classification accuracy and consistency across studies.Â

Acknowledgements Department of Psychology Department of Comparative Literature and Languages Department of Hispanic Studies Center for Ideas and Society College of Humanities and Social Sciences

Abstracts book bm@ucr  

Book of abstracts for the conference and workshop to launch Bilingualism Matters at the University of California Riverside

Abstracts book bm@ucr  

Book of abstracts for the conference and workshop to launch Bilingualism Matters at the University of California Riverside

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