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[4] Ted talks - Rachel Botsman: The case for collaborative consumption So today I'm going to talk to you about the rise of collaborative consumption. I'm going to explain what it is and try and convince you -- in just 15 minutes -that this isn't a flimsy idea, or a short-term trend, but a powerful cultural and economic force reinventing not just what we consume, but how we consume. Now I'm going to start with a deceptively simple example. Hands up -- how many of you have books, CDs, DVDs, or videos lying around your house that you probably won't use again, but you can't quite bring yourself to throw away? Can't see all the hands, but it looks like all of you, right? On our shelves at home, we have a box set of the DVD series "24," season six to be precise. I think it was bought for us around three years ago for a Christmas present. Now my husband, Chris, and I love this show. But let's face it, when you've watched it once maybe, or twice, you don't really want to watch it again, because you know how Jack Bauer is going to defeat the terrorists. So there it sits on our shelves obsolete to us, but with immediate latent value to someone else. Now before we go on, I have a confession to make. I lived in New York for 10 years, and I am a big fan of "Sex and the City." Now I'd love to watch the first movie again as sort of a warm-up to the sequel coming out next week. So how easily could I swap our unwanted copy of "24" for a wanted copy of "Sex and the City?" Now you may have noticed there's a new sector emerging called swap-trading. Now the easiest analogy for swap-trading is like an online dating service for all your unwanted media. What it does is use the Internet to create an infinite marketplace to match person A's "haves" with person C's "wants," whatever they may be. The other week, I went on one of these sites, appropriately called Swaptree, and there were over 59,300 items that I could instantly swap for my copy of "24." Lo and behold, there in Reseda, CA was Rondoron who wanted swap his or her "like new" copy of "Sex and the City" for my copy of "24." So in other words, what's happening here is that Swaptree solves my carrying company's sugar rush problem, a prob-

lem the economists call "the coincidence of wants," in approximately 60 seconds. What's even more amazing is it will print out a purchase label on the spot, because it knows the weight of the item. Now there are layers of technical wonder behind sites such as Swaptree, but that's not my interest, and nor is swap trading, per se. My passion, and what I've spent the last few years dedicated to researching, is the collaborative behaviors and trust-mechanics inherent in these systems. When you think about it, it would have seemed like a crazy idea, even a few years ago, that I would swap my stuff with a total stranger whose real name I didn't know and without any money changing hands. Yet 99 percent of trades on Swaptree happen successfully, and the one percent that receive a negative rating, it's for relatively minor reasons, like the item didn't arrive on time. So what's happening here? An extremely powerful dynamic that has huge commercial and cultural implications is at play. Namely, that technology is enabling trust between strangers. We now live in a global village where we can mimic the ties that used to happen face to face, but on a scale and in ways that have never been possible before. So what's actually happening is that social networks and real-time technologies are taking us back. We're bartering, trading, swapping, sharing, but they're being reinvented into dynamic and appealing forms. What I find fascinating is that we've actually wired our world to share, whether that's our neighborhood, our school, our office, or our Facebook network, and that's creating an economy of "what's mine is yours." From the mighty eBay, the grandfather of exchange marketplaces, to car-sharing companies such as GoGet, where you pay a monthly fee to rent cars by the hour, to social lending platforms such as Zopa, that will take anyone in this audience with 100 dollars to lend, and match them with a borrower anywhere in the world, we're sharing and collaborating again in ways that I believe are more hip than hippie. I call this "groundswell collaborative consumption."

[5] Now before I dig into the different systems of collaborative consumption, I'd like to try and answer the question that every author rightfully gets asked, which is, where did this idea come from? Now I'd like to say I woke up one morning and said, "I'm going to write about collaborative consumption," but actually it was a complicated web of seemingly disconnected ideas. Over the next minute, you're going to see a bit like a conceptual fireworks display of all the dots that went on in my head. The first thing I began to notice: how many big concepts were emerging -- from the wisdom of crowds to smart mobs -- around how ridiculously easy it is to form groups for a purpose. And linked to this crowd mania were examples all around the world -- from the election of a president to the infamous Wikipedia, and everything in between -- on what the power of numbers could achieve. Now, you know when you learn a new word, and then you start to see that word everywhere? That's what happened to me when I noticed that we are moving from passive consumers to creators, to highly enabled collaborators. What's happening is the Internet is removing the middleman, so that anyone from a T-shirt designer to a knitter can make a living selling peer-to-peer. And the ubiquitous force of this peer-to-peer revolution means that sharing is happening at phenomenal rates. I mean, it's amazing to think that, in every single minute of this speech, 25 hours of YouTube video will be loaded. Now what I find fascinating about these examples is how they're actually tapping into our primate instincts. I mean, we're monkeys, and we're born and bred to share and cooperate. And we were doing so for thousands of years, whether it's when we hunted in packs, or farmed in cooperatives, before this big system called hyper-consumption came along and we built these fences and created out own little fiefdoms. But things are changing, and one of the reasons why is the digital natives, or Gen-Y. They're growing up sharing -- files, video games, knowledge. It's second nature to them. So we, the millennials -- I am just a millennial -- are like foot soldiers, moving us from a culture of "me" to a culture of "we."

The reason why it's happening so fast is because of mobile collaboration. We now live in a connected age where we can locate anyone, anytime, in real-time, from a small device in our hands. All of this was going through my head towards the end of 2008, when, of course, the great financial crash happened. Thomas Friedman is one of my favorite New York Times columnists, and he poignantly commented that 2008 is when we hit a wall, when Mother Nature and the market both said, "No more." Now we rationally know that an economy built on hyper-consumption is a Ponzi scheme. It's a house of cards.Yet, it's hard for us to individually know what to do. So all of this is a lot of twittering, right? Well it was a lot of noise and complexity in my head, until actually I realized it was happening because of four key drivers. One, a renewed belief in the importance of community, and a very redefinition of what friend and neighbor really means. A torrent of peer-to-peer social networks and real-time technologies, fundamentally changing the way we behave. Three, pressing unresolved environmental concerns. And four, a global recession that has fundamentally shocked consumer behaviors. These four drivers are fusing together and creating the big shift -- away from the 20th century, defined by hyper-consumption, towards the 21st century, defined by collaborative consumption. I generally believe we're at an inflection point where the sharing behaviors -- through sites such as Flickr and Twitter that are becoming second nature online -- are being applied to offline areas of our everyday lives. From morning commutes to the way fashion is designed to the way we grow food, we are consuming and collaborating once again. So my co-author, Roo Rogers, and I have actually gathered thousands of examples from all around the world of collaborative consumption. And although they vary enormously in scale, maturity and purpose, when we dived into them, we realized that they could actually be organized into three clear systems. The first is redistribution markets. Redistribution markets, just like Swaptree, are when you take a used, or pre-owned, item and move it from where it's not needed to somewhere, or someone, where it is. They're increasingly thought of as the fifth 'R'

[6] -- reduce, reuse, recycle, repair and redistribute -because they stretch the life cycle of a product and thereby reduce waste. The second is collaborative lifestyles. This is the sharing of resources of things like money, skills and time. I bet, in a couple of years, that phrases like "coworking" and "couchsurfing" and "time banks" are going to become a part of everyday vernacular. One of my favorite examples of collaborative lifestyles is called Landshare. It's a scheme in the U.K. that matches Mr. Jones, with some spare space in his back garden, with Mrs. Smith, a would-be grower. Together they grow their own food. It's one of those ideas that's so simple, yet brilliant, you wonder why it's never been done before. Now, the third system is product-service systems. This is where you pay for the benefit of the product -what it does for you -- without needing to own the product outright. This idea is particularly powerful for things that have high-idling capacity. And that can be anything from baby goods to fashions to -- how many of you have a power drill, own a power drill? Right. That power drill will be used around 12 to 13 minutes in its entire lifetime. (Laughter) It's kind of ridiculous, right? Because what you need is the hole, not the drill. (Laughter) (Applause) So why don't you rent the drill, or, even better, rent out your own drill to other people and make some money from it? These three systems are coming together, allowing people to share resources without sacrificing their lifestyles, or their cherished personal freedoms. I'm not asking people to share nicely in the sandpit. So I want to just give you an example of how powerful collaborative consumption can be to change behaviors. The average car costs 8,000 dollars a year to run.Yet, that car sits idle for 23 hours a day. So when you consider these two facts, it starts to make a little less sense that we have to own one outright. So this is where car-sharing companies such as Zipcar and GoGet come in. In 2009, Zipcar took 250 participants from across 13 cities -- and they're all self-confessed car addicts and car-sharing rookies -- and got them to surrender their keys for a month. Instead, these people had to walk, bike, take the train,

or other forms of public transport. They could only use their Zipcar membership when absolutely necessary. The results of this challenge after just one month was staggering. It's amazing that 413 lbs were lost just from the extra exercise. But my favorite statistic is that 100 out of the 250 participants did not want their keys back. In other words, the car addicts had lost their urge to own. Now products-service systems have been around for years. Just think of libraries and laundrettes. But I think they're entering a new age, because technology makes sharing frictionless and fun. There's a great quote that was written in the New York Times that said, "Sharing is to ownership what the iPod is to the 8-track, what solar power is to the coal mine." I believe also, our generation, our relationship to satisfying what we want is far less tangible than any other previous generation. I don't want the DVD; I want the movie it carries. I don't want a clunky answering machine; I want the message it saves. I don't want a CD; I want the music it plays. In other words, I don't want stuff; I want the needs or experiences it fulfills. This is fueling a massive shift from where usage trumps possessions -- or as Kevin Kelly, the editor of Wired magazine, puts it, "where access is better than ownership." Now as our possessions dematerialize into the cloud, a blurry line is appearing between what's mine, what's yours, and what's ours. I want to give you one example that shows how fast this evolution is happening. This represents an eight-year time span. We've gone from traditional car-ownership to car-sharing companies, such as Zipcar and GoGet, to ride-sharing platforms that match rides to the newest entry, which is peer-to-peer car rental, where you can actually make money out of renting that car that sits idle for 23 hours a day to your neighbor. Now all of these systems require a degree of trust, and the cornerstone to this working is reputation. Now in the old consumer system, our reputation didn't matter so much, because our credit history was far more important that any kind of peer-to-peer review. But now with the Web, we leave a trail. With

[7] every spammer we flag, with every idea we post, comment we share, we're actually signaling how well we collaborate, and whether we can or can't be trusted. Let's go back to my first example, Swaptree. I can see that Rondoron has completed 553 trades with a 100 percent success rate. In other words, I can trust him or her. Now mark my words, it's only a matter of time before we're going to be able to perform a Google-like search and see a cumulative picture of our reputation capital. And this reputation capital will determine our access to collaborative consumption. It's a new social currency, so to speak, that could become as powerful as our credit rating. Now as a closing thought, I believe we're actually in a period where we're waking up from this humongous hangover of emptiness and waste, and we're taking a leap to create a more sustainable system built to serve our innate needs for community and individual identity. I believe it will be referred to as a revolution, so to speak -- when society, faced with great challenges, made a seismic shift from individual getting and spending towards a rediscovery of collective good. I'm on a mission to make sharing cool. I'm on a mission to make sharing hip. Because I really believe it can disrupt outdated modes of business, help us leapfrog over wasteful forms of hyper-consumption and teach us when enough really is enough. Thank you very much.

[8] Ted talks - Rachel Botsman: The currency of the new economy is trust So if someone asked you for the three words that would sum up your reputation, what would you say? How would people describe your judgment, your knowledge, your behaviors, in different situations? Today I’d like to explore with you why the answer to this question will become profoundly important in an age where reputation will be your most valuable asset. I’d like to start by introducing you to someone whose life has been changed by a marketplace fueled by reputation. Sebastian Sandys has been a bed and breakfast host on Airbnb since 2008. I caught up with him recently, where, over the course of several cups of tea, he told me how hosting guests from all over the world has enriched his life. More than 50 people have come to stay in the 18th-century watchhouse he lives in with his cat, Squeak. Now, I mention Squeak because Sebastian’s first guest happened to see a rather large mouse run across the kitchen, and she promised that she would refrain from leaving a bad review on one condition: he got a cat. And so Sebastian bought Squeak to protect his reputation. Now, as many of you know, Airbnb is a peer-to-peer marketplace that matches people who have space to rent with people who are looking for a place to stay in over 192 countries. The places being rented out are things that you might expect, like spare rooms and holiday homes, but part of the magic is the unique places that you can now access: treehouses, teepees, airplane hangars, igloos. If you don’t like the hotel, there’s a castle down the road that you can rent for 5,000 dollars a night. It’s a fantastic example of how technology is creating a market for things that never had a marketplace before. Now let me show you these heat maps of Paris to see how insanely fast it’s growing. This image here is from 2008. The pink dots represent host properties. Even four years ago, letting strangers stay in your home seemed like a crazy idea. Now the same view in 2010. And now, 2012. There is an Airbnb host on almost every main street in Paris. Now, what’s happening here is people are realizing the power of

technology to unlock the idling capacity and value of all kinds of assets, from skills to spaces to material possessions, in ways and on a scale never possible before. It’s an economy and culture called collaborative consumption, and, through it, people like Sebastian are becoming micro-entrepreneurs. They’re empowered to make money and save money from their existing assets. But the real magic and the secret source behind collaborative consumption marketplaces like Airbnb isn’t the inventory or the money. It’s using the power of technology to build trust between strangers. This side of Airbnb really hit home to Sebastian last summer during the London riots. He woke up around 9, and he checked his email and he saw a bunch of messages all asking him if he was okay. Former guests from around the world had seen that the riots were happening just down the street, and wanted to check if he needed anything. Sebastian actually said to me, he said, “Thirteen former guests contacted me before my own mother rang.” (Laughter) Now, this little anecdote gets to the heart of why I’m really passionate about collaborative consumption, and why, after I finished my book, I decided I’m going to try and spread this into a global movement. Because at its core, it’s about empowerment. It’s about empowering people to make meaningful connections, connections that are enabling us to rediscover a humanness that we’ve lost somewhere along the way, by engaging in marketplaces like Airbnb, like Kickstarter, like Etsy, that are built on personal relationships versus empty transactions. Now the irony is that these ideas are actually taking us back to old market principles and collaborative behaviors that are hard-wired in all of us. They’re just being reinvented in ways that are relevant for the Facebook age. We’re literally beginning to realize that we have wired our world to share, swap, rent, barter or trade just about anything. We’re sharing our cars on WhipCar, our bikes on Spinlister, our offices on Loosecubes, our gardens on Landshare. We’re lending

[9] and borrowing money from strangers on Zopa and Lending Club. We are trading lessons on everything from sushi-making to coding on Skillshare, and we’re even sharing our pets on DogVacay. Now welcome to the wonderful world of collaborative consumption that’s enabling us to match wants with haves in more democratic ways. Now, collaborative consumption is creating the start of a transformation in the way we think about supply and demand, but it’s also a part of a massive value shift underway, where instead of consuming to keep up with the Joneses, people are consuming to get to know the Joneses. But the key reason why it’s taking off now so fast is because every new advancement of technology increases the efficiency and the social glue of trust to make sharing easier and easier. Now, I’ve looked at thousands of these marketplaces, and trust and efficiency are always the critical ingredients. Let me give you an example. Meet 46-yearold Chris Mok, who has, I bet, the best job title here of SuperRabbit. Now, four years ago, Chris lost his job, unfortunately, as an art buyer at Macy’s, and like so many people, he struggled to find a new one during the recession. And then he happened to stumble across a post about TaskRabbit. Now, the story behind TaskRabbit starts like so many great stories with a very cute dog by the name of Kobe. Now what happened was, in February 2008, Leah and her husband were waiting for a cab to take them out for dinner, when Kobe came trotting up to them and he was salivating with saliva. They realized they’d run out of dog food. Kevin had to cancel the cab and trudge out in the snow. Now, later that evening, the two self-confessed tech geeks starting talking about how cool it would be if some kind of eBay for errands existed. Six months later, Leah quit her job, and TaskRabbit was born. At the time, she didn’t realize that she was actually hitting on a bigger idea she later called service networking. It’s essentially about how we use our online relationships to get things done in the real world. Now the way TaskRabbit works is, people outsource

the tasks that they want doing, name the price they’re willing to pay, and then vetted Rabbits bid to run the errand.Yes, there’s actually a four-stage, rigorous interview process that’s designed to find the people that would make great personal assistants and weed out the dodgy Rabbits. Now, there’s over 4,000 Rabbits across the United States and 5,000 more on the waiting list. Now the tasks being posted are things that you might expect, like help with household chores or doing some supermarket runs. I actually learned the other day that 12 and a half thousand loads of laundry have been cleaned and folded through TaskRabbit. But I love that the number one task posted, over a hundred times a day, is something that many of us have felt the pain of doing: yes, assembling Ikea furniture. (Laughter) (Applause) It’s brilliant. Now, we may laugh, but Chris here is actually making up to 5,000 dollars a month running errands around his life. And 70 percent of this new labor force were previously unemployed or underemployed. I think TaskRabbit and other examples of collaborative consumption are like lemonade stands on steroids. They’re just brilliant. Now, when you think about it, it’s amazing, right, that over the past 20 years, we’ve evolved from trusting people online to share information to trusting to handing over our credit card information, and now we’re entering the third trust wave: connecting trustworthy strangers to create all kinds of peoplepowered marketplaces. I actually came across this fascinating study by the Pew Center this week that revealed that an active Facebook user is three times as likely as a non-Internet user to believe that most people are trustworthy.Virtual trust will transform the way we trust one another face to face. Now, with all of my optimism, and I am an optimist, comes a healthy dose of caution, or rather, an urgent need to address some pressing, complex questions. How to ensure our digital identities reflect our real world identities? Do we want them to be the same? How do we mimic the way trust is built face-to-face online? How do we stop people who’ve behaved badly in one community doing so under a different

[10] guise? In a similar way that companies often use some kind of credit rating to decide whether to give you a mobile plan, or the rate of a mortgage, marketplaces that depend on transactions between relative strangers need some kind of device to let you know that Sebastian and Chris are good eggs, and that device is reputation. Reputation is the measurement of how much a community trusts you. Let’s just take a look at Chris. You can see that over 200 people have given him an average rating over 4.99 out of 5. There are over 20 pages of reviews of his work describing him as superfriendly and fast, and he’s reached level 25, the highest level, making him a SuperRabbit. Now — (Laughter) -- I love that word, SuperRabbit. And interestingly, what Chris has noted is that as his reputation has gone up, so has his chances of winning a bid and how much he can charge. In other words, for SuperRabbits, reputation has a real world value. Now, I know what you might be thinking. Well, this isn’t anything new. Just think of power sellers on eBay or star ratings on Amazon. The difference today is that, with every trade we make, comment we leave, person we flag, badge we earn, we leave a reputation trail of how well we can and can’t be trusted. And it’s not just the breadth but the volume of reputation data out there that is staggering. Just consider this: Five million nights have been booked on Airbnb in the past six months alone. 30 million rides have been shared on This year, two billion dollars worth of loans will go through peer-to-peer lending platforms. This adds up to millions of pieces of reputation data on how well we behave or misbehave. Now, capturing and correlating the trails of information that we leave in different places is a massive challenge, but one we’re being asked to figure out. What the likes of Sebastian are starting to rightfully ask is, shouldn’t they own their reputation data? Shouldn’t the reputation that he’s personally invested on building on Airbnb mean that it should travel with him from one community to another? What I mean by this is, say he started selling second-hand books on

Amazon. Why should he have to start from scratch? It’s a bit like when I moved from New York to Sydney. It was ridiculous. I couldn’t get a mobile phone plan because my credit history didn’t travel with me. I was essentially a ghost in the system. Now I’m not suggesting that the next stage of the reputation economy is about adding up multiple ratings into some kind of empty score. People’s lives are too complex, and who wants to do that? I also want to be clear that this isn’t about adding up tweets and likes and friends in a clout-like fashion. Those guys are measuring influence, not behaviors that indicate our trustworthiness. But the most important thing that we have to keep in mind is that reputation is largely contextual. Just because Sebastian is a wonderful host does not mean that he can assemble Ikea furniture. The big challenge is figuring out what data makes sense to pull, because the future’s going to be driven by a smart aggregation of reputation, not a single algorithm. It’s only a matter of time before we’ll be able to perform a Facebookor Google-like search and see a complete picture of someone’s behaviors in different contexts over time. I envision a realtime stream of who has trusted you, when, where and why, your reliability on TaskRabbit, your cleanliness as a guest on Airbnb, the knowledge that you display on Quora or [unclear], they’ll all live together in one place, and this will live in some kind of reputation dashboard that will paint a picture of your reputation capital. Now this is a concept that I’m currently researching and writing my next book on, and currently define as the worth of your reputation, your intentions, capabilities and values across communities and marketplaces. This isn’t some far-off frontier. There are actually a wave of startups like Connect.Me and Legit and TrustCloud that are figuring out how you can aggregate, monitor and use your online reputation. Now, I realize that this concept may sound a little Big Brother to some of you, and yes, there are some enormous transparency and privacy issues to solve, but ultimately, if we can collect our personal reputa-

[11] tion, we can actually control it more, and extract the immense value that will flow from it. Also, more so than our credit history, we can actually shape our reputation. Just think of Sebastian and how he bought the cat to influence his. Now privacy issues aside, the other really interesting issue I’m looking at is how do we empower digital ghosts, people [who] for whatever reason, are not active online, but are some of the most trustworthy people in the world? How do we take their contributions to their jobs, their communities and their families, and convert that value into reputation capital? Ultimately, when we get it right, reputation capital could create a massive positive disruption in who has power, trust and influence. A three-digit score, your traditional credit history, that only 30 percent of us actually know what it is, will no longer be the determining factor in how much things cost, what we can access, and, in many instances, limit what we can do in the world. Indeed, reputation is a currency that I believe will become more powerful than our credit history in the 21st century. Reputation will be the currency that says that you can trust me. Now the interesting thing is, reputation is the socioeconomic lubricant that makes collaborative consumption work and scale, but the sources it will be generated from, and its applications, are far bigger than this space alone. Let me give you one example from the world of recruiting, where reputation data will make the résumé seem like an archaic relic of the past. Four years ago, tech bloggers and entrepreneurs Joel Spolsky and Jeff Atwood, decided to start something called Stack Overflow. Now, Stack Overflow is basically a platform where experienced programmers can ask other good programmers highly detailed technical questions on things like tiny pixels and chrome extensions. This site receives five and a half thousand questions a day, and 80 percent of these receive accurate answers. Now users earn reputation in a whole range of ways, but it’s basically by convincing their

peers they know what they’re talking about. Now a few months after this site launched, the founders heard about something interesting, and it actually didn’t surprise them. What they heard was that users were putting their reputation scores on the top of their résumés, and that recruiters were searching the platform to find people with unique talents. Now thousands of programmers today are finding better jobs this way, because Stack Overflow and the reputation dashboards provide a priceless window into how someone really behaves, and what their peers think of them. But the bigger principle of what’s happening behind Stack Overflow, I think, is incredibly exciting. People are starting to realize that the reputation they generate in one place has value beyond the environments from which it was built.You know, it’s very interesting. When you talk to super-users, whether that’s SuperRabbits or super-people on Stack Overflow, or Uberhosts, they all talk about how having a high reputation unlocks a sense of their own power. On Stack Overflow, it creates a level playing field, enabling the people with the real talent to rise to the top. On Airbnb, the people often become more important than the spaces. On TaskRabbit, it gives people control of their economic activity. Now at the end of my tea with Sebastian, he told me how, on a bad, rainy day, when he hasn’t had a customer in his bookstore, he thinks of all the people around the world who’ve said something wonderful about him, and what that says about him as a person. He’s turning 50 this year, and he’s convinced that the rich tapestry of reputation he’s built on Airbnb will lead him to doing something interesting with the rest of his life. You know, there are only a few windows in history where the opportunity exists to reinvent part of how our socioeconomic system works. We’re living through one of those moments. I believe that we are at the start of a collaborative revolution that will be as significant as the Industrial Revolution. In the 20th century, the invention of traditional credit transformed our consumer system, and in many ways

[12] controlled who had access to what. In the 21st century, new trust networks, and the reputation capital they generate, will reinvent the way we think about wealth, markets, power and personal identity, in ways we can’t yet even imagine. Thank you very much.

Reputation capital Reputation capital is the quantitative measure of some entity’s reputational value in some context – a community or marketplace. In the world of Web 2.0, what is increasingly valuable is trying to measure the effects of collaboration and contribution to community. Reputation capital is often seen as a form of non-cash remuneration for their efforts, and generally generates respect within the community or marketplace where the capital is generated. Ebay has a seller rating that attempts to represent trustworthiness of a seller. A negative rating of 1% can decrease the selling price of an item by 4%. Google’s PageRank is a measure of popularity of a site, and for individual blogs, gives a rating of this, and as a result, of the bloggers themselves. Technorati has an authority rating based on incoming links to blogs that it has found in its Blogosphere This has been more coarsely defined as A, B, or C-list blogger rating. Friday Cities online community: users are given points for contributions. The points have tangible value because if a user accumulates enough ‘Kudos’ he may receive a free premium membership for a year.

We now live in a global village where there is an unbounded marketplace for efficient peer-to-peer exchanges of....






[14] The Future of Cycling in Urban Transportation Updated August 6, 2013 By Henry Gold Several months ago I wrote a blog called “The Time they are a changing” in which I discussed the automobile companies’ secret fear of the changes that are coming in their businesses. Having been on this planet for a few decades and noticing that future has a way of taking sudden unmarked turns, I am generally dismissive of all predictions. However, on the assumption that we do not have a nuclear war, I will try my hand in predicting the future. With 7 Billion people on the planet the facts speak for themselves. According to article in Bike Europe magazine by Han Goes: • 75% of all people in the modern world live in cities and urban environments. • 75% of all their traffic movement is within a short range of 0 to 10 km or 6 miles. • 75% of all those traffic movements are being made with one person in a vehicle. • For almost 50% of all traffic movements in the modern world the car is the least suitable mobility vehicle! Bike_Car_ComparisonWith money tight everywhere, cities simply do not have the infrastructure funding that is required to support car-based transport. Add the environmental, health and space issues brought about by automobile use and we all can see why every car company is attempting to come up with what they call new mobility solutions. These products vary from smaller cars to motorcycle-like vehicles to so called last mile personal carriers, a device that will be either in the trunk or part of the hybrid-like vehicle. Thus a vehicle can be parked few kms from a destination and then a ‘last miles personal carrier’ will be used to cover the remaining distance. I have no doubt that some of these products will be a success and many people will use them. But I think the main impact will not be necessarily be from these vehicles. I believe that the main impact will be from technology that is already available today.

Elena Koniaraki rides her bicycle between cars at a central street in AthensWith 1.3 million individuals killed on roads around the world each year and another 50 million seriously injured, the emphasis is now shifting to prevention. After all if driving fatalities were treated as a disease, it would be an epidemic comparable to malaria or tuberculosis. “Autonomous driving is the end game,” Toscan Bennett,Volvo Vice President of Product Planning & Management explained at a recent safety demonstration, pointing out that human error is responsible, in whole or in part, for 90% of road accidents today. According to Mr.Bennett, “no one will die or be seriously injured in a new Volvo come 2020“. What this really means is that all future vehicles will be programmed and driving will no longer be fun or even required. With the introduction of ‘car share programmes like Zip cars and Auto Share other options will become more popular. In the coming years an appropriately sized car (one seat, two seats, six seats) will be summoned by one’s smart phone to pick people up. The passenger will then command the vehicle to take him to their location, drop them there and then pick up another passenger in the general proximity. All transactions will be automated. Essentially, taxis without drivers. For those who insist on keep their own cars, there will be charge per km use or similar costing approach which will add exponentially to the cost of owning a car. As a result, with more space on the road, cycling should become more popular. In Europe in 2012, 40% less cars were sold than in 2008. On the other hand, there is a significant growth in sales of a variety of e-bikes and 3 wheeled electric vehicles. As this trend grows and, as any cyclists on the road can already attest, the e-bikes, scooters and motorcycles will be crowding into the cyclists’ bike lanes. Source:

[15] Bike & Go A nationwide public bike sharing scheme launched this month, providing bikes at railway stations across the country. Xantha Leatham road-tested the initiative in Liverpool Sweating in the gym on a stationary machine, looking alternately at the wall and the calorie counter does not really count as riding a bike. So yes, I was a little nervous at the prospect of cycling along busy roads full of people, traffic and cobbles. “Have you ever been around a city on a bike before?” I was asked as I met with the project and business managers of Bike & Go, a new national bike hire scheme which launched last week in Liverpool’s Central Station. Suffice to say, I hadn’t. But within five minutes I was saddled up and experiencing the city from a completely different perspective. It was brilliant. The Bike & Go scheme, backed by MerseyRail, Greater Anglia and Northern Rail, aims to give rail travellers an additional means of getting from the train station to work, to visit family or friends or to simply explore somewhere new. “We believe in the whole journey concept. The customer’s final destination is not usually at the station itself, so we have provided a means of getting them those last few miles,” said project manager Margriet Cuypers. The UK’s first major national bike hire scheme is modelled on a similar concept in the Netherlands called OV-Fiets, with at least one important tweak. The Dutch bikes are single speed, but I was very grateful to have seven gears to get me up and down hilly Liverpool. The scheme was made possible with a £1.65m grant from the department for transport, which was match funded by MerseyRail, Northern Rail and Greater Anglia. At the moment the scheme is available at several stations in Merseyside, Anglia and the South East. But in the coming months over 50 stations across the nation will join in, offering about 1000 bikes for rent in Merseyside, the North West, North East, Anglia

and South East. Bike & Go is a cheap and viable alternative to other modes of transport, though it is not open to casual users.You must first register and pay a £10 annual membership fee, giving access to bikes across much of the country. After that you can rent one of the bikes for £3.80 for 24 hours and return it to the station you picked it up from. The straightforward process ensures that there is no fuss, no waiting around and no hassle.You can even check online whether there are bikes available at your station, though there is no way to reserve one in advance. So far the Liverpool bikes have received a warm reception. “I think it’s a great alternative to waiting in queues for buses or taxis, and it promotes a healthy lifestyle,” said regular cyclist Hannah Barnes, 25, in the city this week. As we chatted, many people stopped to read the Bike & Go poster as they walked past the bikes in Liverpool Central. “Anyone can ride a bike”, said Bike & Go’s business manager Andrew Bristow, insisting the scheme is open to everyone. Just over a week since the launch, around 100 people have signed up so far, and there are promotional teams in many stations providing more information to people who are interested. But as ever where bikes are concerned, not everyone is won over. Dominic Holmes, a local taxi driver, warned that drivers will need to be aware of an increasing number of cyclists on the road, especially if the people riding the bikes do not have much experience cycling on busy streets. “We just need to be aware of each other in order to avoid any accidents,” he said. For more details visit the Bike & Go website: Source:

[16] Cycling revolution shifts into top gear Kaya Burgess Last updated at 12:01AM, August 12 2013 More than £160 million is to be poured into “cycle proofing” Britain’s roads as part of a cycling revolution, the Prime Minister is to announce today. Networks of safe cycle paths will be built in eight cities and four national parks, while the Government is also considering a national cycleway to run alongside the HS2 rail line from London to Manchester. The Times Cities Fit for Cycling campaign has led to a public outcry over a lack of dedicated space. It has called on the Government to raise investment in cycling to £10 per head of population and to force local councils to build safe cycle routes into all new roads.

sector all have a role to play in helping achieve this.” Dani King, who won Olympic gold in the team pursuit at London 2012, said yesterday: “Cycle-proofing is essential to make cycling accessible to anyone who wants to get around on a bike, no matter who they are. If we make sure cycling is planned into new developments, we will encourage many more people to get on to their bikes.” Laura Trott and Joanna Rowsell, fellow Olympic champions, have also given their support to the campaign. Manchester, Birmingham, Newcastle, Leeds, Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge and Norwich are the cities that successfully bid for urban funding. The Peak District, South Downs, Dartmoor and the New Forest will share funding for rural areas, to be spent on providing greater cycle access to key tourist destinations.

Today’s announcement includes many of the campaign’s points adopted, with funding of about £10 per head to be spent on cycle improvements in eight cities, while the Department for Transport (DfT) is to launch a “cycle-proofing project” this autumn to ensure local councils take “better account of cyclists when planning roads”.

Patrick McLoughlin, the Transport Secretary, writes in The Times today: “It will help deliver a range of schemes across England, including a new radial cycle network for Manchester, a 14-mile segregated superhighway between Leeds and Bradford and 71 miles of new cycle routes in Birmingham.”

A pot of £42 million announced by the DfT last year will today be increased to £94 million, topped up by a further £50 million from local councils. Another £4.8 million, to rise to £20 million in 2015, will be spent on redesigning 14 key stretches of A-roads to make them safer for cycling.

Five improved river crossings will be built for cyclists over the Avon in Bristol, while seven routes will be built in Newcastle. Many of Cambridge’s cycle routes will be segregated from motor traffic, an eight-mile cycle path will be built across Norwich and a notorious roundabout in Oxford will be made safer.

David Cameron will today take to his bike alongside Sir Chris Hoy, the six-time Olympic champion cyclist, to call for Britain’s Olympic cycling legacy to be translated “on to the roads”.

The “cycle-proofing project” to be launched this autumn will share best practice between councils and explore new engineering solutions for dangerous roads.

“The Government wants to make it easier and safer for people who already cycle as well as encouraging far more people to take it up,” he said. “Business, local government, developers, road users and the transport

Mr McLoughlin said today: “From now on, councils will be expected to integrate cycling lanes and facilities at design stage.” Martin Gibbs, policy director of British Cycling, the


governing body behind Team GB’s cyclists, said: “The Government’s move to ensure that new road projects provide properly for cycling is an excellent piece of news. It is by ensuring that cycling is dealt with at the design and planning stage that our neighbours in places like the Netherlands and Denmark have created completely cycle-friendly infrastructure.” Julian Huppert, the MP for Cambridge and chair of the All-Party Parliamentary Cycling Group, has called for an annual budget for cycling, rather than “one-off gestures” made by occasional grants. Health experts have found the NHS would make savings of £4 for every £1 invested in cycling. Encouraging people to commute by bike would also ease congestion on the roads and public transport. Mr McLoughlin admitted the Government must do “far more” to protect cyclists and added that “people everywhere” are taking up cycling. “The Government backs them,” he explained. “It backs the Times campaign for Cities Fit for Cycling and today it’s proving that through action. It’s a start, I know, not the finish line.” MPs are due to debate measures to boost cycling in the House of Commons on September 2. Source:

This is a list of bicycle sharing systems. As at April 2013, there were 535 schemes worldwide, in 49 countries, including 132 in Spain, 104 in Italy, and 79 in China. The total fleet comprised 517,000 bicycles. This is a sharp increase from 2008, when there were 213 schemes operating in 14 countries using 73,500 bicycles, and 2011, when 375 schemes operated 236,000 bikes. In particular, adoption outside Europe rocketed over that period, up from one system (in Washington D.C.) to around 143, with more than 50 percent of the world fleet in the Asia Pacific region (substantially, China).

[18] Government shifts cycling up a gear Vicki Mitchem, 12 August 2013 A nationwide drive to promote cycling in cities and national parks across England will be launched today. The Prime Minister announces the biggest ever single injection of cash for the country alongside plans to make roads safer for those on two wheels. £77 million will be divided between Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, Newcastle, Bristol, Cambridge, Oxford and Norwich, while the New Forest, Peak District, South Downs and Dartmoor will each share a slice of £17 million funding for national parks. With local contributions, the total new funding for cycling is £148 million between now and 2015. The announcement includes a commitment from the government to cut red tape that can stifle cyclefriendly road design and to encourage changes to the way roads are built or altered. Councils will be expected to up their game to deliver infrastructure that takes cycling into accowunt from the design stage. Prime Minister David Cameron said:Following our success in the Olympics, the Paralympics and the Tour de France, British cycling is riding high - now we want to see cycling soar. Our athletes have shown they are among the best in the world and we want to build on that, taking our cycling success beyond the arena and onto the roads, starting a cycling revolution which will remove the barriers for a new generation of cyclists.This government wants to make it easier and safer for people who already cycle as well as encouraging far more people to take it up and business, local government, developers, road users and the transport sector all have a role to play in helping to achieve this. New trunk road schemes that have a significant impact on cyclists, such as junction improvements or road-widening, will be ‘cycle-proofed’ so they can be navigated confidently by the average cyclist. Significant junction upgrades and other improvements will help cyclists at 14 locations on the trunk road

network where major roads can prove an obstacle for journeys by bike. £5 million will be invested in upgrades this year and a further £15 million will be invested in 2015 to 2016, with plans in place for many more similar schemes. This commitment to improved cycling facilities is intended to put Britain on a level-footing with countries known for higher levels of cycling like Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands.Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin said:We have seen a significant growth in the number of cyclists in London over the last few years. But cycling shouldn’t be confined to the capital. Today’s announcement shows we are absolutely committed to boosting cycling in cities and the countryside across the whole of England. I want to help open up cycling to more people and these measures to make cycling safer on our roads are an important part of that. The Prime Minister announced allocations from the government’s fund to make cycling easier and safer for people in the following urban areas which include the three largest cities outside of London: Greater Manchester £20 million West Yorkshire £18.1 million Birmingham £17 million West of England £7.8 million Newcastle £5.7 million Cambridge £4.1 million Norwich £3.7 million Oxford £0.8 million This funding means that investment in cycling in the 8 cities is now in excess of £10 per head per year, as recommended by the All Party Parliamentary Cycling Group’s recent report. This will help these cities deliver a surge in cycling similar to that seen in the capital.In addition the Prime Minister announced: Funding has been agreed at four national parks: Peak District (£5.0 million) Dartmoor (£4.4 million) The South Downs (£3.8 million) The New Forest (£3.6 million)


A feasibility study to look into creating a new national cycleway broadly following the route of the HS2 rail line from London to Birmingham, Leeds and Manchester, linking communities and rail stations to work, schools and shops as well as countryside and tourist attractions along the waythe creation of a new national School Awards Scheme to recognise schools that have demonstrated excellence in supporting cycling and walking; the UK cycle industry, led by the Bicycle Association, has volunteered to work with government to sponsor this awardthe government is extending its commitment to support Bikeability cycle training into 2015 to 2016. The government has already made it easier for local authorities in England to help cyclists. Measures include removing bureaucracy to introduce 20mph speed restrictions, which make streets safer for all road users. All of the cities receiving funding today have either already implemented, or are looking to expand, the network of 20 mph zones through the cycle ambition funding, with Norfolk and Cambridge looking to introduce extensive area-wide 20 mph schemes. Similar work has been done to make it easier to introduce 40mph limits in rural areas. The government has also made it easier to introduce “Trixi” mirrors at junctions so that HGV drivers can see cyclists more easily and contraflow measures so that cyclists can use one-way streets to avoid the busiest roads and junctions.Additionally, the government is currently working with highway authorities to trial a raft of measures to improve roads for cyclists. These include mini-signals at cyclists’ eye height to give more targeted information to cyclists and the possibility of a head start at junctions along with filter signals for cyclists as an alternative way of providing a head start at traffic lights. There are also trials of different roundabout designs to reduce the speed of vehicles to provide a safer route for cyclists and options for larger advanced stop lines, to accommodate the growth in cycling and make it safer for cyclists at junctions.

Further work is underway to make it even easier for councils to install mandatory cycle lanes and contraflow cycle lanes, cutting costs and complexity for councils. Government is also looking to remove the requirement for a lead-in lane for cyclists at advanced stop lines, making it easier for highway authorities to install advanced stop lines at junctions. The Department for Transport is also arranging a conference in the autumn aiming to encourage local authorities to deliver better cycle infrastructure. Greater Manchester DfT funding £20 million Local contribution £11.1 million The funding will kick start Velocity 2025, which will, over time, create a city-wide cycle network. Initially, as part of the CCAG funding, this will involve a series of high quality cycle lanes that will lead from the city centre out to the M60 like spokes of a bicycle wheel. Spokes will have a Cycle and Ride station located several miles from the city centre, allowing cyclists to leave their bikes and swap onto Metrolink or a local rail service for the last leg of their journey if they wish. As part of a door to door approach the proposals involve the introduction of 20 mph zones in some residential areas adjacent to the cycle “spokes” to enable safer access to the cycleways. Greater Manchester’s vision is to double the number of cycle journeys within 5 years and to double them again by 2025. The Government funding will bring 56km of new or improved cycle paths and predicted health and wellbeing savings of around £7 million a year.Source: DfT Source:

[20] Why Cycle Cities Are the Future Simon Henley, 13/08/2013 The 2010 launch of the “Boris Bike” – London’s cycle hire scheme, named after mayor Boris Johnson – was the clearest indication to date that cycling was no longer just for a minority of fanatics but a healthy, efficient and sustainable mode of transport that city planners wanted in their armory. There are now more than 8,000 Boris Bikes and 550+ docking stations in Central London. And the trend’s not anomalous to London: Wikipedia reports that there are 535 cycleshare schemes in 49 countries, employing more than half a million bikes worldwide. However, the real question is: will cycling actually change the city? Will it result in new urban forms or, as the title of Australian academic Dr Steven Fleming’s new book predicts, a Cycle Space? Like Fleming, I believe so. I believe that cycling might just be the catalyst for a 21st Century urban renaissance. Recently I took four weeks out of the office to cycle from Chicago to New York and to visit cities along the way. My 1,300-mile trip was part of a group expedition called P2P that went from Portland, Oregon to Portland Place in London (read more about it on The objective was to report back to the UK and London in particular on American city-cycling culture and the political initiatives that are emerging in the US. What impressed us was the speed of progress. When we were in Chicago at the end of June, the city launched its own bike share scheme. New York already has one. The docking stations bring tangible cycle infrastructure to the city streets. In-carriage and separated cycle routes have begun to proliferate. Disused railway lines are being harnessed as leisure trails, and in some cases these were working well for commuters too. Indianapolis had recently completed their “Cultural Trail,” an active transportation loop linking the five central city districts. Towards the end of my trip, it occurred to me that this explosion in cycling

ought to be put into an historic context, in order to enable the politicians and the public to recognize the scale of the opportunity, the change it might bring to our cities and our lives. Take London in 1667, a year after the Great Fire of 1666. An Act of Parliament was passed that introduced building inspectors to ensure that buildings be built from brick and not timber (a law which predated the fire, but that hadn’t been enforced). Of course, the fire and resulting devastation meant that much of London had to be rebuilt, and that these buildings would be brick. In the 20th-century, Corbusian modernism eventually had a monumental impact on London’s streets and skyline. Again the catalyst was in part a disaster – the havoc wreaked by the Luftwaffe and the need for rapid reconstruction – and the solution was political. The dilapidated terraced houses with their back yards and privies were associated with poverty and poor living conditions. Modernity, and the mass production of homes demonstrated optimism, and a commitment to those who had survived the war. It was a tangible dimension of the newly established welfare state. Of course, the tabula rasa model wasn’t necessary. It was ideological. But it brought with it flats with fitted kitchens, bathrooms, and toilets. This prompted the gradual gentrification of the remaining streets. Indoor toilets were fitted, and bedrooms and sculleries were converted into bathrooms and kitchens in the surviving 19th-century housing stock.Thames, out of which the city’s drinking water was being collected. Bazalgette’s solution was to construct a series of sewers that would run parallel to the Thames, both north and south of the river, collecting the sewage and ensuring the drinking water that was drawn from the river was clean. .......... Source:

[21] Bike repair @ Paddington Sam Dansie, 01/03/2013 A free-to-use bicycle repair stand has opened at Paddington, the busy London train station, to allow commuters to fix punctures and minor mechanicals. It’s claimed to be the first installation of its kind at a major UK railway station. Paddington station’s temporary bike parking arrangements have been drastically overhauled as part of the changes. The new, custom-designed park is on platform nine, can hold approximately 350 bikes and features row numbers to help riders remember where they park. A number of cameras are trained on the facility, which has been designed to be more in keeping with the station’s architecture. The installation was completed at the end of January and will be officially opened on 14 March 2013 by transport minister Norman Baker. The robust repair stand features an air pump capable of 120psi, plus an array of tools such as Allen keys and a shifting spanner, all secured at the end of 8mm steel cables. The new parking arrangements and pit stop facilities were designed by Anthony Lau, founder of Cyclehoop, a London-based architecture and design company specialising in cycle parking facilities. “The feedback’s been really good,” Lau told BikeRadar. “People like using the tools and pump. We’re going to try and get into another Network Rail station around the UK, and someone in Leicester is potentially ordering a few. “It’s the first pump and repair stand we’ve put in as part of a bike park, and hopefully this then means less people abandon their bikes in stations, which was a problem before.” The free-to-use tools can be replaced when they wear out, he added. Source: article/free-bike-repair-stand-at-london-paddington-36593/

[22] Free bicycle maintenance classes in London If you want to learn the basics to bicycle maintenance then a number of free courses and workshops exist in London. They can help you reduce the cost of your bicycle maintenance by completing basic tasks such as replacing brake pads. Below is a list of the free maintenance workshops and classes I’m aware of. Please do add any more you know of in the comments below and we can build a complete list. Free bicycle maintenance workshops Tower Hamlets Wheelers – Held once a month, the workshop gives you a chance to bring in your bike and have free assistance from volunteers for any repairs you need. Hackney Cyclists Workshops – Diagnose any problems with your bike and get stuck in to the repairs with the help from maintenance professionals. It is free to use however donations are well received. Islington Cycle Action Group – This open workshop runs on the fourth Wednesday of every month. There is a £1 contribution towards the facility. Free bicycle maintenance courses Evans Cycles – Covering punctures, brakes, gears and cleaning your bike, the free Evans Cycles classes are a good place to get your hands greasy. Wandsworth Council Bicycle Maintenance Class – A free course for the residents of Wandsworth. Cycle Confident Westminster & Newham – This is an excellent free bicycle maintenance course that lasts around 4-5 hours.You cover some of the basics and get to perform repairs on your bike. Cycle Training UK – This company runs many of the cycle training sessions for councils. Most of them are subsidised and cost around £10.

SkyRides – As part of the SkyRides there are a number of free classes. Lewisham Bicycle Maintenance Course – Basic course on looking after your bike. Costs £10 for local residents. Dr Bike Kensington & Chelsea – The guys behind the excellent Bike Minded campaign also run occassional Dr Bike sessions – keep an eye on their site for the latest dates or drop them a quick email. Bicycle collectives Another thing to look out for if you want to maintain your bike yourself but don’t have the space are bicycle collectives such as newly launched London Bike Kitchen. These are essentially open DIY workshops where you can bring in your own bike. They usually have some kind of yearly fee or a fee depending on the amount of time you use the facilities for. Source:

[23] Big business accelerates Collaborative Consumption growth From 13 Predictions for 2013. Helen Goulden While smaller enterprises nibble at the edges, Big Business will take a big bite into the Collaborative Consumption market. AirBnB, TaskRabbit, ZipCar, Boris Bikes - there are some iconic businesses driving the growth in Collaborative Consumption, aka The Sharing Economy. But what would it look like if a major high street retailer decided to rent, not sell, its products? 2013 will see at least three High Street mainstream retail outlets make a play into the rental market - in addition to a couple of left field global corporates looking to make a sideways leap in to new kinds of sustainable businesses. Why will they do it? Commentators are convinced that the peer-to-peer (P2P) rental market will be a $25+billion industry by 2016. But while peer-to-peer space and car sharing is maturing, there’s a notable lack of success stories when it comes to sharing of other kinds of things. Convenience, culture, cost - all play their part and we’re a long way from it being a social norm to rent a dress from your neighbour rather than nipping into H&M. And for every brilliant new P2P start-up idea there’s a Big Business just waiting to step in. Look at how Amazon launched its text book rental service after proved it was a decent market to tap - or how BMW, Peugeot, Daimler and Volkswagon are all surfing the car-sharing zeitgeist. One fantastic knock on effect of this could be the beginning of the end for planned obsolescence. If retail outlets shift their focus on extending the lifecycle of their products to maximise the rental value, then at some point they’re going to push that need for greater durability down their supply chains. Feel fantastical? Maybe, but if nine billion people are going to consume at the rate we consume at six billion, there are very few options on the table.

But are consumers ready to transform their consumption habits; ready to experience rather than own, share rather than buy? We’re certainly more comfortable paying for access over ownership in the realm of music and films; but does it really extend to other consumables? Well, if some major family brand names with the trust, customer base, capital, infrastructure and distribution channels decide Collaborative Consumption is worth bringing to their consumers, they’re certainly the best placed to make it work at a national scale. Toys, anything to do with babies & toddlers, high value luxury items and any other kind of occasional use products is a market in the making. Final thought? A new kind of hyper local, branded, physical hub for sharing - facilitated through tech - is definitely on the cards... Source: features/13for2013/big_business_accelerates_collaborative_consumption_growth

[24] Collaborative Consumption: Tool Sharing Collaborative Consumption is the next step on from Freecycle and swapshops, says Samir Jeraj. It started with Sam going around to his neighbour to borrow some milk. Things took a further step when one of them borrowed some chairs for a barbecue. Finally, the two neighbours decided the time had come to take down the fence between their gardens, to better enjoy the shared space. This is how StreetBank - an online tool sharing website - started. On a street in West London, two neighbours started to share what they each owned, replacing the idea of possessions with the more collaborative concept of shared tools. Shortly after Sam, now the founder of StreetBank, saw a neighbour he did not know on the street trimming a hedge – something he also needed to do, but he hesitated. thinking it rude to ask to borrow a tool from someone he did not know. It was at that moment he thought surely there must be a website where people who don’t know each other yet can arrange to share tools. But there wasn’t and so Sam got together with some friends to make one, and in April 2010 StreetBank was launched. StreetBank now has 15000 active members, with strong and growing communities in Brighton, Leeds, London, and even in Washington State in the US and Vancouver, Canada. According to Alice Amies, one of the small team at StreetBank, you need around 50100 people registered in a square mile to reach the ‘tipping point’ for a tool-share. Where these schemes have been most successful is where there is a high density of housing, a sense of community, and a few trailblazers willing to get things started. So I checked out my own neighbourhood and found out there were already 30 Streetbank members within a mile of me and offers of origami lessons, a vax, ladder loans, violin lessons, and of course..a drill.

StreetBank is one of a number of schemes and projects inspired by collaborative consumption. The online Collaborative Consumption Hub provides many examples ranging from car sharing through organisations like LifeShare to fashion rental. This movement away from out-consuming other people and sharing with them instead is the next step on from Freecycle and swapshops, and is driven by using social media and networks to bring people face to face. And the advantages of this type of sharing are threefold. Firstly, people spend less on tools and equipment rarely used – the average drill is used for just 50 minutes in its entire lifetime. Secondly, sharing reduces consumption of natural resources to make these items in the first place and also stops so many of them being ditched in landfill at the end of their useful lives. And finally, it enhances community spirit by encouraging people to talk and share with each other. On the StreetBank site itself, having a short biography and picture of yourself really helps the process. Alice says this is because we are often quite reluctant to lend to someone whom we know nothing about. Local press and newsletters are also vital to getting something going, she says. StreetBank is now working with local councils and even the Cabinet Office to try to better reach community activists who could form the nucleus of a new group. So, don’t be a fool. Share your tools! Source: living/home/1608199/collaborative_consumption_ tool_sharing.html



Toronto tool sharing Have you heard about Toronto’s new library? Unlike most of the city’s community libraries, there is no fear of getting shushed for talking here because instead of lending out books this one offers patrons a massive selection of tools to choose from. Retailing anywhere from $68 to $800, most tools are fairly expensive to own and often spend more time idling on shelves than being used, so it makes perfect sense to share them. For example, the average power drill only gets used 13 minutes in its lifetime, while a chop saw costs can run three times as high as an annual tool library membership. Enter Toronto’s first Tool Library! The initiative is retooling Toronto’s approach to ownership of rarely used items by enabling anyone in the community to sign out tools for home or community repair, maintenance or building projects. The library officially launched in March 2013 and since its inception has garnered plenty of attention from the media and local community. There are more than 40 tool libraries throughout the United States, the oldest and most popular of which was started in 1979 in Berkeley California. It has at least 4,300 tool checkouts per month and three part-time staff. The Toronto Tool Library has received over 1,000 tool donations and currently averages 250 tool checkouts per month. To complement the equipment, it also offers training workshops with “how to” workshops. “If we learn to share the resources we have, and give economic incentives to participate in more sharing, there is no limit to how much we can expand these kinds of concepts,” says Ryan Dyment, co-founder of the Toronto Tool Library. The library has already loaned out over 1,100 tools, making DIY projects and home renovations affordable and possible for Torontonians. With an influx of new donations each month, the library is expanding quickly and is scheduled to open a second location on the East side of Toronto this fall. Source:

[26] Animation inspiration - Jacob & Jim


[28] App inspiration


[30] Logo inspiration



[33] Reading list

[34] The plan... draft_01 Riding a bicycle is a great way to improve your health, de-stress, travel cheaper and feel happier. These facts are helping to fuel a cycling revolution in the UK with more and more people taking to two wheels every day. Bike fix is here to help. We are a nation wide scheme to promote cycling in the UK through collaborative consumption of tools, and sharing of knowledge. The project is centred around providing free tools for cyclists when and where they need them. We are installing tool stations in central areas in your city or community. You will be able to access robust bike tools, bike stands, pumps, and tutorial posters, allowing you to fix your bike in a social environment. The scheme runs weekly bike fix nights to give you the knowledge of how to fix your bike and allow you to connect with other cyclists. We give you bike tools where you need them, the knowledge of how to use them. Reducing the need to purchase tools or carry them with you. The free bike tools will act as a pit stop helping you out with everyday bike fixes

across the country until cyclists will be able to access free tools in every city. The Bike fix app will allow users to: Easily locate there nearest tool station, Find the next cycle event, View tutorials and upload there own, Connect with other cyclists, and for more serious bike problems, find a bike shop. The tools stations will be free-to-use, heavy duty, bicycle repair stand with pumps will provide the tools and pump for people to fix bikes. and pit stop allowing commuters to fix punctures and minor mechanicals and will include basic tools and

The project will run weekly cycle surgery nights teaching people how to fix bikes as we strive for a sustainable future. This will bring people together encouraging the sharing of knowledge of cycling. The project also runs surgery nights inviting cyclists to come and socialise share knowledge, tools and learn how to fix their bikes. The project can be hired by business to provide talks for small business.. Promote cycling as a valid form of transport

Through the collaborative consumption of tools we make it easier for commuters to fix punctures and minor mechanicals on route. It also remove the need for cyclists to carry bulky tools and helping those on a tight budget. Through the collaborative consumption of

A free-to-use bicycle repair stand and pit stop allowing commuters to fix punctures and minor mechanicals. As well as a an array of tools including Allen keys, spanners and multi tools. All tools are secured with steel cables designed to prevent theft whilst not impeding tool use.

Removing the need to own expensive bike tools or spend unnecessary money in bike shops.

This heavy duty public bicycle pump is a modern piece of street furniture that can be installed anywhere in the city to provide cyclists with a convenient facility to pump up deflated tyres.

The tool stations will provide a friendly environment for people to fix there bikes. Starting from the Bristol the scheme will role out

Connecting cyclists and allowing sharing of tools and knowledge.


Predict the future: In the future we are going to share more and more Cyclists commonly find that they have not got the tools to fix and bike shops can sometimes be expensive

I propose a tool sharing scheme for the growing cycle community.

The animation needs to: Show the problem Explain the idea. Demonstrate that it is needed Provide research Explain the stand and tools poster explains how to fix AND app that allows users to comment on tutorials and add their own. Rating system and quick fixes. Benches bringing people together

“As a cyclist I get punctures all the time but do not have the tools to fix them or the money to take my bike into a bike shop” A bike shop charges £8 to fix a puncture which normally costs around £3-4 and 10 minutes to fix. I propose a public bike tool stand, In Bristol this could be located at Temple Meads or the fountains in the centre of town (basically any where there is a large volume of cycle traffic). With the tool stand there will also be a app that explains how to fix your bike using videos and user uploaded tutorials

Donations box that allow the project to continue until the whole country is linked with bike tool stations. Growing movement called collaborative consumption, re inventing how we think of ownership. The Cycling City project provided a number of free cycling workstations to enable people to maintain and repair their bicycles at community hubs in Bristol. Pop along to any of the locations listed below and, providing the location is open, you’ll be able to access these tools for free. Use the contact details below to notify the project manager and avoid disappointment. These bike workstations contain: a comprehensive set of bicycle tools a bike stand a track pump¬

[36] The plan... draft_02 INTRO Riding a bicycle is a great way to improve your health, relax, travel cheaper and feel happier. These facts are helping to fuel a cycling revolution in the UK with more and more people taking to two wheels every day. WHAT WE DO Bike fix is a cycle charity that is here to help. We are a nation wide scheme to promote cycling in the UK through collaborative consumption of tools, and sharing of knowledge. We provide you with the tools and training to fix your bike - for free! TOOL STAND We are installing tool stations in central areas in your local community that provide you with robust bike tools, bike stands, pumps, and tutorial posters. These allow you to easily fix your bike in a friendly and social environment. WHY Our goal is to make it easier for people to use their bikes and reduce the need for you to purchase expensive tools. EVENT/SHARING/CONECTING Bike fix will run weekly events at the tools stations. During these social events our volunteers provide master classes on how to fix your bike. They are also a great place to connect with other cyclists, share knowledge, eat, drink and have a laugh. APP The Bike fix app will allow you to: (p) Easily locate there nearest tool station, (p)Find the next cycle event, (p)Access a selection of easy to use tutorials. (p)Share your own tutorials (p)And Connect with other cyclists, FINISH Starting from Bristol, the scheme will role out across the country until cyclists will be able to access

[37] Dr Bike, UWE UWE offer a free bike fixing service to promote cycling. I had a chat about my idea with ‘Dr Bike’ and he said it would be great to have a regular service. He suggested that the scheme could make money by being hired by businesses to teach employees how to fix bikes.

[38] Email with Jacob Gibbins from Wide Open Bike magazine The following is a transcript of emails between Jacob Gibbins, a cyclist and cyle journalist at Wide Open Magazine, and myself. Sam Daw - Oct 17 Hi Jacob My friend Josh Westhead passed on your email.. I am a graphic design student at UWE, Bristol in the final year of my degree. I am currently working on a project around bikes and free tools for communities and wondering if I could have a quick chat to aid my research? Sweet work for I just had a flick through, I really like the mag and idea! All the best Sam

I want to create a project that will promote the use of tool sharing (as against owning) and bring people together to share the knowledge of how to fix things. The project will help out those you can not afford tools or need a quick fix on the way home. There will also be one night a week where a technician will be on hand to help out.. In my mind i see people getting a beer after work and hanging out fixing bikes using shared tools and just chatting about their bikes.. What do you think of this idea? (Positives, negatives, ways to improve it, would you use it...) Thank you for your time buddy

Jacob Gibbins - Oct 17 Love the idea, more cities need people like you trying to get stuff like this done.

Jacob Gibbins - Oct 17 Hey man

Positives are all mentioned by you, down sides are the fact people will want to vandalise it. Sad but true.

Yeah no worries what do you want to know ?

Whistler ( bike heaven ) in BC, Canada have stations like this around the resort, by the main lifts, down in town in the main square.

If you just want to ask me some questions either add me on facebook or send over some questions and I will fill them in asap. Thanks

Sam Daw - Oct 17 Hey Jacob So I am working on project based around sharing and bikes!!! My current plan is to place a bike stand with a pump and tools attached in public areas in the city. The tools would be chained on and heavy duty so they would be hard to vandalise/steal. The tools will be free for everyone to use and accompanied by basic tutorial posters.

and A frame with every tool you would ever need attached on by locking nuts and steel wire, being a very pro bike place they dont seem to come up against much vandalism but im not sure the same would be said for here, but maybe worth looking in to there and what they did. All the tools where the same make and im sure that you could get park tool or unior tools to sponsor the project for some logo placement on the posters etc ? If you need any photos or video should this project ever come to light let me know.



RSA BiiiKE FIX secondary research