Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences 2014 Annual Report

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YEAR AT A GLANCE First laboratory in the nation to receive US Food and Drug Administration approval for shellfish toxin testing using analytical chemical techniques

Campus attracts interna­tional groups to develop marine plankton research plan

Groundbreaking articles in Nature, Science, Limnology and Oceanography, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Science

Keller BLOOM program marks its 25th year, positively impacting 402 Maine high school students

Bigelow Laboratory scientists reach the milestone of publishing the equivalent of one article in a peer-reviewed journal every 10 days—for 40 years.

LEED® Platinum campus receives seven architectural awards





Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences is committed to sustainability as reflected in its designation as a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Platinum certified laboratory, the highest such designation awarded. We recycle, we reuse, we buy locally, and use renewable energy resources whenever and wherever possible.

2,893 4,076 2,000

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* Including stories by NPR, Associated Press, Science News, Maine Magazine, Maine Biz, and ABC News


Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences has just celebrated its 40th year of growth and rich scientific discovery. With a new $32 million campus now fully functional and staffed with some of the best scientific talent in the organization’s history, Bigelow Laboratory is poised to achieve even greater prominence in oceanographic research as it enters its fifth decade.

Outgoing Board Chairman David Coit (left) with new Board Chairman Herbert Paris.


These resources provide a solid foundation for the Laboratory as it anticipates both the challenges and the opportunities that lie ahead. Like every other academic and research institution in the nation, Bigelow Laboratory now faces an environment for research funding that is considerably more competitive than at any time in its history. Even during this period of constrained federal research funding, Bigelow Laboratory has achieved proposal acceptance rates well above the national average. This success is a testament to the exceptional research talent and scientific inquiry that occurs here at Bigelow Laboratory. Continued

success in the face of inadequate federal funding to satisfy the needs of the research community will require strong leadership, a well-defined plan, and a focused effort at all levels of the organization. This year, the Bigelow Laboratory leadership team will be updating the Strategic Plan and establishing a new Five-Year Business Plan to guide the organization as it adjusts to the new realities of the marketplace. Bigelow Laboratory’s traditional strengths, especially in the areas of basic research and education, provide the foundation for creative new initiatives that advance knowledge and inform policy decisions in a constantly changing marine environment. This long-term planning process is an opportunity to inform the Bigelow community about the market dynamics currently facing inde­pendent research laboratories, while also engaging stakeholders in the establishment of the Laboratory’s goals and priorities for the next five years. These new plans will map out the resources necessary to support continued scientific excellence and financial viability for Bigelow Laboratory. Included among the Laboratory’s most valuable resources is its Board of Trustees. The quality and the dedication of the Trustees who have rallied to the cause of Bigelow Laboratory in recent years has added immeasurably to the organization’s planning and governance process.

Turnover in the leadership and membership of the Board of Trustees is one hallmark of a dynamic and healthy organization. As they conclude their service to Bigelow Laboratory this year, I’d like to recognize four Trustees in particular. Helen Norton, Walter Norton, Bob Healing, and Mary Chatterton have each contributed immeasurably with their time, energy, and wise counsel to the success of the Laboratory during their terms as Trustees. As I step down after six years as Chairman, I am excited to be handing the gavel to a most qualified successor in Herb Paris. I look forward to working with Herb and the rest of the Trustees in the coming year on the critically important planning projects, which will help define Bigelow Laboratory in its fifth decade and beyond. Finally, I’d like to say what an immense privilege and pleasure it has been to work with Graham Shimmield, the scientists, and the staff during this time of significant growth at the Laboratory. Despite some headwinds in the marketplace, I believe that Bigelow Laboratory is well positioned to build an even more vibrant future for itself and its stakeholders in the years ahead.



In our 40th year, Bigelow Laboratory has a great deal of which to be proud. Co-founders Charlie and Clarice Yentsch brought together some of the most innovative and entrepreneurial scientific thinkers in the 1970’s, and this tradition has continued to the present day. Over these past four decades, our scientists have produced 1,374 peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals, at the rate of almost one every 10 days! Joining the Laboratory in this past year are Drs. Record, Aeppli, and Price, who will carry on this custom through their tremendous enthusiasm and capability to research in the fields of ecological modeling, organic biogeochemistry, and coral reef ecology and chemistry, respectively. Coincidentally, this 40th year also marks the anniversary of 25 years of the Keller BLOOM (Bigelow Laboratory Orders Of Magnitude) high school student program, named for the late Dr. Maureen Keller. Four hundred and two students, with an average female enrollment of 62 percent, have had first-hand opportunity to appreciate the importance of marine microbes. More recently, 50 teachers also have participated in the BLOOM Educators Program, spreading knowledge about the ocean to countless other students. Building inter-institutional relationships both for research and education has always been part of the Laboratory’s culture. Our Academic Partnership Agreement with Colby College is progressing extremely well and we thank the recently retired President, Dr. William (Bro) Adams for his guidance and enthusiastic support, and look forward to working with his successor, Dr. David Greene.



ith the completion of the construction of the first major phase of the East campus, we relocated the administrative offices from the former Welch House, bringing everyone together on one site. For the first time in the Laboratory’s history, we are all able to gather together under one roof, and to share in both the successes achieved and the challenges that lie ahead. Continuing investment in our laboratory infrastructure means that we are able to stay on the front-line of innovation. Noting two major developments—the National Science Foundation’s Major Research Infrastructure award of more than $750,000 toward next generation genome sequencing supporting the Single Cell Genomics Center, and the philanthropic gift from the Sewall and Ingalls Foundations to establish the Biotoxin Testing Laboratory. Following certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, this is the first in the nation to offer a new protocol to test for paralytic shellfish toxins in the state’s shellfish population. Working under contract with the Department of Marine Resources management officials to observe shellfish toxin trends and make forecasts will improve the health and safety of the general public across Maine, and beyond. The new campus also allows us to engage much more fully with the scientific leaders across the country, and the general public. The past year has seen major workshops addressing the future developmental needs in ocean biogeochemistry, and assembling all the directors of the Northeast marine and Great Lakes laboratories. Our public open houses and annual science day bring many interested visitors of all ages to learn about the part of the ocean that few of us can ever see. In the coming year, our ambition is to further the link with public engagement by collaborations

and exhibitions in the art world, as a means of communicating and translating the wonder of our world of microbial oceanography. David Coit, our outgoing Board Chairman, has paid tribute to all the Board and staff that have made Bigelow Laboratory such an exceptional place to be creative in discovery, and to find new solutions for humankind in the oceans. Personally, I would like to thank David most sincerely for his leadership and vision for our collective success, and to those outgoing Board members, Helen and Walter Norton, Bob Healing, and Mary Chatterton, whose generosity, enthusiasm, and total commitment have been so inspirational. In 2009, we published our Strategic Plan for 2009-14, which contemplated the hiring of new scientists in frontier research fields, the construction of a major new purpose-built campus, and partnership with a major academic institution. All of this has happened due to the dedication and immense capability of our staff, scientists, and Board members. As we look forward to the next five years, we are acutely aware of the increasing challenges of maintaining federal funding, the rising costs of running a research laboratory, and competition from other institutions. Our solution is to build partnerships, invest in and support our great scientists, and demonstrate why ocean research matters to our society. I am confident that our past 40 years have prepared us well for what lies ahead.


Executive Director Graham Shimmield


MARKING 40 YEARS OF DISCOVERY In 2014, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences marked its 40th year of collaborative scientific inquiry that changed the way research is conducted and broke new ground. Today, 17 Senior Research Scientists carry on this proud tradition as they continue to expand what is known about microscopic marine life and how they affect global ocean processes. Here are their latest contributions.


Fingerprinting oil in the marine environment


s the use of fossil fuels and industrial chemicals continues unabated, the need to understand how these compounds disperse and cycle through marine environments has become more important than ever. Dr. Christoph Aeppli is an environmental chemist wh.o specializes in tracking the fate of pollutants in marine ecosystems. To do so, he employs a variety of analytical assays to understand how microbial and non-living processes break down oil. Aeppli is a new face at Bigelow Laboratory, having arrived in November 2013. In that time, he has assembled a cutting edge laboratory, with sophisticated analytical instruments; hired a research technician, Bennett Greenwood; mentored two students, Allison Sherrar from the University of Michigan (in collaboration with Dr. Beth Orcutt) and David Max Findley of Haverford College, from the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program; and written several proposals to federal funding agencies. Over the past year, Aeppli also has authored or co-authored six scientific journal articles, many of which focused on tracking and analyzing oil samples from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill. Oil comprises thousands of different compounds, each with its own unique chemical signature,

and the research of Aeppli and his collaborators has made it possible to effectively fingerprint these compounds—even years after an oil spill has occurred—and pinpoint their source. The highly targeted analytical methods that they have developed also allow them to isolate and discern the level of degradation of individual compounds within the oil, including highly toxic ones. These analyses can provide clues for how the oil interacts in and impacts the environment over time. Aeppli is keen on expanding his network of collaborators among both the academic and private sectors. In the coming year, he will be working with a team of researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, University of Mary Washington, and the University of California Santa Barbara to determine what happens to oil that enters the environment naturally, from oil seeps on the sea floor. With many new tools at his disposal, he is also seeking opportunities to provide analytical services offered by his laboratory to interested institutions or industries. By embracing both basic and applied science, Aeppli hopes to not only deepen our understanding of the fate of pollutants in the ocean, but also to help regulators and industry mitigate their impacts.






Quantifying the impacts of ocean acidification

he sea surface is a dynamic interface that mediates the exchange of gases between the ocean and the atmosphere. Dr. Stephen Archer studies these gases and the biogeochemical processes that influence their production and emission. Many of these gases— halogen, nitrogen, and sulfur-rich compounds that are released by algae and found in trace amounts in both air and sea—are reactive enough to impact the climate. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a gas whose emissions represent the largest natural atmospheric source of sulfur, is a major focus of Archer’s research because of its potential mitigating effects on climate change. Archer, Postdoctoral Research Scientist Kerstin Suffrian and Research Technician Kevin Posman joined a team of German scientists in the Canary Islands to perform a set of large-scale ocean acidification experiments. The aim of their project, on which they are collaborating with Bigelow Laboratory colleagues Paty Matrai and Peter Countway, is to understand the effects of decreasing seawater pH on the biological processes that control DMS emissions in the surface ocean. In a Nature Climate Change article that was published last year, Archer and his co-authors predicted that the combined impacts of ocean acidification and climate change in cold waters could reduce DMS emissions to the atmosphere by up to a fifth by 2100, potentially amplifying man-made warming. Their work

in tropical waters this summer is confirming the same effect is likely to occur there. When not in the field, Archer also serves as the director of Bigelow Laboratory’s Analytical Services (BAS) Facility, which provides a wide range of biochemical assays and tests to both public and private institutions. In 2013 BAS received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s approval to implement a new cutting-edge protocol for assessing paralytic toxin levels in mussels, oysters and other shellfish—the first in the nation to offer such a test. This new method represents a marked improvement over the previous mouse bioassay testing protocol in both sensitivity and accuracy, and will enable BAS’ partners at the Department of Marine Resources (DMR) to reliably monitor shellfish toxin levels. It is not only serving as the model for shellfish testing in the U.S., it is also providing a vehicle for shellfish export abroad, where more stringent testing requirements must be met. A new focus of Archer’s work is investigating how compounds produced by algae influence the taste of the organisms that consume them. “What contributes to that special seafood taste?” explained Archer. “Why are Damariscotta oysters so special?” As such, Archer’s research will not only help clarify the interactions between algae and climate change, but between algae and taste buds, as well.



Taking the pulse of the Gulf of Maine

athematics, optics, and modeling have fundamentally reshaped oceanography, proffering novel algorithms and tools to estimate rates of globally important processes like primary production and enabling new approaches to long-standing questions. Dr. William (Barney) Balch, a biological oceanographer, has leveraged many of these new methods and technologies—particularly satellite remote sensing and autonomous underwater vehicles—to impart new perspectives on the temporal and spatial distributions of phytoplankton (single-celled algae). Balch’s group also has developed a suite of sophisticated algorithms to quantify calcification and other optically-sensitive seawater properties. One of his primary focuses is on coccolithophores, ubiquitous phytoplankton that generate calcium carbonate to produce an outer coating of scales called “coccoliths,” which are especially vulnerable to the effects of ocean acidification. The Balch group’s findings have appeared in three scientific journal articles in the last year. A highlight was in Global Biogeochemical Cycles that described one of the largest ever-observed coccolithophore blooms on the Patagonian Shelf. Balch and his colleagues found that the bloom was dominated by a form, or morphotype, of Emiliania huxleyi that produces less calcite (calcium carbonate mineral) than other forms of the same species. Because coccolithophores

act as carbon sinks when they die, this means that phytoplankton morphotype composition of blooms should be considered when estimating rates of carbon export and that climate-induced distribution changes of different morphotypes could significantly affect the global carbon cycle. The Balch group also transitioned their sea-going lab onto the Nova Star ferry, which runs between Portland, Maine and Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. This allows the researchers to continue taking hydrographic, physical, chemical, and biological measurements along a transect in the Gulf of Maine as part of their 16-year-long Gulf of Maine North Atlantic Time Series (GNATS), one of the longest running transect time series of coastal phytoplankton productivity in the nation. In addition to building an invaluable dataset, the measurements validate or “ground truth” measurements from NASA ocean color satellites. Balch’s efforts have yielded several insights about the Gulf in recent years. Since about 2003, calcification rates by coccolithophores have become barely detectable, suggesting that they may be growing more slowly—though Balch cautions that the trends cannot yet be linked to ocean acidification. Following massive rains between 2005 and 2009 that inundated the Gulf with freshwater, associated “colored dissolved organic matter” has increased Gulf-wide, partially shading phytoplankton from sunlight and lowering overall algal productivity. This massive freshwater inundation also may have inhibited the

RESEARCH INDICATES THAT IN 2014 THE GULF OF MAINE MAY HAVE THE SECOND-LOWEST LEVEL OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY MEASURED IN THE PAST 16 YEARS. influx of deep, nutrient-rich North Atlantic water into the Gulf, reducing the amount of nitrogen “fertilizer” available for phytoplankton growth. These reductions may have been responsible for a drop in the Gulf’s primary productivity to about a fifth of what it had been. Preliminary measurements suggest that 2014 is on track for the second lowest-recorded primary productivity levels since GNATS began. With several ongoing and new projects, including two ocean acidification studies that Postdoctoral Researcher Meredith White is helping lead, a new autonomous glider vehicle, and two new postdocs arriving in 2015, Balch and his group are sure to have plenty new insights in coming years.



40 YEARS OF DISCOVERY CHANGING THE WAY RESEARCH IS CONDUCTED During the past 40 years, Bigelow Laboratory researchers: • pioneered the use of satellite imagery to track ocean productivity. • spearheaded flow cytometry, a tool used to count cancer cells, illuminating the mysteries of life forms within seawater. • mastered the art of culturing the smallest life forms in the ocean, making advanced understanding possible. • developed fluid imaging technology, a tool that makes invisible cells visible, enhancing what is known about aquatic microscopic life.



Defining diversity and function of marine microbial communities

arine microbial communities are dynamic, interacting assemblages of bacteria and archaea (microbes lacking a nucleus); protists (microbes with a membrane-bound nucleus); and viruses that comprise most of the biomass on Earth. Within each of these domains there are literally thousands of ‘species’ that thrive in every liter of seawater and perform crucial ecological functions that drive global biogeochemical cycles— providing the ‘pulse’ of the marine ecosystem. Even after several decades of studying microbial communities, how they interact with one another and their environment is poorly understood. Dr. Peter Countway, a microbial ecologist whose past and current work focuses on the diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes, is making inroads in advancing understanding of the makeup of these communities and their interactions. His current research includes new questions about the diversity and gene expression of marine bacteria in an increasingly acidified ocean. He is also investigating the mortality of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis (phototrophic cyanobacteria) due to grazing by single-celled eukaryotes as compared to infection and lysis by marine cyanobacterial viruses. Countway’s lab is currently investigating changes in the diversity and composition of microbial assemblages in Boothbay Harbor by high-throughput DNA sequencing—a process

that generates millions of sequence ‘reads’ in a single run. Phytoplankton and protozoa collected from Bigelow Laboratory’s former dock in West Boothbay are the initial targets of Countway’s high-throughput DNA sequencing. This project is beginning to reveal fine-scale changes in the diversity of these microbial assemblages in relation to the well-documented seasonal bloom of Synechococcus, a globally important cyanobacterium that has been tracked by the Laboratory’s Flow Cytometry lab for the past 14 years. His work is helping to explain the timing and duration of phytoplankton blooms and could lead to more accurate models of biological productivity and ecosystem stability. “For the first time, we’ll have one of the most detailed and high-resolution studies of the entire eukaryotic microbial community, from samples collected right in our back-yard,” said Countway. Countway and colleagues also have performed incubation experiments in local waters to estimate the mortality rates of Synechococcus due to grazing and viral lysis and to identify specific Synechococcus grazers using single-cell techniques. Countway is working on a collaborative project with Drs. Paty Matrai and Stephen Archer, to estimate the effects of ocean acidification on the structure of both bacterial and protist communities in subtropical waters around the Canary Islands and temperate waters in the Gulf of Maine. An additional component of this ‘acidification’ work involves studying potential

COUNTWAY IS USING HIGH-THROUGHPUT DNA SEQUENCING TO UNLOCK INFORMATION ABOUT THE DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION OF MICROBIAL ASSEMBLAGES AND HOW OCEAN ACIDIFICATION AFFECTS THEM. changes in gene expression among bacteria that breakdown the phytoplankton-derived compound dimethyl-sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) into the climate active gas dimethyl-sulfide (DMS). “It’s truly an exciting time to be involved on a project with societal relevance at its core, linking molecular-based data with biogeo­chemical rate measurements, in the context of climate change research. I can’t imagine working on a more interesting topic, with a better group of colleagues, and at an institution with better access to cutting-edge research tools,” said Countway.



Expanding knowledge about iron-oxidizing bacteria

here there is a will to live, there is a biological way. Nowhere is this more apparent than among marine bacteria that use iron to fuel their activities. Iron-oxidizing bacteria have carved out a tough living in hydrothermal vents, mine seeps, and other high iron environments by deriving energy from the oxidation of iron, which when combined with oxygen, forms rust. Dr. David Emerson, a geomicrobiologist, studies the ecology and diversity of these unique bacteria to understand the processes they use to oxidize iron and how their activity affects other biogeochemical cycles with implications for climate change. Emerson and his collaborators use a range of advanced genomic and analytical tools, such as single cell genomics (study of genetic material obtained from uncultivated cells from the environment), proteomics (study of the structure and function of proteins), and electrochemistry (study of chemical reactions using an electrode), to probe the chemistry and biology of these amazing bacteria. In the last year, Emerson has authored or co-authored five scientific articles that have significantly increased understanding of how these bacteria work. He described the discovery of Zetaproteobacteria—marine iron-oxidizing bacteria typically found at hydrothermal vent sites—at the Loihi Seamount in Hawaii; the genomes of two freshwater iron-oxidizing

bacteria; the corrosion of carbon steel surfaces exposed to mixed cultures of iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing bacteria; the measurements of dissolved reduced ferrous iron and oxygen in a variety of environments populated by these bacteria; and the ecology and niche differentiation of freshwater iron-oxidizing species. Collectively, Emerson’s findings reveal a group of microbes that are well adapted to their environment. Both marine and freshwater species share many physical and chemical traits, yet, surprisingly, based on their genetic make-up, they are only distantly related. Comparative analysis of both marine and freshwater Fe-oxidizers is beginning to reveal how multiple species can co-exist in spatially limited areas where significant gradients in temperature, pH, and dissolved iron and oxygen concentrations prevail. The genetic diversity that Emerson and his colleagues have documented also supports the ability of these bacteria to carve out very narrow, specialized niches. “What is driving this niche differentiation? Is it behavioral? Morphological? To what extent, metabolic?” Emerson wonders. A highlight of Emerson’s past year was visiting the North Slope in northern Alaska along the Arctic Ocean coast that is home to a large— but largely unexplored—iron-oxidizing bacterial community. Emerson discovered that iron-­­oxidizers were abundant and prevalent

EMERSON BELIEVES IRON-OXIDIZING BACTERIA MAY HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS. members of the Arctic’s microbial systems, and that their impacts on iron cycling in the region have, therefore, likely been underestimated. He believes that iron biogeochemistry could be a crucial piece of the climate change puzzle, because significant amounts of oxidized iron could help curb the warming effects caused by the release of methane and carbon dioxide from melting permafrost. Iron-reducing bacteria directly compete with—and usually outcompete— methane-forming bacteria. Emerson hopes to return to the Arctic to help prove the value of including iron bacterial activities in climate change forecasts as potential mitigators of greenhouse gas emissions.




Linking aquaculture and human health in oyster parasite research

r. José Antonio Fernández Robledo works at the intersection of human health and medicine and marine microbiology. A molecular biologist by training, he has spent most of his career studying Perkinsus marinus, a single-celled oyster parasite that can decimate entire populations within one to two years of infection. To make matters worse, being infected by P. marinus increases a host’s susceptibility to further parasitic infection three times over. Fernández Robledo uses P. marinus as a model to explore its potential for human vaccine delivery and to discover compounds that could be used to treat diseases caused by it and other parasites. In the last year, Fernández Robledo has authored four scientific articles detailing advances in understanding of P. marinus, its prevalence in the environment, and its potential to cause a disease. Of note was a study in PLOS ONE in which Fernández Robledo and his collaborators from the University of Maryland, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and Naval Medical Research Center at Walter Reed Army Institute of Medical Research tested the ability of P. marinus to induce an immune response in mice. Upon ingesting the oyster parasite, the mice reacted as expected by releasing antibodies to attack the invading cells; in the


process, they became immune to the parasite and did not experience any disease- related symptoms. Because of its closeness to Plasmodium falciparum, a parasite that causes malaria, Fernández Robledo and his co-authors are hoping to leverage P. marinus as a platform for making vaccines against this deadly disease, which claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year. A second PLOS ONE article, which Bigelow Laboratory colleague Dr. Nick Record co-authored, examined publication trends of protozoan parasites—including P. marinus—in scientific literature over the past few decades. They found that improvements in culturing and molecular methodologies significantly bolstered publication rates—even years after initial descriptions of the parasites—because these advances often engendered new research opportunities and tools to further probe questions of pathogenicity or potential to cause a disease. Staying ahead of these trends could help scientists prioritize efforts and identify areas, and parasites, of emerging interest. Several of Fernández Robledo’s recent discoveries were aided by students in Bigelow Laboratory’s Research Experience for Undergraduates program. Yesmalie Alemán Resto of the Universidad Metropolitana in Puerto Rico, a 2013 participant, exposed P. marinus to 400 compounds known to affect Plasmodium falciparum (the parasite that causes malaria) and found that 47 percent were active against both

FERNÁNDEZ ROBLEDO IS BREAKING NEW GROUND BY INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL OF OYSTER PARASITES AS A PATHWAY FOR HUMAN VACCINES. parasites. Thanks to her contributions, potential drugs made from these compounds that possibly could be deployed against P. marinus has risen from 34 to almost 200. His 2014 student, Nicholas Marquis of Southern Maine Community College, created a map showing Maine coastal areas where P. marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni was most prevalent. This information will help aquaculture companies seeking to identify optimal locations for their facilities. “Any organism that is alive has diseases,” Fernández Robledo quipped from his unique view of searching for solutions to malaria and other human diseases through the prism of an oyster parasite.



An expert on how copepods maintain ocean health

ooplankton—tiny, ubiquitous invertebrates—fill a crucial ecological niche in marine ecosystems. They connect organic carbon produced by phytoplankton—unicellular algae that fix carbon dioxide and derive energy from the sun—to larger organisms such as fish and whales. Dr. David Fields, a zooplankton ecologist, focuses primarily on copepods, an abundant group of small crustaceans found in a wide range of aquatic environments. Despite their diminutive size, copepods are collectively responsible for sequestering significant amounts of carbon in the deep ocean. Copepods ingest phytoplankton and excrete carbon rich fecal pellets, which fall to the ocean floor taking their carbon content with them. The pumping of carbon in the deep ocean is a primary mechanism in the regulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Fields links ecology to small-scale fluid mechanics to better understand how ocean acidification and man-made warming may influence copepods’ future abundance and distribution patterns. Currently Dr. Fields and colleagues at Bigelow Laboratory, are collaborating on a project investigating how lower seawater pH will impact predator-prey interactions between Calanus finmarchicus, a copepod, and Emiliana huxleyi, a phytoplankton, whose shell is made of calcium carbonate (chalk). This work will provide insight into potential impacts of climate change on small crustaceans such as copepods, shrimp and young lobsters. Last year, Fields co-authored a study in Marine Biology that examined the effects of

ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on Atlantic cod larvae. The levels of UV-B radiation have increased measurably in recent decades due to ozone depletion. Fields and his collaborators found that cod larvae exposed to sub-lethal levels of UV-B radiation ate considerably less and remained smaller, increasing their odds of mortality. He also contributed a chapter to Copepods: Diversity, Habitat and Behavior, in which he discussed copepods’ sensory capabilities and their response to chemical and physical cues in the environment. In the coming year, Fields will continue to investigate the impact of increased temperature and ocean acidification on zooplankton populations, and is working to develop techniques to investigate how climate change alters bacterial communities that inhabit their guts. Fields plays an integral role in Bigelow Laboratory’s education programs. He cofounded and directs the National Science Foundation-sponsored Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs, and co-directs the Keller BLOOM, BLOOM Teachers, and Colby Semester. This year, Fields has mentored three REU students—Charlotte Francisco from Lewis & Clark College, Alexa Williams from Colby College, and Amy Webb from the University of Southern Maine—all of whom have applied for graduate school. Fields also has a long-term project with local high school student, Essie Martin, investigating the impact of climate change on local freshwater ponds. While his contributions to our understanding of biological ocean processes are notable, Fields is equally proud of his work cultivating the next generation of ocean scientists.





Uncovering Harmful Algal Blooms

nder certain environmental conditions, algal populations can grow from just a few cells to a massive bloom of millions of cells per milliliter of seawater. These blooms are so large that they can often be seen from space. Harmful algal blooms (HABs), often called red tides because of a reddish tint they can impart to water, occur when organisms in these blooms produce toxic compounds that can harm—or even kill—many forms of marine life, as well as humans. Domoic acid, for example, is a potent neurotoxin produced by several HAB species, which accumulates in tissues of shellfish that consume the algae. When ingested by humans, domoic acid can cause severe brain damage and short-term memory loss. Dr. Cynthia Heil, a phytoplankton (single-celled algae) ecologist, investigates the factors that influence HABs formation and abundance and identifies methods for controlling and predicting these potentially devastating events. A special issue of Harmful Algae culminates six years of research by Heil and seven collabor­ators from nine institutions involved in a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms regional grant, which she led. Heil co-edited the issue and contributed seven articles detailing the ecology, physiology, microbiology, and physical oceanography affecting four HABs caused by Karenia brevis,


a toxic algal species, on the West Florida Shelf. The program’s objectives were to identify the nutrient sources available to K. brevis and determine the connection of these blooms, if any, to coastal nutrient pollution along the southeast Florida coast. Past studies had shown that HABs formation on the West Florida Shelf—an annually recurring event for the past hundreds, if not thousands, of years—was not related to excess nitrogen and phosphorus from runoff. Heil and her colleagues lent further credence to this by demonstrating that the largest sources of nutrients originated not from runoff, but from the activity of marine nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae Trichodesmium, and grazing by zooplankton (small invertebrates) on phytoplankton. They also found that the availability of different nutrient sources changed as a function of distance from shore, cell density, bloom toxicity, and bloom age. In their recommendations, Heil and her co-authors highlighted the need to monitor physical conditions known to either favor or hinder the initiation and transport of blooms and to reduce as much as possible controllable nutrient inputs. Heil also has been contributing to an innovative online educational venture, USAUS-H2O, that she likens to “virtual high school class.” Funded by the Australian government and U.S. Department of State, six interactive web-based modules were created for students from 16 high schools—eight in the U.S.

HEIL HAS CRAFTED MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS TO HELP REDUCE INCIDENCE OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS. and eight in Australia—to learn about their urban water cycles. Boothbay Harbor’s High School was paired with a Tasmanian high school, who shared their experiences via Skype. Heil and her collaborators hope to instill values of responsible water stewardship in the students, help them gain a deeper understanding of each others’ cultures, and develop leadership skills to influence change in their communities.



Defining the role of phytoplankton in global carbon and nutrient cycles

r. Michael Lomas wears two hats at Bigelow Laboratory. As director of the National Center for Marine Algae and Microbiota, he oversees six staff and a collection of nearly 3,000 strains of phytoplankton, macroalgae, bacteria, and viruses from around the world. Lomas is also an internationallyrecognized marine biogeochemist, who investigates the role that phytoplankton (single-celled plants) play in global carbon and nutrient cycles. Lomas is helping to elucidate phytoplankton’s role in sequestering 25 to 33 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions, which has important implications for marine biodiversity, global fisheries, and global climate change. In the past year, Lomas’ findings have been published 11 times in scientific journals. He has advanced knowledge about phytoplankton’s role in carbon cycling in the eastern Bering Sea, northeast subarctic Pacific, and the Sargasso Sea/North Atlantic subtropical gyre. His research has enhanced understanding of how the seasons affect phytoplankton’s ability to process and retain carbon, their physiological responses to available nitrate and low levels of phosphorus in the water column, and how these responses vary by oceanic regions. Lomas is also co-principal investigator of one of the longest running time series in the global

ocean, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), which was started in 1988. Since 2001, Lomas, along with former colleagues at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, has been coordinating this sampling program that monitors temperature, pH and other biological and chemical properties on a biweekly to monthly basis. BATS observations have yielded key insights into how phytoplankton diversity can influence the ocean’s ability to absorb and store large amounts of CO2 and how the gradual acidification caused by this buildup has affected corals’ ability to build calcium carbonate skeletons. BATS is a model for the value of collecting long-term data needed to assess ongoing changes in the global ocean. In Oceanography, Lomas and co-authors, including Bigelow Laboratory colleague Dr. William Balch, proposed the establishment of a marine biodiversity observing network to assess and predict the impact of changing ocean conditions on marine plankton biodiversity. He also leads a UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission effort to assemble the many contributions made by time series datasets globally and how they have guided policymakers in management decisions. Lomas is also working to advance the next generation of ocean researchers. As a guest lecturer at Nippon Foundation’s POGO Centre of Excellence in Helgoland, Germany, he joined

LOMAS IS HELPING TO SHAPE THE EVOLUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH ON A GLOBAL SCALE. colleagues in providing world-class education and training courses on observational oceanography to representatives of emerging and developing countries. As NCMA director, Lomas and colleagues from Arizona State University have developed targeted sequencing of genetic material recovered directly from marine cyanobacteria (bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis), expanded DNA-based molecular fingerprinting of eukaryotic protists (large nucleus-containing cells), and cyanobacteria, which will help determine their carbon sequestration contribution in the Atlantic Ocean. Lomas modestly summarizes his work as “We have the ability, power, and knowledge to affect solutions and change in the global ocean. My job is to help make sure such solutions are based on the best available data and knowledge.”


40 YEARS OF DISCOVERY BIGELOW LABORATORY RESEARCHERS HAVE BEEN AT THE FOREFRONT OF GROUNDBREAKING RESEARCH OVER THE PAST 40 YEARS: • led major discoveries in microbial ecology, evolution, and bioprospectimg via the Single Cell Genomics Center, the first of its kind in the world. • advanced understanding of changes in the Gulf of Maine with one of the longest running time series of coastal phytoplankton productivity in the nation.

• deployed first long-term automated, autonomous on-ice sampling of atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic Ocean. • deployed groundbreaking discoveries on how microorganisms survive and thrive on and below the ocean seafloor, using iron and other elements to grow. • steered exploration of how nutrients limit algal growth in the global ocean by studying individual cells.



Unraveling the mystery of viruses

iruses are the most abundant biological components in the ocean; and though not truly alive, they are crucial to shaping life as we know it. Ecologist Dr. Joaquín Martínez Martínez is exploring how viruses interact with one another and their hosts. He studies viruses diversity and the genetic basis of viral infections to better understand their roles in marine ecosystems. Last year, Martínez Martínez contributed to four scientific journal articles. Two of the articles focused on coccolithoviruses, giant viruses that infect the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi— a unicellular algal species. One, published in Virology, employed metagenomics, the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples, to track and identify genomic variability of coccolithoviruses within a natural community. The second used a chlorophyll (a green pigment responsible for the absorption of sunlight for photosynthesis) fluorescence assay to ascertain how a viral infection affected the efficiency of the coccolithophores’ photosynthetic abilities. The latter, published in Marine Ecology Progress Series, demonstrated for the first time that viral infection does suppress the efficiency of coccolithophores’ photosynthetic systems, curtailing their ability to grow and fix carbon dioxide. The third, in The ISME Journal, described the development of a new technique to target and isolate unique virus groups—including


giant viruses that tend to be excluded in other protocols—opening new doors for studies in aquatic virus ecology. The fourth, in Aquatic Microbial Ecology, described new viruses that infect the important microalgae Micromonas pusilla and revealed new infection strategies and a greater than previously thought diversity in this virus group. Martínez Martínez is a participant in an international, multidisciplinary effort investigating microbial systems in Antarctica. The project, funded by the Joint Genome Institute, includes researchers from Wales, New Zealand, and the United States. Bigelow Laboratory colleague Ramunas Stepanauskas is also part of the team. One of the anticipated benefits of the project is the creation of a treasure trove of genetic sequencing information that will be made publicly available to the scientific community. Martínez Martínez is leading the effort to characterize the viral communities. Martínez Martínez also mentored two students this year: Jonah Belk in the Colby Semester program and Elizabeth Allen of the College of William & Mary, a Research Experience for Undergraduates student. Working alongside Drs. Martínez Martínez and José Antonio Fernández Robledo, Belk examined viruses that infect Perkinsus marinus, an oyster parasite, which inspired a proposal submission. Allen’s work shed light on the interactive behaviors of viruses. She found that when two viruses were pitted against each other within

All viruses in the ocean

50 million blue whales

MARTÍNEZ MARTÍNEZ IS HELPING DEFINE THE ROLE OF OMNIPRESENT VIRUSES IN THE GLOBAL OCEAN AND HOW THEY MIGHT RESPOND TO ONGOING CHANGES IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT. a single host type culture, even the virus that eventually lost benefitted from the interaction because it became more efficient over time. Martínez Martínez is making ocean warming and acidification essential components of his continuing research. “Viruses are important to almost every process that happens in the ocean, and we know that ocean warming and acidifi­­cation are affecting the microbial population. So if viruses are intrinsically linked to all those microbes, how is warming and acidification affecting viruses and what will that ultimately mean?”



Enhancing understanding of ongoing changes in the Arctic Ocean

he Arctic Ocean has become an epicenter for climate change research. The climate there is changing faster than anywhere else on the planet. Dr. Paty Matrai focuses on this vulnerable ecosystem and looks at how the ocean surface and lower atmosphere interact—important information for understanding climate change. She studies the biological production and consumption of organic sulfur and halogenated compounds using a suite of advanced analytical tools that include autonomous buoys and gas chromatographs (in fact, she pioneered long-term automated, autonomous on ice sampling of atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic Ocean, collecting significant data, which has been made available to colleagues around the globe). Matrai’s longstanding involvement in the Arctic has helped reveal how aerosol-cloud interactions and other atmospheric processes are modulating the effects of climate change, yielding key insights into how the region will continue to be affected in the coming decades. Over the past year, she has co-authored four publications shedding light on ongoing changes in the Arctic. She has identified what drives the cycling of oceanic dimethyl sulfide, a gas whose emissions are the largest natural atmospheric source of sulfur. She has also explained the relationships between phytoplankton, aerosols, and sea-ice coverage as well as temporal and spatial characteristics of ozone depletion in the Arctic; both control heat balance and air quality in this important region. A special issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and

Physics summarized the results of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study, an International Polar Year (2007 - 2008) project that examined the formation and life cycle of low-level Arctic clouds to which she contributed. In addition to elucidating a range of physical and biochemical processes that control cloud formation, the study showed how cloud cover and storms affect incoming solar radiation in this region. The results from this study have resulted in a new collaborative project that Matrai has undertaken with an international team of scientists to model the Arctic’s marine biogeochemical response to climate change. Working alongside Post­doctoral Researcher Younjoo Lee, she will help compile large amounts of data from collaborators in different disciplines to test and validate the output from her modeling colleagues. Matrai has mentored and touched the lives of countless students. This year she mentored three students from very different backgrounds. Kathryn Moore of Colby College, working under Matrai and colleague Dr. Stephen Archer, completed and successfully defended her senior honors thesis; Kathryn is now employed at the University of California at San Diego. University of Miami student Kara Voss received a NASA internship at the University of California at Irvine to continue to study atmospheric chemistry, inspired by her work in Matrai’s lab. Stephen Blanchard of Southern Maine Community College is working toward a capstone honors thesis with Matrai and is considering graduate school. For Matrai, nothing rivals the satisfaction of mentorship. “It’s what makes me smile,” she says.






Exploring life in the deep biosphere

ost marine scientists’ research focuses on the narrow lens of ocean surface waters that receive sunlight. Dr. Beth Orcutt, a geomicrobiologist, studies the biogeochemical processes that occur miles below in the marine sediment and crust that make up the seafloor. Orcutt has spent most of her career exploring the deep, dark reaches of the ocean to better understand how microorganisms survive— and even thrive—in these environments, and how their activities influence global nutrient cycles. Orcutt participated in four research cruises over the past year—two in the Gulf of Mexico and two in the northern Pacific Ocean—spending a total of 43 days at sea, including eight hours aboard the manned submersible Alvin. Orcutt’s efforts in the Gulf of Mexico, which are supported by the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, seek to elucidate how quickly microbes break down crude oil, while her Pacific Ocean research examines how they flourish on the basaltic rocks that line the seafloor. Her work investigating the rate that oxygen is consumed in rocks within the ocean crust was published late last year in Nature Communications, and she was selected this year as a Distinguished Lecturer for the US Science Support Program for the international scientific ocean drilling program to share her research findings to students around the country. Orcutt was chief scientist of two research cruises in the Gulf of Mexico in the past year, leading technical deployment and recovery operations of deep-sea equipment with remotely

operated vehicles. Orcutt recently received funding to adapt the deep ocean sampling techniques that she uses in the Gulf of Mexico for work in Arctic lakes, where she will investigate methane-cycling microorganisms. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and the aim of this work is to understand how microbes are involved in regulating the flux of methane from Arctic lakes to the atmosphere. Orcutt will be heading to sea again at Thanksgiving to revisit a newly discovered hydrothermal vent system off the coast of Costa Rica called the Dorado Outcrop. This system, unlike any other hydrothermal vent system yet identified, produces massive amounts of low-temperature fluids, which leak out of the seafloor. Interestingly, octopuses seem to be great indicators for the sites of venting. Orcutt and colleagues, including Executive Director Graham Shimmield who will accompany Orcutt on the cruise, will use the Alvin submersible to investigate the vent sites in greater detail. Most of the deep ocean remains as shrouded in mystery as it is in darkness. Only about one percent of the seafloor has been explored— a remarkably small number given that 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by oceanic crust and sediment. While Orcutt’s work is only beginning to scratch that surface, it will eventually yield deeper insights into how microbial activity in the dark ocean shapes not only the biogeochemical cycles of the deep sea, but those of the entire planet.



Investigating how organisms respond to ocean acidification

r. Nichole Price is a marine ecologist who studies the benthos—organisms that live on the seabed. She joined Bigelow Laboratory this year. Her research focuses on understanding how climate change affects the ways in which benthic species interact with one another and form communities. Her passion for the topic was spurred by a high school trip to the Florida Keys. “When I got there and snorkeled around, I realized that I wasn’t seeing any live coral at all, “ she said. “It was degraded to a point where it would be pretty difficult to call it a coral reef.” After traveling to healthier reef systems, Price began to wonder why some of these systems were failing and what could be done to restore them. Although much of her research has focused on corals, Price also studies pink encrusted, or coralline, algae (Lithothamnion sp.). Coralline algae are known for their ability to attract corals, thus playing a significant ecological role in helping re-establish coral populations as well as cementing reefs together. They are also extremely sensitive to even slight changes in seawater pH, which explains why they are often considered to be the “canary in the coal mine” for ocean acidification (OA). In the last year, Price has contributed research findings to four scientific journals. An article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences investigated how warming and OA are affecting a marine fungal disease that plagues coralline algae that grow on the bottom. While their overall findings did not augur well for

the long-term health of affected coral reefs, they did find a silver lining. Price and her collaborators showed that warming increased the frequency of disease outbreaks but that lower seawater pH that results from acidification slowed the formation of lesions on individual hosts. However, they cautioned that acidification would likely still harm the coralline algae by reducing calcification—the accumulation of calcium carbonate within their cell walls—and promoting fungal-mediated bioerosion. In another study, Price and her co-authors demonstrated that benthic primary producers, which use inorganic compounds to create their mass, can influence surrounding water chemistry by altering pH and oxygen concentrations. Her recent work also has advanced knowledge of mutualistic relationships between certain species of crabs and branching corals and the grazing impacts of herbivores (plant eaters) on coral reefs. Going forward, Price will be investigating commercially important algal species in Maine to understand how farmed seaweed might be harnessed for localized carbon dioxide sequestration and ocean acidification mitigation. Plans are in the works to set up an OA monitoring program to record high frequency variability in carbon dioxide concentrations, pH, temperature, salinity, and oxygen over time at the Bigelow Laboratory shore facility. Price also plans to re-establish a strong scuba diving program at Bigelow Laboratory so that she and her colleagues can study organisms in their natural settings.







Understanding the marine ecosystem through a mathematical lens

r. Nick Record is a big-picture scientist. As a computational ecologist, his craft interweaves threads from biology, physics, mathematics, computer science, and art to model marine ecosystems and the complex processes that shape them. By drawing upon the work of his colleagues at Bigelow Laboratory and around the world, he attempts to predict and understand changes that may impact the global ocean. “To figure out how processes will affect the whole ecosystem is basically a big math problem,” said Record. “You have to figure out the equations that connect all the living things within a system. That is what ecosystem modeling is.” Since arriving at Bigelow Laboratory in 2013, Record has authored or co-authored five scientific journal articles. One, a review of studies investigating mollusk parasites, was published in PLOS ONE, as a joint effort with Bigelow Laboratory colleague Dr. José Antonio Fernández-Robledo. The others described his and collaborators’ efforts to model the responses of zooplankton (small marine invertebrates) to changing environmental conditions and large-scale zooplankton-phytoplankton (small unicellular algae) community interactions. Record has had two proposals funded by NASA to apply his modeling expertise to the Gulf of Maine. This work will entail the development of algorithms to forecast the effects of climate change—with an emphasis on fisheries—and to model the carbon cycle based on measurements taken from

Bigelow Laboratory’s 15-year Gulf of Maine North Atlantic Time Series record in collaboration with Bigelow Laboratory colleague Dr. Barney Balch. Record’s passion for teaching and mentorship led him to assume chairmanship of the education committee here at Bigelow Laboratory. He mentored two students: Julia Middleton from Colby College and Daniel Seidman—a member of Bigelow Laboratory’s 2014 Research Experience for Undergraduates program—from Brown University. Middleton returned for a summer internship after working for Record last year and will be starting an honors thesis with him this fall. Seidman will present the results of his research at two national conferences. Going forward, Record hopes to expand his collaborations with other scientists, to develop a repository of ocean ecosystem models, and to make education a continued focus. His plans also call for creating a library of animated geographical images and videos as a learning tool to better convey Bigelow Laboratory’s research to a wider audience. On a broader level, he hopes to help build Maine’s ecosystem forecasting capabilities and to further encourage the integration of computer science and artificial intelligence into marine ecology. The insights gained from Record’s research will not only help us better understand the future impacts of climate change on the Gulf of Maine, but how to prepare for them as well.



Deciphering microbial dark matter

single teaspoon of seawater contains around a million bacteria that together roughly encode a terabyte of genetic information—as much data as is stored within a typical computer. Dr. Ramunas Stepanauskas, a microbial ecologist, parses that complex code to learn how these microorganisms evolve and make their living in a wide range of environments, from the ocean surface to deep marine sediments. Bigelow Laboratory’s Single Cell Genomics Center (SCGC), which he directs, develops and uses advanced molecular techniques to deconstruct the reams of DNA that are contained within highly complex environmental microbial communities. This enables researchers to characterize the genomes - molecular blueprints - of microorganisms that dominate marine ecosystems, but could not be studied until recently due to their refusal to grow under laboratory conditions. In the past year, Stepanauskas’ group has had its findings published 10 times in scientific journals. One, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, showed that marine microbes occupy very specialized niches in their environment and that they tend to have very streamlined genomes. This study showed that microorganisms have a sweet spot when it comes to temperature, which often dictates their distributions across disparate areas around the globe. Another study, which was published in

Nature, yielded new insights into the vast “microbial dark matter” pool - major branches of the evolutionary tree of life that do not contain laboratory cultures and therefore remain largely unexplored. Using single-cell genomics, the research team discovered 201 new genomes in samples collected from nine sites, including deep ocean hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor and a former gold mine in South Dakota among others. Taken together, the work of Stepanauskas’ group underlines the incredible diversity of the microbial world and our paucity of knowledge about the unique mechanisms and properties that microbes have evolved over billions of years. “These tiny microbes are the main components of marine ecosystems. They carry a humongous amount of information that it behooves us to be able to read and understand,” explains Stepanauskas. “Right now we have hardly scratched the surface in terms of reading that information and putting it to use to better understand how oceans work.” By pushing the boundaries of our understanding of microbial diversity, Stepanauskas also hopes to address fundamental questions about the origins of life itself. On a more practical level, the rich veins of genetic information that he and his collaborators will uncover could form the basis of future breakthroughs in biotechnology and drug discovery.




Figuring out how trace metals affect phytoplankton

arine microbial activity is regulated by the limited availability of several key nutrients in many areas of the ocean. Exceedingly low concentrations of iron, for example, have been shown to significantly restrict phytoplankton (single-celled algae) growth in about a quarter of the world’s ocean. Conversely, other vitally important metals that occur in trace amounts, such as copper, can become toxic to certain species at elevated concentrations. Marine biogeochemist Dr. Benjamin Twining studies how the bioavailability of trace metals like iron, zinc, and copper influences the physiology and ecology of phytoplankton—and how they, in turn, control the cycling of these micronutrients. This knowledge is helping to reveal how phytoplankton keep ocean water in balance, and subsequently the planet in balance. Twining group’s findings have been published in four scientific journal articles over the last year. Most of these articles made prominent use of synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXRF), an advanced analytical technique that Twining has pioneered, to examine the elemental composition of phytoplankton cells. A study led by Postdoctoral Researcher Dr. Jochen Nuester published in Metallomics showed for the first time where iron, phosphorus, and sulfur were localized in hair-like filaments, or trichomes, of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum and demonstrated a link between the elements’


distributions and T. erythraeum’s growth patterns and physiology. In Limnology & Oceanography, Twining and his collaborators measured the elemental makeup of sinking phytoplankton cells following a large bloom near New Zealand to determine the fate of the absorbed macronutrients and metals. These studies are helping to advance our understanding of how phytoplankton remove nutrients, including carbon, nitrogen and trace metals, from the surface ocean and transport these critical compounds to the deep sea. This knowledge also will help us predict the effect of changes in dust and other metal sources to the oceans. GEOTRACES, an international study of the marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes, remained one of Twining’s major research thrusts this year. He has contributed his SXRF expertise on research cruises across both the North Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins, revealing crucial new details about how trace elements are processed and recycled in the upper ocean by phytoplankton. His group also measured the concentrations of trace metals contained within marine particulate material— which can include dust, sediments and dead phytoplankton residues—suspended in the water column. In addition to his research contributions, Twining is leading an outreach effort in collaboration with Annette DeCharon of the University of Maine and the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence to promote the science behind the US GEOTRACES Pacific Ocean.

TWINING’S RESEARCH IS ADVANCING WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT HOW PHYTOPLANKTON USE TRACE METALS THAT WILL HELP US PREDICT WHAT MAY HAPPEN AS METALS INCREASE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT. Twining and DeCharon are organizing a series of webinars to present key findings and explain the underlying concepts during the coming year. The past year was also a time of transition for Twining’s group. Postdoctoral Researcher Jochen Nuester, who spent five years working with Twining, accepted an instructor position in geology at the California State University in Chico, California. Twining recruited two new postdoctoral researchers, Jeremy Jacquot and Daniel Ohnemus to his lab. In the past year, Twining also was appointed Director of Research and Education, working directly with Executive Director Graham Shimmield to advance Bigelow Laboratory’s education outreach initiatives with Colby College and other institutions and to catalyze institutional research efforts.



A virus evangelist and expert

r. Willie Wilson spent seven and one half years at Bigelow Laboratory as a self-described “virus evangelist,” spreading the good word through research, collaboration, and outreach on how viruses are lubricants of the great engines of planetary control. As Wilson puts it: “Viruses help sustain life on the planet. They are instrumental in controlling loss processes and act as vectors for gene transfer that drives biodiversity in the ocean.” Wilson’s research focused on the diverse roles of marine viruses and covered everything from algal viruses, giant viruses, coral viruses, persistent virus infections, and the paradox of how viruses are necessary for life. As primary investigator and co-investigator, Wilson was awarded over $10.7 million in grants from federal and state agencies during his tenure at Bigelow Laboratory, including a $4.5 million Maine Technology Asset Fund grant to establish the Norton Center for Blue Biotechnology. Wilson’s research findings have been published in 95 publications (45 while at Bigelow Laboratory), including Science, Nature and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. His favorite accomplishment for this past year was a Virology paper that focused on work conducted by his Research Experience for Undergraduates student Amy Duarte, who worked under the supervision

of Research Technician Ilana Gilg. The team discovered a new diagnostic tool to identify giant viruses that infect algae. This is significant because most giant viruses are difficult to detect using traditional methods. When a net is cast to find viruses, scientists typically look at what comes through the net, rather than what stays in it. Giant viruses, because of their size, are caught in these nets (in reality, filters with a small pore size) and usually discarded. The research developed a new tool to find giant viruses, and in so doing, a range of new giant viruses believed to infect marine microalgae were discovered, prompting questions regarding their significance. During his time at Bigelow Laboratory, Wilson served as Interim Director and later Director of the National Center for Marine Algae and Microbiota (NCMA). Wilson developed an aggressive business strategy that would allow the NCMA to survive as a sustainable entity into the future. A critical part of this vision was ensuring that the NCMA’s core activity (curation and distribution of phytoplankton) and its intellectual property were preserved. Wilson strategically positioned the NCMA to promote its capabilities to a burgeoning commercial market with a renewed thirst for natural products. Wilson’s operational achievements included overseeing the move to a state-of-the-art facility (Norton Center for Blue Biotechnology); developing a comprehensive

WILSON IS A WORLD EXPERT ON MARINE VIRUSES, HELPING TO EXPLAIN HOW THEY WORK AND WHY THEY MATTER. business plan; hiring a Sales and Marketing Manager (Sara Yentsch); reinvigorating the website to improve user experience; and developing a strategy to improve efficiency of curation practices. Wilson is pleased to see the development of the NCMA continue under the capable direction of his successor, Dr. Mike Lomas. Wilson left Bigelow Laboratory this year for a position as Senior Research Scientist at Plymouth Marine Laboratory in the UK. He will no doubt bring his expertise and vision to help reinvigorate their marine microbial sciences.




This year saw a concerted effort to expand and offer Bigelow Laboratory’s core facilities to research and industrial partners who could benefit from our advanced technology and know how. Many successful collaborations have resulted including: BIGELOW ANALYTICAL SERVICES Bigelow Analytical Services (BAS) became the first laboratory in the nation to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s go-ahead to offer a new protocol to test for paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve shellfish. The new method replaces a mouse bioassay testing method that had been used for the last 40 years with an instrumental analysis that measures toxicity levels more precisely and efficiently. BAS partnered with the Maine Department of Marine Resources on the project. DMR collects and provides samples, which are processed and analyzed at the Laboratory. This collaboration allows DMR to be more targeted in its closures and makes Maine a model for other states to follow. It also provides a means to open export channels for American shellfish, serving to enhance a key industry in the state of Maine—another example of how Bigelow Laboratory’s innovations serve as a regional economic driver. BAS offers biotoxin and nutrient analyses, mass spectrometry, and microscopy that can be useful in many fields of study ranging from marine chemistry, to aquaculture, to pharmacy, and fisheries. BAS is currently working with Bigelow Laboratory’s National Center for Marine Algae and Microbiota, for example, on a project to

identify a specific phytoplankton-derived lipid with nutraceutical applications. It also has the capability of providing information on seawater nutrient composition and on the identity and quantity of key components of the nutritional and commercial value of seaweeds and other aquaculture products.

FACILITY FOR AQUATIC FLOW CYTOMETRY Bigelow Laboratory was the first to use flow cytometry, a tool originally used to count cancer cells, to illuminate the mysteries of life forms found within seawater. This continues today in the J. J. MacIsaac Facility for Aquatic Cytometry (FCM). The FCM Facility is expanding its services by applying its technologies to the study of algae and aquatic microbes from both marine and freshwater ecosystems. Scientists from around the world use the FCM Facility to develop new applications and stains, as well as for routine cell counting and cell sorting. Many also come to be trained on its state-of-the-art equipment. This year, the FCM Facility continued working with Environment Canada National Water Research Institute within its Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research Division. This relationship was extended for another three-years to establish a long-term data set for monitoring changes

in cyanobacteria (Blue-green algae) in lakes that contain different nutrient levels. The project involves monitoring for different groups of micro algae and bacteria within specific lakes across Canada. A novel application of the FCM Facility is its ability to operate off-site using a portable lab van with a cell sorter to isolate cells from fresh “field” samples. The portable equipment was used by Bigelow Laboratory research scientists on a three-week cruise in the mid-Atlantic, and successfully sorted many phytoplankton samples for further analysis by BAS.

NATIONAL CENTER FOR MARINE ALGAE AND MICROBIOTA Containing nearly 3,000 strains of algae, the National Center for Marine Algae and Microbiota (NCMA) houses the largest and most diverse repository of living marine microalgae in the world. The collection also consists of 150 strains of marine macroalgae collected from the Antarctic Peninsula to the coast of Norway. The NCMA provides starter cultures to academic researchers as well as those researchers working to develop new sources of animal feed, fertilizers, natural products, nutritional supplements, and high value pharmaceuticals. 27

40 YEARS OF DISCOVERY DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS, APPLICATIONS, AND UNDERSTANDING The Laboratory’s commitment to innovation is inspiring advances in biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and natural nutritional supplements from marine resources. New knowledge about how the microbial marine ecosystem works is providing understanding needed to protect and conserve the global ocean for the next 40 years and beyond.


This year, the NCMA continued working with Health Enhancement Products, Inc. (HEPI), now called Zivo Bioscience Inc., on a project to produce a liquid health supplement from freshwater algae. A bioactive compound is actively released from the algae and the project involves scaling up production and harvesting of culture media containing the bioactive compound. The media are then shipped to another HEPI partner for concentration and further testing. The NCMA and BAS have combined areas of expertise to work with Merck EMD on a project to identify an optimized source of phytoplankton-derived lipids. This involves several steps including screening NCMA’s collection for strains that produce a specific lipid in the highest amounts. BAS is using cutting-edge mass spectrometric analysis of samples to quantify the specific lipid and other metabolites of interest within the samples. Once the analysis has been completed, the final step will be a pilot scale production of dried algal biomass from which the lipid will be extracted and purified for further testing by Merck. In addition, NCMA is currently under contract with three other companies using microalgae as part of their commercial endeavors. These contracts range from isolating new algal strains to mass culturing specific strains as part of the companies’ supply chains. NCMA is actively negotiating with a number of other companies on licensing arrangements and other algal biomass production contracts.

SEAWATER SUITE The Seawater Suite consists of a continuously flowing seawater system that can provide filtered or raw seawater, depending upon the experiment design. Multiple-sized vessels also make it possible to tailor an experiment as needed. Over the past year, this built-in flexibility made it possible to conduct a significant number of experiments that required simulation of natural conditions either in a controlled, measured environment or in specific environmental conditions. These experiments ranged from the simulation of ocean acidification and nutrient loading, to controlled dosing for creating standards for use by BAS, to growing single strains of algae for contractors, to testing of equipment by Bigelow Laboratory researchers and other contractors who needed the flexibility and unique aspects of this system. To advance the Laboratory’s commitment to sustainability, the Suite is partially operated by solar power and has the capability to produce up to 20 KW of energy.

SINGLE CELL GENOMICS CENTER The Single Cell Genomics Center (SCGC) at Bigelow Laboratory is the first of its kind in the world. Single cell DNA sequencing, pioneered by SCGC scientists, reads the genomic blueprints of the most fundamental units of life without the need for cultivation. This is a powerful approach to analyze biochemical properties and evolutionary histories of uncultured

microorganisms, which are thought to constitute over 99% of biological diversity on Earth. Single cell genomics also provides unique insights into the microdiversity and evolutionary processes within microbial populations and within multicellular organisms. SCGC’s mission is to make single cell genomics accessible to the broad research community and to serve as an engine for discoveries in microbial ecology, evolution, bioprospecting and human health. Since its establishment in 2009, SCGC developed partnerships and supported research projects at over 100 universities, research institutes, and companies on six continents. Over one million individual cells have been processed through our high-throughput pipeline. The sources of these cells range from diverse marine environments, soils, the deep subsurface, gut contents, and others. SCGC has provided unique genomic data from many major evolutionary branches of bacteria, archaea, and eukarya that resist cultivation, making a significant impact on our understanding of life on our planet. In 2014, SCGC’s services have contributed to over 20 research publications. For example, a study led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology provided unique insights into a previously unknown dimension of genetic diversity and mechanisms of diversification in wild populations of the smallest and most abundant marine microbe, Prochlorococcus. An estimated billion billion billion of Prochlorococcus

live in the ocean, forming the base of the marine food chain. Data produced by the SCGC revealed that thousands of genetically distinct subpopulations of Prochlorococcus occupy ecological niches that may vary in temperature, in light and chemical preferences, and in interactions with other microorganisms. The study possibly set a record for progress in microbiology by analyzing just three drops of seawater. Major technology advances were made by the SCGC team, enabling significantly scaled-up and cheaper single cell genomic sequencing. This was aided by the acquisition of new instrumentation sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Illumina Corporation grants. Additional partnerships with biotech companies are underway to further improve single cell genomics technology and SCGC’s services. The SCGC formed an Advisory Board of noted experts in the field this year. Members of the Board will advise on research, service and educational opportunities; improved visibility of the SCGC; new instrumentation and technologies that are relevant to the field of single cell genomics; and the overall strategic/business plan of the SCGC.

HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTER CLUSTER High performance computing power is essential to making all of these collaborations successful.

Thanks to a grant from the National Science Foundation’s Division of Biological Infrastructure, Bigelow Laboratory’s High Performance Computer Cluster makes it possible to handle a diverse range of scientific data processing needs. The compute component of the cluster consists of a shared memory super computer that has 160 processor cores and 1.28 terabytes of memory and is scalable to higher computing power as demand warrants. The data warehouse component of the cluster consists of over 200 terabytes of high performance, highly available storage, allowing for a great deal of flexibility to seamlessly support all operating systems at the Lab. Since its inception at the beginning of FY14, five different research groups at the Lab have used this upgraded computer cluster to process their research, an increase over previous years. Researchers are taking advantage of the flexibility that the shared memory super computer offers. It can run “off the shelf” code at high performance speeds. The Lab has been able to run over 50 different research software applications, allowing scientists great versatility to test and prove different methods. The cluster was also used by REU students this year to conduct bioinformatics and modeling research, which introduced them to a high performance computing environment that might not have been available at the their home academic institutions.



Many times throughout the year, Bigelow Laboratory becomes a hands-on laboratory for exciting exploration and discovery about ocean science for students and teachers alike. What’s unique about these programs is that students and their teachers have the opportunity to work side by side with researchers who are experts in their field, use cutting-edge state-of-the-art technology, and learn how to ask the right questions and seek answers to advance understanding of how the tiniest ocean creatures affect global ocean processes. Programs are offered for students at high school and college levels. DISCOVERING THE MYSTERIES OF MAINE WATERS Bigelow Laboratory Orders of Magnitude (BLOOM) programs provide Maine high school students and teachers the opportunity to spend a week at Bigelow learning about some of the tiniest inhabitants of the ocean, which form the basis of the marine food web. The orders of magnitude give students the perspective of what it means to have millions of single cells in just a milliliter of water (about the size of a teaspoon), and why creatures only a micron long (10-6 meter or less than the width of a human hair) deserve our attention. The Keller BLOOM Program for high school juniors brought 16 students from all over the state—one from each county—to East Boothbay this summer. Over the course of a week in May, students learned

sampling and data collection methods, practiced using standard oceanographic equipment on a research cruise, used state-of-­­the-art techniques and instrumentation in the laboratory, and then presented their research findings to family and friends. This year was special for it marked the 25th anniversary of the Keller BLOOM Program and 400 students who have benefited from the program during its history. The BLOOM Educators Program broadens the reach of the high school program by offering an annual professional development workshop for high school science teachers to enhance ocean science education in the state. This year was the fourth time Bigelow Laboratory invited teachers to a four-day summer workshop led by Bigelow Laboratory researchers, Dr. David Fields and Dr. Nicole Poulton. Ten Maine teachers participated and left better equipped to teach ocean science in

their classrooms. Educators learned how to teach the fundamentals of ocean science from a local and global context and were given the tools and experiences—curriculum materials, aquatic field sampling, and laboratory equipment—needed to effectively communicate the importance and excitement of ocean science.




40 YEARS OF DISCOVERY TRAINING THE NEXT GENERATION OF OCEAN SCIENTISTS Over the past 40 years, more than 700 Maine high school students, college students, and post-doctoral scientists from around the world have benefited from working side-by-side with Bigelow Laboratory researchers. Fifty teachers have taken what they have learned at the Laboratory and shared it with countless other students.


Nineteen undergraduate students spent their summer working side by side with research scientists at Bigelow Laboratory through a National Science Foundation funded-Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program and Colby College-sponsored internships. Fifteen students were part of the REU program and three others completed internships in Science Communications, Information Technology, and Ecological Modeling. The National Science Foundation funds REU programs nationwide with the goal of providing students pursuing degrees in science, mathematics, and engineering laboratorybased research experiences with an emphasis on hands-on, state-of-the-art methods and

technologies. Colby College supports internships to give their students work-related experiences to support their academic interests. Each student in the REU program was paired with a Bigelow Laboratory scientist based on mutual research interests. Colby College interns worked with scientists and staff mentors in their specific area of interest. Over the course of ten weeks, the students developed their own individual research projects and identified a research question, developed a proposal, conducted their research, and prepared an abstract and poster, which they presented publicly. This year, research topics ran the gamut from marine virology, ocean acidification, marine microbiology, ocean biogeochemistry, bioinformatics, sensory biology, and phytoplankton ecology, to science communications.


Training the next generation of ocean scientists Bigelow Laboratory Senior Research Scientists mentor the next generation of ocean scientists both on campus through the National Science Foundation-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates program and off campus through affiliations with colleges and universities across the nation. The following is a list of students for whom Bigelow Laboratory scientists are either serving on a graduate committee or as an advisor.



Alex Marquez, University of South Alabama (Of note: Marquez is a second generation graduate student. His primary advisor was Dr. Loma’s first graduate student.)

DR. STEPHEN ARCHER Charlotte Cree, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom DR. DAVID EMERSON Roman Barco, University of Southern California Sean McAllister, University of Delaware Julia Otte, Tuebingen University, Germany

DR. WILLIAM BALCH Michael Brown, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia DR. JOSÉ ANTONIO FERNÁNDEZ ROBLEDO Chieh Lun Liu, Institute for Marine and Environmental Technology— University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences DR. MICHAEL LOMAS

DR. NICHOLE PRICE Emily Donham, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories STUDENT ADVISORS—IN PROGRESS DR. STEPHEN ARCHER Kathryn Moore, Colby College, Honors thesis

DR. DAVID FIELDS Jesica Waller, University of Maine



Sarabeth George, Colby College, Honors thesis and Semester project

Kevin Meyer, University of Maryland DR. PATY MATRAI DR. MICHAEL LOMAS

Kathryn Moore, Colby College, Honors thesis

Bridget Bachman, University of South Carolina

Stephen Blanchard, Southern Maine Community College, Capstone project

Jenna Spackeen, College of William and Mary Francesca di Martini, Arizona State University Mathew Baumann, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island

THE KELLER BLOOM PROGRAM began in 1989 when two visionary young scientists (Maureen Keller and Clarice Yentsch) and a Board member (Jim McLoughlin) decided Bigelow Laboratory would make a fine place to bring students to help them understand the ocean that is so central to life in Maine. To make it available to all, they decided to select one student from each of Maine’s counties to participate, and to cover all the costs, even food and accommodation. The name of the program originally was simply BLOOM but it was renamed to honor Maureen Keller who passed away in 1999.

DR. NICK RECORD Jullia Middleton, Colby College, Honors thesis Savannah Judge, Colby College, Honors thesis



PHILANTHROPY INSPIRES INNOVATION IN OCEAN RESEARCH AND EDUCATION “ Our sincere thanks and appreciation go out to our many loyal and generous donors listed on these pages. Because of your investment and vote of confidence in our work, Bigelow Laboratory is able to continue the innovative and essential research and education that have been ongoing here every day for the past 40 years.”


ROBERT HEALING, Chair of the Board of Trustees Development Committee

Philanthropy has made a significant difference to Bigelow Laboratory in 2014. Generous contributions from our supporters made it possible for us to recruit new, world-class senior research scientists and support their cutting-edge equipment needs. It allowed dozens of budding young scientists to learn about career opportunities in ocean research. Undergraduate interns had the opportunity to work side-by-side with internationally-recognized scientists and learn oceanographic techniques for studying the changing global climate. Maine science teachers became better equipped to teach ocean science in their classrooms. These achievements, and the many others illustrated in this annual report, stand as testament to what can be accomplished through the magnanimous gifts of our donors and financial support of foundations that share our philosophy—“microbes matter.” Such outside support is more important to the Laboratory now than ever before.. Independent research institutes nationwide are faced with declining government research funding. Here at Bigelow Laboratory, we turned to individuals and private foundations to help us sustain and grow our core programs, including education—and they responded generously.

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 2014, Bigelow Laboratory raised more than $4.1 million in contributions from private funders, for which we are exceedingly grateful. The Founders, a group of visionary benefactors, have led the charge and fueled our expanding operations this past year. Each committed $250,000 or more in general support toward the Laboratory’s transformational growth. Their immense generosity, along with that of our Comprehensive Campaign donors, totaled more than $3.6 million in 2014 and strengthened our financial base significantly. Two of our most steadfast supporters, Incoming Board Chair Herb Paris and his wife Harriet, catapulted the Laboratory’s Annual Fund in 2014 by offering the $50,000 Paris Family Challenge. They matched new or increased donations dollar for dollar up to $50,000 and provided our supporters with an exciting opportunity to double their impact. Donors swiftly answered this call to action—thank you! In just four months, we met the $50,000 challenge. More than 190 people gave for the first time in 2014 or increased their donation amount from the previous year, helping us to raise $396,000 for the 2014 Annual Fund.


FOUNDERS Louise and Robert Bowditch David and Margaret Coit Paul and Giselaine Coulombe Robert and Margery Healing Russell and Mary Jeppesen Jane C. MacElree Admiral Kinnaird McKee Richard and Eleanor Morrell Walter and Helen Norton Richard and Denise Rubin Cyrus and Barbara Sweet A.R. and Marylouise Tandy Foundation 35

ANNUAL FUND AND COMPREHENSIVE CAMPAIGN GIFTS We wish to express our sincere thanks to the generous friends who support Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences. The following list represents cumulative contributions made between July 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014. Participants in the Paris Family Challenge, including supporters who increased their donation amount or who gave for the first time, are noted with an asterisk (*). $250,000 AND ABOVE Anonymous (2) Louise Bowditch* Robert and Margery Healing* Jane C. MacElree Helen and Walter Norton $100,000-$249,000 Mr. and Mrs. Horace A. Hildreth, Jr. A.R. and Marylouise Tandy Foundation $25,000-$99,000 Consigli Construction Co., Inc. GE Foundation* Lyn and Daniel Lerner Will and Patsy Mackenzie* Clarinda C. Northrup Herbert and Harriet Paris* Peter and Deborah Twining $10,000-$24,999 David and Margaret Coit* Chip and Nan Davison Charles P. Harriman and Family Mr. and Mrs. Russell W. Jeppesen Long Cove Foundation, Inc.* Mr. and Mrs. Chester A. Shuman, Jr.* Ms. Mary M. Spencer* Sylvester M. Foster Foundation Joan M. Wilde $5,000-$9,999 Anonymous* Chester and Muriel Dawes Charitable Foundation Mr. and Dr. Rory J. Cowan* The First, N.A. Island Foundation, Inc. Margaret E. Burnham Charitable Trust* Anna Marie and John E. Thron* $2,500-$4,999


Mr. and Mrs. R. William Burgess, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Flower* Richard and Eleanor Morrell Chandler and Paul Tagliabue* Dr. Wendy J. Wolf and Dr. Mary B. Neal* $1,000-$2,499 Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Appell, Jr.* Mrs. Donna Lee Cheney Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth H. Colburn* Curtis Thaxter, LLC* David and Marion Ellis Bruce S. Ferguson Mrs. Marion T. Flores* Maureen and Bill Goldfarb* Mr. Christopher Goldsbury in honor of Chris Flower* Hayes Family in memory of Admiral John B. Hayes and in honor of Elizabeth (Bogie) Hayes* Orton P. Jackson, Jr. Mr. James L. Joslin* Knickerbocker Group, Inc. Karen Sulzberger and Eric Lax Dr. Marlon Lewis Mr. and Mrs. Arthur C. Martinez* Mr. and Mrs. Mark Morrissette Herb and Harriet Paris in honor of Robert and Margery Healing Michael and Penny Pollard* Riggs Cove Foundation* Martha and Dana Robes Honor and Sandy Sage* Monty and Edwina Scharff Mr. Richard Schotte* Gary C. Shaw William J. Shea and Susan McConologue Mr. Peter Sheldon Dr. Graham Shimmield Dr. Carolyn W. Slayman JP and Kaki Smith

Dr. Magdalena T. Tosteson The Triton Foundation Linda S. and Paul A. Wilson* Mary and Redwood Wright* Dr. and Mrs. Robert C. Young $500-$999 Anonymous Dr. William Balch* Mr. Paul S. Bird and Ms. Amy Parsons Stewart and Nancy Bither Dr. Harris J. Bixler Joceline Boucher* Calvin and Ginger Carr in honor of Robert Healing, Paty Matrai, Barney Balch and David Fields* Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Cochrane Dr. Frederick J. Duffy, Jr. and Dr. Renee M. Rossi Mr. Joseph M. Furey and Ms. Cynthia Ann Raposa* Sarah and John Giles Dorothy and Rudolf Graf* Mr. and Mrs. Wilfred H. Hall Lewis and Ina Heafitz* Richard D. and Audrey M. Lewis Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey T. Long Dr. Patricia Matrai* Betsy Morrell in honor of Richard and Eleanor Morrell* Dr. Beth Orcutt* Abby and Larry Pratt* Allen and Margaret Pusch* Catherine and Peter Renault* Dr. and Mrs. Robert F. Ritchie Sandra and Charles Rooney* Louise M. Royall George and Anna Shaw* Holmes and Didi Stockly* Bruce and Nancy Tindal Emily V. Wade in honor of Mr. and Mrs. D. Reid Weedon, Jr.* Charles and Gale Willauer Nathaniel S. Wilson*


UP TO $250

Karen Bartholomew Gilbert and Teresa Bieger Mariann and Jon Bigelow David and Anne Brooks* Mark Carvlin and Martha Nowell Dr. Sallie W. Chisholm Carol and Bob Davis* Ms. Josephine H. Detmer* Pauline T. Dion* Jane and James Draper Mr. Peter B. Edwards* Charlotte Gallacher* Robert Gallagher Anne and Walter Gamble Ms. Karin A. Gregory* Linda R. Guite in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Michael V. Jennings* Margo and David Knight in honor of the Bigelow Laboratory Development Team* Mr. and Mrs. Thornton Lockwood Andrew and Penny Matthews* Rick and Martha Mitterling* Richard H. Morrison in honor of Helen and Walter Norton* Alan and Kathy Muirhead* Richard and Ann Nemrow* Kathy and George Putnam* The Randall and Mary Hack Foundation* Dr. and Mrs. J. Theodore Repa* Bill and Mary Earl Rogers* Charles. H Roscoe* Anthony and Shipley Salewski* Bob and Lucy Scribner* Dr. and Mrs. Lee L. Thibodeau* Tindal & Callahan Real Estate* Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd M. Van Lunen, Jr.* Vose Foundation, Inc. Steve and Susan Weems

Mr. Thorkild Aarup* Ms. Nancy Rowe Adams* Dr. Toby Ahrens* Diana and Tom Allen William C. Allison, IV Dr. Gordon Wood Anderson and Dr. Sharon Walther Kaplan in honor of Calvin and Ginger Carr* Ms. Caroline P. Andrews Anonymous* (3) Mr. and Mrs. Robert Armstrong* Ann L. Armstrong Kevin and Karen Arruda in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Atlantic Laboratories, Inc. Mrs. Margaret Atwood* Lou and Deb Augustine* Dr. Roswell W. Austin* Peter and Ragnhild Baade* Ellen B. Baldwin Jane and William Barlow in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Mr. and Mrs. James M. Barton* Mr. and Mrs. Edmund E. Benedikt Alex Bennett and Brooksley Born Ms. Elizabeth Bergstrom* Mrs. Mary Bigelow Dr. and Mrs. Michael D. Billig Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Bissell Ms. Linda Cabot Black* Dr. Stephanie Blecharzyk in memory of Dr. James Corliss Amy and Tony Bogard in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Michael and Alison Bonney* Katherine Boucher in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Mr. and Mrs. Thomas G. Boudin* Mr. Peter B. Bowman in honor of Mr. Neil Rolde* Dr. Malcolm J. Bowman Derek Breau* John and Janet Brennan Ms. Katharine Brittain

Mr. Philip A. Brooks* Ellen and George Browning Ms. Kathryn M. Bugbee in honor of Pam Shephard Dr. and Mrs. James F. Butler, III in memory of Dr. Lee Guite Melvin M. and Jacqueline D. Butler* Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Button* Lisa Cameron Mrs. Elizabeth C. Cassidy David and Catherine Chaffin* Ms. Mary M. Chatterton* Ms. Laurice Churchill* Ms. Elizabeth R. Cole Ms. Patricia C. Colhoun Captain Bradford L. Collins* Elizabeth D. Colten The Hon. Robert H. Conn and Ms. Meredith Mitchell Robert and Janice Cotier Louise and Paul Cowan Jennifer R. Cutshall* Josephine and Charles Davidson Dave and Lindsay Deinzer Mr. John R. Dice* Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Dickson* Chuck and Meg Dinsmore* Dorothy Dolham in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Mr. Michael J. Donahue, Esq.* Dr. Elinor F. Downs Bill and Jan Dring* Doreen and Jim Dun Jon and Judith Dunsford* Dr. Elizabeth E. Ehrenfeld* Mr. Steven Ferguson and Ms. Jean Vernet* Robert T. Forrester Dr. and Mrs. Northrup Fowler Barbara Fowler Ms. Jennifer R. Fownes* Jean and Sid Fox Dr. Gernot E. Friederich Dr. Edgar T. Gibson Dr. and Mrs. Stuart G. Gilbert* Mr. Brett M. Gilliam* Donald and Martha Goldstone* Joseph J. Graham, PhD* Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Grimes Ms. Margaret Guentert Andrea Hall Marilyn Hall in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Mr. and Mrs. William R. Hamblen*

Bill and Jo Haney Shirley Haskell and Rod Scribner Mr. Ripley E. Hastings* Dr. and Mrs. Robert H. Hayes Marilyn and Jack Heise* Michael J. Herz Frank J. Heymann in memory of Irene Heymann* Ms. Jean M. Howe Dr. Michael Howett Mr. and Mrs. J. Nicholas Hurd* Marlene Jabar in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Hilary M. and Thomas D. Jacobs* James F. Jaffray Allen and Sally Johnson* Peter Kamenstein Anne T. Kane* Peggy Kapisovsky and Mark Farrow* Mr. and Mrs. David Kaplan* Mr. and Mrs. George Karthas Mr. and Mrs. John H. Kellogg The Kelly Family Patricia Kelly* Ms. Kay Kilpatrick and Dr. Ken Voss Mr. and Mrs. Robert Kimmel in honor of Mr. Christopher Flower* Meredith and Marcus Knowlton* Mr. and Mrs. Michael G. Korjeff Mr. Frederick L. Kraeuter* Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Kreck* Norbert Lachmann Ms. Marilyn A. Lalumiere Robert Gold and Nancy Lamoreux Dr. Peter F. Larsen Dabney and Kathleen Lewis in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Lincoln County Regional Planning Commission* Edward and Pamela Lingel Mr. and Mrs. Robert Linker* Rebecca L. Linney Henry A. Litz Cama Hagerthy and Alex Logan Emmet T. and Ann L. Logue in memory of Dr. Maureen D. Keller* Marty and Joanne Logue in memory of Dr. Maureen D. Keller* Larry and Wendy Logue in memory of Dr. Maureen D. Keller* Dr. and Mrs. Michael Lomas* Joanne M. Lunt Richard and Barbara Maloney Marilynn Mansfield* Mrs. Suzanne S. Marinell

Dr. and Mrs. Robert E. McAfee John and Beverley McCoid* Mr. and Mrs. Robert McGee John McKown in memory of Mr. Wilson Wilde Carolyn McWhan John and Catherine Meisten* Mr. and Mrs. David K. Mills Kenneth S. Monroe* Dr. and Mrs. Donald B. Morris Larry Morris Douglas and Deborah Morton Roseann E. Morton* Andrew and Alice Mutch* My Tribute Gift Foundation, Inc. in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Harry and Liz Nelson Dr. and Mrs. Neil A. Newton in memory of Mr. Charles Giles Jane and Perry Nies in honor of Dr. Cynthia Heil* Mr. David C. Noyes, Jr.* Ms. Joan P. O’Hara* Lisa Olson and Lyman Page* Germaine Orloff in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Carole and Richard E. Palmer Don and Margo Parrot Donald and Hedi Perry Andrea and Mark Peters Kent A. Peterson Phippsburg Land Trust* Mr. and Mrs. Irving J. Pinkham in honor of Tim Pinkham Ms. Abby D. Pratt Rachel and Joel Reck Alan G. Redden Robert and Rimar Reed Ms. Martha L. Reeve Ms. Irene Reilly Gail N. Richter Paul A. and Joy R. Riemann* James and Michelle Rines* Peter and Mary Ripley in memory of Martha Campbell* Constance and Donald Rose Ms. Florence Rosenberg Peter and Susan Rotch Dr. and Mrs. Michael E. Rowan Mr. and Mrs. David Roy in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Dr. and Mrs. Frank E. Ruch, Jr.* Clifford S. and Susan R. Russell*

Betty Russell in memory of Dr. Lee Guite* Mr. and Mrs. Noel K. Salathe* Mr. and Mrs. James R. Saunders Jane and Aaron Scharff * Cipora O. Schwartz Ms. Margaret C. Schwartz Mr. and Mrs. William Seepe Scott Seramur Dr. Joanne Sharpe in memory of Mr. Robert A. Sheldon Dr. and Mrs. Robert A. Shepard Eleanor and Miles Shore Dr. Sandra E. Shumway* Mr. Samuel P. Shutman and Ms. Kristine B. Lewenthal* Lois and Jim Skillings Professor Wickham Skinner Ms. Melinda Small Phil and Holly Smith in memory of Dr. Lee Guite Raymond M. Sokolowski in memory of Mrs. Dorothy Sokolowski Southport Island Marine Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Spaeth Sandy and Jill Spaulding Dr. and Mrs. Richard Spinrad Mr. and Mrs. William W. Sprague, Sr. in memory of Dr. Lee Guite Dr. Donald E. Stanley Mr. and Mrs. James H. Steane, II* Mr. and Mrs. Henry Stoebenau Eugene and Ruth Story* Mr. and Mrs. Andrew V. Sullivan Dr. and Mrs. Robert H. Suva Suzanne Telfeian* Arvin C. Teschner Mr. and Mrs. Lee M. Thompson* Mr. and Mrs. Richard W. Thorpe* Penelope M. Thumith in memory of Mr. William A. Cheney* Mr. and Mrs. Richard W. Tucker* Mr. and Mrs. Mark E. Tuller* Mary Ellen and Bard Turner Mr. and Mrs. Arthur C. Vallas* Mr. and Mrs. Jon Veasey Patricia Bush Viles in memory of Mr. Frederick Viles Ms. Sara Walbridge* Dr. and Mrs. Frederick Webster* Mary-Eliza and Ted Wengren Haven Whiteside Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Whittemore* Dana Turpie Wilson* Helen and Sumner Winebaum

Mary L. Wood* Colin and Sarah Woodard* Philip Yasinski and Janet Reingold* Valerie M. Young Dr. and Mrs. Anthony M. Yurchak* Robert and Ruth Zollinger* EDUCATION PROGRAM DONORS (KELLER BLOOM AND TEACHER TRAINING) Mr. and Mrs. Paul M. Anderson Mr. Ernst A. Benzien and Ms. Susan Newbold The Betterment Fund Dr. Joceline Boucher Davis Conservation Foundation The First, N.A. Horizon Foundation, Inc. Morton-Kelly Charitable Trust Dr. and Mrs. J. Theodore Repa Dr. Sandra E. Shumway Professor Gordon V. Wolfe in memory of Dr. Maureen D. Keller MAUREEN KELLER MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP Dr. William Balch Ms. Kimberly Douglas Mr. and Mrs. David Gordon Dr. Patricia Matrai CHARLES S. YENTSCH MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP David Gilbertson and Carolee Matsumoto Myles D. Gordon Dr. Peter F. Larsen Dr. Clarice M. Yentsch GIFTS IN KIND Conley’s Garden Center Devin Demers



SHARING KNOWLEDGE Sharing what we learn here at Bigelow Laboratory about marine microbes and how they affect global ocean processes with colleagues around the world legitimizes our science, spreads knowledge, and helps advance understanding about the global ocean, how it works, and the role of its tiniest inhabitants. Our publication record is testimony to our contributions.

40 YEARS OF DISCOVERY CONTRIBUTING TO KNOWLEDGE 1,374 papers written by Bigelow Laboratory scientists have been published in peerreviewed publications from 1974-2014 or the equivalent of one every 10 days for 40 years!

Radovic JR, C AEPPLI, RK Nelson, N Jimenez, CM Reddy, JM Bayona, J Albaiges. 2014. Assessment of photochemical processes in marine oil spill fingerprinting. Marine Pollution Bulletin, V. 79 (1-2), pp. 268-277. Gros, J, CM Reddy, C AEPPLI, RK Nelson, CA Carmichael, JS Arey. 2014. Resolving biodegradation patterns of persistent saturated hydrocarbons in weathered oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Environmental Science & Technology. V. 48, pp. 1628-1637. Kim, DY, PD COUNTWAY, AC Jones, A Schnetzer, W Yamashita, C Tung, DA Caron. 2014. Monthly to interannual variability of microbial eukaryote assemblages at four depths in the eastern North Pacific. The ISME Journal, V. 8 (3), pp. 515-530. FLEMING, EJ, I Cetinic CS Chan, DW King, D EMERSON. 2014.

Ecological succession among fe-oxidizing bacteria. The ISME Journal. V. 8, pp. 806-815.

MacDonald, DJ, AJ Findlay, P Hredzak-Showalter, SM McAllister, ST Krepski, SG Cone, J Scott, SK Bennett, CS Chan, D EMERSON, and GW Luther III. 2014. Using in situ


voltammetry as a tool to search for iron oxidizing bacteria: from fresh water wetlands to hydrothermal vent sites. Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts. 16:2117-2126.

Contributions of N2 fixation to N inputs supporting Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. Harmful Algae.

Shridhar, S, … J FERNANDEZROBLEDO. 2014. Herbicides and anti-microbials that target plastic-associated enzymes inhibit the proliferation of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. International Journal for Parasitology: Drug and Drug Resistance.

G Hitchcock, G Kirkpatrick, MR Mulholland, J O’Neil, J Walsh, R Weisberg, M Garrett. 2014. The EOHAB: Karenia Program. Harmful Algae.

Goes, JI, Gomes, HdR, EM HAUGEN, KT McKee, EJ D’Sa, AM Chekalyuk, DK Stoecker, PJ Stabino, SI Saitoh, RN Sambrotto. 2014. Fluorescence, pigment and microscopic character­ization of Bering Sea phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic competence in the presence of a cold pool during summer. Deep-Sea Research Pt. II: Topical Studies in Oceanography Killberg-Thoreson, L, MR Mulholland, CA HEIL, MP Sanderson, JM O’Neil, DA Bronk. 2014. Nitrogen uptake kinetics in field populations and cultured strains of Karenia brevis. Harmful Algae. Mulholland, MR, PW Bernhardt, I Ozmon, LA Procise, M Garrett, J O’Neil, CA HEIL, DA Bronk. 2014.

HEIL, CA, DA Bronk, LK Dixon,

Bronk, DA, L Killberg-Thoreson, RE Sipler, QN Roberts, MR Mulholland, P Bernhardt, M Garrett, CA HEIL. 2014. Inorganic and organic nitrogen cycling on the West Florida shelf. Harmful Algae. Killberg-Thoreson, L, RE Sipler, CA HEIL, MJ Garrett, QR Roberts, DA Bronk. 2014. Nutrients release from decaying fish support microbial growth in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Harmful Algae. Fawcett SE, MW LOMAS, BB Ward, DM Sigman. 2014. The counterin­tuitive effect of summer-to-fall mixed layer deepening on eukaryotic new production in the Sargasso Sea. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. Batmalle CS, HI Chiang, K Zhang, MW LOMAS, AC Martiny. 2014. Development and bias assessment of a method for targeted metagenomic

sequencing of marine cyanobacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. V. 80(3), pp. 1116-1125. Kimmance SA, MJ Allen, A Pagarete, JM MARTINEZ, WH WILSON. 2014. Reduction of photosystem 2 during a virus controlled Emiliana Huxleyi bloom. Marine Ecology Progress Series. V. 495(9), pp. 65-76. MARTINEZ, JM, BK SWAN, WH WILSON. 2014. Marine viruses,

a genetic reservoir revealed by targeted viromics. The ISME Journal, DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2013.214. Gabric A, B Qu, PA MATRAI. 2014. Investigating the coupling between phytoplankton biomass, aerosol optical depth and sea-ice cover in the Greenland Sea. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans.

RECORD, NR, AJ Pershing, FF Maps.

2014. Plankton post-paradox. ICES Journal of Marine Science. V. 71(2), pp. 296-298.

Wasmund, KL, KG Schrieber, DG Lloyd, A Petersen, R Schramm, R STEPANAUSKAS, BB Jorgensen, L Adrian. 2014. Genome sequencing of a single cell of the widely distributed marine subsurface Dehalococcoidia, phylum Chloroflexi. The ISME Journal, V. 8(2), pp. 383-397. Thrash, JC, B Temperton, BK SWAN, ZC Landry, E DeLong, R STEPANAUSKAS, SJ Giovannoni. 2014. Single-cell enabled comparative genomics of a deep ocean SAR11 bathytype. The ISME Journal.

RECORD, NR, AJ Pershing, FF Maps.

2014. The paradox of the “paradox of plankton.” ICES Journal of Marine Science, V. 71(2), pp. 236-240.

Wilkins, MJ, DW Kennedy, CS Castelle, EK Field, R STEPANAUSKAS, JK Fredrickson, AE Konopka. 2014. Single-cell genomics reveal metabolic strategies for growth and survival in an oligotrophic aquifer. Microbiology, V. 160 Pt. 2, pp. 362-372.

Maps, FF, NR RECORD, AJ Pershing. 2014. A metabolic approach to dormancy in pelagic copepods helps explaining inter-and intra-specific variability in life-history strategies. Journal of Plankton Research, V. 36(1), pp. 18-30.

Luo, H, BK SWAN, R STEPANAUSKAS, AL Hughes, MA Moran. 2014. Comparing effective population sizes of dominant marine alphaproteobacteria lineages. Environmental Microbiology Reports, V. 6(2), PP. 167-172.

Luo, H, BB Tolar, BK SWAN, CL Zhang, R STEPANAUSKAS, MA Moran JT Hollibaugh. 2014. Single-cell genomics shedding light on marine Thaumarchaeota diversification. The ISME Journal, V. 8(3), pp. 732-736. Luo, H, BK SWAN, R STEPANAUSKAS, AL Hughes, MA Moran. 2014. Evolutionary analysis of a streamlined lineage of surface ocean Roseobacters. The ISME Journal, V. WHITE, MM, LS Mullineaux, DC

McCorkle, AL Cohen. 2014. Elevated pCO2 exposure during fertilization of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians reduces larval survival but not subsequent shell size. Marine Ecology Progress Series, V. 498, pp. 173-186. WILSON, WH, IC GILG, A Duarte,

H Ogata. 2014. Development of a DNA mismatch repair gene, MutS, as a diagnostic marker for detection and phylogenetic analysis of algal Megaviruses. Virology 466–467:123-128. Ankrah, NYD, CR Budinoff, WH WILSON, SW Wilhelm, A Buchan. 2014. Genome Sequences of Two Temperate Phages, ΦCB2047-A and CB2047-C, Infecting Sulfitobacter sp. Strain 2047. Genome Announcements 2: doi:10.1128/ genomeA.00108-14.

Ankrah, NYD, CR Budinoff, WH WILSON, SW Wilhelm, A Buchan. 2014. Genome Sequence of the Sulfitobacter sp. Strain 2047-Infecting Lytic Phage ΦCB2047-B. Genome Announcements 2: DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00945-00913. Keeling, PJ, F Burki, HM Wilcox, B Allam, EE Allen, LA Amaral-Zettler , EV Armbrust, JM Archibald, AK Bharti, CJ Bell, WH WILSON et al. 2014. The Marine Microbial Eukaryote Transcriptome Sequencing Project (MMETSP): Illuminating the Functional Diversity of Eukaryotic Life in the Oceans through Transcriptome Sequencing. PLOS Biology 12:e1001889. Lawrence, SA, JE Davy, GS Aeby, WH WILSON, SK Davy. 2014. Quantification of virus-like particles suggests viral infection in corals affected by Porites tissue loss. Coral Reefs 33:687-691. Reid, EL, KD Weynberg, J Love, MN Isupov, JA Littlechild, WH WILSON, SL Kelly, DC Lamb, MJ Allen. 2013. Functional and structural characterisation of a viral cytochrome b5. FEBS Letters 587: 3633-3639. Read, BA, and 78 others including WH WILSON 2013. Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution. Nature 499: 209-213.

Photo TBD



Deep Life I: Microbial carbon transformations in rock-hosted deep subsurface habitats $148,960 (1/12/12-12/31/13) Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation WILLIAM WILSON/DAVID FIELDS/ STEVE ARCHER/JOAQUIN MARTINEZ MARTINEZ

Gene flow mediated by virus life $1,001,422 (5/6/12-1/1/15)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration WILLIAM BALCH

Coccolithophores of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas: Harbingers of a polar biogeochemical province in transition $685,002 (10/1/10-9/30/14) WILLIAM BALCH

Generating environmental data records of ocean particulate carbon with NPP/NPOESS $609,464 (7/7/11-5/6/15) PATY MATRAI

Net Primary Productivity Algorithm Round Robin for the Arctic Ocean $ 678,647 (2/1/13-1/31/16) PATY MATRAI

Land-ocean interactions in the Arctic: An integrative field campaign to assess the impacts of natural and anthropogenic changes to coastal ocean biology, biogeochemistry and biodiversity $65,107 (2/1/14-7/31/15)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration/ Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

University of Maine/National Aeronautics and Space Administration


Multi-sensor, ecosystem-based approaches for estimation of POC $308,531 (11/15/12-11/14/15)

Science data analysis for the MODIS ocean product for particulate inorganic carbon $649,999 (8/3/11-4/2/15) National Aeronautics and Space Administration/ Gulf of Maine Transect ’11 WILLIAM BALCH

Land-to-sea carbon export from the northeast watersheds of North America to the northwest Atlantic Ocean $845,945 (9/1/11-4/30/15) Maine Space Grant Consortium/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration/ Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research DAVID EMERSON/DAVID MCCLELLAN/ RAMUNAS STEPANAUSKAS

Year Three: Learning how to breathe: What we can learn about antiquity, iron oxidation, and respiration on oxygen from modern Fe-oxidizing bacteria $243,440 (7/2/12-1/1/15) University of Delaware/National Aeronautics and Space Administration DAVID EMERSON

Development of biogenicity criteria and paleoenvironmental interpretations for iron microfossils based on the morphology, physiology, and behavior of modern iron-oxidizing bacteria $198,933 (6/1/12-5/31/15)


University of Washington/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration PATY MATRAI

The Autonomous Polar Productivity Sampling System $445,171 (7/1/10-2/23/14) National Science Foundation WILLIAM WILSON/RAMUNAS STEPANAUSKAS

Decoding virus leviathans $338,950 (10/1/09- 9/30/13) DAVID EMERSON

High resolution bacterial mat sampler for operation with deep submergence vehicles $115,372 (10/1/09-9/30/13)


Diversity of marine protists: Single cell genomics and imaging for TARA Oceans $331,607 (10/1/10-9/30/13)


Assessing the chemical speciation and bioavailability of iron regenerated by marine zooplankton $ 519,331 (4/1/11-9/30/14) RAMUNAS STEPANAUSKAS

Exploratory application of single molecule real time (SMRT) DNA sequencing in microbial ecology research $ 98,918 (9/15/11-8/31/13) BENJAMIN TWINING

Understanding the role of picocyanobacteria in the marine silicate cycle $232,152 (1/1/12-12/31/15) RAMUNAS STEPANAUSKAS

The Great Southern Coccolithophore Belt $1,088,876 (6/15/10-2/28/15)

Dimensions: An integrated study of energy metabolism, carbon fixation, and colonization mechanisms in chemosynthetic microbial communities at deep-sea vents $411,652 (10/1/11-9/30/15)




Microbial Systems in the Biosphere: Unraveling the lifestyles of dominant freshwater fe-oxidizing bacteria $635,893 (4/15/10-2/28/15) PATY MATRAI

The O-buoy network of chemical sensors in the Arctic Ocean $1,075,619 (9/15/10-9/14/15)

Ecology of microbial mats at seamount associated FE-rich hydrothermal vent systems $603,631 (7/1/12-6/30/15) MICHAEL SIERACKI/ PETER COUNTWAY

Seasonal bloom dynamics: Synechococcus-grazer interactions in a model system $756,173 (9/1/12-8/31/15)


IODP Expedition 336 Objective Research: The deep biosphere of young and oxic oceanic crust $154,594 (8/15/12-7/31/15) MICHAEL LOMAS

Prochlorococcus and its contribution to new production in the Sargasso Sea $123,182 (12/18/12-8/31/14) WILLIAM BALCH/DAVID FIELDS

Ocean Acidification—Effects of ocean acidification on Emiliana Huxleyi and Calanus finmarchicus; insights into the oceanic alkalinity and biological carbon pumps $999,956 (8/15/12-7/31/15) RAMUNAS STEPANAUSKAS/ BRANDON SWAN

Ocean’s Dark Energy: Global inventory of chemoautotrophs in the aphotic realm $900,000 (9/1/12-8/31/15) BENJAMIN TWINING

Characterizing biogenic trace elements across productivity and oxygen gradients in the eastern South Pacific $399,960 (10/1/12-9/30/15) MICHAEL LOMAS

Testing linkages between plankton community structure and export of C, Po, and Th in the Sub-Arctic NE Pacific: Field and lab studies $26,446 (2/7/13-12/31/13) MICHAEL LOMAS

Impact of sea-ice on bottom-up and top-down controls of crustacean zooplankton and the mediation of carbon and energy flow in the eastern Bering Sea $96,969 (11/16/12-8/31/14)


Biological controls on the ocean C:N:P ratios $711,204 (2/12/13-12/31/15) BENJAMIN TWINING

Investigating the ecological importance of iron storage in diatoms $352,664 (8/1/13-7/31/16) MICHAEL LOMAS

The Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study: Sustained biogeochemical, ecosystem, and ocean change observations and linkages in the subtropical North Atlantic $747,564 (8/1/13-7/31/18)


Autonomous measurements of carbon fluxes in the North Atlantic Bloom $45,000 (3/1/08-9/30/13) University of Southern California/ National Science Foundation DAVID EMERSON

C-DEBI Combining Omics approaches to gain a comprehensive understanding of microbial diversity and activity in subsurface igneous basement along the Louiseville Seamount Trail $ 80,618 (10/1/13-9/30/15) JOAQUIN MARTINEZ MARTINEZ


Virus-host diversity and interactions in the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank deep biosphere $49,999 (2/1/13-12/31/14)



Persistent virus infections in marine phytoplankton $ 299,546 (8/15/13-8/31/15)

Influence of ocean acidification on biotic controls of DMS emissions $1,290,509 (10/1/13-9/30/16) National Science Foundation/ American Resource and Reinvestment Act PATY MATRAI

Impacts of changing seasonality of wind-driven mixing on the Arctic system $ 104,337 (8/1/09-7/13/13) Bermuda Institute of Ocean Science/National Science Foundation MICHAEL LOMAS

Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series Study $131,799 (9/1/12-7/30/13) University of Maine/National Science Foundation NICK RECORD

Understanding copepod life history and diversity in a changing world using a next-generation zooplankton model $33,825 (12/1/13-3/31/14)

Primary productivity in young oxic ocean crust: Rates of activity and autotrophic groups in subsurface and seafloor-exposed basalts from North Pond, Mid-Atlantic Ridge $49,919 (4/1/12-9/30/13) BETH ORCUTT

C-DEBI Theme Team Leader $53,021 (5/1/12-3/31/15) BETH ORCUTT

The Dorado Outcrop low-temperature ridge flank environment $ 49,995 (12/1/12-12/31/14) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution/National Science Foundation CHRISTOPH AEPPLI

Office of Naval Research DAVID EMERSON

Role of Fe-oxidizing bacteria in metal bio-corrosion in the marine environment $955,602 (1/1/08-3/31/15)


United States Carbon Cycle Science Program



OCB Workshop $6,000 (2014)

United States Fish and Wildlife Service PETER LARSEN

Document historical distribution of native oysters $15,000 (8/10/10-12/31/13)

CORE FACILITY National Science Foundation/ National Center for Marine Algae and Microbiota WILLIAM WILSON

Living Stock Collections for Biological Research: The Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton $1,807,672 (6/1/10-5/31/15)

EDUCATION National Science Foundation/ Consortium for Ocean Leadership BETH ORCUTT

The Mini-grant: Enhancing understanding of ocean drilling discoveries curriculum development $8,828 (11/1/12-10/31/13)

Oxygenation of hydrocarbons in the ocean $144,990 (10/1/13-9/30/16)

National Science Foundation/ Research Experience for Undergraduates

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Undergraduate research experience in the Gulf of Maine and the world ocean $322,668 (3/1/12-2/28/15)


Implications of ocean acidification on carbon export in a simplified planktonic food chain: Experiments on Arcatia pleurochrysis $524,792 (9/1/11-8/31/15)

University of Maryland/US Department of State


How Sustainable is Your Local Water? $19,997 (9/9/12-12/31/13)

National Science Foundation/ Major Research Infrastructure RAMUNAS STEPANAUSKAS

Acquisition of Gene Sequencers $535,212 (8/15/13—7/31/16) National Science Foundation/Field Stations and Marine Laboratories WILLIAM BALCH

Enhanced cooperative radiochemistry research and education $111,649 (9/15/13-8/31/16) DAVID EMERSON/BENJAMIN TWINING/DAVID FIELDS/ HWAN SU YOON

Acquisition of a confocal laser-scanning microscope $341,265 (9/15/09-8/31/13)


Marine Biological and Oceanographic Computational Resources $349,347 (8/1/12-7/31/15)


Ocean Water Maine: from our shore to your table $25,000 (Through 2014)





STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION For the year ended June 30, 2014

Cash Cash restricted to research Receivables (pledges, grants, other) Prepaid expenses

Total current assets

670,229 137,419 1,553,715 94,601

227,096 428,662 1,208,627 183,623




Property, plant & equipment, net




Pledges receivable: long term Investments Investments—endowment

Total other assets TOTAL ASSETS

17,500 1,179,985 343,370

32,000 1,433,982 291,904






Accounts payable Accrued payroll & expenses Current portion of notes payable Current portion of capital leases Deferred revenue

Total current liabilities

536,381 559,624 39,644 47,479 353,407

144,870 475,459 18,110 39,917 510,207




Notes payable Capital leases

13,182,517 143,147

13,222,107 161,136

Total long term liabilities








Unrestricted Temporarily restricted Permanently restricted

5,523,709 20,657,658 202,524

6,321,872 20,430,579 202,144

Total net assets






Auditors MacPage, LLP, have expressed the following opinion concerning their audit of Bigelow Laboratory’s financial statements: In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences as of June 30, 2014 and 2013, and the changes in its net assets and its cash flows for the year ended in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.









5,129,834 4,132,859 262,458 1,030,396 34,837 0

5,432,217 1,355,518 259,375 1,086,574 37,200





For the year ended June 30, 2014

9,084,501 1,934,255 709,942

9,084,501 1,934,255 709,942

8,018,415 2,142,471 789,431









Grants and contracts Contributions Course fees Other—including interest Net gain of investments Net assets released from restriction

5,129,834 1,581,992 2,550,487 380 262,458 1,026,796 3,600 -12,975 47,812 2,852,439 -2,852,439 10,840,544



Research & education Management & general Advancement

















Grants & contracts for construction Grants & contracts for equipment purchases 477,619 Contibutions—property & equipment Gain on sale of closely held security 89,991 Loss from discontinution of use of Welch House Loss on leasehold improvements

477,619 89,991

3,030,491 553,238 230,543 2,000,000 -266,067 -74,330

























OUR PEOPLE BOARD OF TRUSTEES David M. Coit, Chair Louise J. Bowditch Mary Chatterton Endicott P. Davison, Jr. David W. Ellis, PhD Bruce S. Ferguson Karin Gregory Robert Healing, Secretary Steve L. Malcom Helen Norton Walter Norton Herbert Paris, Vice-Chair Carolyn W. Slayman, PhD Anna Marie Thron Steve Weems, Treasurer Linda Wilson, PhD Colin Woodard David M. Znamierowski

Charles Yentsch, PhD † Clarice Yentsch, PhD


Graham Shimmield, PhD, FSB, FRSE

Thomas A. Berry, Esq. Everett Carson Paul G. Coulombe Bruce S. Ferguson Christopher Flower Lee Grodzins, PhD Horace A. Hildreth, Jr. Tim Hodgdon Russell W. Jeppesen David C. Knight Jane C. MacElree Senator George J. Mitchell Richard H. Mitterling Neil Rolde Charles H. Roscoe Jonathan L. Schaffer, MD Monroe B. Scharff Kevin Strange, PhD Barbara Sweet Cyrus Sweet



TRUSTEES EMERITI Spencer Apollonio Thomas A. Berry, Esq. Donna L. Cheney James S. Draper, PhD Christopher Flower Russell W. Jeppesen James G. McLoughlin † Richard A. Morrell Neil Rolde Richard J. Rubin Louis E. Sage, PhD (President Emeritus) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

SENIOR RESEARCH SCIENTISTS Christoph Aeppli, PhD Stephen Archer, PhD William Balch, PhD Peter Countway, PhD David Emerson, PhD José Antonio Fernández Robledo, PhD David Fields, PhD Cynthia Heil, PhD Michael Lomas, PhD Joaquín Martínez Martínez, PhD Patricia Matrai, PhD Beth Orcutt, PhD Nichole Price, PhD Nick Record, PhD Ramunas Stepanauskas, PhD Benjamin Twining, PhD Willie Wilson, PhD


Elin Haugen, Research Technician

Steven Baer, PhD Erin Field, PhD Emily Fleming, PhD Jeremy Jacquot, PhD Jessica Labonté, PhD Younjoo Lee, PhD Adam Mumford, PhD Jochen Nuester, PhD Dan Ohnemus, PhD Jarrod Scott, PhD Kirsten Suffrian, PhD Brandon Swan, PhD Meredith White, PhD LeAnn Whitney, PhD

Brynne Kristan, NCMA Administrative Assistant

SCIENTIFIC STAFF Sean Anderson, Research Technician Wendy Bellows, Research Associate/ Safety Officer

Anna Leavitt, Research Technician Debra Lomas, Research Technician Laura Lubelczyk, Research Technician Nick Marquis, Research Technician Corianna Mascena, Research Technician Jasper Nutt, Research Technician Nicole Poulton, Research Scientist Kevin Posman, Research Technician Mike Preston, Research Associate Carlton Rauschenberg, Research Associate Sara Rauschenberg, Research Associate

Bruce Bowler, Research Associate

Tracey Riggens, NCMA Associate Curator

Jeffrey Brown, Research Associate, NCMA Assistant Curator

Julie Sexton, NCMA Curator

Joe Brown, Bioinformatician Craig Burnell, Research Technician Terry Cucci, Research Associate

Kristina Terpis, Research Technician Brian Thompson, Research Associate Ben Tupper, Research Associate Alex Vermont, Research Technician

Jennifer Cutshall, Chief Advancement Officer Casey Dunham, DevOps/SecOps Engineer Aaron Fuchs, Director of Finance and Administration Martin Getrich, Laboratory Manager Fiona Gordon, Advancement Officer Kim Knowlton, Facilities John Koch, Accountant John McKown, Grants Manager Nathan Paquin, Chief Information Officer Tim Pinkham, Facilities Technician Kimberly Reed, Administrative Assistant Rimar Reed, Advancement Officer Victoria Reinecke, Human Resources Officer Pamela Shephard, Librarian Darlene Trew Crist, Communications Director Dana Wilson, Donor Relations and Campaign Manager

Jesica Waller, Research Technician

Mary Wood, Accounts Payable/ Purchasing

Sheri Floge, Research Associate


Heather Gilbert, Research Technician

Sara Yentsch, Business Development & Marketing

Ilana Gilg, Research Associate

Marc Bloom, Director, Technology Tranfer

Bennett Greenwood, Research Technician

Tatiana Brailovskaya, Communications Director

David Drapeau, Research Associate Liz Fergusson, Research Technician

Laurie Curtis, Facilities

Valerie Young, Corporate Secretary/ Executive Assistant/Education Coordinator

Darlene Trew Crist Dr. Jeremy Jacquot, Alex Vermont CONTRIBUTING PHOTOGRAPHERS Greta Rybus, Robert Mitchell, and contributing scientists DESIGN Simmons Ardell PRINTING J.S. McCarthy Printers MANAGING EDITOR AND CONTRIBUTING WRITER CONTRIBUTING WRITERS



MICROBES MATTER Marine microbes supply more than half of the world’s oxygen, serve as the basis of the entire marine food web, and are helping to mitigate the impacts of climate change. Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences is proud to be advancing what is known about marine microbes. What we are learning will be essential to the conservation and responsible use of the ocean and the many valuable services it provides. ON THE COVER Phytoplanktor, Meringosphaera sp., first described in 1903. Collected by Bigelow Laboratory scientists at a depth of 33 meters off the coast of Alaska in Kotsabu Sound during Summer 2011 ICESCAPE expedition. PHOTO: LAURA LUBELCZYK, BIGELOW LABORATORY FOR OCEAN SCIENCES

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