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Wind&WaveCONNECT

Wind&WaveCONNECT CONNECTING THE WIND & WAVE ENERGY INDUSTRIES

WWW.WINDANDWAVECONNECT.CO.UK

Issue 1 March 2011

Developing energy from Scotland’s Pentland Firth

CONNECTING THE WIND & WAVE ENERGY INDUSTRIES

Running an offshore wind farm Wind&WaveCONNECT talks to Robin Rigg’s Sally Shenton

ISSUE 1 MARCH 2011 £9.50

Offshore wind technology wishes to meet innovation

FOR MANAGEMENT & PROCUREMENT Cover image courtesy of Atlantis Resources Corporation, Atlantis AK1000 tidal turbine


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Introduction

Issue 01 March - May 2011 EDITORIAL ACCOUNT MANAGER Julia Dingwall Tel: 01937 580418 Email: julia.dingwall@theconnectseries.co.uk

Welcome to the first edition of Wind&WaveCONNECT, a new publication available on-line at www.windandwaveconnect.co.uk and in print format. We want to help communication throughout the wind and wave energy industries.

MANAGING DIRECTOR Dan Connew Tel: 01937 580400

Knowing that the wind and wave energy industries need to grow rapidly in order to contribute to the UK's challenging renewable energy target of 15% by 2020, we at Wind&WaveCONNECT want to contribute towards improving communication within the arena. With this in mind, we've included a directory to give a handy up to date reference section covering the range of companies and breadth of products and services available to the wind and wave energy industries. We envisage this section of the publication to grow over future editions, so if your company isn't currently listed, please refer to our Inclusion Form on page 80.

SALES DIRECTOR David Wightman Tel: 01937 580401 Email: david.wightman@theconnectseries.co.uk RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Finn Langley Tel: 01937 580423 Email: finn.langley@theconnectseries.co.uk

There are many exciting projects and developments under way in the wind, wave and tidal energy fields. In this edition we look at some of the wave and tidal energy technologies planned for the areas leased by the Crown Estate in the Pentland Firth. We also feature some of the exciting and innovative projects that will contribute to improved efficiency in the construction of wind turbines.

PRODUCTION MANAGER Tracey Bramall Tel: 01937 580406 Email: tracey.bramall@theconnectseries.co.uk

We hope you enjoy the editorial content of Wind&WaveCONNECT - we want people in the industry to look forward to its arrival and read it, so our aim is for it to be very people focused as well as interesting and informative. Your input is important to us, Wind&WaveCONNECT is about your industry and so we welcome your editorial contributions and look forward to

GRAPHIC DESIGNER Philip Coe Tel: 01937 580417

publishing your views. Published by For more information on supplying editorial contribution, please visit: www.windandwaveconnect.co.uk/contact-us I look forward to hearing from you!

Group Information Services Ltd, 2 Highcliffe Court, Greenfold Lane, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS22 6RG.

Again welcome to our first edition of Wind&WaveCONNECT. We hope it will be welcomed by the industry as a whole.

Tel: (01937) 580400 Fax: (01937) 580499 Email: office@gisltd.co.uk

Julia Dingwall Editorial Account Manager

Web: www.gisltd.co.uk The design and layout of this directory remains the property of Group Information Services Ltd, it must not be reproduced or transmitted to a third party without prior written consent. Š April 2010. The publisher can not accept responsibility for the accuracy of the content, or for any errors, omissions or mis-statements, nor can the publisher accept responsibility for the copy supplied by the advertisers. The publisher shall not be liable for any direct or indirect or consequential loss or damage suffered by any person as a result of relying on any statement in or omission from these articles. Opinions expressed in these articles are not the opinions of the publishers.

STAND OUT FROM THE REST Contact Sales on 01937 580477 Showcase your company in front of over 3000 key

buyers and decision makers with an Enhanced Directory Listing Wind&WaveCONNECT

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Introduction

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UK lead in offshore wind confirmed

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Further government investment will quicken pace of innovation in wave & tidal stream energy technologies

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11 First electricity generated at Greater Gabbard and Walney wind farms

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12 Checkmate Seaenergy Ltd Takes Anaconda a Step Closer to Commercialisation

Industry News 7

OFGEM Announces eight bidders for three more offshore transmission projects

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Siemens selects ABP as preferred bidder for UK wind turbine factory

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12 E.ON's Humber Gateway wind farm gets approval from government 13 Scotland's Hydrogen Office opened by First Minister A state-of-the-art demonstration and research facility powered by hydrogen fuel cell technology was officially opened today (January 18)

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Industry News 14 Maximising Wind Turbine Productivity Maximising equipment performance and durability is one of the most essential requirements for success.

Diary of Events 16 Diary of Events Essential events to attend in the forthcoming months

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THE CONNECT TEAM

Andy Bickerdike Studio Manager

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Wind&WaveCONNECT

Liz Boyle Financial Controller

Jo Brotheridge Data Executive

Tracey Bramall Production Manager

Phil Coe Graphic Designer

Dan Connew Managing Director


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Introduction

Feature 4

Directory

Developing energy from Scotland's Pentland Firth -

37 Category Listings Search for companies you need by their category of services.

the Saudi Arabia of tidal power

37 Cabling

15 Getting to know Jesper Fyhn Friis

39 Foundation

Installation Manager for Vestas Offshore A/S

41 Manufacturing & Maintenance

30

18 Robin Rigg

45 Onshore 47 Other Services

Running an offshore wind farm

20 Questions & Answers with Charles Hendry Minister of State for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

22 Offshore wind technology wishes to meet innovation 26 Hydropower the world's most rapidly growing fuel?

Health & Safety 30 Health & Safety in the Wind Industry Emerging energy economy brings some real health and safety risks to

Training 34 Sheffield Hallam University Energy Engineering for Sustainability

Law 28 Electricity Market Reform Help or Hindrance?

Recruitment

Burges Salmon solicitors.

22

Julia Dingwall Account Manager

36 Are we moving into an energy skills crisis?

65 Survey 69 Turbine Manufacture Search for companies you need by their name.

Website For all the latest vacancies Visit the Wind&WaveCONNECT

Suzanne Mclean Media Sales

www.windandwaveconnect.co.uk

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28

Finn Langley R & D Manager

63 Substation

Website now at

As discussed by Ross Fairley, Partner and Head of Renewable Energy at

59 Sea-Based Support

71 Alphabetical Supplier Listings

workers and the public.

Wind&WaveCONNECT talks to Mark Cropper of Ellergreen Hydro

51 Professional Services

James Parnham Media Sales

David Wightman Sales Director

Julie Wilkinson Media Sales

Wind&WaveCONNECT

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Cover Story Feature

DEVELOPING ENERGY FROM SCOTLAND'S PENTLAND FIRTH -

the Saudi Arabia of tidal power by Penny Hitchin he UK coastline has excellent potential for generating green electricity but until now this has been largely untapped. However, this is set to change. Lying between northern Scotland and the islands of Orkney, the Pentland Firth is one of the fastest tidal races in the world. Three million tons of water per second rushes between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea at speeds of up to 16 knots (30 km/h). The area has been described as the Saudi Arabia of marine power, but with wave and tidal energy currently lagging 10 years behind offshore wind energy in development of the new technology, it will be some years before the power is flowing.

T

In March 2010 The Crown Estate, which owns the UK seabed as far as 12 nautical miles offshore, announced the lease of the first round of sites in the Pentland Firth and off the coast of Orkney. Ten leases were awarded to develop wave and tidal projects capable of generating 1200 MW by 2020. In October 2010 another lease for 400 MW tidal power was added, bringing the total to 1600MW. The successful bidders are a mix of utilities and pioneers of new wave and tidal technology. Wind&WaveCONNECT looked at developments to find out how the projects and the technology are progressing.

Harnessing power from waves Six of the sites will be used to develop wave devices which are designed to harness the energy generated by the movement of waves. These devices can be placed on the shoreline or in deeper water, as long as transmission arrangements are in place to supply power back to the shore. Two competing wave technologies, (Oyster and Pelamis) look set to be installed.

Oyster Oyster belongs to Edinburgh-based wave energy company Aquamarine Power. It is a hydroelectric wave energy converter designed to convert energy from nearshore waves into electricity. Oyster is essentially a pump providing power for a conventional onshore hydroelectric power plant. It consists of a buoyant, hinged flap attached to the seabed at around ten metres depth half a kilometre from shore. The submerged flap moves in the waves and the movement drives two hydraulic pistons which push high

Atlantis AK1000 tidal turbine, courtesy of Atlantis Resources Corporation

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Cover Story Feature pressure water onshore to drive a conventional hydroelectric turbine. Aquamarine Power was set up in February 2006 following research at Queens University Belfast. Aquamarine Power has an alliance with SSE Renewables to develop up to 1,000MW of Oyster sites. The joint venture is developing a 2MW demonstration site for 2011, to be expanded to 10MW in 2012 and subsequently 200MW. The first full-scale Oyster 1 (315kW) device was installed at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney in the summer of 2009 and was connected to the National Grid in November 2009. Oyster 2 (capacity 2.5 MW) is due for installation in 2011 at EMEC. Aquamarine Power plans to deploy its first commercial Oyster devices in 2013.

Pelamis Pelamis Wave Power (formerly Ocean Power Delivery) was founded in 1998 to develop the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter. The machine was named after a species of sea snake Pelamis Platurus because of its appearance and the way it moves in the water. Pelamis is a wave power device which uses a hydraulic system to convert the movement of the waves into electricity using electrical generators. The Pelamis is a series of semi-submerged cylindrical sections linked by hinged joints. The wave induced relative motion of these sections is resisted by hydraulic rams which pump high pressure oil through hydraulic motors via smoothing accumulators. The hydraulic motors drive electrical generators to produce electricity. Several devices can be connected together and linked to shore through a single seabed cable. Current production machines are made up of five 33-38m long tubes, 4m in diameter, linked together to form a 180m long 'sea snake'. The Pelamis is rated at 750kW. Depending on the wave resource at the site location, output is expected to be typically 25-40 per cent of rated power over the course of the year. The system works best in water depth of 50-150m so Pelamis will usually be installed a few miles offshore. PWP will be developing a 50MW site offshore at Armadale in Sutherland. Major utilities E.ON and SSE Renewables are keen to deploy Pelamis. In October 2010 PWP installed the E.ON Pelamis P2 machine at the European Marine Energy Centre in Orkney and the first Pelamis generated electricity to the UK grid network for several days in order to prove the installation and removal process, commission the site, and confirm satisfactory operation of all machine systems. Subsequent installations will combine progressive exposure to more aggressive sea states with regular offsite inspection periods, working up to full unrestricted operations across all conditions. The ScottishPower Renewables wave power site at Marwick Head will have up to sixty-six Pelamis P2 wave power generators. Work at Marwick Head is planned to start in 2015.

Tidal turbines work like submerged windmills driven by flowing water. They can be installed in the sea at places with high tidal current velocities or with fast continuous ocean currents. Four competing technologies are likely to be used in the Pentland leases: SeaGen, OpenHydro, Hammerfest and Atlantis.

SeaGen Marine Current Turbines Ltd tested the world's first tidal turbine in 1994 in Loch Linnhe Scotland. Its 1.2MW SeaGen prototype has been in operation in Strangford Narrows, Northern Ireland since April 2008. It has twin 16m diameter rotors to develop a rated power of 1.2MW from a current whose velocity is 2.4m/s and has been achieving a capacity factor of 66 per cent. The company will deploy SeaGen technology off Brough Ness on the most southerly tip of the Orkney Islands. It plans to have its first phase of SeaGen tidal turbines deployed during 2017 with the whole scheme operational by 2020. Sixty-six SeaGen tidal turbines will be installed in three phases over a four year period in a site area of 4.3 square kilometres, giving a total generating capacity of 99MW.

OpenHydro The OpenHydro technology is a large underwater turbine, resembling a jet engine, fixed to the sea floor. A prototype Opencentre turbine designed by the OpenHydro Group was installed at the European Marine Energy Centre in Orkney in 2006. In May 2008 it became the first tidal turbine to contribute to the UK grid. The lease for the Cantick Head site has been awarded to a joint venture company owned by Irish energy technology company OpenHydro and Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE). The Cantick Head Tidal site, a three mile stretch along the south coast of South Walls (Hoy) south of Orkney, will use OpenHydro technology with farms of turbines deployed directly on the seabed.

Hammerfest Strøm HS Norwegian Hammerfest Strøm develops tidal stream turbines and installs tidal power arrays. The UK subsidiary Hammerfest Strøm UK has been established as a joint venture with ScottishPower Renewables and aims to develop 95MW at the Ness of Duncansby. The HS1000 device is based on a 300kW prototype, which has been generating in a Norwegian fjord at Kvalsundet since 2004. The prototype device was the first turbine in the world to convert kinetic energy in tidal waters to electricity and deliver to the grid in 2004. The first deployment of the larger HS1000 and the first tidal power array of its kind in the world will be ten HS1000s to be installed in the Sound of Islay (between the islands of Jura and Islay, Western Scotland). Installation will start in 2012 with generation due to start the following year. Following this, 95 tidal turbines will be installed at Ness of Duncansby in the Pentland Firth.

Atlantis In October 2010, The Crown Estate awarded the lease for the 400 MW Inner Sound tidal project to MeyGen, a joint venture between UK-based independent power producer International Power (45 per cent), investment bank Morgan Stanley (45 per cent) and tidal power technology developer Atlantis Resources (10 per cent).

Harnessing power from tides

MeyGen will use technology from Atlantis Resources, which has

Tidal energy devices are designed to capture the energy created by the natural flow and ebb of coastal tidal waters. The speed of tidal flows increases in areas where water is forced through narrow channels such as the Pentland Firth. Five tidal generation sites will be developed.

been involved in the commercialisation of tidal power technology around the world over the last decade. In addition, MeyGen will offer 10MW of capacity to technology developer TGL Rolls-Royce during this demonstration phase. On completion of the final phase, the company expects to have installed up to 400 turbines.

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Cover Story Feature

Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Round 1 Development Sites Development Sites Tidal Wave Strategic Area United Kingdom

1 1

2

11

8

2

3 4 10

5

7

9

7

10

6 9

No:

Company:

Technology:

Site:

Size:

1

SSE Renewables

Oyster

Costa Head

200MW

2

Aquamarine Power in partnership with SSE Renewables

Oyster

Brough Head, Orkney

200MW

3

ScottishPower Renewables

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter

Marwick Head

50MW (up to 66P2 Pelamis generators)

4

E.ON

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter

West Orkney Middle

up to 50MW

5

E.ON

To be determined (likely to be Pelamis)

West Orkney Middle South

up to 50MW

6

Pelamis Wave Power (PWP)

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter

Armadale, Sutherland

50MW

OpenHydro

Cantick Head, Orkney

200MW

7

8

6

8

Cantick Head Tidal Development Ltd. JV between OpenHydro and SSE Renewables

ScottishPower Renewables

Hammerfest Strøm HS1000 tidal turbines

Image credits 1&2 Oyster, image courtesy of Ness of Duncansby

9

MeyGen

Atlantis Turbines

Inner Sound, Caithness

400MW, 400 turbines

10

Marine Current Turbines

SeaGen, twin rotor tidal turbine

Brough Ness, Orkney

100MW

11

SSE Renewables

Likely to be OpenHydro

South Westray

200MW

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Aquamarine Power & SSE

95MW, 95 turbines

7 8

Image courtesy of OpenHydro

9 10

Image courtesy of Atlantis Resources

Hammerfest HS1000, Image courtesy of ScottishPower Renewables SeaGen Image courtesy of Marine Current Turbines

Main image courtesy of Atlantis Resources Corporation


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Industry News

OFGEM ANNOUNCES EIGHT BIDDERS FOR THREE MORE OFFSHORE TRANSMISSION PROJECTS Ofgem has announced the eight bidders which have successfully qualified to compete for three more high-voltage transmission links with offshore wind farms as part of Ofgem E-Serve's latest competitive tender process. Ultimately the winning bidders will then own and operate the links for the next 20 years. Today's announcement (26th January) is the list of bidders which will compete for the links to the Gwynt y Môr, Lincs and London Array (phase 1) offshore wind farms. These are three of the UK's largest offshore wind farms, representing over 1.4GW of renewable power. The next stage of the process is to select a shortlist of bidders in spring 2011, which will then go through to the final stage to select the winning tenders this summer*. Ofgem E-Serve's Managing Director Commercial, Robert Hull, said: “A strong field of bidders competing in this second tender round is further proof that the offshore regulatory regime is very successful in encouraging investment and attracting new players into the transmission sector.”

This is the first stage in the second round of tenders in the GB offshore transmission regime, and follows the success of the first round for £1.1 billion of transmission links, which attracted almost £4 billion of investment appetite and is expected to deliver savings of around £350 million. Tenders for a further three projects Humber Gateway, West of Duddon Sands and Race Bank - are expected to start next spring. In total these six projects represent £1.9 billion of offshore transmission links to connect some 2.8 GW of offshore wind. *The winning bidder for Gwynt y Môr will be selected later than the bidders for the other two projects, as construction is not as far advanced as for Lincs and London Array (phase 1).

Courtesy of Ofgem

The longlist of bidders that have qualified to proceed to the Qualification to Tender stage are: 1. Balfour Beatty Capital Ltd 2. Blue Transmission (a consortium of Macquarie Capital Group, Barclays Infrastructure Funds Management Ltd and Frontier Power Ltd) 3. Cheung Kong Infrastructure Holdings Ltd/Hongkong Electric International Ltd 4. Green Energy Transmission (a consortium of Equitix Ltd and AMP Capital Investors Ltd) 5. Mitsubishi Corporation 6. National Grid Offshore Ltd 7. Transmission Capital Partners (a consortium of Transmission Capital Ltd, International Public Partnerships Ltd and Amber Infrastructure) 8. Ventran Consortium (a consortium of BRITEL Fund Trustees Ltd (as custodian of BT Pension Scheme) and Universtities Superannuation Scheme Ltd).

For more information please visit www.ofgem.gov.uk Wind&WaveCONNECT

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Industry News

UK lead in offshore wind confirmed • European Wind Energy Association 2010 stats just released, confirm UK position • Total EU offshore now close to 3 gigawatts, powering 2.9 million EU homes • 19 gigawatts consented in EU waters, sufficient to power 14 European capital cities Latest offshore wind statistics, released today (19th January) by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), confirm that the United Kingdom is the European and world sector leader with 1,341 megawatts (MW) installed. The UK is followed by Denmark (854MW), the Netherlands (249MW), Belgium (195MW) and Sweden (164MW). Germany, Ireland, Finland and Norway have a further 145MW between them. Commenting on the results, RenewableUK, the country's leading renewable energy trade association, has hailed today's results as more evidence that the offshore wind sector is on track to deliver significant economic benefits, as well as renewable electricity to consumers. Peter Madigan, RenewableUK Head of Offshore Renewables said: “The UK's offshore wind roll out is continuing at full speed. Last week the first

turbines at Walney and Greater Gabbard have started delivering electricity to the grid. Once completed these two offshore wind farms will take the UK over the 2 gigawatt (GW) mark. We now need to ensure that we are best poised to capture the full benefits such a massive infrastructure project offers, including increased employment and business activity.” EWEA's report states that the current installed offshore wind power capacity now supplies the equivalent of 2.9 million average EU households with electricity, comparable with the amounts of power consumed by the cities Berlin and Brussels together, from a total of 1,136 offshore wind turbines. It has also stated that 19,000 MW of offshore wind capacity is already fully consented in Europe. If constructed, it would generate 66.6 Terawatt hours of electricity in a normal wind

year - enough to supply 14 of the largest capitals in Europe with electricity, including Paris, London and Berlin. Added to this total, the report flagged up the development potential in UK waters which is already leased, and awaiting planning consent. “We should ensure that new UK based factories are supplying the turbines for those 19,000MW of consented wind farms and beyond. This is a once in a generation opportunity and there is no reason why, given the right policy framework, we shouldn't stay on top of the offshore league,” concluded Madigan. UK Lead Offshore article Full data sheet from EWEA available here: http://ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents /documents/statistics/Data_sheet_ offshore2010.pdf

Siemens selects ABP as preferred bidder for UK wind turbine factory Siemens and Associated British Ports (ABP) have announced today (20 January) that they have signed a Memorandum of Understanding in connection with ABP's proposed Green Port Hull development at Alexandra Dock, Port of Hull. The parties have agreed to work together to develop plans for the construction of a new Siemens offshore wind turbine manufacturing and export facility at the Port with the aim of executing definitive agreements in 2011. The proposed investment will create hundreds of quality manufacturing jobs at the site, with thousands more in the associated supply chains. For more information about Siemens please visit: www.siemens.co.uk For more information about Associated British ports please visit: www.abports.co.uk

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Industry News

Further government investment will quicken pace of innovation in wave and tidal stream energy technologies

E.ON P2 machine in operation in Orkney Courtesy of Pelamis Wave Power

Three major research and development projects that will help to develop the wave and tidal stream energy technologies of the future are set to benefit from government investment of over £2.5 million.

For more information on: Technology Strategy Board please visit: www.innovateuk.org Pelamis Wave Power Ltd please visit: www.pelamiswave.com Marine Current Turbines Ltd please visit: www.marineturbines.com Bauer Renewables Ltd please visit: www.bauer.de

The investment, from the governmentbacked Technology Strategy Board, will

first time, to prove and demonstrate

technology will be an important part

help to finance research and development

survivability, reliability, operability,

of the renewable energy mix needed

focussing on supporting and underpinning

maintainability and energy yield. Marine

in the future.”

the deployment of pre-commercial, full

Current Turbines will research the impact

scale devices installed and operating in

of tidal arrays on the marine environment,

This is the second recent investment by the Technology Strategy Board in wave and tidal stream energy technologies. In July 2010 the Board announced investments totalling £7 million in nine research and development projects, focussing on the twin aims of driving down the cost of energy while improving the reliability and performance of wave and tidal stream energy devices.

the sea.

through studies conducted of the SeaGen

The companies leading the three projects

device at Strangford Lough in

are Bauer Renewables Ltd, Pelamis Wave

Northern Ireland.

Power Ltd and Marine Current Turbines

Iain Gray, Chief Executive of the

Ltd. The total value of the research and

Technology Strategy Board, said:

development work, including contributions

“Investment in these projects will

from the participating companies, will be

accelerate the pace of development of

over £9 million. Seven British companies

marine renewable energy in the UK. The

and three universities will be involved in

projects will address a number of

the work.

important technological challenges,

Bauer plan to design, manufacture and

including reducing the effect of the

test novel seabed drilling technology for

technologies on the environment and

the installation of underwater device

making the cost of wave and tidal stream

foundations aiming to reduce the cost of

energy production more competitive with

installation and deployment of tidal energy

other renewable energy sources. The UK

devices. The Pelamis-led project will test

is well placed to exploit wave and tidal

two P2 machines in an array, for the

stream energy resources and this kind of

E.ON P2 machine in operation in Orkney Courtesy of Pelamis Wave Power

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Overview: Founded in 1991, Shearwater Marine Services have since grown into one of the UK's most respected marine and diving services contractors. This success has been built largely on the company ethos of consistently delivering high quality, innovative and cost effective professional services which the company has successfully maintained over two decades with many satisfied customers in the UK, other parts of Europe and Africa. Shearwater specialises in underwater engineering including civil engineering; marine engineering support to the renewable energy and oil industry; underwater cable and pipeline installations and landing; marine engineering inspections and maintenance projects; ROV Inspections and surveys and Potable Water Tank Cleaning. In addition they often undertake specialised projects that do not fall into the aforementioned categories with customers confidently relying on their unique blend of skills and innovation which compliments their embedded and genuine desire to work with customers to ensure successful and timely outcomes for any given project. Shearwater has a high quality spread of surface and marine based dive units. Their head office is in Dunoon where they are co-located with

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The Professional Diving Academy Ltd (PDA) which is setting the standard in commercial diver training worldwide. Cable and Pipeline Engineering: Shearwater has supported the marine renewable energy industry from the outset with landmark project successes in often difficult operating environments. Successes date back to 1997 with an invaluable cable inspection and repair facility; significantly as the main contractor for the installation of 4 x 2km cables for the Marine Energy Test Centre (EMEC) off Orkney and provided subsea support for the removal and replacement of marine cables on the Blyth wind farm. Recent success while working with long term marine associate GSS include the successful completion of 22 “J� Tube and Cable installations for the new Valiant jetty a particularly complex cable installation with technical support provided through Sub-Com Ltd. The company's scope of expertise in this respect includes: Installation design; Cable installations and placement; J Tube installations and repair; installation connections; shore connections; facility tie-ins; protective armouring; concrete mattress protection; route surveys; inspection; monitoring; maintenance and repairs.


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Industry News

First electricity generated at Greater Gabbard and Walney wind farms SSE (Scottish and Southern Energy plc) has confirmed today (14th January) that a milestone has been reached at both Greater Gabbard and Walney offshore wind farms, which have each generated electricity for the first time.

located approximately 23km off the Suffolk coast, in the North Sea. The first three turbines have now been energised and have exported electricity to the national grid.

renewable sources, SSE is committed to

Paul Coffey, Chief Operating Officer at RWE Innogy, said: “We are delighted to have reached this stage in the project. Constructing a wind farm of this size is a complex task but once fully operational, Greater Gabbard will be the world's largest offshore wind farm.”

Colin Hood, SSE's Chief Operating Officer, said: “This is a major milestone in the development of Walney and Greater Gabbard offshore wind farms. As the UK's leading generator of electricity from helping to increase further the amount of

Walney offshore wind farm, in which

renewable electricity generation in the UK,

SSE owns a 25.1% stake, is being

and the export of electricity at Walney and

developed with DONG Energy and a

Greater Gabbard is a step towards

consortium of PGGM and Dutch Ampère

achieving this.”

Equity Fund. Located in the Irish Sea,

Greater Gabbard offshore wind farm, in which SSE owns a 50% stake, is being developed with RWE npower renewables, the UK subsidiary of RWE Innogy. It is

approximately 15km west of Barrow-inFurness, it consists of two wind farms Walney 1 and Walney 2, each with a capacity of 183.6MW.

Construction of Walney 1 started in March 2010 and is progressing well with all of the planned 51 turbines having been successfully installed. The first turbines have now been energised and have exported power to the national grid. Walney 1 is expected to be fully commissioned in the first half of 2011. Construction of Walney 2 is due to start around March and be fully commissioned by the end of 2011. Niels Bergh-Hansen, Executive Vice President of DONG Energy, said: “The United Kingdom has a very ambitious plan for expanding the production of renewable energy and a target of making green energy and reliability of supply go hand in hand, and we are pleased to be able to contribute to the expansion of renewable energy. The first power from Walney is a tangible result of our efforts to increase our production of renewable energy.”

Image courtesy of - chpv.co.uk/Seajacks/RWE/SSE= Wind&WaveCONNECT

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Industry News

CHECKMATE SEAENERGY LTD Takes Anaconda a Step Closer to Commercialisation Checkmate Seaenergy Ltd has appointed financial advisers Brewin Dolphin to help take its Anaconda wave energy conversion device closer to commercialisation. With long-term estimates of wave energy supplying between 11 and 15 per cent of UK electricity consumption, this takes Anaconda a step closer to realising its potential to contribute to the UK's carbon reduction target. Anaconda is a patented, unique invention designed to harness wave power in coastal waters around the world. Anaconda is different because it is made almost entirely from rubber - it is essentially a long, rubber tube with a power take off device at the end. Sitting just below the surface, sea water travels down the length of the Anaconda, creating a 'bulge wave' inside the tube. When it reaches the end of the tube, it drives a turbine to create electricity.

With a very competitive cost of energy, independently verified by international consulting engineers Black & Veatch, Checkmate Seaenergy is hoping Anaconda can go on to become a leading British green technology. The appointment of financial advisers marks the first important stepping stone from laboratory to the ocean. In this initial fundraising, Checkmate Seaenergy is looking to raise enough money to bring Anaconda beyond tank testing, with eventual deployment in Scottish waters. So far, Anaconda has proved successful with tank testing at 1:25 scale devices. The aim now is to manufacture and deploy a 1:4 scale Anaconda at sea. With possible sites identified in the UK, Europe, Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and

E.ON's Humber Gateway wind farm gets approval from government

South America, there truly is a global potential for the Anaconda. In parallel with device development, Checkmate Seaenergy is undertaking the UK's largest-ever rubber fatigue study. Testing rubber and rubber composites, the study is likely to have far-reaching benefits, well beyond the green energy sector. Des Crampton, Chief Executive of Checkmate Seaenergy, said: “It is estimated that wave energy could supply between 11 and 15 per cent of UK electricity consumption. We believe Anaconda will offer a cost-effective means to capture the enormous amount of energy available globally in offshore waters, and can play an important part in achieving the UK's climate change target of at least 15 per cent of energy generation to come from renewable sources by 2020.”

The wind farm, to be located 8km off the Holderness Coast in the East Riding of Yorkshire, will have the capacity to provide up to 150,000 homes [i] with clean, renewable energy from up to 77 turbines. Michael Lewis, Managing Director for E.ON's European renewables business, said: “This is really exciting news for us as we see offshore wind as an important part in the future energy mix of the UK. “It's essential that we continue to invest in renewable technologies and this is further recognition of our expertise in the sector generally and in offshore wind in particular.”

E.ON has today (9th February) announced that The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) has granted it planning approval to build the 230MW Humber Gateway Offshore wind farm. 12

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E.ON was granted onshore planning consent for a new substation on industrial land near Salt End earlier this year. The substation will connect the Humber Gateway wind farm to the

national grid via 30km of underground cable. Once operational, Humber Gateway will be E.ON's fifth offshore wind farm in the UK. The company already owns and operates the UK's first offshore wind farm off the cost of Blyth in Northumberland, Scroby Sands off the coast of Great Yarmouth, and one of the UK's largest offshore wind farms - Robin Rigg - in the Solway Firth. E.ON is also a partner in the London Array, which will be the world's largest offshore wind farm when built. Almost half (40%) of all offshore wind turbines in Europe were developed by E.ON last year. [i] Based on an average annual domestic household consumption of 4,700 kWh (Source DECC) For information please visit http://www.eon-uk.com


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Industry News

Scotland's Hydrogen Office opened by First

Minister Scotland and helping protect the planet for generations to come.”

A state-of-the-art demonstration and research facility powered by hydrogen fuel cell technology was officially opened today (January 18) by First Minister Alex Salmond as he visited the £4.7 million facility in Methil, Fife. The Hydrogen Office, which forms part of Fife's flagship Energy Park, is expected to become one of Europe's leading locations for innovation and development of renewable technology. The facility houses a novel hydrogen production system that captures surplus energy from a wind turbine, storing it as hydrogen when the wind isn't blowing and then using a high efficiency hydrogen fuel cell to generate electricity from this stored energy when required. The hydrogen and fuel cell system was developed by the Pure Energy Centre in Unst.

Over the course of a year, the turbine will not only generate sufficient electricity and hydrogen for the heating and lighting requirements of the Hydrogen Office, but is also expected to export sufficient electricity to meet the annual energy demands of the Methil Docks Business Park. Since commissioning in September, the turbine has exported over 350,000kwh to the National Grid. This world-leading energy solution will help reduce the impact of climate change and support the Government's ambitious renewable energy targets, which could see Scotland producing up to 10 times its own electricity requirements in a generation.

With a renewables resource unparalleled in Europe, the technology is recognised to have significant potential to further leverage Scotland's renewable energy reserves. First Minister Alex Salmond said: “This is a hugely exciting development for Fife and for Scotland's low carbon industries as we work together to forge the new green economy. The Hydrogen Office is playing a leading role in the development of a range of carbon-cutting technologies from the provision of clean energy for electricity, heat and transport to storing renewable power from other sources such as wind, as demonstrated at the site. “Scotland has a competitive advantage in renewable power sources and the development and deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies across the energy sector can help accelerate the achievement of a truly low carbon economy - supporting skilled jobs in

Scottish Enterprise Chief Executive Lena Wilson said: “The benefits which this highly innovative, low carbon energy facility presents are tremendous. For businesses, it offers high spec, energy efficient office space to encourage the development of renewable technologies. “Environmentally, it will help to reduce carbon footprint by promoting cost effective energy saving measures, supporting the development and adoption of cleaner and more efficient technologies. And for Scotland's economy it will boost the development of green jobs by serving as an international demonstration centre for renewable and hydrogen energy technology, capturing a share of the £3 trillion global low carbon market.”

Jim Keiller, Director of developer Alsherra Investments Ltd, added: “The opening of the Hydrogen Office is a major focal point in the developments at Methil Dock and the Energy Park and its anticipated high profile within the renewables sector should ensure the area's continued growth.” The Hydrogen Office is managed by the Hydrogen Office Limited (HOL), a whollyowned subsidiary of The Business Partnership Ltd. Derek Mitchell, Project Manager of HOL, said: “The opening of the Hydrogen Office project by the First Minister marks the completion of the first phase of this exciting project and we can now start raising the profile of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Scotland has the potential to produce far more renewable energy than it currently generates for all its electrical needs; yet because we can't control when we generate energy from some renewable sources this huge potential is still limited. There is no need for such a limit and this breakthrough charts the future to realising Scotland's full potential. “Storing wind energy as hydrogen; which we can do in large quantities and for long periods, means we can then use this energy for virtually anything, including in our cars, our cooking, our homes and offices. We can do this without generating any pollution or carbon dioxide and we can use this energy regardless of whether the wind is blowing.” Further information on The Hydrogen Office is available here: http://www.hydrogenoffice.com

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Industry News

Maximising Wind Turbine Productivity Peter Longstaff, UK & Ireland Industrial Lubricants Manager, ExxonMobil Lubricants and Specialties

At over 100 metres high in the air, often situated in increasingly remote environments, there is no such thing as a simple oil change or routine maintenance. As wind turbine technology evolves, there is a trend towards larger machines to take advantage of higher wind speeds. Given this and the increasingly challenging environments in which wind turbines operate, maximising equipment performance and durability is one of the most essential requirements for success. One of the most important aspects of wind turbine operation is the reliability of equipment. Critical components such as the gearbox and main, pitch and yaw bearings need to be protected in order to sustain performance and reduce the need for maintenance. Wind turbine operators recognise the need for high performance synthetic lubricants to protect equipment and increase productivity, while reducing maintenance requirements. For example, some synthetic lubricants can exceed the performance of conventional, mineralbased oils by extending oil change intervals from 18 months to three years or more. These advancements in lubrication are the result of a close collaboration between leading lubricant manufacturers and OEMs. A collaboration that will become even more important in the future as wind turbines continue to run faster, longer and more efficiently.

A Collaborative Approach Over the years, OEMs have focused on developing new, more compact and efficient equipment that is capable of delivering higher load capacities. While these new units will provide better overall performance than their predecessors, the downside is that such improvements can put additional stress on lubricants in terms of higher operating temperatures and load conditions. These effects are compounded by the OEMs' drive to reduce total life cycle costs for their products, which include reducing oil volume while extending oil drain and re-greasing intervals.

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A key factor in the development of lubricants is the close contact between lubrication scientists and application specialists with key OEMs to ensure that lubricants provide exceptional performance with evolving gear designs and operation. In a two way relationship, ExxonMobil, as a leading lubricant supplier, likes to understand the equipment builders approach as they seek to develop their technology to face challenges that end customers experience. ExxonMobil also makes sure the equipment builders are fully familiar with the lubrication technology it has available today and is developing for the future. An example of ExxonMobil's close contact with leading OEMs was the development of the market leading gear oil, Mobilgear SHC XMP 320. ExxonMobil entered into a research and development collaboration with a major gearbox manufacturer to explore the development of a lubricant solution to reduce unscheduled downtime and maximise productivity. To achieve these goals ExxonMobil understood the need for a lubricant with a well balanced formulation that could offer exceptional micro-pitting and anti-scuffing protection, excellent viscometrics over a wide temperature range, first rate filterability and high quality water tolerance and oxidative stability. This cooperation led to the introduction of Mobilgear SHC XMP 320, a synthetic gear oil to help wind turbines maximise productivity, which today is used in more than 30,000 wind turbines worldwide and is the initial fill gear oil for the majority of the world's top 12 wind turbine builders. Proactive Maintenance Strategies Once a lubricant has been selected it should be supported by routine, scheduled maintenance of the gearbox and oil circulation system, including oil analysis. Routine oil analysis is one of the most widely used proactive maintenance strategies for wind turbines and employs a test slate that is designed to evaluate the condition of the in-service lubricant and equipment. Using routine oil analysis, such as ExxonMobil's Signum service, as part of a preventative maintenance programme, maintenance professionals can extend the lives of both the gearbox and gear oil by detecting and acting on

early warning signs such as oil contamination, cleanliness levels or increasing wear metals. To obtain the greatest benefit from oil analysis, it is imperative to work closely with an expert lubricant manufacturer and participate in oil analysis typically every six months. Identifying trends in the data will help maintenance professionals make better informed decisions. By introducing technologically advanced synthetic lubricants alongside an effective oil equipment condition monitoring programme, operators can look to reduce costs and maximise productivity. For more information about how the Mobil Industrial Lubricants team can help your business, please visit mobilindustrial.com or contact Robert Pears, Renewable Energy Business Development Manager Mob.: 07836 630472; e-mail: robert.i.pears@exxonmobil.com


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Feature

G E T T I N G

T O

K N O W

JESPER FYHN FRIIS My name is Jesper Fyhn Friis, born in Esbjerg (Denmark) in 1977. I am working as Installation Manager for Vestas Offshore A/S, and have just completed the installation and completion of the world’s biggest wind farm (Thanet UK) together with my team in record time. This has been a great challenge for the team and me, and has brought us closer together, which I am certain will reflect on the next project.

Jesper Fynn Friis, Installation Manager for Vestas Offshore A/S

What brought you into the

What was your worst holiday?

industry/your position?

My worst holiday was in 2005 on Rhodes (Greece). As we arrived on the island we found out that the hotel we were supposed to stay in was being refurbished and therefore were not able to accommodate us. This resulted in us having to stay in the basement of the casino, sleeping in very primitive ways. These seven days felt more like seven months.

I always wanted to do something different, something that would serve a good cause to the planet we live on. So back in 2001 I applied for a job at Vestas and got it. Since this day my dedication is growing day by day, as I work close together with many different people who are also aiming for the same goal as me. Family status? With a girlfriend who is currently

What is the best advice you've been given?

If money was not a factor, what would you do/buy tomorrow? A new house for my sister in Australia. What 3 words would best describe you? Determined, perfectionist and straightforward What talents would you like to have? I would like to be trained in giving speeches to big crowds. If you could time travel, where would you go and who would you want to meet?

the wind industry.

The best advice I have been given was by my father before he passed away in 2003. He said; son, remember there is no limits of what you are capable of and your heart will tell you when you have reached your dreams.

Who is your hero and why?

What makes you laugh?

Do you support any teams?

My father as he accomplished a lot with

When things are not going according to plan and you are able to joke about it.

I support EFB (Esbjerg football team) from Denmark.

no matter the challenge.

What do you do in your spare time?

What was your best holiday?

I use a lot of my spare time on exercise, mostly swimming and running.

What law/legislation would you like to see introduced?

pregnant due mid July 2011. What inspires you? I get inspired when working on solutions which will enhance the performance of

his company due to his positivity,

My best holiday is still to come, as I will be going to Australia mid February 2011

What is your favourite music/artist?

with my girlfriend who is currently

The Danish rock band Volbeat.

pregnant with our first baby. We are going down to visit my sister who has

What was the last film you saw at the cinema?

lived out there for eighteen years.

Inception

I would like to travel back and tell my father what I have accomplished. What book are you reading at present? Ship - about new crane vessel

I would like to see the immigration laws more strict in the future. Where do you see yourself in 10 years? My personal goal is to be a Project Director at the age of 40.

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Diary of Events

Diary of events 2011

March Deep Water Offshore Wind - 1st March Grand Connaught Rooms 61 – 65 Great Queen Street, London, WC2B 5DA T: 01883 349 775 Email: info@offshorewindconference.com www.offshorewindconference.com

London T: + 44 20 7981 2503 www.acius.net/aci/home/home.asp

Windpower Monthly Offshore grid and transmission for wind event 10th March

Power Summit 2011 - 1st/2nd March

Tower Hill London, EC3N 4QN T: 020 8267 4011 www.windoffshoregridevent.com

London T: 020 7024 8264 www.cbcglobal.org

Scottish Renewables Annual Conference & Exhibition - 22nd & 23rd March 2011

Wave & Tidal Energy Conference 2011 - 2nd March

Scottish Exhibition Centre, Glasgow www.annualconference.co.uk

QEII Centre, Westminster, London Tel: 020 7878 2481 Email RenewableUK@tenalps.com www.renewable-uk.com/events

Earth Hour 2011 - 26th March

Offshore Wind Energy Supply Chain Conference 2nd/3rd March Regent's Park Marriott Hotel 128 King Henry's Road London, NW3 3ST T: 020 7375 7577 www.windenergyupdate.com/offshorewindsupplychain/

Diary of Events

2011 16

ACI Deepwater Production Tech 2011 9th/10th March

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26th March 8.30pm (local time) www.earthhour.org

April PRIMaRE Annual Research Conference - 4th April Sherwell Conference Centre, University of Plymouth Email: pde@plymouth.ac.uk www.primare.org


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Diary of Events

International Small Wind Conference 2011 5th-6th April 2011 Gateshead, UK The Sage Gateshead, St Mary's Square, Gateshead Quays, Gateshead, NE8 2JR T: 020 7878 2481 Email: RenewableUK@tenalps.com www.renewable-uk.com/events

May Scottish Renewables Hydro Conference and Exhibition 4th May 2011 Perth Racecourse, Perth T: 0141 353 4986 www.scottishrenewables.com/events

The Environment and Energy Awards - 24th May National Motorcycle Museum, Birmingham. T: 020 8651 7106 Email stacey.bird@fav-house.com www.sustainabilitylive.com

Sustainabilitylive! 2011 24th-26th May NEC, Birmingham, Halls 3 and 3a T: 020 8651 7120 www.sustainabilitylive.com

Wind & Marine Energy in Wales - 26th May Mercure Holland House Hotel & Spa 24-26 Newport Road, Cardiff, CF24 0DD T: 020 7878 2481 Email: RenewableUK@tenalps.com www.renewable-uk.com/events

The Energy Show - 4th-5th May National Motorcycle Museum, Birmingham T: 01825 732670 www.energy-show.com

All-Energy 2011 The Renewables Show 18th-19th May Aberdeen Exhibition & Conference Centre Bridge of Don, Aberdeen AB23 8BL T: 01423 524 545 www.all-energy.co.uk

Diary of Events

2011 Wind&WaveCONNECT

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Feature

RUNNING

an offshore wind farm:

the best job I've ever had

by Penny Hitchin

he view from Sally Shenton's first floor office at the Port of Workington on the coast of West Cumbria stretches out across the Solway Firth to the hills of Galloway 25 miles away. In the broad tidal reaches of the estuary below, porpoise and dolphins can occasionally be sighted. However, Sally's focus is the 60 sets of massive blades, each rotating steadily on its huge turbine rising hundreds of feet above the water. This is E.ON's Robin Rigg offshore wind farm which Sally manages. Her working life has been spent in commercial power generation but taking on the role of Site Manager at Robin Rigg is proving to be the highlight of her career.

T

“I've worked around the world and this is the best job I've ever had,” she says enthusiastically. “I've got two small girls and I can look them in the eye when I go home knowing that I'm doing something for their future.” The 180 MW offshore wind farm lies in Scottish waters but the operational offices and substation are south of the border in West Cumbria. Robin Rigg, a Round 1 project, is currently one of the biggest operating offshore wind farms in the world, although it will slip down the list as new and bigger projects are projected to come on-stream in the future. At present 14 offshore wind farms are generating to the national grid with increasingly large schemes scheduled to come on-stream in the years ahead. Now that the considerable challenges of the £396m construction project have been met (and that's another story), the wind farm consists of an orderly arrangement of sixty 125 metre high Vestas V90 turbines rising from the Robin Rigg sandbank in the middle of the Solway Firth. The 3 MW turbines are built on monopile foundations with the water depth varying from as little as a couple of metres at low tide to 12 metres at high water. The turbines are 12-14k from the coast, slightly nearer Scotland than England. Reaching them is a half hour boat trip.

Image courtesy of E.ON Climate and Renewables

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E.ON appointed Sally as Site Manager at Robin Rigg two years before it started generating and she has seen the site move from construction through commissioning to operations and maintenance. The first turbines started generating in September 2009 and by spring 2010 all the turbines had been commissioned. The wind farm was officially opened last September.


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Feature

Image courtesy of E.ON Climate and Renewables

Image courtesy of E.ON Climate and Renewables

Image courtesy of E.ON Climate and Renewables

How new skills for the offshore wind industry were developed at Robin Rigg

skills. Staff development and training is clearly

electrical work. Robin Rigg has two catamarans

crucial to the success of any new industry.

at the Port of Workington used to transfer

Government has identified renewable energy as a key employment growth area for the UK, but the skill base will need to be developed rapidly from a standing start. How have E.ON accomplished this at Robin Rigg?

Sally says: “Developing raw talent is important,

people onto the turbines. The boat crew are

although that can be quite challenging in a

mainly local people who know the waters and

small team.”

the limitations of the boat. Industry specific

The operational challenges at Robin Rigg are

experience comes from a woman boat crew

dictated by the weather. Sally says: “If we

member with experience of serving as boat

Operating the wind farm has directly created

want to maximise generation from the site, the

crew to a wind farm outside the area.

around 40 jobs within several different companies, mainly within a 50 mile radius of the site.

turbines need to be running when it is windy.

Capability: building a local supply chain

E.ON spent 18 months training their staff to work on the project, the company's third offshore wind farm. The environment offshore presents particular hazards and so there is a very strong emphasis on safety. The team did a lot of emergency planning liaison with both Scottish and English authorities, with the coastguard and the RAF.

This means we need to keep on top of maintenance and to be able to quickly repair the turbines if they come down.”

development of wind farms, and Robin Rigg

The key factor in making swift repairs is

was no exception. It is important that new

people. The turbine manufacturers Vestas

developments bring tangible benefits to the

have a contract with E.ON to maintain the

area by developing local capacity. E.ON ran

“wind farms

E.ON staff spend two weeks working in the control room and then the next two weeks they are available to go offshore and supervise contractors working on the turbines. At night the responsibility for the control room passes to E.ON's network control HQ in the Midlands. Going offshore can depend on the tides and the weather, which means that staff must be flexible. During construction a sudden improvement in the weather on Christmas Eve 2007 meant that the crew had to work over Christmas to install the first monopile. “I remember that very clearly because we had been waiting on the weather and the guys had been thinking they would get Christmas off,” Sally recalls.

Inevitably there is resistance to the

are like marmite: people either love them or hate them

supply chain days in West Cumbria and in Dumfries which has resulted in the award of contracts to local businesses. Sally gives a couple of examples of how this contributes to the local economy and builds capacity for the burgeoning offshore industry. “A local fabrication company built ramps and ladders for us both onshore and offshore and are now certified to work offshore. We have a contract with a local start-up company to provide crew and maintenance for one of the catamarans. They are now bidding for work out of Cumbria on other wind farms. They are

small beginnings, but represent

Robin Rigg turbines. The company recruited

real success stories.”

a dedicated team of 10 local technicians and

E.ON has established a Community Fund of

set up an 18 month intensive training programme

£1m spread over 10 years and split between

for them which took place both at the company

Dumfries and Galloway and Cumbria. This is

Recruitment of the local team also started in December 2007. Most lived in West Cumbria or the south of Scotland. Only one person had any previous wind farm experience - the rest had varied work backgrounds including working in the Antarctic Survey; working at Sellafield; serving in the Navy and volunteering as a lifeboat trainer.

facilities in Denmark and on wind farms around

administered by Solway Heritage in Scotland

the UK. The 10 technicians then headed back

which allocates the fund to local parishes and

to the site for the latter stages of construction

Cumbria Community Foundation which awards

and commissioning of the wind farm.

the funds to environmental improvement

The training, coupled with the experience of

projects. Parishes that can see the wind

taking the turbines through construction and

farm are eligible to apply.

commissioning, has equipped the team with

“Wind farms are like marmite: people either

the skills and understanding required to fulfil

love them or hate them,” Sally says. She is

Building up the required skills in a new industry

the turbine maintenance requirements at Robin

doing her best to persuade people to

will require a readiness to 'grow your own'

Rigg. Other contracts are for boat crews and

learn to love them.

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Feature

Q U E S T I O N S

&

A N S W E R S

W I T H

CHARLES HENDRY In May 2010 Charles Hendry was appointed as Minister of State for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and now presides over the biggest decisions that affect the renewable energy sector. Finn Langley talks to him about conflicting manifestos, the Coalition's plans for renewable energy and his personal motivations. Has a sense of morality played a part in your decision to take up politics? If so, how does this affect your decision making process on policy? One thing that really does spur me on in my role as a Minister at the Department of Energy and Climate Change is the fact that what we do now will have a profound effect on our children and our children's children. Our part in this is to create a legacy of environmental stewardship by doing things like tackling climate change, and using low-carbon energy sources. What is your view on climate change? What sort of priority should government give to addressing this? We need to act now to tackle climate change. We're doing this by finding ways to reduce the carbon intensity of our energy use, becoming more energy efficient and pushing for more ambition on climate change internationally. This will also bring economic opportunity too, David Cameron said he wants this to be the greenest government ever, so I think that really underlines the importance attached to the work of my Department. 20

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Charles Hendry, Minister of State for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

On a personal level, have you and your family taken measures to cut down your carbon footprint? If so, what?

The current Prime Minister wants this to be the greenest government ever, so I think his commitment to decarbonising our energy mix is strong.

I walk to work in the mornings and I've planted trees at home in my constituency. In the home I am conscious of cutting back on wasting energy so I try to follow the Energy Saving Trust's advice. Things like not leaving the TV on standby, turning the thermostat down and switching lights off. I have also replaced all the bulbs in my home with energy saving ones.

The Liberal Democrats were against the development of new nuclear facilities in their pre-election manifesto. What changes has the appointment of Chris Huhne as the DECC SoS made to the Department?

“tackling climate change needs to happen� You worked closely with all of the leaders of the Conservative Party for the last three decades, who would you say had the greatest commitment to developing renewable energy as a secure, safe and cost-effective method of addressing the potential UK energy crisis? Well I think all the Party leaders I've worked for have believed that tackling climate change needs to happen, and part of doing that is - of course getting more energy from renewables.

Let us be clear, there is a coalition agreement in place and the Secretary of State and I are in absolute agreement that new nuclear can be part of our energy mix, as long as there is no public subsidy. Since the Coalition took office, the Office for Nuclear Development has continued its sterling work in removing the barriers to investment in new nuclear. Which of the energy policies that you inherited from the Labour government have you found most frustrating? One thing from the legacy of the last government that we're determined to improve on is our performance on renewable energy. In the EU, only Luxembourg and Malta source less energy from renewables than us, and that is a travesty considering the plentiful wind and wave resources we have in the UK.


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There are lots of renewable energy harvesting formats and given the ROC banding it seems surprising that there has been such a large take-up of offshore wind. Why do you think this is the case? Is this set to continue? It doesn't surprise me a great deal actually. The UK has one of the best offshore wind profiles in the world and we're determined to keep our place as a world leader in this field.

“Growth sectors” A frequent criticism of the renewable energy sector is the level of government subsidy it receives. How do you justify these subsidies during this period of austerity? Wind energy - particularly offshore is still a relatively infant industry and that's why we need to help it along. We may be in a difficult financial climate but areas like offshore wind are growth sectors, and the kind of areas which will bring us green jobs and economic prosperity as we get the country back on its feet.

The Thanet offshore wind farm was built by a Swedish firm that received £1.2bn in UK subsidies. Only 30% of the man hours worked on the project were by British workers. Can you put in place measures to ensure British industry receives the benefit of future investment? It is a reality that some of the investment in the UK's energy infrastructure will come from abroad, but we of course want the UK to benefit as much as possible. Improving the UK skills base and our manufacturing capability will help do that.

“target of 15%” Energy Secretary, Chris Huhne, recently described the Thanet farm as “just the beginning” calling it the start of the “third industrial revolution.” What proportion of GDP do you think that renewables could potentially generate in the future? Ofgem have estimated that we need around £200bn of investment in energy infrastructure over the next decade or so, and this will amount to something of a revolution. We have a target for 15% of all our energy from renewables, and this will present lucrative opportunities for investors.

What is the government policy on establishing a price for carbon? We want to set a floor price. However, a wide range of options are under consideration in our work on Electricity Market Reform, not just a carbon price floor. What do you believe is the minimum 'price of carbon' that is needed to make utilities invest in new nuclear plant? This is what our consultation will attempt to discover, but of course the higher the carbon price, the more attractive investment in low carbon energy becomes. What would be your ideal achievement in office as Minister of State for Energy and Climate Change that would make you think 'my work here is done'? I'm not sure that on energy and climate change we will ever be able to simply pack up and go home thinking the work is done! Having said that I will be a happy man when we have secured the investment we need in our energy infrastructure.

Image courtesy of DECC

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Feature

Offshore wind technology wishes to meet

innovation

by Penny Hitchin

To meet the EU's ambitious renewable energy target, 15 per cent of the UK's electricity must come from renewable sources by 2020. This has the potential to generate billions of pounds of net economic value and create thousands of skilled jobs. Meeting renewable energy targets will mean a massive increase in deployment of turbines in the waters around our coast. Offshore wind has operated commercially in Denmark since 2002, but the industry is still in its infancy and refinement, adaptation and innovation are needed to bring about greater reliability, efficiency and cost savings as Round 3 projects mean that turbines will be installed further from shore in deeper water and harsher operating environments.

Investment for innovation in offshore wind generation Five key areas contribute to offshore wind technology: the wind turbine, the foundation, the electrical connection, installation and operation & maintenance. These are currently all based on existing technologies that have been proven in other sectors, (notably the onshore wind, electrical power and oil & gas), but adapting to the offshore wind environment will depend on enhancing and improving the technology. Private investment by utilities takes place, either in developing their own technology or perhaps entering into partnership with specialist SMEs to bring development of innovations which are close to market. Examples of this can be seen in the marine energy developments in the Pentland Firth (see article page 4). However, public funding will also be necessary to help prove the viability of other technology. A variety of regional, national and international organisations offer support and funding for research and development work. These range from the EU, through national and devolved government departments, regional development agencies and others such as the Carbon Trust or the Knowledge Transfer Network. Generally the awarding body specifies a technology area, identifies goals (e.g. boosting technology and or creating employment or skills in a particular area) and invites submissions. These are then judged on a specified range of parameters which could include value for money; closeness to market; experience of the consortia; ability to create jobs; availability of matched funding etc.

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Image courtesy of FabFound


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In 2009 the Carbon Trust received over 100 entries to its international competition to find the best new designs for deeper water turbine foundations. Shortlisted designs received up to £100,000 in expert engineering support, and the winning ideas have been engineered in detail. In autumn 2010 the Carbon Trust launched its Offshore Wind Access Competition to find better ways to get maintenance engineers onto offshore wind turbines. The competition has attracted over 400 submissions from across the world. In the next issue of Wind&WaveCONNECT we will look at some of the innovations which make the shortlist.

Case study: Northern Wind Innovation Programme Funded by three regional development agencies in the north of England, the Northern Wind Innovation Programme (NWIP) is a two year project to back businesses in developing solutions for

the deployment of offshore wind turbines. NWIP's objective is to bring to its patch as much as possible of the estimated £60 billion of private investment and 40,000 + UK jobs that will be needed to develop 20GW of offshore wind capacity in the next 10 years. NWIP aims: • Provide £3 million research fund to boost local opportunities in offshore wind • Support businesses to develop new products and processes • Increase knowledge transfer between universities and industry • Enable businesses with current capabilities or potential in the offshore wind sector to access market information and realise these opportunities • Enhance the reputation of the North as a centre for wind technology. The £3m allocated for research was the subject of competitive bidding and was awarded at the beginning of 2010 to ten collaborative projects covering different aspects of wind turbine manufacture across the supply chain.

Project

Lead company

Research partners

Lightweight turbine gearbox feasibility study

Composite Metal Technology Ltd

David Brown Gear Systems Ltd Ricardo MTC Ltd Durham University

Bearing reliability test rig

David Brown Gear Systems Ltd

Newcastle University

MultiLife bearing for offshore turbines

Ricardo UK Ltd

University of Sheffield

Understanding bearing reliability in wind turbine permanent magnet generators

Romax Technology Ltd

University of Sheffield

Future HVDC system topologies

Siemens T&D

University of Manchester

TWI Ltd Siemens Wind Power

University of Sheffield CMR (UK) Ltd SKM James Walker &Co Applied Inspection Ltd Mersen Clipper Wind

BearInspect: novel integrated condition monitoring system for wind turbine components

FabFound - rapid fabrication of TWI Ltd optimised marine wind turbine foundations

Newcastle University SEtech Ltd Parsons Brinkerhoff Ltd McNulty Offshore Vattenfall ScottishPower Renewables UK Clipper Windpower Marine

IMPCOAT - improved splash zone coatings for 40 year design life

TWI Ltd

University of Manchester Monitor Coatings, McNulty Offshore Vattenfall Wind Power

FASTWIND: optimum Northern England offshore wind turbine assembly & installation factory

Xanthus Energy NE Ltd

Able UK Ltd Ekspan Ltd

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Feature

NWIP reports that at least three companies who are part of successful consortia are now new entrants to the offshore wind sector as a direct result of the NWIP programme.

Case study: FabFound - rapid fabrication of optimised marine wind turbine foundations This pioneering project is looking at ways of applying new techniques in electron beam (EB) welding to enable offshore turbine foundations to be constructed of much larger segments than can be achieved with conventional rolling equipment.

Image courtesy of FabFound

Increasing offshore wind power means building larger turbines in greater numbers. This poses a logistical challenge, as the capacity (manufacturing large turbines requires a lot of space) and specialist equipment is not available to meet the anticipated future demand. Development of new welding techniques which are being

dockside rather than onsite, although it would be possible to weld the cylinders above the water and then lower them into place.

trialled by the FabFound project could create a worldwide market

TWI had done preliminary work on the welding technique, but the

for the innovative technology.

FabFound project has provided an opportunity to explore whether

Materials scientist Dr Anita Buxton of TWI leads the FabFound project. She told Wind&WaveCONNECT: “FabFound is a project to investigate a new manufacturing route for making wind turbine

it would be suitable for the construction of new designs of offshore wind turbines. The foundation designs have been assessed for performance in the offshore environment.

foundations for offshore. We are looking at a manufacturing route

Eight companies, mainly from the Newcastle/Middlesbrough area

where instead of having to roll tubulars from thick steel which

make up the FabFound project consortium. Anita is very positive

requires heavy rolling equipment we could make a multi-faceted

about the benefits of working with such a diverse team.

design. Instead of rolling a tube, we make something that is close

“It is an incredibly good consortium,” she says. “Each partner

to a cylinder but with a number of sides. We are now focusing on a

brings something to it. It's not a project that any one company

10 sided shape, which is looking promising.” The basis of the

could have undertaken individually. We have gained a lot from

FabFound project is that the decahedral cylinders can then be

working together and each partner is set to gain from it. What has

welded together to fabricate much larger structures.

been really impressive about this project is the amount of work that

Conventional turbine foundations consist of a sequence of rings,

everyone has put in.”

whose lengths are restricted by the plate width that can be rolled. If the rings can be made without rolling, then the constraint

Partners:

Role in the consortium

TWI

welding and fabrication expertise and project management

Parsons Brinckerhoff and RCID at Newcastle University

structural and fatigue analysis.

SEtech

geotechnical work

McNulty Offshore Construction

practical advice on feasibility of offshore welding

Vattenfall, ScottishPower Renewables & Clipper Windpower Marine

end users advising on requirements for next phase of turbines and how this new approach would be applied

imposed by the capacity of the rolling equipment no longer applies, and much longer segments can be manufactured. This means that fewer circumferential welds need to be made to connect the segments. One of the keys to the project is the availability of new high speed welding techniques: electron beam welding has traditionally been carried out in a vacuum chamber, which restricted the size of components that could be welded. TWI has been working on doing EB welding 'out of chamber' using a relatively small seal that can create a local vacuum around the beam. This high integrity, fast welding process opens up new possibilities for in situ welding, which enables construction from different components rather than having to fabricate one large piece. TWI has developed this technique in the last three years and it is not yet used industrially. However there has been interest in using it for in situ construction of large power plant. When fabricating offshore turbines, welding would probably take place on the

At the moment the FabFound concept is looking promising for application in the shallower end of water depth. The team started off looking at monopile foundations, but in the next few months plan to extrapolate their results to other types of foundations brace monopiles; jackets; tripods - which rely on multiple tubular structures. Before the project funding ends (in March 2011) the team plans to manufacture a small scale model to show the principle. After that they will seek funding for a follow-on demonstration project to build a foundation in a marine situation using this approach. Anita says of the timescale for commercial application: “We are aiming to be ready for the Round 3 wind farm sites that will be being installed from 2015.” A lot of foundations will be needed

Image courtesy of FabFound

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for this, and FabFound technology could play a vital role.


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Feature

Hydropower the world's most rapidly growing fuel? by Penny Hitchin n 2009 hydropower was used to produce 17% of the world's electricity. This was an increase of 1.5% over the previous year, and made hydro the fuel with the highest growth rate worldwide. The big users of hydro include Brazil, Canada, China, Norway and the USA. In 2009 the UK produced a tiny 4.1TW from hydropower, most of it from large scale schemes in Scotland, making up 5% of UK electricity production. Although there is little potential for future large scale hydro (building big dams) in the UK, the introduction of financial support for generating low carbon energy should lead to an increase in hydropower as new smaller scale and micro-hydro projects are developed.

I

Small-scale hydropower schemes are still in their infancy but the Environment Agency estimates that there are around 4,000 areas in England and Wales where hydro can be used effectively to tap the potential of flowing water to generate power. Image courtesy of Ellergreen Hydro 26

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Feature

Image courtesy of Ellergreen Hydro

Developing small-scale hydro schemes in the Lake District Traditionally water power was used in the hills of the rainy Lake District to power local industries via hundreds of water mills, mostly now abandoned and disused. Logan Gill, the first hydropower scheme of any size to be built on new ground for over a century was completed in summer 2010 and is now exporting power to the electricity grid. The 500kW scheme takes water from a stream on the side of remote Corney Fell in the western Lake District and pipes it 1.1 km down the fell to the River Duddon where a new powerhouse houses a turbine and generator which feeds into the local distribution network. The scheme produces enough electricity to supply 350 local homes. Logan Gill was developed by Ellergreen Hydro, the brainchild of local businessman Mark Cropper. Three years ago he formed the company in a partnership with hydro turbine manufacturers, Gilkes of Kendal, an independent family business which has been making turbines since 1856. Ellergreen identified Logan Gill as a possible site for a new high head hydro development as there was a good fall, plenty of water, existing power lines in the valley below had spare capacity and the land owner was supportive. Feasibility studies for the pioneering project were started in autumn 2008, and by March 2009, the company applied for planning consents. The scheme was approved in August 2009 and with the contractors on the site ready to go, building started the next day. The construction phase took a year and was a steep learning curve for the contractors, developers and planners alike. Installation of the pipe meant working on rocky slopes and

digging through bedrock during bad weather. Controlling the flow of water through the construction site during one of the wettest autumns on record was especially difficult. Needless to say, the scheme didn't entirely progress as planned. Mark Cropper reflects: “Construction was very difficult as the contractor could not work the way we intended so we had to get the consents changed - which was very stressful, but it came out all right in the end.”

Applying traditional techniques to new ground Mark Cropper is enthusiastic about the potential of hydropower. He has been involved with renewable energy for nearly 10 years, initially in market research for fuel cells, before moving sideways into corporate financing where he specialised in renewables. “When I came across hydro I was immediately captivated,” he says. “It is traditional, it works and there is lots of potential for it. The basis of the technology, the turbines haven't changed much, and if they are looked after they will last 100 years or more.” His first hydro project was a 15kW water turbine in the lakeland valley of Longsleddale constructed on a tenanted hill farm which he had inherited. With stock levels kept low to conserve the environment, the farm was not generating sufficient income to fund its preservation. Mark was looking for ways that the farm could generate income and started considering a small-scale hydro scheme three years ago. He got permits in 2008, but the returns did not justify the £85,000 outlay until the award of a grant of £30,000 from the Fells & Dales Leader gave him the confidence to proceed with the project. The scheme consists of a small concrete intake point on the mountain stream, 200m of buried pipeline falling 30m to the building which houses a refurbished Gilkes turbine, generating equipment and control panel. A weather station and broadband connection enables remote monitoring of the generator's performance and the likely water flow. The Docker Nook scheme has been operational for a year now, and Mark is now developing another micro-hydroelectric scheme in Longsleddale at Kilnstones, a fast flowing mountain stream further up the valley.

The finances for this scheme are underwritten by the existence of the guaranteed Feed-In Tariffs which have enabled him to borrow against these for the construction.

Could small-scale hydro make hill farms viable? Mark Cropper is passionate about the contribution that small-scale hydro schemes can make to the economics of hill farms. In the Lake District, hill farmers are the custodians of a much-valued landscape. However, the income from sheep, traditionally the basis of the hill farmers' income, is not enough and farmers must find ways of diversifying. Small-scale hydro could be a source of reliable revenue. Mark says: “The capital expenditure is high but once the scheme is installed, the running costs are very low, it lasts for ever and you can generate meaningful amounts of power. There are easily 100 or more farms in Cumbria which could set up small (sub 50Kw) schemes and the income of a few thousand pounds per year would make a huge difference.” He believes that the key to affordability is to keep the professional costs low and for farmers to be prepared to muck in and do much of the work themselves. The existence of Feed-In Tariffs guarantees income and makes it possible to borrow money against the income from the FITs, or against the security of the land or farm buildings. Ellergreen Hydro is initially focussing on its doorstep in Cumbria where there is plenty of rain and hills. The company is developing expertise in small-scale high head hydro schemes which use small quantities of water falling a long way. For the future Ellergreen Hydro are looking at other schemes in the Lake District and Pennines and offering a bespoke consultancy service to help farmers and landowners diversify hill farm incomes. “We are still a tiny company but in terms of the Lake District we are leading the way,” says Mark Cropper.

Logan Gill Specifications Inter Hydro Technology (IHT) designed the civil structures for the scheme and provided project management. The water intake is a broad crested weir with a Coanda screen to reduce maintenance requirements. Water passes into a conveyance channel beneath the screen and continues to an intake chamber at the entrance of the penstock. A fish pass with stainless steel baffles was installed at the side of the intake to facilitate passage of migratory species. The penstock (water pipe) is made up of 600mm diameter, high density polyethylene pipe sections, joined together using an electro-fusing technique. The total penstock is approximately 1km in length and provides a gross elevation head of 100m. The powerhouse was designed to look like a Lakeland barn, in order to fit into the surroundings and meet planning requirements. The turbine is a Gilkes 450kW twin-jet Turgo turbine. Subject to rainfall, the system will operate for around nine months of the year generating electricity at 415V and stepping it up to 11kV for export to the local distribution network. The £1.5m scheme was supported by the Cooperative Bank which has a commitment to supporting renewable energy projects and has earmarked £400m for UK small-scale renewable projects. Ellergreen have a PPA (power purchase agreement) to supply the electricity from Logan Gill to Good Energy. Image courtesy of Ellergreen Hydro

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Law

Ross Fairley

Electricity Market Reform

Help or Hindrance? Ross Fairley is a partner and Head of Renewable Energy at Burges Salmon solicitors. The Burges Salmon team advises on all types of renewable energy project including wind (onshore and offshore), wave and tidal, hydro, solar, biomass and innovative waste to electricity technologies. The team works with developers, investors, funders, landowners and the supply chain bringing projects to fruition. Our expertise has been recognised by UK awards such as Energy/Infrastructure Law Firm of the Year at The Lawyer Awards. If you would like more information on the services Burges Salmon can offer to the sector or discuss any of the areas covered by this article please contact Ross Fairley on ross.fairley@burges-salmon.com or (0117) 902 6351.

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Law

the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation, which was the last attempt at a Feed-In Tariff. The much heralded and eagerly awaited Government proposals to reform the electricity market found their way into the public domain just before Christmas in the form of the Electricity Market Reform Consultation (“EMR Consultation”). These proposals have been billed as the most comprehensive reform of the electricity market since electricity privatisation in 1989. The main aims of the reforms are to (i) secure electricity supply in future years in the knowledge that approximately 19 gigawatts of power generation capacity needs to be replaced by 2020; (ii) help the UK meet its binding legal commitments to de-carbonise; (iii) increase renewable energy consumption; and (iv) improve affordability of electricity for the end consumer. The EMR Consultation proposes numerous measures which this brief commentary does not intend to cover but should the renewable energy sector be encouraged by these proposals or will they have an unwanted impact on renewable energy promotion and generation in the UK?

All Change on Support There is to be a fundamental change in the way in which renewable generation is supported going forward. Having promoted Feed-In Tariffs heavily as a means to encourage householders and others to install small-scale renewable (5MW or less) such as solar panels and small-scale wind, the Government now proposes a Feed-In Tariff for large scale low carbon generation with its preference, among a host of different options debated, being for a Feed-In Tariff based on a contract for difference. Under this system, generators sell their electricity into the market and then receive a top-up payment or are required to repay revenues for the difference by which the average market wholesale price is below or above (respectively) a “strike price” set under the contract for difference. So the Renewables Obligation will come to an end. Talk to many in the industry and although the Renewables Obligation is not perfect it has provided a measure of certainty and comfort and has been responsible for bringing forward considerable amounts of renewable generation capacity over a relatively short period of time. What one can certainly say is that it has been much more successful than its predecessor,

Any change in a system brings uncertainty and the EMR is no different. Granted, recent tinkering with the Renewables Obligation has meant generators and developers could never relax (e.g. banding reviews and grandfathering). But this will be uncertainty on a grander scale. Renewables projects currently being considered or coming to fruition over the next few years will have to face considerable debate and uncertainty over: • what incentives and returns they will have available in years to come; • whether they can meet deadlines to

The proposals make a big play of seeking to provide certainty of support as quickly as possible for renewables projects so as not to hinder investment between now and the new Feed-In Tariff system coming into force. In fact, the rumblings of uncertainty had been there even prior to the announcement and publication of the EMR and they will no doubt continue whilst the consultation is open and the proposals are further developed. As highlighted above, there are plenty of concerns regarding the EMR, however, if we were to take a wider and longer term view there are some good news stories for renewables coming out of these proposals.

take advantage of the old Renewables

It is clear that there is a commitment to

Obligation (which the EMR proposes

continue to promote renewable energy

keeping open until 2017) or whether

although it is equally clear that the

they will fall under the new Feed-In

Government wants to reduce the cost of

Tariff which the Government intends

electricity for the end consumer and reduce

to implement from 2013 or 2014;

the overall level of support that is required

• whether they have the option to choose

to bring renewables to market. The old

between the two and what will happen

conventional generation technology such

to existing Renewables Obligation

as coal does not fare well under the

projects over the lifetime of the project.

Government's proposals - a carbon tax

How will funders view this uncertainty?

is suggested and emissions performance

Speculation is also mounting regarding what power purchase agreements will look like in years to come? Will there actually be power purchase agreements with licensed suppliers as we know them for renewables projects? If you have a power purchase agreement that is currently being negotiated what will happen when the new provisions arrive? Will the old contract be ripped up and will there be an ability on the part of the supplier to walk away from the contract? All of these issues will be keenly debated and no doubt hotly negotiated for renewables projects over the course of the next few years. If a Feed-In Tariff is to be paid by a central body such as Ofgem, what is the incentive on an electricity supplier to purchase the electricity from a renewable energy generator and if an electricity supplier is not going to purchase this where is the route to market to sell that electricity and what guarantee of electricity sales is provided to third party investors? The revised Feed-In Tariffs are supposed to benefit all forms of low carbon investment, including nuclear. Will the inclusion of nuclear in a Feed-In Tariff based around low carbon have an unwanted effect on renewables?

standards will now be imposed at a level which would make it impossible to commission new coal fired power stations without them being fitted with carbon capture and storage technology. Renewables developers and those involved in the sector need to roll their sleeves up, become involved and take an interest in the consultation and during the interim period find solutions to ensure that the flow of renewables projects continues whilst the proposals find their way into the statute books. Lastly and for good measure, we have the potential glitch that Scotland and Northern Ireland through devolved powers can decide on different regimes. If you would like to register to receive Burges Salmon's free energy or environment law e-bulletins, or would like to suggest any energy-related subjects for future articles, please contact Ross Fairley on:

Direct line - (0117) 902 6351 E-mail - ross.fairley@burgessalmon.com

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Health & Safety

Health & Safety in the Wind Industry The scale and pace of change needed to move Great Britain to a low carbon energy economy present significant challenges for industry, government bodies and consumers. These challenges must be met if the UK is to have an affordable, sustainable and secure energy future. he emerging energy economy brings some real health and safety risks to workers and the public. While some of the hazards it presents are new, others are familiar but in new situations or are managed by duty holders with little previous experience. While HSE has regulatory responsibilities in this area, the primary responsibility for protecting health and safety remains, as ever, with those who create the risks.

T

HSE has nearly forty years' experience as an independent regulator of a wide range

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of industrial hazards: a major factor in Great Britain having one of the best occupational health and safety records in the world. We regulate those hazards under a well established regulatory regime, providing protection to workers and the public. Our regulatory framework is clear, but regulation is an ongoing process. Health and safety is not a devolved matter, although energy, environment and business policy are in Scotland. DECC and BIS lead on energy, climate change and business strategies respectively for England and

Wales, and the Welsh Assembly has some responsibilities and targets. Recognising the national importance of the energy economy, time pressures to implement change, and the potential for safety incidents to have a negative impact on public acceptance and the uptake of the technologies, our desire is to act with sufficient foresight to ensure that health and safety issues are addressed early and do not create unnecessary barriers to the development of a low carbon and secure energy economy.


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Health & Safety

The UK has the best offshore wind resource in Europe and has excellent prospects for wind energy. Offshore development is set to increase steadily and the UK's prospects are good, with a substantial proportion of the total European offshore wind resource located in Britain's waters. Studies estimate the generation potential at close to 1,000 terawatt hours (TWh) per year, equivalent to several times the UK's total electricity consumption. HSE has a programme of work Emerging Energy Technologies (EET) Programme - looking at the implications of the UK's developing energy mix and needs for health and safety, with a view to us continuing to act as an effective enabling regulator. The two long-term energy challenges facing the UK, include: • tackling climate change by reducing carbon dioxide emissions to meet legally binding targets; and • ensuring secure, clean and affordable energy in the face of increasingly uncertain supply. The EET Programme is HSE's response to these challenges. The Programme is working with stakeholders to identify the key hazards and risks associated with

these technologies. Further details about the EET Programme can be found on HSE's website, http://www.hse.gov.uk/eet/index.htm. One of the programme's five work streams covers renewable energy including wind generation (on and offshore). There are common hazards across large, medium and small wind energy projects; such as electricity, mechanical failure leading to blade detachment, machinery hazards such as entanglement. But there are also hazards and risks that are unique to the scale of the project, its generating capacity and its geographical location, e.g. access to/from the workboat to the turbine foundation in offshore generation arrays, offshore heavy lifting from crane barges, large number of lifts and obvious hazards of construction work in a cold marine environment. In terms of regulation, there are differences between the on and offshore regimes which are shown in the table on page 33. The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (Application outside Great Britain) (Variation) Order 2009 (AOGBO), which came into force on 5th August 2009, ensures that HSE can apply health and

safety law in relation to energy structures (such as wind turbines) beyond the territorial sea - see http://www.hse.gov.uk/offshore/ notices/on-81.htm. HSE is therefore responsible for the health and safety at work legislation that applies to wind farms, offshore and onshore. For further information please go to: http://www.hse.gov.uk/eet/index.htm.

Regulatory coverage All existing health and safety legislation will apply to activities with our 12 mile territorial waters. However, beyond this limit in the areas that have been designated as Renewable Energy Zones (REZ) the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (application outside Great Britain) (Variation) Order 2009 will apply. The table on page 33 sets out the main, specific health and safety regulations that apply to offshore and onshore wind farm activities in Great Britain, and mention some other government departments or regulators with a role in the lifecycle of the activity. They are not intended to be an exhaustive list, the focus in on where there are more detailed, risk or industry specific regulations. Image courtesy: Vestas Wind&WaveCONNECT

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Value Added Motion Control Solutions. Infranor Group offers innovative solutions from detailed design through to manufacture. We are your global partner for servo motors, servo drives, servo amplifiers, servo controllers and complete distributed or non-distributed automation systems. For many years we have been working with green energy partners in the 1 Megawatt and higher market to find a solution for the individual blade control of the turbine. Today we can offer a high power servo motor and servo drive solution which meets the demands identified by our partners. Our production facilities are based in Europe. We can support your business with sales and engineering organizations based in the US, Europe and China This approach allows us to adapt and change rapidly to a constantly changing customer need. For more information on our products please visit our website for your local contact.

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info.uk@infranor.com


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Health & Safety

Offshore wind energy projects

Main regulatory coverage

Licensing

• Crown Estate for seabed lease Ofgem for generation and transmissions. [Take in part 4 marine licensing MMO]

Planning

• IPC for projects over 100MW Otherwise LPAs and devolved administrations • HSWA applies because of HSWA 1974 (Application Outside Great Britain Order) 2009 which applies sections 1-51 and 80-82 • Construction (Design & Management) Regulations 2007 apply within territorial waters (12 nautical miles) • Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 - apply within territorial waters (12 nautical miles) • Lifting Operation and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998 - apply within territorial waters (12 nautical miles)

Design & construction

• Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 - apply within territorial waters (12 nautical miles) • Work at Height Regulations 2005 - apply within territorial waters (12 nautical miles) • Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981- apply within territorial waters (12 nautical miles) • Electricity (Safety, Quality and Continuity) Regulations 2002 (ESQCR) Amended 2006 extends the regulations offshore both to territorial waters and renewable energy zones. • Supply of Machinery Regulations as Amended - these do not apply as they were made under the Single European Act • Offshore Installations (Inspectors and Casualties) Regulations 1973 do not apply.

Commissioning, operation & maintenance

• As above.

Decommissioning

• As above.

Onshore wind energy projects

Licensing

Main regulatory coverage

• Ofgem for generation and transmissions. • IPC for over 50MW

Planning

• Local Authorities under the Town and Country Planning Act • PPS 22 etc separation distances • Construction (Design & Management) Regulations 2007 • Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 2008 as Amended • Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 • Lifting Operation and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998

Design & construction

• Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 • ESQCR - safety aspects reporting and safety to members of the public • Work at Height Regulations 2005 • HSWA S3 for the protection of the public.

Commissioning, operation & maintenance

• As above.

Decommissioning

• As above.

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Training

Sheffield Hallam University -

Energy Engineering for Sustainability

Not many undergraduates find themselves on the roof of one of Sheffield's tallest buildings, less than nine months after beginning their course, trying to harness the power of the wind. ut then the Energy Engineering for Sustainability bachelor honours degree, now in its second year at Sheffield Hallam University, is not your normal course.

B

Dr Andrew Garrard, course leader on the Bachelor of Engineering course, which took in its first cohort last year and now has almost 50 undergraduates, says it is only right that such a progressive, timely and important course should be found in Sheffield. He said: “Sheffield is ideal for this course. This university has excellent green credentials and many of its buildings are very sustainable and eco-friendly themselves. These include the glass atrium in the Owen building and the new Furnival Building, which is partially

powered by a ground source heat pump and solar thermal hot water heating.” These credentials have made Sheffield Hallam a popular choice for its undergraduates, with Dr Garrard admitting that they come from a variety of backgrounds. He said: “There was a module in the first year about engineering practices where we got students to build wind turbines which we then assembled on the roof of the Eric Mensforth Building. It was an excellent and practical renewable energy project. “It was a tangible way of applying theory and practice together in a tacit way. It sums up the course for me. We are promoting green energy, sustainability and technology by applying it to solutionbased engineering scenarios. “The interesting thing about the wind turbine project was that once the students had eliminated wacky solutions they went right to the heart of traditional engineering solutions to evolve their thinking about the problem. “People have green credentials and outlooks on life but they also need a grounding in the practicalities of providing sustainable energy if they are to make a difference to the planet.”

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Dr Garrard has high hopes for the current intake of students and hopes they will find work in industry both regionally and nationally, applying their experiences to major players in power generation, aviation, automotive and alternative energy companies. The 31-year-old, who completed his PHD in fuel cell research, said: “There's obviously a lot of rhetoric about eco issues and there are massive problems that will need to be solved during the lifetimes of our graduates. “The source of energy is a complex problem for our graduates and by applying science to energy we can make real headway across the city.” The students are also working on a number of other projects, including one Dr Garrard has dubbed the “hot-bottom problem.” New seats outside Sheffield's revamped Crucible Theatre have become too hot to sit on during summer and a team of students are now investigating solutions. There is also a project involving the development of a novel hydropower generation mechanism which transfers technology from other industries like agricultural machinery to develop more efficient waterwheels.


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Training Dr Andrew Young, principal lecturer at Sheffield Hallam, said: “Investment in research, commerce and enterprise for energy and sustainable development is significant and increasing with the Kyoto protocol and the 2050 commitments to carbon reduction, resulting in increasing energy costs, environmental legislation and social responsibility driving that investment. “This course prepares students for a career as an engineer, applying their knowledge to improve energy efficiency and reduce our impact on the environment, while maintaining industry competitiveness. “Students develop skills in modern mechanical and electrical engineering applied to the challenge of sustainable energy provision and consumption. They learn how to find innovative solutions to problems by applying technical knowledge to practical situations. “Students build a detailed knowledge of the operating principles of fossil fuel to nuclear and renewable energy sources and learn to design, analyse and develop control energy systems for the generation, storage and distribution of electricity and heat.” The degree is a three-year sandwich course with one year spent in industry. And there are also opportunities of working with companies who have engaged the expertise of Hallam Energy, the university's energy and sustainability consultancy.

In 2009, Dr Young started Hallam Energy, which works directly with industry and the public sector to reduce energy costs and carbon emissions by the application of technology. The five-man team has a vast pool of engineering experience and can analyse the functionality and efficiency of products, processes or buildings in different conditions using state of the art techniques like computational fluid dynamics or from traditional engineering principles. The team can also offer energy and project management, and has worked on a number of collaborations regionally and nationally, through a range of means, including direct funding, knowledge transfer partnerships and PhD programmes, and student dissertation projects. Recent successes include work with a pellet company with green ambitions, adapting its pelletizing technology and equipment to meet 21st century energy demands; providing technical analysis for a company developing a novel oscillating hydrofoil tidal power generation system; and helping investors in onshore wind energy increase the utilisation of their turbines.

we believe in working within the community where possible, and they have a good reputation for the delivery of such projects. The project required the collection of field data throughout Yorkshire which meant that less travel would be required. “The benefit of working with Hallam Energy was that meetings could be arranged quickly and conveniently without the need for people having to travel too far. They have previous experience in similar trials and this proved helpful when agreeing the format for presentation of the final report. “As a result of the trial we were able to secure funding for the installation of air source heat pumps for homeowners across the UK.”

Link to Energy engineering for sustainability course: http://www.shu.ac.uk/ prospectus/course/627/ Link to Hallam Energy: http://www.hallam-energy.com

Moves are under way to allow students on the energy engineering for sustainability course to explore links with companies such as Iceotope and Danfoss Heat Pumps UK. Sally Moore, from Danfoss Heat Pumps UK, said: “We chose Hallam Energy because

Case Study

Coney Green Business Centre

The Coney Green Business Centre of North East Derbyshire District Council (NEDDC) installed a wind turbine in 2005 with a 20 kW capacity. The turbine, however, was only supplying 5% of the power demand, which was insufficient to offset its maintenance costs. NEDDC thus commissioned a series of appraisals by Hallam Energy in Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) to investigate the energy and environmental performance of the site. The work involved using a range of recognised engineering techniques, using a combination of wind data for the site, CFD modelling, and liaison with the manufacturers of the turbine, to understand the factors limiting the power generation performance and offer solutions for realising its potential. The investigation showed wind shadowing and inductance of turbulence as causes limiting the performance. The site was found to be in fairly close proximity to two storey residential properties, which were at a higher elevation and in-line with the prevailing wind direction (SW). Hallam Energy recommended the extension of pylon from a height of 13m to 20m, to improve the turbine's power generation performance.

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Recruitment

due to the sheer size of the Crown Estate Round Three Project.

Are we moving into an energy skills crisis? xperts predict the world is slowly moving into a serious energy crisis after a short pause related to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). Given the limited amount of fossil fuel reserves and the predicted cost increase as a result, the pressure to find energy from other sources is mounting. Global Energy recruitment specialist EarthStream have seen first-hand how energy from wind power is emerging as a more popular green alternative.

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In recent years college and university students have opted for business related degrees over the Engineering and Sciences degrees as the potential earnings have been substantially higher. Now experts are suggesting, that as a result, firms do not have enough qualified engineers and scientists with the required skills to develop the technology needed to satisfy current and future energy demands. To decrease the reliance on fossil fuels, the EU has mandated the UK to produce 15% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. Wind professionals predict the percentage of the UK´s electricity from wind alone to be closer to 40% by 2020 36

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Steven Rawlingson, UK Director of EarthStream comments: “The size of the development that Round Three offers means that offshore wind generation will grow substantially and make the UK one of the world´s leading offshore wind providers.”

Popularity of alternative renewable energies results in skill shortage? The Crown Estate is aiming to deliver 25GW of new offshore wind power by 2020. This means more than 3,300 7.5MW turbines would be required to reach the 25GW target. This holds a considerable challenge for the supply chain to keep up with. Experts believe the targets in place would be tough enough, even with a sufficiently skilled workforce available. Over the last several years, wind energy companies have reported a significant shortage of skilled workers in the market place. Steven Rawlingson adds: “We need an initiative to entice UK students to study in these areas, as well as retraining workforces with transferable skill sets and be able to attract talent from overseas who have experience in renewable energies. “Here at EarthStream we have seen experienced technicians coming from established companies in Denmark, Scandinavia and Germany but that is rapidly changing.” People within the wind industry believe that engineers and other skilled professionals will be drawn into the renewable energy sector from other industries. EarthStream have reported a large growth in applicants for wind energy vacancies from people outside the renewable energy sector. Recent surveys show the existence of around 4,000 to 4,500 direct jobs in the UK market alone. A recent report showed that there is already a shortage of engineers and qualified people for these existing projects which raises the question, where will the manpower come from for such a fundamental growth in the sector?

Will Oil and Gas experts be moving into the wind energy sector next? As the skill shortages hamper the growth of the wind energy sector, there has been some optimism that the skills needed may be supplemented from the Oil and Gas industry. For offshore wind farms, marine expertise is crucial for unique challenges related to these projects. Marine legislation, cable

laying and lifting & installations are skills shared by the experienced Oil and Gas candidates. Steven Rawlingson comments: “We are seeing a trend in the market that sees engineers and other skilled professionals being drawn into the wind energy market from other sectors, the majority having some offshore Oil and Gas experience.” Working in the Oil and Gas market provides more lucrative salaries than the current wind energy market offers. This sees the more experienced engineers continuing to opt for the salaries offered in the offshore Oil and Gas industry. Other engineers are looking at the longevity of the wind energy market and attempting the transition now. Steve Rawlingson adds: “There is a chance that the wind industry's salaries may move to parity with Oil and Gas if the technology continues to develop on the same trajectory.”

How the energy skills crisis can be overcome? As the wind industry rapidly expands and the skill shortages have become more acute, a number of companies and educational institutions have seized the initiative and have begun offering courses to make the industry more accessible. The courses range from short classroom training modules, to work place courses that last up to 2 years. Steven Rawlingson explains: “The courses now on offer are an excellent opportunity for technicians to take advantage of the current buoyant wind market.” In the UK, the first ever wind turbine technician´s course was announced by Northumberland College. The current target market is people seeking to diversify their skills or transfer from mechanical and electrical backgrounds from other industries. EarthStream are taking a proactive approach to supporting universities to aid with the forthcoming crisis by funding strategic academic prizes. At the other end of the talent spectrum the firm also works with the wind industry market leaders by talent mapping the sector to provide the most sought after professionals for key roles. Steven Rawlingson concludes: “The market is continuing to expand rapidly and therefore, job prospects for this sector will undoubtedly soar over the next 10 years and beyond.”

for further information on specialist recruitment please visit

www.earthstreamglobal.com


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Wind&WaveCONNECT CONNECTING THE WIND & WAVE ENERGY INDUSTRIES

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Issue 1 March 2011

Developing energy from Scotland’s Pentland Firth

CONNECTING THE WIND & WAVE ENERGY INDUSTRIES

Running an offshore wind farm Wind&WaveCONNECT talks to Robin Rigg’s Sally Shenton

ISSUE 1 MARCH 2011 £9.50

Offshore wind technology wishes to meet innovation

FOR MANAGEMENT & PROCUREMENT Cover image courtesy of Atlantis Resources Corporation, Atlantis AK1000 tidal turbine


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